Violence typology by Johan Galtung (direct, structural and cultural violence


Forms of direct violence are instantly recognizable as such. According to peace researcher Johan Galtung, however, there are also hidden forms of violence: "And it is for this reason that research into peace needs a violence typology in a similar way that the field of medicine needs pathology as a precondition of its work." Galtung understands violence as follows:

"I understand violence as the avoidable impairment of fundamental human needs or, to put it in more general terms, the impairment of human life, which lowers the actual degree to which someone is able to meet their needs below that which would otherwise be possible. The threat of violence is also violence."

[Johan Galtung, Kulturelle Gewalt; in: Der Bürger im Staat 43, 2/1993, p. 106]

This understanding of violence goes far beyond direct violence in which one or more people inflict violence on other people. In addition to direct violence, Galtung emphasizes another form of violence, namely structural violence, which is not carried out by individuals but is hidden to a greater or lesser extent in structures. An example of this might be the injustices of the worldwide system for the trade in goods, which creates more and more starving people every year.

Violence typology by Johan Galtung

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p." [Johan Galtung. underclass Penetration. in: Der Bürger im Staat 43. Länder. poverty Exploitation B (Negation: oppression) De-socialization. segmentation Repression. deportation Marginalization. Hammer and Sickle. 621-622] If we take the definition of violence according to Galtung ("impairment of fundamental human needs") and add four need groups to the two forms of violence. 2/1993. illness) Killing (Negation: alienation) Injury. Personen. military parades. unequal opportunities (i. inequality in the distribution of income. As far as Galtung is concerned.).). imprisonment. Begriffe. flags. we are left with the following typology: Violence typology according to Galtung Survival Need Groups Well-being Identity / purpose Freedom (Negation: death) Direct violence (Negation: poverty. fragmentation Structural violence Exploitation A During the 1990s. portraits of the leader. hymns. inflammatory speeches and posters are all included in this category.e. education opportunities etc.): Lexikon Dritte Welt. sanctions. re-socialization. Galtung supplemented his violence typology with another category and introduced the concept of cultural violence: "Cultural violence should be understood as those aspects of culture that can be used to justify or legitimate the use of direct or structural violence." Galtung's analysis is similar to criticism of capitalism in developing countries. even when these systems largely forgo the use of oppressive measures. as a result." [Taken from: Dieter Nohlen (Hrsg. Organisationen. siege. Reinbek 1991. Kulturelle Gewalt. p.An encyclopedia article provides an explanation to the much-discussed term of "structural violence": "Violence is built into the social system and expresses itself in the unequal distribution of power and. Theorien. structural violence is synonymous with "social injustice. The Stars and Stripes. 106] Violence typology by Johan Galtung 2 von 4 . This criticism legitimates the struggle against socially unjust systems (guerrilla etc. expulsion.

we need to have some idea about a structure of violence as well as a vocabulary in order to identify the individual aspects of the violence structure and to determine how its individual aspects relate to the need categories. Indeed. With the help of penetration. namely the top dogs. while exploitation and oppression might go hand in hand. Or in other words.. The latter is the result of two processes. All this happens within complex structures and at the end of long and ramified legislation chains and cycles.) than the others. These four terms actually describe forms of structural violence.even in circumstances in which death and illness figures for women are not higher and in which they actually have a higher life expectancy than men. this penetration is linked to segmentation. exploitation represents the main part of a archetypical violence structure. dividing them and keeping them away from each other. which usually encompasses malnutrition and illness. elements of the top dog ideology reach the consciousness of the underdog. The second type of exploitation (B) means leaving the underdogs in a permanent involuntary state of poverty. As far as I am concerned. The best way to understand the next four terms is as a constituent part of the exploitation. the underdogs might be disadvantaged to such a degree that they die (starve or waste away as a result of illness and disease): This is categorized as exploitation A. Kulturelle Gewalt. for instance. the underdogs (. that is. Their function is to prevent awareness and mobilization of this awareness. strengthening components contained within the structure. is to be understood under the terms exploitation (A and B). 2/1993. This involves forcing the underdogs increasingly to the edge of society. This means nothing more than a situation in which some people. in: Der Bürger im Staat 43. p. it also impacts on the mind and the soul.). which only allows the underdog a limited view of reality. marginalization and fragmentation. they are all also linked to the gender issue . draw substantially more profit from the interaction taking place within this structure (.. they are not identical. an 'unequal exchange' exists. condemning them as insignificant. penetration and segmentation and marginalization and fragmentation in this context? Galtung provides us with the following explanation: "In order to be able to discuss the structural violence category. which are two of the conditions needed to be successful in fighting exploitation. To use a euphemism. In reality.The last line of the Galtung's violence typology table is in need of a little explanation: What." [Johan Galtung.. 107] Violence typology by Johan Galtung 3 von 4 .. A structure of violence not only leaves its marks on the human body.

These two forms of peace are referred to as negative peace and positive peace. it can be seen from two angles. this is exactly the same as peace." [Johan Galtung] [Author: Ragnar Müller] Violence typology by Johan Galtung 4 von 4 ."By making a fundamental distinction between personal and structural violence. Indeed. which is understood as the absence of violence. A more expansive concept of violence leads to a more expansive understanding of peace: peace defined as the absence of personal violence and the absence of structural violence.

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