1828 REPORT BY FACULTY COMMITTEE

REPORTS

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION
IN

YALE COLLEGE;
BY ~

COMMITTEE OF THE CORPORATION,

_"-CADEMlCAL F_.\CULTY.

NEW RAVEN:
PRINTED BY UEZEItU.H HOWE_

1828.

.At a JlJeetitig of tlte President and Fellow! of Yale College, Sept. It th, 1827, tht>;ollowing resolution was paued : f That His Excellency Governor Tomlinson, Re v. President Day, Rev. Dr. Chapin, Han. Noyes Durling, and Rev. Abel McEwen, be u committee to inquire into the expediency of so altering the regular course of instruction in this college, as to leave out of said course the study of the dead languages, substituting other studies therefor; nod either requiring n competent knowledge of said languages, as a condition of admittance into the college, or providing instruction in the same, for such as shall choose to study them after admittunce ; and that the said committee be requested to report at the next annual meeting of this corporation. This committee, at their first meeting in April, 1828, after taking into consideration the case referred to them, requested the Faculty of the college to express their views on the subject of the resolution. The expediency of retaining the ancient languages, as an essential part of our course of instruction, is so obviously connected with the object and plan of education in the college, that justice could not be done to the particular subject of inquiry in the resolution, without a brief nature and arrangement of the various whole system. The report of the faculty made out in two parts; one containing a. the plan of education in 'the college; the languages. statement of the branches of the was accordingly summary view of other, an inquiry

into the expediency of insisting on the study of the ancient

we occasionally hear the 8ug~estion. but whole sciences have. Nothing is more common. almost every year. and the modes of Instruction. that our present plan of education admits of improvement. in the days of monkish ignorance i and that. on the subject of education. as a part of the regular course of instruction in this college. af· ter u few years absence. is the real state of facts. We arc aware that the system is imperfect: and we cherish the hope. than to hear those who revisit the college. from its first establish. that some of its defects may ere long be remedied. and ordered it to be pri. that it ought not to be stationary. poration. . It is with no small surprise. We have no doubt that important improvements may be 8u~ge8ted. have been greatly varied. to nccornmodate the course of instruction to the rapid advance of the cou ntry. but continually advancing. to meet the varying demands of the community. - in August.REPORT OF THE FACULTY. The committee of the corporation. The guardians of the college appear to have ever acted upon the principle. to inquire into the expediency of dispenaing with the study of the ancient languages. refinement. by nttentive observation of the literary institutions m Europe. having requested the view! of the faculty on the subject. express their surprise at the changes which ha ve been made since they were ~aduatcd. or such parts of them the prudential committee and the faculty should judge it ex- pedient to publish. we would respectfully submit the following considerations. together with the papers read before the committee. from time to time be made with advantage. thcy serve onlf to measure the rapid current of improvement which is J. Containing a summary view of the plan of education in the colfege. at their session in September. for the first time. "by being immovably moored to the same station.nteu. to whom was referred the motion. Some alteration has accordingly been proposed. and by the earnest spirit of inquiry which is now so prevalent.>assmg by them. in population. 4 Resolution. and opulence. that colleges were onginally planned. that our system is unalterable. We are decidedly of the opinion. at their meeting The committee reported their views to the corwho voted to accept IlS PART I. Not only the Course of studies. This report was read to the committee. therefore." How opposite to all this. ment. the report. in this and the other seminaries in the United States. We believe that changes may.

the nature anrl object of the present plan of education U 1 the collece. but should be so varied as to attain the ends which they have severally in view. stili firmly adhere to some (If Its origlnal features it is from 11. and deep.istry.rec:ive a. awakening. In the co~rs(l .o decide correctly. If h~ relte~ prm~lpo. the support may be of looser materials. before they will disclose their treasures. the treasures which memory gathers.the attention. I!atisfactorily prove. and a better one substituted in its stead.Report Oil a Couru of Libe. much more does the traintng of tbe pow. as to form in the student a proper . If the student exercises bis reruronin$ powers only. annlyzmg a subject pro~osed for investigation . oj Liberal Education.o be effected by a hg~t and hasty course of study . A costly edifice ought not to be left to rest upon a single pillar. balanci~g nicely t~e evidence prese_nted to the judgment. ~ifferent o?e •. and syatematIC effort.ufitte? t. while others are neglected. ought oat to be all constituted upon the Same model. there IS a distortlon In the intellectual character. that jf those w~o are intrusted with the auperin~e~dence of the institution. by reading a few books.oos. the more important of the two. and controlltng the imaginetion . while we attempt to explain.ral Education. For a partial or superficial education. But If we have not greatly misapprehended the design of the pat. which are best calculated to teach the n. by long continued and close appllcation. colleges. By raLSmg the qualifications for admission the standard of attainment has been elevated. dire~ting t. It IS not sufficient that one or two be cultivated. If he confines his attention to demonstrative evjdenc~! he will be u. to call into doily and vigorous exercise the faculties of the stud ent. propornon between the different branches of literature and science. A commanding object. and more hastily laid. though it may be very unsuitable for D. and whether the whole system is not rather to be broken up. we have heard the sugacstion. academical. As this point OlUy have an ImportaJ_>t bClmng UPOIl the q~e~tjon immediately before the ccmrmttee. &c.he train of thought. hearing a few lectures. when we ought to pause and inquire. its object 18 to LAY TilE "FOUNDAT10N of a SUPERIOR.his college. A plan of study may be well adapted to a particular purpose. minera)ogy. at some length. EDUCATION: and this is to be done. and those modes of instruction adopted.lly on his memory. In laying the foundation of a thorough education it is ne~euary th!lt all t~e importa~t mental faculties ~e' brought 1010 exercise. Universities. higher principle. as rapidly as they can be.nce.of instruction in t. thorough education. The ground work of 0. with diligent attention for years. All this is not t. Alteration. When certain mental en?ow~ents . arranging. and steady. as heretofore. are the dw:zplme and the furmture of the mind . giat~ education. whether it will be sufficient to make gradlJai changes. perhaps.t of fixing. and solid. with accurate discrimination. without hazarding the loss of what has been already attained. requires an apprenticeship. should be. The former of these is. What then is the appropriate object of a college 1 It is not necessary here to determine what it is which in every' case.I perhaps the time has come. much higher culture than others. In fervid and impressive eloquence. and storing it with knowledge. From different quarters. with skill. at a period of life when 11 substitute must be provided for parental superintende. expanding its powers. must be broad. che!D. 'Y~ The t~o w~at. thnt our colleges must be new-mOOelled· that they I!>are not adapted to the spirit and wants of the ~ge' that they will soon be deserted. shan in Y~in attempt to decide on th~ expediency of retamma or altering our present course of instruction unless we have a distinct apprehension of the object of a ~o!le. political economy. he will be deficient in imagination and taste.losition to salutary reform.l'. in a collegiate course. BU. The mines of science must be penetrated far below the surface. geology. therefore. unless ita various powers are so trained as to give them the fair proportions which nature designed. we would ask then Indulgence. rousing and guidin~ the powers of genius. 7 been introduced. entitles an institution to the lIame of a eolleg~. than a bl!nd opl. following. rons and guardians of this college. in c~seB ofproba?lhty •. Report on a Courlt. and spending some months at a literary institution. The habits of thinking are to be formed. so extensive and frequent. Improvements. the COUI'1i6 of argu~ ment. elevating. we trust. his powers of invenuon Will be unpaired by disuse. If a dexterous P?rform ance o~ the m unual oF!erati. ~rs of the mind demand vigorous. points to be ~ained in intellectual culture. it has been an object to maintain such 0. unless they are better acc~mmodated to the b~$iness character of the nation. in m any of the mechanical arts. and professional semmanes.. The mind never attains its full perfection. WIll connnue to be made. ThO':!!C branches of study shou Id be prescribed.

punishment may sometimes be nece!!sary. In a large city. the members of which are mostly gathered from n. will be insufficient to secure distinguished excelie nee. proper symmetry and bnlance of c h ameter . It should be founded on mutual affection and confidence. but by a vanety . IS to be added mstrucuon. AnalySIS IS most efficacious in directmg the powers of invention. and exposed to the untned scenes of temptation.of exercrses .nt and familiar. he acquires copiousness and accuracy of expression. and mVlgorated. To what purpose has a man become deeply learned. therefore. Without this. so the mental faculties are expanded. But the cu ture of the inventive faculties is not the only object of a liberal education. as wi!! most effectually throw the student upon the resources of his own mind. that he who has accumulated the richest treasures of thought. of solid attainment with skill in the art of persuasion. therefore. that a substitute be provrded for parental stperitltendence. if he has no talent at forming new combinations of thought. the discoveries of the intellect. by familiarity with different deportments of science. . The most gifted understanding cannot greatly enlarge the amount of science to which the wisdom of n~ has contributed. for the residence of the students :-we speak now of colleges in the C~lUntry. A most important feature In the colleges of this COUlltry IS. By logic and mental philosophy. Our course. but IS fnr too slow in Its progre!ls to teuch. In attending to the phy. and animated. This renders It necessary that SUitable buildmgs be provided. by rhetoric and oratory. as to constitute one family. and specimens. aims at a union of science with literature. should possess the highest powers of oratory. It should aim to effect its purpose. the arl of speaking. distance. sme qun verborum volubititas inanis atque irridenda est. as well as of n family. not by one simple and uniform motion. and teachers. he will be dull nnd inefficient. In our arrangements for the communication of knowledge. As the bodily frame 1S brought to Its highest perfection. From the pure mathematics. and lectures. which the domirnons of science are extended. The scholar must form himself by his own erertlons. By extemporaneous diSCUSSIOn. that eloquence and solid learning ehnuld go together. and instruments. By frequent exercise on written composition. it is necessary that some faithful. '" . There may be those wbom nothing but the arm of law can reach. that the students are generally of an age which requires. and guide their steps. e beb comes prompt. he learns the powers of the language in which he is to speak and write. and affecticnate g~ardia~ take them by the hand. 9 balance of character. Report on a Course of Liberal Education. Tbe advantages furnisbcd by n residence at a college. as well as in intellectual discipline. not wholly or chiefly by restraint and terror.nges nlone. Cie. he is laugh t the art of thinkmg. However abundant may be the acquisitions of the student. In ancient literature. with the process of induction. By English reading.. To the discipline of the mind. can do little more than stimulate and aid his personal efforts. and fluent.tics alone. ThIS considerauon determines the kind of government which ought to be maintained in our colleges. where the students reside with . gll. sical sciences. he learns the art of demonstrative reasomng. such branches ore to be taught as will produce 8. is of greater moment than such an arraogement of duties and motives. No ODe feature III a system of intellectual education. by studying Ian. he finds some of the most finished models of taste. or mlltherun. The Int)entive powers are especially to be called into vigorous exercise. the conquests hr. and adapted to each other. We doubt whether the powers of the mind can be developed.Report ot~ a Couru of Libera2 Education. requires that the students should bo so collected together. in their fairest proportions. if he has no faculty of coromunicatinf his knowledge1 Ahd of what use is a display of rhetorica elegance. As it is a substitute for the regulations of a family it should approach us uear to the character of parental con: trol as the circumstances of the case will admit. It is a point of high importance. There may be perverse members of a college. he would be bUI poorly fitted for the business of life. that the intercourse between tbem and ~heir instructers m~y be freque. If it were possible for a youth to have his faculties in the highest state of cultivation. When removed from under the roof of their parents. Still. or natural o_rpolitical SCience alone. from one who knows little or nothing which is worth communicatil)~1 Est enim scientia comprehendends rerum plurimarum. the circle of the sciences. The sublimest efforts of genius consrst in the creations of the imagination. within a moderate space of lime. and the vaneties of probable evidence. principally by kind and persuaaive influence. The parental character of college government. he becomes familiar with facts. the whole apparatus of libraries. without nny of the knowledge which is derived from others. The analytic method must be combined with the synthetic.

