ANODIC PROTECTION

Feasibility of anodic protection is firstly demonstrated and tested by Edeleanu in 1954

Corrosion control of metal structure by impressed anodic current. Interface potential of the structure is increased into passive corrosion domain.

Protective film is formed on the surface of metal structure which decrease the corrosion rate down to its passive current.
Can be applied for active-passive metals/alloys only.

Anodic protection can decrease corrosion rate substantially.
Anodic protection of 304SS exposed to an aerated H2SO4 at 300C at 0.500 vs. SCE
Acid concentration, M NaCl, M Cor. Rate μm/y (Unprotected) Cor. Rate μm/y (Protected)

0.5
0.5 0.5

10-5
10-3 10-1

360
74 81

0.64
1.1 5.1

5
5 5

10-5
10-3 10-1

49000
29000 2000

0.41
1.0 5.3

chromium and tin etc.Metals which can be passivated and deactivated   The metals which can be passivated by oxidation and activated by reduction are those which have a higher oxide less soluble than a lower oxide and will thus each corrosion domain forms an angle. the easier it will be to passivate the metal by oxidation and it will be difficult to reactivate the passivated metals by reduction.). . The lower the apex of this angle in the diagram (such as titanium.

Titanium and chromium can be passivated very easily and their passivation process will occur more often than not. even in the absence of oxidizing agent. . spontaneously.

pH diagram for chromium .Experimental potential .

5 M H2SO4 .Anodic polarization curve of AISI 304 SS in 0.

Anodic protection parameters : (can be obtained from anodic polarization measurement)    Range of potential in which metal is in passivation state (protection range) Critical current density Flade potential Optimum potential for anodic protection is midway in the passive region .

059 pH O F In which EFO : Flade potential at pH = 0 n : a constant (between 1 and 2) depends of metal composition and environment conditions  Metals having EF < equilibrium potential of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be passivated by non oxidizing acid (i.e. . titanium)  Increasing temperature will reduce the protection potential range and increase the critical current density and therefore anodic protection will be more difficult to be applied.Flade potential (EF) E F  E  n 0.

Parameters that should be considered for anodic protection design (Flade potential is not included in the figure) 10 .

Influences of temperature and chloride concentration on anodic polarization curve of stainless steels (schematic figure) .

Anodic polarization curves of a mild steel in 10% sulfuric acid at 22 and 600C .

environment Interface potential of metal should be : Eprot>Elogam>Eflade Basically : Eflade is equal or slightly lower than Epp. For metals exposed in aggressive ions containing .   .

Schematic figure of potential range for anodic protection of a stainless steel which is susceptible to pitting corrosion in an environment containing aggressive ions .

in aggressive ions containingenvironment anodic protection is applied only for metals which have relatively high protection potential and high pitting potential. Consequently. Increasing temperature leading to a decrease of Eprot .   Increasing of chloride ions concentration results in a significant decrease of protection potential range.

Schematic figure of anodic protection system for protecting inner surface of storage tank .

 .  Having large surface area in order to suppress cathodic overpotential. however it is very expensive. Platinum clad brass can be used for anodic protection cathodes because this cathode has low overpotential and its degradation rate is very low.CATHODES FOR ANODIC PROTECTION Should be permanent and can be used as current collector without any significant degradation.  Low cost.

Cathodes used in recent anodic protection systems .

Comparison of anodic and cathodic protection : Anodic protection Active-passive metals only Weak to aggressive High Cathodic protection All metals Applicability Corrosives Relative investment cost Relative Very low operation cost Equipment Potentiostat + cathode/s Weak to moderate Low Mediums to high Sacrificial anodes or DC power supply + ICCP anode/s .

Throwing power Significant of applied current Very high Often a direct measure of protected corrosion rate Can be accurately and rapidly determined by electrochemical measurement Low to high Complex Does not indicate corrosion rate Must usually be determined by empirical testing Operating conditions .

Typical applications of anodic protection .

heat exchangers and transportation vessels for corrosive solutions. Anodic protection decreases corrosion rate of the stainless steel. reactors.   . Anodic protection has been applied to protect storage tanks.e. Heat exchangers (tubes. initially from 5mm/year down to 0. spirals and plates types) including their anodic protection systems can be easily to purchase in the market. i. AISI 316 SS HE is used to handle 96-98% sulfuric acid solution at 1100C.025mm/year and therefore less contaminated sulfuric acid can be obtained.

DATA Effect of chromium content on critical current density and Flade potential of iron exposed in 10% sulfuric acid. .

5 N K2SO4 .Effects of nickel and chromium contents on critical current density passivation potential in 1N and 10 N H2SO4 containing 0.

8-12 Ni) exposed in different electrolytes Protection current density : current density required to maintain passivity .Requirement of critical protection current densities for several austenitic stainless steels (18-20 Cr .

Effect of sulfuric acid concentration at 240C on the corrosion rate and critical current density of stainless steel .

Effect of stirring of electrolyte on the corrosion rate and requirement of current density to maintain passivity on a stainless steel at 270C .

Current density requirements for anodic protection .

Anodic Protection Using a Galvanic Cathode A cylindrical tank of 304 stainless steel for storing deaerated sulfuric acid (pH=0) is found to corrode rapidly. b. What is the area of platinum required to ensure stable passivity? c. The tank has a diameter of 5 m and the depth of acid is 5 m. Draw a labeled sketch of the polarization diagram for the tank and calculate the passivation potential versus SHE. a. a galvanic cathode of platinum will be installed. To provide anodic protection. What will the corrosion potential be when the tank achieves passivity? .

07 V/decade  icrit = 1.2416 V vs.4 x 10-2 A/cm2  ipas = 4 x 10-7 A/cm2     H+ reduction on platinum i0 = 10-3 A/cm2 Tafel slope cathodic = 0.SHE .44 V vs SCE  icor = 10-3 A/cm2  Tafel slope anodic = 0.03 V/decade SCE = +0.Data:  304 stainless steel:  Ecor = -0.

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