lt should have opport~mties of retLTIng by himself and glVIO~ a ~ore comm. Having now slated what we understcnd to be the. beyond the limits of his text-book. and . proper object of an education at tlns college. first faithfully studied. The degree of correctness with which. we nrc far from beIieving. and. which are examined in separate ro?ms !It the slime time. These. therefore. not as necessary in this advanced s~age of education. e"nmlnation!'! In a text book. In this WilY. '" d.el. call the responsibility be made sufficiently definite.ls way only. and accelerate his advance to professional eminence.ive that jiuht and spint to the subject. sOl?e portion of the popularity of very COpiOUS oral mstrucuon IS to be set to the account of the student's. seven or eight hours a day. and comments of his OWII. In these exercises. that the stud. the lecturer. to be'rcad at the same time. by frequent cXnmillll. we know of no method which Will more efi'ectually bewilder and confound the learner. But to the instructers. But. sun it is important. th. they arc the uppropriate mode of commllnlcaho~. as in the course ut college. no small portion of our daily exercises become informal and extemporaneous lectures. are not new and controverted. Ire mar repose upon hLs seat. the daily examinations in the recitation ro?ms.: when listemng to oral instruction. Where instruments ure to be explnmed.ield a pas. 0: . for a full investigaticn and discussion of particular subjects. When he comes to be en• gaged in the study of his profession. on the pa rt of their instructers. whtch nwaken the rntere. but such as have been long settled.best answered by lectures alone. Besides. wil! furnish the student with an apology for want of exactness. •.! ardor of the student. points.. A committee 18 present on the occasion. public rooms only are needed.'" and Y. ..:rul Educuuun. they ". do not require a m inu te su perm tende nc. Tlus defect we endeavor to rome y. we would ask permlsllOn to add a few ohservattcrts on the mcanlY which nrc employed to effect this object. The latter answer the purpose of satisfying the inquiries of strangers.~t an. In part. IU professional msntuuons.. and they lire exhibited to the best advantage. He will be in danger of lcnrnin: o nothina~ efl'ectualh·. These. I~ we mlBt~ke not. For this purpose. the necessity of ctror~ on the part of the learner. however. his own mind. So far as the student has time to extend his inquiries. It IS intended that n due proportion be observed between _leC!ures. and firmly establish his own opinions. satisfa?tion. that while they cal! forth the highest efforts of. to our classes. 1'0 secure his steady and earnest efforts. that the responsibility of the student IS made so const~nt and particular. They do not al~\'~~'s brm~ upon the student II pressiolJ" and defirnte responsL1HlLty. in the nttractive d~ess of living eloquence. consisting of gentlemen of education and distinction from different parts of the state. In gwing the course of instruction. The grcat advantage of lectures IS. or specimens. our semi-annual erammaticms have been established.. 19 the grent object or the daily exarninutlons or rec~tations. in the written and extemporaneous disputes. Opportunity is gLven.sive nearing to the lce-. In which the students are more advanced in U"'C. turer Without ever callin'" into exercise the ucuvo powers 01 . 10 his answers. with the examination of the Seniors in July. by ta~ing days or weeks for the examination of each separate pomt.are a more unerring test of scholarship than these public trials. But the business of explaining and commenting is carried to an extreme whenever it supersedes. he mny find his way through the maze. which constitute an important part of our course of exercises. They may place before IHm the prmclples of science. by referring to the various authors who have treated the more !mpo~tant points in the lessons. 11 their parents.the e:<e~cises which are familiarly termed recitauons t thnt IS. thn t all the purposes of instruction can be . in the consistent and peculiar manner of some eminent writer. experiments performed. A partrcular portion of tlus is assigned for each meenng. Text-books are. each student answers the questions put to him in the several branches is noted on the spot. to lay a sO~lllfounclarion in literature and science . and by introduclOg corrections. Illustrations. Each class is divided mto two portions. with a few exceptions. if it be d istri bu tcd am on '" several books upon t he sn me su bj ect. in th. permanently' kept by the FacllltJ:. a text-book is commonly the gUl~e. on his first entrance upon U new science tho. where the time allotted to each branch is rarely more than sufficient for the learner to become familiar with its elementary principles. therefore. occ~~y from twelve to fourteen days in a year. Report on a Courle oj Liberal Education.undmg direction to Ins thoughts.Report 011 U Course of Libf. the diversuy of state~ent In these. and entered _in a record.n to refer him to half a dozen different authors. his instructer may aid him greatly. VLt. ~hls may be the case also. exhibited. . in escaping from the demand for ment~l exertion: It 18 to secure the unceasing and strenuous exercise of t~e intellectual powers.tlOilS on the suhjects of the lectures.

as much as poesible. of a parental character i a government of mild and grate. But responsibility is little felt. Eacli of the three junior classes is formed into two or three divisions. whether elementary pnnciples arc ulwnys taught to the best advantage. It is highly important that this knowledge should be at the command of the Faculty. there is no room occupied hy students. that he stands in a very near relation to them all. is the subdivision of om" classes. . he renders a service to the police of the in~titution. as the students arc gathered into one family. by those who are not us deeply versed as himself in all the intncucies of the science. that there should be In It both Professors and T'utors. of personal a ttachment and individual responsibility. Report on a Course of Liberal Education. The Professor at the head of II. havmg more recently mingled with the students. with minute attention to elementary principles.!1y occupied wnh the more abstruse ond disputable points. in rotation. 13 'Ve deem it to be indispensable to a proper adjustment ol' our collegiate system. but can hardly be expected to view them with any peculiar affection. It is deemed an essential provision. fol influence. to superintend the department. whenever it is caned for. and by minutely inspecting their conduct on other occasions. which could be secured in no other way. department mny. prejudices. Upon this plan also. It is necessary thut there IIhoultl be a Professor. 50 far at! this depends on his personal efforts and talents. the experience of those who have been long resident at the msutution. when held as common stock among numbers.'dw:llliUlI. and for the success with which it is conducted. in communicaung familiar principles. than when it rests upon the whole collectively. in Borne purls of the course of instruction. minute information IS acquired. Each Prof elisor is accountable for the judicious arrangement of his own department. 'I'he arrangement is such. ha ve a distinct recollection of therr peculiar feelings. not only ot their meals. Which. Without a distinct upproprintion to individuals. and habits of think mg. through successive ages. the fresh and minute information of those who. who have just entered on the first elements of SCience. By distributing our family among different individuals. and on the other. But the feature in our system wlnoh renders a considerable number of tutors indiepensahle. and dunng the busmess of the day. They have first to learn the pnnclplcs which have been in n course of investigation. as will gh'c unity and symmetry to the whole. In the internal police of the institution. If the same student attends on a dozen different instructers. to arrange the plan of instruction. not long since. such as can spring only from daily and peculiar intimacro If the same teacher instructs eight or ten different divisions. Although he is not confined to the instruction of his own division i but makes such exchanges With the other tutors as will give to each the opportunity of teaching his favorite branch. . the responJibility of the severa I instructen is rendered far more definite. for the pro~ress and correct deportment of his division. thut Ihpy come back to them With reluctance and distaste. on the one hand. to regulate the mode of conducting it. in teaching the common rules of arithmeuc l Young men have often the most ardor. Dut students in n college.. It is intended that the government should be. \vhicb may be communicated to the Board. The tutor of a division has an opportunity. he greatly aided. nnd in removing those lighter difficulties of the pupil. and hare now become srrnplified nnd sealed. There IS wanted. Vvould Sir Isaac Newlon have excelled nil others of hIS dav. and each division is committed to the superintendence of a tutor. But the basis of this must be mutual attachment. of profound investigation. Their attention ought not to be solely or mainly directed to the latest discovenes. that in our col!ege buildings. t!wy must puss over the intervening cultivated ground. of becoming intimutely acquainted with the characters of his pupils. Before arriving at reo gions hitherto unexplored. By 0. arc not principo. whrch rs not near to the chamber of one of the oflicers. but in the hours allotted to test. he may respect them all. with ardor nnd acuvrty . Each tutor is responsible. Indeed we doubt. we mar unite the advantages of experience. therefore. were found IYlllg across their own path. At the head of each great division of science. it will be difficult for him to feel. to a certain extent. ond to teach the more important and difficult parts of the subject. by those whose researches hun cur'TIed them so fur heyond these simpler troths. which is enJoyed by no other officer of the college. in rapid succession. with such an adjustment of the dif· ferent parts of the system. due proportion of professors and tutors.12 Report 011 a Cours« . that some of the officers should constitute a portion of this family j being always present with them. yet by meeting them in the recitation rooms two or three times every day.1Liberal E. and the assignment of each portion to the particular charge of one man.

narrowness in his habits of thinking. and ~ WIdely extended sphere of usefulness. never be made. as our necessary supplies of light.ded to complete un educallon. the energies of his mind ~Ult be given. on the statements and discussions which he hears. When u man has en. and those fine proportions of character which are not to be found in bim whoso ideas are alway~ confined to one particular channel. The knowledge. His situation enables him to diffuse the light of science among all classes of the co. VICW. There are many thintrs important to be known. Should he be distinguished m his pro~eS8lOnt h~ Igno. me- . he may then. has an elevation and dignity of character w~ich gives him a commanding influence in society.should. to his country . that there is no science which does not contribute its aid to professional skill. Will be the more exposed to public obscrvnnon. but to lay the foundation. There are separate schools for medicine.tion 1~ maintained. Our object is not to teach that which is peculiar 10 anyone of the professions.o other object. Report on a Courge of Liberal Educatiun. 10 theological. into whatever compa~y he fans. a student \V~stc "!s time upon studies wluch have no Immediate eonnceuon WIth his future profession 7 'ViII cherrustry enable him 10 plead at the bar. the academical course IS not Intended to interfere. of which we hRYC now gi\'# we hope may be carefelly distinguished from several uther object! und plans.energy. men of superior powers. by their own efforts and by aid of the light which is thus shinins around them. a pecul~ iarity of character. and the de. 15 en u summary course of study. With these. it m~y be asked.. as well as III various parts of the country. in most cases. fects ?f hi! education. will. nnd to advance as fnr in rearing the superstructure. profession. by the higher literary institutions. in a great measure. if there had been no colleges in the country. connected with the college. to digest. Franklins and Marshalls are not found in sufficient numbers to fill a college. or conic sections qualify him for preachtng. which will enable him to understand. They will not grow up spontaneously. The course of instruction which is gIVen to the undergraduates in the college.. Hut if his thoughts never range on other subjects. Wherevcr he goes. but to lay the foundation which is common to them nll. which nrc open for the reception of all who are prepared to enter upon the appropriate studies of their several professions. though indispensnb!e. which will be sure 10 mark him as a man ~fli:nited views an~ attainmenta. lnw . those liberal and cornThe collegiate prehensive views. On the other hand. ' As our . or legal science i neither does it include all the minute details of mercantile. which arc not taught in colleges. amid the bustle of business. It is far from embracing every thing which the student will ever have occasion to learn. Is a ma~ to have n. and water.cou~se of instruction is. He has.ithan to obtam a lIVing by professional pursuits 7 Has he not duties to perform t? his fllll!ily. We nrc. prepar· atory to the study of n. And even Franklin would not have been what he was. been taught how to learn. if he never looks abroad on the ample domains of literature and science there will be 0. and to form a correct opinion. medical. comes to us as freely. is not designed to include professional studies.1·1 Report on a Coune of Liberul Ed'llcatiull. with wluch It has been too often confounded. and air. because they mny be learned any where. he may Le constantly advsncine in knowledge. not examples for common imitation. With the aid of books. break through the obstructions of a defective education. ." The great object of u collegiate education. rary and scientific ncquisiticna which. duties which require various and extensrve intellectual furnlture 1 Professlonnl s!udies are designedly excluded from the course of instruetion at college. If he acquires here a thorough knowledge of tbe pnnciples of science. to leave room for those lite. in the way of our bUSlllCSS.mmu~l~y. and cut then own path to distinction. who have not bad access to these are stimulated to aim at Il similar elevation. When an elevated standard of educa. and means of observation. But why. educate himself. tered upon tho practice ?f ~is profeas~()n. 'l'he object is not to jinisfl lus education. These are honornhle exceptions to the general Jaw. as the short period of his residence "ere will adrmt. Every thing throws light upon every thing. not inte. if not commenced there. by their nauve . he who IS not only eminent in professional life. but has also n mind richly stored with general knowledge. not here speaking of those ginnt minds which. on every topic of interest. at least. and theology. t~ hrs fellow citizens. It to give that expansion and balance of the mental powers. or ostronorny aid him in the practice of physic 1 Why should not his attention be confined to the subject which is to occupy the labors of his life 1 In answer to this. it may be observed. to Its appropnate duties. he has those general views.rance on other subjects. principally.

l. But we have. These can never be er~ fectually learned except In the very circumstances in which they are to be practised. without under- standing the laws of the decomposition of forces' the carpent~r. either theory or practice must be. As every thmg cnnnot be learned In four years. the mechamc. the details of mercantile. fire young men who are desuned to these occupanons. who has raised n crop of cotton. If SUItable arrangements were made. His education is begun. the dyer may set hiS colors without being indoctrinated in the principles of chemist. to fill the subordinate plac~s in Il!echanrcal establishments! but the higher stations require enlizhtened and comprehensive views. or ailver-srruth's. as the III w which e~plalns ~hem all.of principles. as we thmk. Why waste on theories. But the labors of su~h an one. are confined to the narrow path mark. For what purpose. Men of mere practic al deza il are wanted.t IS our aim the~efore. no hatter's. with an expectation of fimthing their education at the college.S. In considerable numbers. Practical skill would then be grounded upon scienufic information. then. when he takes lus degree 1 Does he come forth from the college qualified for busmess l We answer. in a measure at least. combinations of mecharncal processes. He needs the constant superint~ndence of men of more en. A single general Jaw may include a thousand or ten thousand particular cases' each one of whic~ is as dj~cult to be learned or remember~d. postponed to a future opportunity. is the office of men of superror ~duelltton. there is nothing practical in what he hns done 1 Do we lIay of the planter. as far 8S possible. no cotton or Iron manufactory . These ar'e necessary I. It will be asked. provided the practice is right. practical illustrations and expenments. college 1 They should not be sent. Without a kno~ledge of Euclid s Elements. ed out to him by others. that some operauons may be performed. concerns. but not completed. It cannot be effectually taught except in co~ neeti~~ with practical illustra nons. while engaged In screntific mvestigatlOO. good degree of manual dexterity. If the results of original investigations. therefore. must generally come from minds more highly and systematically cultivated. If he ventures beyond hIS prescribed rule he works at random. Is the college to be reproached for not nccomplishing that which it ha~ never undertaken to perform 1 Do wee> complain of the mnson. who has laid the foundation of D. The young merchant must be tramed in the counting room. It IS the separation of theory and pr~ctlce. We are fur from believing that theory alone should be taught in a college. But the arrnnging of plans of business.d lmprove!Dents in the arts. ever sent to Q.e question may be asked. The corner stone must be laid. that he has done nothing to purpose. mechanical.n eX~dmg an interest ~n theoretical instructions. and others.aged in the active duties of ~fe 7 To. he may have attained a. are to be confined to a few scientific men. house. that he has done nothing practical. no expenrnentul farm or retail shop.may square his frame-work.Important 10 sho~mg the ap~lication . by those who have little or no knowledge of the principles on which they depend. the farmer.hcabon by. might be taught at the college. preparatory to the study of the prncucal arts. before the superstructure is erected. to resident graduates. Report 011 a Course oj Liberal Education. to blend with them. which has brought reproach upon both. Th. we often hear the suggestion. that prrnciples are of no consequence. and especially . Report en a Course oj Liberal Education. on our premises. By long continued practrce. There is a fertility in scientific principles.the labo~ing classes. if the principles which they hnv~ unfolded. but wrth a view of laying a thorough foundation in the pnnciples of science. bring down the principles of science to their practlcal apP.larged and scientific infcrmauon. or coach-maker's establishment. because he has not given to his product the form of wearing apparel? In education. 17 or agricultural. that he has not finished the building. the new.y. in the workshop. and not diffused amon~ those who are enl. and agricultural education. ~ith no esta~lished principles to guide him. the time which is wanted for acquiring practical arts 1 We are aware. no. The mariner may set his sails to the wind.lG ckanical. Their umon alone can elevate them to their true dignity and value The man of science is often disposed to assume an air 3 of . But if the scientific theory of the arts is ever to be ncquired. are never to be taught to those who can reduce them to practi~e t 'Yhy ~o we bestow such exalted encomiums on inventive gemus. What IS a young man fitted for. that the product of hIS Iabor is not habitable.-if he stops here. Of what use nrc all the sublime discoveries which have immortalized thc names of Newton Archimedes. 10 the field. it IS unquesnonably first in order of t rme. of winch the mere artist has no apprehension. the discoveries o. as well as in morals. ond that.:.

without a knowledge of Euclid's Elements. if the principles which they have unfolded. If suitable arrangements were made. He needs the constant auperintendence of men of more enlarged and scientific information. no expenruentui farm or retail shop. never undertaken to perform 7 Do we" compia in of the mason. The man of science is often disposed to assume an air of 3 . because he has not given to his product the form of wearing apparel 1 In education. Prnctrcal skill would tlwn be grounded upon scienufic mformation. Weare far from believing that theory alone. no colton or Iron manufactory. shop. in tho work. without being mdoctrrnuted in the principles of chemistry. There is a fertility in scientific principles. the discoveries and improvements in the arts. when he tales lus degree 1 Ones he come forth from the college qualified for busmess ? We answer. as far as possible. Their union alone can elevate them to their true dignity and value. and others. is the office of men of superior education. For what purpose. Without under- standing the laws of the decomposition of forces . or silver-smith's. The young merchant must be tramed 1U the countmg room. practical illustrauons and experiments. nnd (hut. The mariner may set his sails to the wind. while engaged in scientific investigations. and especially important m showing the application of principles. before the superstructure is erected.ge. Archimedes. which has brought reproach upon both. on our premIses. By long connnued practice. It will be asked. that some operations may be performed. the details of mercantile. But we have. few scientific men. are confined to the narrow path marked out to him by others. 17 ckanical. he may have attained It good degree of manual dexterity. in considerable numbers. But the labors of such an one. mechanical. ever sent to a college? They should not be sent. In the field. should be taught in B: colle.at the college. Report on a Course of Liberal Education. If he ventures beyond his prescribed rule. except in connectIOn With pructicnl Illustrations. the new combmations or mechanrcal processes. provided the practice is right. to residen: graduates. there is nothing practical in what he has done? Do we say of the planter. it IS unqucsuonably first in order of lime. the higher stations require enlishtened and comprehensive views. but not completed. that he has done nothmg to purpose. Is the cC)!1ep. But if the scientific theory of the arts is euer to be ncqurred. Why waste on theories. But the arranging of plans of busmess. or couch-maker's establishment. but wIth a view of laywg a thorough foundation In the pnnciples of scien ce. It ~ann?t be ef!'ectuaHy taught. the dyer moy set hrs colors. be. As every thing cannot be learned in four years. no. IlS we tlnnk. to blend with them. What IS a young man filled for. with an expecta~lOn of jinishing their ed~eatjon. the mccharne. Of whut use nrc all the sublime discoveries which have immortalized the nnmes of Newton. postponed to a future opportunity. we often hear the suggestion. A single general law may incl ude a thousand or ten thousand particular cases i each one of which is as difficult to be learned or remembered.east. that principles are of no consequence. to fill the subordinate places \0 ~echanical establishmen ts! but. and not diffused amon~ those who are engaged in the active duties of life 1 To bnng down the principles of science to their practical application by the laboring classes. of which the mere artist has no apprehension. Men of mete practical de tail are wanted. the time which is wanted for acqUIring practical arts 1 We are aware. arc young men who are destined to these occupations. by those who have little or no knowledge of the prmciples on which they depend. either theory or practice must. who has raised n crop of cotton. that he has not finished the building. as well nil in morals. The corner stone must be laid. who has laid the founda tion of a house. It is our aim therefore. if the results of original investiga· tions. and agncultural educauon. must generally come from minds more highly and systematically cultivated. then. These are necessary in excitmg an interest in theoretical instructions. 'I'heso Can never be effeclUaHy learned except m the very CIrcumstances in which they are to be pracnsod. that the product of hts labor is not habuable . prepam tory to the st ud y of the practical arts. the fanner. His education ISbegun. with no established principles to guide him. might be taught at the college. in a I~easuro at l. he works at random. as the In w which explai or them all.eto be reproached Ior not uccornplishing that which it hac. It i3 the separation of theory and practice. that he has done nothing practical. The quesuon may be asked.16 Repol'l O1j U Course 0/ Liberal Educcuon. therefore.-if hc stops here. the carpenter may square hIS frame-work. are never to be taught to those who can reduce them to practice? Why do we bestow such exalted encomiums on inventive genius. are to be confined to II. or agricultural concerns. no hatter's.

when he looks upon the narrow and partial views of the m ere artisan. or natural philosophy. and extended farther. must inevitably gIVe a partial education. he ill destined for some narrow sphere of action.ve been offered to tIle public. whether he has a taste . to a scientific and profe~~ional education. it will be seen. Not to speak particularly. that it may be of some practical use to him. before be hus even entered upon Its elementary truths 1 If he is really destitute of talent sufficient for these common departments of education. writing. in this plac~. that we are not in possession of the secret. But why. 0. Dut the prrnciples of science. or of history and antiquities. Whatever a young man undertakes to learn. which are best adapted to his peculiar talents. These arc to be learned in the professional and practical schools. 19 superiority. could be set aside.11 should be instructed in those branches of knowledge. as they sometimes profess to be. When a class have become familiar with the common elements of the several sciences. ~hat subject which isnow studied here. If a youth can afford 10 devote only two or three years. he ought to learn it so effectually. It is intended to occupy. . however little it may be. should all the students in a college be required to trend III tile same stepa? Why should not each one be allowed to select those brunches of study which are most to his taste. They call then make their choice from actual trial. provided the qualifications for ndmission into the college. . in our Junior year. it will be proper for him to make a selection of a few of the most Important branches. or astronomy. however different their prospects. to some extent. that our students are not so deficient in intellectual pow. If there is a~y way in which every thing worth knowing may be taught In four years. so in 0. Or 9"eology.or capacity for a science. by glVmg them a knowledge of scientific principles. but to commence a thorough course. ers. A partia course of study. a superficial one. we are well convinced. Without evidently marnng the system. are the common foundation of all high intellectual attainments. college. must be content with a partial course. But we ate wen persuaded. as we think by everyone who aims at a thorough education. The pupil is hurried Over the surface so rapidly. nor to finish the details of either a professional or practical education. of the aocien~ languag~s. A partial education is often expedient. They are not the peculiarities of any profession or art. A defective education is better than none. we nrc free to acknowledge. to the best advantage. But how is he to know. or political economy. the four years immediately preceding the study of a profes- . or mental and moral philosophy 1 It is sometimes thought that a student ought not to be urged to the study of that for which he has no taste or capacity.ughs at Ihe practical blunders of the former. were brought to a high~r standard. and arithmetic are taught to all. In this: way. nor. The defects in the education of both clnsses would be remedied. This 19 now done here. that ther have no capacity for the study of that which they are told is almoat wholly useless. or all the plans of instruction which il8. to give a superficial education. is not to give a partial education. preparatory to practice. who that aims at a well proportioned and supen?r education will remain ignorant of the elements of the various branches of the mathematics. flate his vanity. though they are easily made to believe. it is asked. to expose him to public observation. Beport Ol~ a Course of Liberal Education. arising from the uecesslty of the case. which proposes to teach almost every thing in a !hc. or of rhetoric and oratory. and t? draw on him \h~ ridicule of men of sound Judgment and SCIence.off to their favor!te studi~s. Many. But tillS i! an imreTfection. and which arc most nearly connected with his intended profession 1 To this we answer. when he has finished his course. of which no one destined to the higher walks of life ought to he Ignorant. and give his attention exclusively to these. nothing IS effectually taught. or chemistry. never. is far preferable to a superfi' cial education. If the view which we have thus far taken of the subject III correct.18 Report on a Uourse of Liberal Educaiian. that is the most preposterous. What he has learned. that scarce a trace of his steps remains. consisting of a few branches only..lrt time. is just sufficient to in. then is the proper time for them to divide . The latter in return lo. on the other hand. or thinks he has learned. reading. containing a smattering of almost every tiling. This. The division might be commenced at an earlier period. or mineralogy. As in our primary schools. We are aware that a thorough education 1& not within the reach of all. that our prescribed course contains those subjects only which ought to be understood. for want of time and pecuniary resources. and to carry it as far as tbe time of residence here will allow. that the object of the system of instruction at this college.

affording very great facilitiM for a finished education. in llrerature if not in science. but in becoming thoroughly acquainted with one great department of knowledge.!ium and the other nt the university. in point attainments. to concentrate tho advantage. The only institution in this country. though th. quarter.' of snon entering 011 professional practice. are advanced nearly or quite u far. required an expenditure. to the study of which. will he the conBeguence of the very scanty supply of menns to most of nur puhlie seminaries. merit. lind with much higher prepl1fll. ~I in n college.Report ou fl ('UU. before commencing operations. hilt. In Englund. without the coercive influence of which are pcculiae II) the higher or agricultur al establishmcnis. id here divided into three.Ii B. Our institution is not modelled exactly after the pauern of Ellrop~aJl universities.lf)ry attalnmente. and the prospe. have of late gained the notice and respect of men of information in this country. Students at law are distribu. os states. in the woy of colloquial intercourse. The Univcrsilies on the continent of Europe. of more than three hundred thousand dollars: i a sum fllr greater than Yale College bas received in a century and II. Q. Report on a Count of Liberal EJIlL. deep interest excited. from the bounty of individuals and the state together. The unirersities are mostlyoc. the student prosecutes his studies in the presence of hi. conducted. severul yean nre to be devoted..iduoll! applicutinn.of eleven hundred students. There are irnportnn t diflereu ces. that this college may be spared the mortification of a ludicrous nttempt to imitate them. At. 'ns mo. few privileged places. cupied with projeuional studies. whito it is unprovided with the resource! necessary 10 execute the purpose. is the gymnasium. the professional schools are 5cattercd over the country. provided that starvation i. rather than text-books. In the professional institution. But we doubt whether they are models tn be eopied in every reature. Bul in thit country. •• our students arc when graduated. und the professional school.ny collegp.. instructor. The students como to the universities in Germany 01 B.'dlit'lItiuli. to accommorlate their education to the peculiarities in the legal practice of each. The age of the student. They ere upon II broad and [ibera] rcnle.!! ecicnces . If to the The- or . by the slow proce~! of comparing lind balancing the various and conflicting opinions of others. and mnny of thorn are at a distance Irom the colleges. manufacturing. each of tho ancient universitins of Orford and CamLriJgc~ i~ not S0 much a n!nglc institution. he needs more frequent assistance aull encourage. In Halle. It ho'!! bccn the policy of most monarchical gorernments. mere advanced age. Dj{1~renee of circumstances has reno dcred a different nrrllll~cmcnt expedient. But in the United States. is 1I0t copied (rum professional Echooll. teel in tht: several states. who. when they enter the university. A much greater proportion sion.. stu d ies. The institution in Germany which corresponds most nearly to our colleges. the student h engaged. At the earlv oge of ten or twelve. in this stage of education. expedient. ferent age lit wllich Ihe student enters upon them. The different denominations of christians have their lepll· rate Theolugicill Seminaries. large number 01 distinct. in the union. ari~iJl~ from the different character of the two courses. than tho members of a college. Law.ainu. Although the restraints of It!Cl. for e:a:amplc. 51) far as we know. and Medicine. lVe ure not without appreh e nslons. At this period. ore greater than in institutious i ). by a lon~ continued pursuit in the same field of inquiry. nro not children. nur republican IUlbita and feelings will never Q llow B. or of thc operations mercantile. if they ean only be adequately endowed. not the consequence of U patronage so minutely divided.JC 11 Libnal1. admissible. In the latter.ey nrc young.et they urc less than in common academies. He ought to be allowed time (0 settle his own upinion on every irn portant point. of II superiur education in II. the college. one of which is 'pent at the gymne. Nor would we complain of this arrangement as inprofessioual Jaws and pcunltles.!I. which. and the aile of tbe students. storied upon the pl:m of the European universitiea.uru i. The. though connguous colleges. that II feeble end stinted growth of our natlonal Iiterature. however. at least. All the instruction is only preparatory to a profession. monopoly of literature in lUly one plnce. supersedes Ihn necessity of the minute responsibi Ii t y w h ic II is rcqu ired ill elern e IItar). etpecilllly in Germany. that of the grammar school. by our A merican colleges. We hope at least. The pupils. for instance. thc plan uptln whicb it i. nnd the rfi!. all except sixty are engaged in the study ofTheolugy. than 10 the coil eges in this country. not in learning the more elements of the v. The period of educa tion which iit there di vined into two portions on Iy. will erunrnunlj he !uJlicicllt 10 secure hi! as:. We uflticipale no diMas· trous results from the muhiplicatiQn of colleges. There must be. it is proper that IlIbjuts should be studied.

II! an elevanon in the standard or attainment for admrssron. such parts of their plans 8J!I are sutted to our peculiar SItuation and character. One of the pleas frequently urged in favor of a partial education. after takrng 11 general survey of the extensive and diversified terntones ofliterature. and who. in consequence of commencmg hlll studies at a Inter period. at the oge of sixteen. Report on a Oourse of Liberal Education. farther than to preserve order In the lecture room 1 When the student bus passed beyond the rugged and cheerless region of elementary learrnng. after a tna] by various nations. But we q uestion whethe r a college of unde rgraduntes. A large poruon must be content With the very limited instruction rn our primary schools.22 Report on a Course of Liberal Edru:atioll. that II. In behalf of some youth who has completed Ius preparation at an earlier penod . IS to be abandoned. he has selected those spots for cultivation which are best adapted to his talents and taste. and Ln w Institutions nttached to Yule College. should be delayed a little longer. un provided WIth any substitute for parental control. and comrnemanes. to an insutunon m wruch there should not be even an attempt at discipline. university. Others still. when the present improved methods of mstructicn in the elementary and preparatory schools. We do not suppose that the world has learned ebsolutely nothing. that rather than suspend it for a. by attempting a general imuation of foreign Universities. WIth higher aims and more ample means. that this plea will be urged With still greater earnestness. vantage of superior intellectual discipline and attainments 1 We well know that the whole population of the country can never enJOYthe benefit of It thorough course of educanon. Until tlus IS effected. mode of'tenchmg. The first and great Improvement which we wish to see made. smgle year. Allhougn we do not consider the literary institutions of Europe as faultless models. mstead of plodding over a page of Latm or Greek. yet how often have we been pressed to dispense With the rule. Though the limit of age for adrmssion is fixed by our laws at fourteen. to be exactly copied by OUr American co!lcges. 25 ological. unless the students of the former were advanced three or four yenrs farther than at present. are more and more accelerating the early progress of the pupil? But suppose it should happen that the student. In our opinion. WIth proper modifications. both In age and acquirements. M cdical. if compelled to walt till he has attained the requisite age. Others may be able to add to this the pnvilege of 11 few months 01 an academy. in additton to the course prescribed for the undergraduates. without the Impulse of authoritative rnjunctions. into the open and enchan tlllg field where th e grea t masters of scren ce are mo I'lng onward WIth enthusiasttc ernulauon . We ate well aware. when. that a thorough education cannot be begun and finished in four years. he must forego all the ad. may afford to spend two or three years. in some institution which furnishes in- . in attending upon a parlini course oflltuoy. the regulations and plan of mstrucnon In D. The proper collegiate department would stil] have its disunct und appropnute object. one be allowed for the study of a profession. as we have already observed. It would. the four departments to~ether would constitute a universtty 10 the European sense 01 the term. when. or Q. precisely because It has stood Its ground. and dictionanes. there IS abundant time previous to tlus for the attainment of all which IS now required for admission into the college. he reads those languages with facility and delight. We believe that our colleges may denve Important Improvements from the unwersrues and schools In Europe. or the regulation of statutes and penalties. 18 the alleged want of time for a more enlarged course. that of teaclung the branches preparatory to all the others. branch of SCience. With hrs grammars. 10 systems of mstruction wlnch have had on origm more ancient than our republican sennnunes. We shall only expose ourselves to inevitable failure and ridicule. nnd through success rve cen tunes. by the experience of ages. before entering upon the duties of his profession . not by blindly ndoptmg all their measures Without discrirmnauon but by cnutlOusly mtrodu- cing. But if three years Immediately preceding the age of twenty. "is in danger of beJOU ruined for want of employment 11' May we not expect. yet we would be far from condemnmg every feature. Would parents In this country consent to send their sons. ISthis a sacrifice worthy to be compared with the Immense difference between the value ofa limited and a thorough education 1 Is a young man's pushing forward into business. he may then be safely left to pursue hIS course. there were added what ts called m Germany n School of Philoroplty for the higher researches of literature and SCience. would long be patromsed m tlus country. 80 mdiapensable to hiS future welfare. be Idle to think of adopung III the college.

and mechameal mstuutiona.ollege. we have been stnvrng so hard to gam 1 Ate those who are seektng only a partial education to be admitted into the c. &c. that the inslructlon given to those who are desuned to be merchants. our present undergmduate course. Itil professronul. and in that way. to be graduated at either. mercantile. lycau. and vaned. a value depending entuely upon the character of toe educution which we gn'e. degree from the college should retain its present value an public estimauon . than be whose auenuon an" skill are divided among a multitude of objects. nnd aiming to provide a system of rnstrucilon for the youth rn a city whose population IS more than a million. gymnasIUm. I f our treasury were overflOWing. there might perhaps be no harm in establishing 8 m depn rtmen t for 8 brief and rapid cou rse of stu d y. at least upon paper. or a manufacturer who produces but One kmd of fabnes. so far connected With the college.5 branches selected by the pupil or The I:lueshon IS then presented. What advantage would be gamed by attelnpttng to blend them nil In one When in almost nil our schools. JU8t as the merchant who deals in a amgle class of commodities. But the moment It IS understood that the mstitnuonhas descended to an inferior standard of attainment. IS reduced to the level of that rn the other. or rather are rnsufficrent. Of Report on a Course of Liberal Education. But do the public lIlSIst. tecttllg us efforts to one uniform course. accessible to all classes of you tho A nd we rejoIce at the prospect 0 f ample provision for this purpQse. ate barely eufficiem. A London umversuy. IS thu a time for the college 10 lower ivs standard 7 Shall we fal! back. by di- ments. agncuitural semmanes.iberal Educatton. But shall 8 college. should have a specinl reference to therr respective professional pursuits. as to be under the supenntendence of the same board of trust. No poruon of our resources. or agriculturalists. mcreasc our income 1 ThIS rmght be the operation of the measure. Its reputation will sink to a corresponding level. that every college shall become a highschool. with an income of two er three thousand C1 year from funds. and academy 1 Why should we mterfere WIth these valuable msntunons 1 Why Wish to take their business out of then hands 1 Tbe col!egp.Report on a Course oj J. and the establishment of commercial highschools.' of carrymg away With them a collegiate diploma. can be diverted to other purpn~es. The public are undoubtedly fight. or manufacturers. arms at domg ttl wnrk wuh greater precision. and abandon the ground which. 2.. and the prospects of different individuals. as IS the medical or law school. 10 demanding that there should be appropriate courses of education. may well establish Its higher and infenor courses. whose scheme of studies. But It ought to be as distinct fmln the four classes of undergraduates. commencin~ With n capita? of several hundred thousand dollars. thnt the doors should be thrown open to all. gymnasia. struction in any branch Ilis parents. nnd acadeuues. After we shall have become a college in name omy~ and In reality nothmg more than an academy. There are many academies in the country. afiect to be at once a Loudon ulliverslty? Should we ever become such an institution. than a certificate from an academy. the college. wlt. for the object 10 VICW. or strength. has us appropriate object. reqUiring us to rook out-for some new object on which to exP.huut unpurrmg the education which we are attempting 10 give. by mnkmg the college more accessible to different descnpnons of persons. and economy of time. ought still to constituteone distmct branch of the complicated system of arrangeBut might we not. . or half col4 if> more vanous than that of tbe colleges. and they have theirs. as to adapt It to the eXlgenctes of the country. But while all acudemy teaches a little of every thing.. whether the college shan have all the vartety of classes and departments which ate found In ncnderrues . or whether It shull confine i1self to the single object of u well proportioned and thorough course of study. It 18 said that the public now demand. the standard of educauon has been enlurged and elevated. if we had a surplus fund. and professional sernmanes. for a very short time. What IS the characteristic difference between a college and all academy? Not that the former teaches more branches than the latter. enlarge our number. for thnly years past. degree from a college more highly prized. lyceum. while a. All the means whrch are now applied to the proper collegiate department. if the former IS no t a voucher of a aupenor education 1 When the course of instruction 10 the one. merely far the purpose of associatmg Its Ilame wuh them. will be equally honorable. that education ought to be so modified. encures hili busmess more perfectly. Without IClcurrmg the fearful hazard of being over-edueated ? Why IS A. or labor. In the improvement of our academies. d It. its SCientific and pracucal departments.

96 Report on a Course of Liberal Education. relate ruther to what we would wlsh to see effected. we fear would be mcreesed. is the unpression made on the mmds of a portion of our students. It is [:\r from bemg our mtention to dictate to oihe« colleges a system to be adopted by them. cerned to find. degree at last .- on a Cours« of Liberal Education. or whIch requ~tes vigorous and continued effort. The observations which we have made on tlus lIubJect. We are not sure. and acquired a substantial education. But In this country.tIVe relish. if he have a good share of self-confidence. the field of enterprise IS so wide. Does It become the patrons and guardians of sound learning. by sub~tltuting n partial. Dut It 19 to be hoped thai. than the substance. the standard of attainment will sink lower and lower.. after making hili way. that not only students. and leave the business of second-rate educanon to the inferior sermnanes. the demand for even ordi . to mduee them to rest sauefled wuh a partial and BU· perfictnl course of stud y. rather than for numbers. There may be good and sufficient reaions why some of them should introduce a partial course of instruction. The comp. not in an unposmg display.here by high expectations and purpose!. at no very distant penod. IS the can which IS so frequently mo. if he had come to us well prepared. from t\me to tIme. we may expect that It will be desorted by that class of persons who have hitherto been dro. th~t the ~tudy of anv thin" for which they have not an Instmc. na. Ihey will be able to come up to tlus elevated ground. we need be under no apprehension With respect to numbers. ·When the colleze has lost Its hold 011 the public confidence. if each aims to surpass the others. peculiar temptations nre here presented to our youth. but their parents also. or whiCh is not imme- or diately connected With their intended professional pursuits. from one quarter and another. to send us their sons. by urgmg them forward to n situation for whIch they are not prooerly qualified. and half academy. With students who will be satisfied with nothmg short of high and solid uttamments. the com petition among literary men II so pressing. a dexterous arrangement of measures 10 beating up for recruits. He may even mount the steps which lead to office and popular . fur a thorough education. and the occupations which Yield a. by the elevated Tank its education. till the colleges are brought to a level With common acadermes. than to what we profess to have actually accomplished. carl push himself forward into notice and employment. sufficient to fill all the colleges in the Umted States. and a dnvmg. which does not command respect for itself. he might have held a respectable rank In hrs class. They of course rema. At the same time. wuh much perplexity and mortification. and character afterwards. competent living are so numerous and accesslble . to YiCld to tlns depressmg and detenorating influence 1 Our country has ampJe resources for furnishing to great numbers the means of a thorough edueauon. When the t1valry becomes a mere scramble for numbers. We are con. Here and there one.wn . seem frequently more solicuous for the name of an education. One of the prmcipal of these. that a young mnn of a very limited stock of knowledge. what will induce parents in various and distant parts of the country. to give celebrity to a literary mWtutlOn. that the demand for thorough educatzon IS. In Europe. Without character. by depressmg It~ standard of ment.t he derives from hrs residence here. rather than dimimshed. dropped ofr from the class. 27 lege. that those of moderate attainmenta can have little hope of success. We a~ sensible there IS greallmperfectlOn 10 the execuuon of the purpose to gl\'e a thorough course of mstrucuon. by attempting to unite different plans of educauon. to admu students !nto the college With defechue prepara!lon. Whereas. It IS n hazardous experunent. bustling spirit. As long as we can maintain nil elevated character.lly encountered. but lD the substantial value of its education. when they have ncadermes enough In their own neIghborhood 'I There IS no magical influence m an act of mcorpcratton. through the four years. is of no practical utility. to act upon the plan of gmnJn<" numbers first. Another senous difiku!ty wnh which we have to contend. Of those who are barely adrmned.ry learning 18 so urgent. competition for excellence. Parents are little aware to what embarrassments and mjury Ihey are subjecting their sons. yet we shall erchange the hest portion of our students. at present. The difficulties With which we are now struggling. Even if we should not Immediately suffer \!\ pomt of numbers. It wi!! be In vam to thmk of retnmmg them. Numerous and formidable difficulues are to be perpetu(l.etltlon of colleges may advance the interests of literature: If It is D.m Ignorant of that which they thmk not worth the learmng. one and another \s.de upon us. Report. for othera of mferlor Rims and attainments. just obtain! 0. which is nearly all die benefit tha.

t)f those solid and elegant attainments. than the mere possession of property which will not allow them to hoard theIr treasures. muy be educated for the purpose 1 while the mass of the people are left In comparative Ignorance. who can decrde correctly. he mny at least attract their ~nze by the tinsel of his literary ornaments. and elevate. merely on the ground that the course of study IS III)t speCially adapted to their pursuits.nd superficml education. for ll!gh literary excellence. ndmn 01 great Improvements. which will falSe them to a higher distmction. There IS perhaps no na\lon whose interests would be mote cleeply utl'ecteo. Report on a Course of Liberal Educahon.?f superior education.r !/JUt wIlle/! IS of no suhstnnuul vulue . Is It not deSIrable that they should be men . SuperficIa\ learnmg III our higher scrnrnanes. spreading wide Its grlHeful shade. and growmg more und more venerable With years. They lllllst tlllie therr posmon on a summit which towers above the height of surrounding ranges of hills. and the force of eloquence. But IJl thrs eouetry. whose. requires: that colleges should mID at a high standard of literary excellenceThe convicuon IS almost universal. education has scarcely gwen 111m more enlarged VIews. IS not to finish a preparatloll for business I but to Impart that various and general knowledge. ought IUfllselfto stand on an eminence.28 Report on a Course of Liberal Education. nnd farmers. ha ve the best 0»portumtres for reducmg the prmcrples of science to their ments. frai]. and instruments. and adorn any occupation. manufacturet's. population. a foundanon m\ght have been effectually huJ. MerclialJt8. by eonversauon In stages and steam bouts . on great national quesuons. or wast~ them In senseless extravagance . f for the professtcns. and agncuhunsts. and grve character and tone to our systems of mstructlOn. In enher case. 29 applause. I f the foumarns are shallow and turbid. Our duty to our country demands of us nn effort to proVide the menus or 11 thorough educuuon. III the midst of so enlightened II. and blizhted. We should like to see more of the stately elrn . than he might acqUire. A thorough education ouzht therefore to be extended to all these dassel. where offices nrc accessible to nil who are qualified far them. strfkm" deep its roots. the few who arc destined to particular departments in poliucallife. as well as protessional gentlemen. and Q volume Of two of elegant ex- pure. by a substItutIon of superficrul for solid learning. denve no benefit from high intellectual culture? They are the very class. which tracts The unexampled multIplication of schools and ncadermes 111 thrs country. Our republican form of government renders It highly nnportant. which will enable them to . superior mtellectual attamrncnts ought not to be confined to anv descnpuon of persons. The large estates which the tide of prospenty In our country IS so rapidly accumulating. from their sttuauon and busmess. as well as the latter. of large and liberal VIews. and II smal] ndditlonaf expense. CUD merchants. the streams cannot be abundant lind practtcal applicattons. manufacturers. Their influence upon the mmds of others IS needed. Tt\!~ IS the allurement to a hurned o. an influence to be produced by extent of knowledge. than that which IS wasted upon a superficial edueauon. Y mlllg men intended for active employments ought nOT 10 be excluded from the colleges. take their places m our public councils. that great numbers should enjoy the advantage of n thorough educanon. It IS not sufficient that they be men of sound Judgment. slender.e to the U\ fenot schools.Cty elevated grouno. The success of each IS essential to the prosperuy of the otber. Schools and college! are not rlVollOsututlons. liftmg ItS head slowly to the !!klE'!8. which will Improve. and professional distmctron. from whtch he can command a view of the whole field of operation. the object of the undergraduate course. Ought the speaking In our deliberanve assemblies to be confined to a smgle professmn ? If It IS gwes us the command of physical agents much more III It thnt which enables us to control the combmanons of moral aod political machmery. On the Eastern continent. If he ulil to enlighten his countrymen by his 10tellectultl sUpeTlOrlty. and give a silent vote. if there are few men of thorough educanon 111the country 1 He wnQ IS to arrange un extensive scheme of me asures. Thl~ prmciple would exclude those also who are intended knowledge. We have ab~ndllnt supplies of rhis Lombardy-poplar growth. But who are to make these Improve. wW mevltab!y extend ltR mt1uenc. that the former. The unwerSill diffUSIOn of the common bruncbes of knoll' ledge. when wuh a Iittle ~orc time. or the readin<J of newspapers. renders It necessary that those who asprrc to literary ernmence should ascend tQ '. will fall mostly mto their hands. cnn he be disunguished. 'rIH~re are few mstnnces of (L more Improvident expenditure of time uuo money. The purent often labors hard to furnish hi!'! son With the means of ue9uJrln. es whmh.

The greater the Impulse to ncuon. that there are certain common subjects of knowledge. Rtren~th. education should vnry With It. to state the fact of such changes. and prepared hy exercise for methodical and persevenng efforts. whether the changes m the collegiate course have been sufficiently great and frequent . especmlly.t objects: of human mvestiguuon and knowledge. to move III the mare uuelligent Circles With uignlty. the latter. It has been believed.?16S of EI. so po w erlul In resources. Before considenng thts topic directly. thut we ure desuned to be a great and ml_ghty nation. who are prepared to mingle to the best advantage With person' of different tastes. and opulence. * * * ~ ¥ ~ It rs believed. By a liberal educauon. the latter rests upon the former as Its most appropnate foundation. and some against anether. As thrs education. When even our mountains. has. that part j~rhe repor. has been held 1D little esumauon. then. under other circumstances. en and ctl!nrge the facultlcs of the mind. At least. should have reference to. 10 be liberal. Such seem to be the Views. and superficial 1 l\\'RT 11. whether such a change \S demanded as would leave out of tlns plan the study of the Greek and Rowan clllSS1CB.el!. of the whole course of collegiate study j=-and to make more apparent the limited and Inadequate views of those who urge them.-1t IS enough for the present purpose. while Us powers are operung and enlarging. and few persona. Iii. It IS necessary there should be Q_ steady hand at helm.erlmps none. and make an acquaintance with ancient literature no longer necessary for a degree In the liberal arts. The usefulness of mathematical learmng is generally ad. as will be most hon orabl e to t hemselves. and to make such an applicnuen of t heir wealth. are upon a seale which seems to denote. It may be useful to premise a few remarks on another branch of liberal educanon. It has always had reference to such objects. ns IS best calculated.l and enemy should be directed by sound mtelligence. and most beneficml to their country 1 The active. the study of the mathemaues ta allowed a prominent place In those institutions In which. risen mto repute. An education. education. and as knowledge vanes. BO mtelligcnt. nnd lakes. an acquaintance WIth whIch IS necessary or convenient. WllOn uearly nil the slup's crcw are aloft. at the same time. What.'e particularly COli nd m'cd. onterpnsmg chnructer of our populatron. on which the system of a eolleguae educauon rs founded. A libernl. rmtted . busmess aT employment. I. so rnrJldJy advaucmg m population. was orlglnully founded on exrstmg objects of literary mtercst and pursUIt. and bUB vaned with the varymg state of knowledge. the result of cleep tbouzht and early diSCIpline. IS aufficiently accommodated to the present state of literature and science I and. would eonsrder that course of educauon liberal. reuders It hIghly I1TI[JOrlllnt. about which all men ought to be mformed. who are best educated. the prtncrpnl branches of knowtedge . therefore. called liberal. With those which qualify the mdivrduul for a parucular station. whether the plan of mstruction pursued In Yale College. both to strength. on tbe . ages and pursuits 1 and to enter With the best prospects of success. Borne against one part.mg extracts from. of the fact ulty til wJw:/t ale retoltltt()1t of tlu: CO!]JOl'l!llOlt 1S llw. shul] our literature be feeble. and ttl familiarize It WIth the leading pnncrples of the grea. and catchmg the orCC1. what Ii called a practical educauon IS the professed object Rimed at. such a course of discipline In the arts Dud SCiences. A liberal education IS fitted to occupy the mrnd. r. from which the mathematics are wholly excluded. Where n free governrnent gives lull liberty to the -humnn intellect to expand and operate. and nvers. Report on a Coune of Libet'ol EducatlO1T_ 31 adorn soclely by thC!)r lcnrnmg. LIght and moderate learnmg IS but poorly fittcd 10 direct the enCr. Conlam. tim! tlns uu~ll(.30 Report Oil a Coursc of Liberal EducaltOll. nation. whIch Ill. hus been generally understood. a profeSSional edueauon requires an understanding already cultivated by study. and received u proportional share of attention. The former IS conversant With those tOPICS. ~he grenter IS the need of W)3C nnd bkilful gUJihtncc. It IS not nOIY the mqurry. Tile former III antecedent In time. obviously distmct from a professional. and to admit their propriety. nnd from which the ancient languages.b!y liberal and ample. at oue tune. educnuon should be pr~por\\on"a. settmg the topsails. The subject of inquiry now presented. and scantv. so wluely extended. III any situation of life. ID order mare clearly to erhibu the kmd of objecuons which are often thrown out. on the details of professronal study and practice. and has hardly found a place m a course of liberal mstruction.

and who expect to pursue at least some one science for a livelihood. many or most of the details of the SCiences. and IS not without sts usc. which IS useful only. the occasIOns: for employmg his knowledge are mnumerable. when he has no wish or expectanon to engage practically III either of these sctences . by hiS superior knowledge In hiS profession. If It IS asked. who docs not gee. In consequence of his knowledge. to estimate the value of these pursuits. 'Vhy. who from hIS lovo ~f tlns SCience. Mathemancal SCience. on what grounds the pretc!lSlOnS of mathemaucal learning rest 1 the reply 13 ut h a ud. he IS employed III the practical application of no SCience. The student. Whether hiS own statson in life IS pub. who shall persut 1Il furmstung them. to understand the progress of SCI· ence. let hun mquire. by the consent of til e ablest men who have been conversant with the business of instruction.32 Report Otl a Course of Liberal Educuuo». has made himself familiar With the numerous f\lcts and details which It embraces. It IS asked. says the objector. He IS able to Judge of the pursuus of others. But notwuhstanding all these difficulties and objections. If the knowledge of any science IS of use! the demand for tlns knowledge will insure not only Its existenee. the ume. and to feel an interest m the occupnnons of a large portion of mankind. lu IV or phYSIC. 10 most students IS of little practical use. quantity. It forms the best prepnrunon lor pUJ'SUIll. let him purchase an almanac. and IS able to . 0. but In a sense higher and WIder. If he Wishes u lIuhstunce analyzed. Those act m oppoainon 10 the plainest pnnciples of polincal economy. not In the narrow vrew of It which the objector takes. and those only. acts more understandingly In what he undertakes. yet IS brought into an Important reIn bon to those who are so e mployed. The student likewise. and rf to these rules IS added n knowledge of bookkeeping. and whom he may WIsh to employ III the accomplishment of actual business. who has lmd up a fund of mathemancal knowledge. The plam rules of anthmetiC. Grantm~. If wares nre not wanted.'j . who have a taste for them. IS e!pecmlly adapted to sharpen tbe intellect. msntutions. let him apply to the professed chemist.ud ge correctly of the talents and pretensions of those who are prominent rn anyone department. and l~ found. and how to direct lns mqumes . forget m a few years. and In npplylflg them to the purpose':! of life. he still knows where to apply for mforrnanon. and who. or affords valuable aid In illu!ltrnhng their pnnciples. He IS acquamted with the region where he \. than to determme even one of these particulars by tU! own calculauon. finds aetunl employment wrtlnn Its precincts. ast ron omv. and every thing beyond this IS not only superfluous but lnJurlous. indeed. the knowledge In question 13 still practical. Wishes to know allY: principle In u3. The study of the mnthernaucs. that he loses from bls memory. or duration of an eclipse. will of necessity be deserted by the public.!. more practical man. that there will be a glut 1 and the manufacturer. But here It IS sometimes objected. still mathematical knowledge. nIHI ni her SCiences.-nnd wjl1 probnblv from hrs distaste for the whole subject. and which It may be useful brrefly to explain. Rt>port on a Course of Liberal Educahon. IiI: or private. 33 ground of th81T bemg of little or no practical utility. furthermore.!I. what he has learned With so great labor? If a man occupied In divmuy. or IS called upon to discharge the duties of a magistrate. in all IllS transacuons. m to winch mat hernancal princIples hlTgcly enter. and experiences from this relatron the most Important benefits. prepares . surveymg. at least In Its mdirect miluence. lire all which moat men ever find ncensron to appi)'. UTC In part or wholly excluded. If It 19 Important. the sturly of phYSIC>!In ~lIl\s branches. lies at the fuulldujum of most of the practical scienccs . and has extended hIS mquines to those scrences which depend on mathematical principles. will work his own rum that IS. that though much of this may bo true. all It enables him to advance to the study of navrganon. Let those study the SCiences. and to mduce a general habit (If mind favorable to the discovery of truth and the detecuon of error. let him ask the mmerulojnst. to be.ngut!On. if he wishes to know the name of some mineral. whether he engages III a professional career. feel the want of more extensive mformaUon In this department of knowledge. much shorter way ro the whole of this knowledge. to strengthen the faculty of reason. of some nne who se business It IS to understand tlns science. few. In which mathemauos are taught beyond thelT actuel application to use. Its properties or Its use. should 11 student be compelled to devote years to the acqulsl· tron of a species of knowledge. III most of our rensonmg on other subjects. which IS II. though. by familiaflZlllg himself With the general pnneiples of the SCIences. but Its prevalence to the exact extent needed. It IS said. that he should know the times of the nsmg and setting of the sun and moon. who manufacture for the market an unsaleable article.

to the relish of what IS elevated. Report 011 a Cour. are they known to be declimng III public estimanon. 35 matron. and to discipline tbe rmnd. what It IS most desuable to POgsess. at the present ume. and denves from this source Its most important illustrauons. m their most approved forms. are to be prepared to act In the literary world as It m fact exists. finds 10 his superior mfor- But the claims of classrcal learmug are not limited to thiS smgle view. an Important place among literary pursuits. mdeed. classical studies are revrvrng from a temporary depressron . ed to form the taste. The statuary. IS not known to have sustamed any consrderable change. but on the ground of 118 distinct and independent merits. Whoever. It 18 10 vain to pretend that thiS IS the effect of prejudice. modes of illustration. which afford Jt very powerful support. to thts now asserted. not only bad thCIT onglll. chaste. There may be more variety of oplllion than formerly. nny one branch. The compositions WhLCh these writers have left us. then. to whatever extent he chooses. for winch he finds himself to possess talents and inclinuuon. and. That thrs study occupies. the Greek and Roman claSSICS constitute an essenual part of u liberal educuuon. Immediately feels a deficiency III hrs educanon. In some countries. and this IS underuable. and III none.Educahon.S a necessary branch of education. therefore. mothers. necessary to adduce such proof of It as the subject admits. modified m the progress of time. mdeed. without a preparation 111 classtcnl llterature. their menta arc deterrmued. m certnm respects. III modelling a head or an arm. besides the advantages of mental discipline which have been already mentioned. clnssrcnl literature. a standard for dctermmmg literary merrt. should form an important part of their early discipline. of course approves I and constitute. whether considered In reference to structure. or In this country. or undertakes to discuss nny literary tOPIC. DS to the use of classrcal learnmg tn certain clepartrncn ts of Iife. and suggests so many unprovements 10 most of the discoveries of . will not be denied. he enlarges the Circle of his thoughts. Architecture and sculpture. doubled or dented i-and It becomes. changes may have been Introduced to accommodate their productions to the necessmes and manners of a later age. style. from considerauons purely practical. III every country of Europe III which literature has acquired distmcuon and Importance. it IS a nearer approach to perfection through the skill denved from the contemplation and study of superior excellence. and which form the standard literature of modern times. both 111 their character and circumstances. both In thought and dictron. Educated m tlus way. The literature of every country of Europe IS founded more or less on classlcnl literature. are acknowledged to be mcn of liberal acquirements. yet he refers notwithstandlng to the remams of Grecian art as his best gurdes. when thoroughly informed and disciplined. In architecture. and Simple. then. and the undue veneration of antiquity. even at the present time.84 Report OIl a Course of Liberal Education. In the range of human improvement. yet the origmal works of Grecian genius are the models by which arusts. new means of benefiting or mfluencmg others. These arts may have been. and these first rmpressrons are strengthened by observatron and reflection. where no such depression has been experienced. His work IS not umtanon . both In Europe and Amenca. the bias of enrly nnpressmns. and his rnmd IS thus far liberalized by liberal knowledge. but received their perfecnon In Greece. has nature always III View. they are pursued With mcreased urdor.e of Liberal. that the use and necessity of classical literature 10 n liberal educatron may be defended. the standards by which. Thrs excellence of rhe ancient claSSIC writers IS. engages 11\ any literary mvesugatron. there are other facts nearly allied. or associates With those who In any country of Europe. Time. that which has uny claim or pretence to be denommared liberal. and even from the periodical works of the day Classical learning IS interwoven With every literary discussion. In the Bnush Islands. himself for purSUing. Th€': fact only IS here msisted on. The ease here to be considered IS not unaccompanied by analogies. Tlus IS evident not only from such works as have long SlOCC appeared. Germany. m the present state of the world. Familrarity With the Greek and Roman writers IS especially adapt. but from those most recently published. Of general execution. and IS convinced that he IS destitute of an Important part of pracncul leaemng. If scholars. In France. m a great measure. It may be defended not only II. the surest interpreters of nature l18elf. direct their labors. which brings to light so many defects. the eye of one least conversant With antrquuy IS struck With the SimpliCity and Just proportions of Grecian models. but the conv lC non of 118 necessity 10 the highest education. Italy. approach nearer than any others to what the human rrund. Jt IS on the same general grounds. both 111 prose and verse.

not only as u Iays the foundations of a correct taste. likewise. The use of Q. and Its correct use. has often been remarked. If. that little need be said of It here. however welt informed he may be 10 hiS particular profession.-but success of tfus kmd proves only thal talents may somenmes force their way to eminence through powerful obstacles.-but also as the study Itself forms the most effectual discipline of the mental faculues. the VOLceof men of letters m every country where the cJasslC8 have been studied. are constantly appealed to as establishmg many of the most Important canons of cnticum. an example of a change to render knowledge more pracucal and popular. we need not wonder. Hardly a question can be named where the practical deeision of mankmd has been more absolute. In the profession of m edicine. It ISadmitted that Instances may be found of distinguished success In these pro- fesarcns. which have had so extensive and Important an Influence on the heroic poe-try of'all succeeding times. thorough knowledge of Greek to a theologian. of the same author. That lhlS supctlonty belongs to ancrent literature. and many such occur In the prnfesslons. but what most men find necessary. It ought not to excite surprise. essennal to hiS object. where the course of reading and thmkmg II confined to one channel. Report on a OOtlTle of Liberal Educahon. such as have been now alluded to.tlon for FrofesslOnal study. It 11 understood. It cannot be demed. which followed the efforts of the early cultivators of architectural science. In settling a plan of education.8 0. do not more than coumerbalance the time and labor requisite for obrammg this learmng. This IS a specimen of the improvements In educanon Which are the occasion of so much boastmg. ts proved by the only proper evidence. where the advantages of a classical education were not enjoyed . The formality of the professronel character. III place of the luatoncul wntmgs of Llvy and Tacitus. The literature of Europe attests the fact. has less chance of success. we are presented 10 several new courses. The mere di vme. which now attend the study of classrcal literature 10 the college. and reasonmg powers. the mere lawyer . a knowledge.36 Report on a Course of Liberal EducatIOn. no one will deny. Instead of the poems of Homer. promiSes but few and partial equivalents. sculpture and archnecture. than if hIS early education had been of a more liberal character. forms the best prepaflJ. but even at the present ume It may be doubted. But the study of the claSSICS IS useful. But In what sense. would be proposed 0. worthy to become patterns for succeeding o. Judgment. In researches of a hrstoncal nature. but the taste and fancy are occupied and Improved. every step familiarizes the rmnd with the structure of language. ClaSSICal discipline. to the most difficult questions ar!SlOg fmm IiIel ary research and cnncrsm. that in poetry and eloquence. especially of the Latrn language. It IS unnecessary here to cite authonnes. a knowledge of general literature IS of high Importance as a qualification for extenswe intercourse With mankind. than 10 the profesarons of d ivimty and Ia w. But In a course of classrcal educauon. Besrdes. WIth the Henriade of Voltaire I and the History of Charles XII. In nil the professions. are no where more Important. will find a knowledge of the ancient languages. Every faculty of the mind IS employed I not only the memory. TellS IS a tOpIC so often mststed on. and the mcs. the course of IItudy which.ges. the know ledge of the Greek and Latm languages IS less necessary now than formerly. IS often mdispensable. The mterpretanon of language. that In other departments of taste. from the first opelllng of the youthful Intellect to the perrod of Its highest rnarunty 'I'he range of classical study extends from the elements of language. and which.or the mere pbysrcian. Even 10 cues of extraordinary succees. 37 men. who would thoroughly investigate the history of hiS profession. then. and which he no where so wen acqUIres as 111 their onginul sources . a pbyslclan. and furmshes the student WIth those elementary Ideas which are found 10 the literature of modern tunes. so far as an acquaintance With the rules of taste. has added 119 sanction to the perfection. the mqUiry should be. and where a correct taste has prevailed. not what lome men of uncommon endowments have done. annquity should exhibit the same excellence. likewise. the want of classrcal knowledge has been often felt and lamented.nmg of words and phrases. and a Iamilianty With those general pnn- . It should have Iikewrse left specImens. whether the faciliues which classtcal learning affords for understanding and rendermg familiar the terms of SCIence. still derive aid from the remains of ancrent skill. substitute. For these very obVIOUS advantages. after the revolution of 80 mnny centuncs. I t must be obvIOUS to the most CUI'100ry observer. that the classics afford materials to exercise talent of every degree.

If the new course proposed. the modern languages more practical than the ancient to the great body of our students. If tbe languages and literature of Italy. and Will continue to be studied. model to be more carefully studied and imltl1. merely from Its novelty. crenu. less objectionable as the foundauon of profeesronal study The student who has limited himself to French. and many would enter upon it. unless they live where these languages are in constant use. that such questions should be senously asked. IS altogether mfenor to the old. IS an object with the student. that It would be attended With less Inbnr' and the consequence would be. III altogether mconslderable. and the sources of tbe knowledge winch he IS now to acquire.-whlCh IS of the greatest praeucal use. and far less practical In Its characterv=u will be found not less deficient for the purposes of mental discipline.e modern languages. 90 far as experience affords the means of Judging. and facilities for acqumng the more popular la~guages of Europe should be afforded m our public l~sbtutIODS. IS 0. not w~en they are recommended on their own menta. or that they consider hrm as 8. and thrs way lies through the literature of the an. France and Spam. 39 ctples by wlnch literary merit IS judged. that tbls III the most expeditious mode of aequinng a familianty With the languages 10 quesnon. It should be studied in that way. that the college. the faculties of his mmd have been brought into less vigorous exercise . The claims of the modern languages are questioned only when they are proposed us substitutes for the aneient. 1f modern literature IS valuable. than if be had been eduCII t ed in the old method. except when these languages arc retained by the course of busmess. because the former are ~ow spoken m some parts of the world. would be the means of lowenng the professional character of our COUIUry. as In studymg the claSSIC wnten of Greece nnd Rome. To suppose. considered as an introduction to a knowledge of general literature. that the number of those who obtain a liberul education. nor IS there reason to doubt. are studied. let a page of Voltaire be compared WIth a page of Tacuus. are less accessible. To begin With the modern languages In a course of education 18 to reverse the order of nature. more from a persuaston. IS an obvIOUS fallacy. Italian and Spantsh in after hfe. alter their deiermmauons from crrcumstances. rather than (IS a necessary acqutsmon. beyond what IS merely superficial. Without at first deciding whether they _shall be professronal men or not. ThIS IS especially true m professional life. Adopt the COUrse proposed. which lends most directly to a thorough understanding of It. Many. as they neglect their Latin and Greek. they should be acquired through the Latin. IS very Imperfectly prepared to commence a course of either divtmty or law He knows less of the literature of hIS own country. V oltarre as a poet has a lllgher place assigned hun than Homer. Report on a Course of Liberal Educatwn. Italian and Spanish. or the literature of Greece and Rome 1 The most superficial acquaintance With the pnneipal authors In our lalll!. But here It will be asked. The proper quesnon Is. The few idiomancul differences. as an accomplishment. soon lose their knowledge. Those IikeW186 who spend t~me In learmng to speak tb. that the course of exclusive modern literature 18 Intended for those who are not designed for profe!lslonal life. the literature of France.lInge. III companson With the ancient. leads to the most thorouzh knowledge of our own literature. that students do as $'enera. Is the literature of the modern natIOns of Europe to form !-l0 part of II course of liberal education 1 Is not modern literature a subject of discussron as well as ancient f Undoubtedly It IS. where the demand for a knowledge of the modern language!!. who onglnnlly suppose therr minds deterrmned on this subject. the reply 19.-what course of discipline affords the best mental culture. To establish this truth. IS cluefly an effort of memory The general structure of these Iangueges IS much tile same as that of our own. Nor Is trus course of educauon whIch excludes ancient literature.ted1 Or to make the mqulfy more general. m order to understand the true Spirit and gemus of English literaturfl. TI) acquire the knowledge of any of the modern languages of Europe.38 Report 01! a Oourse of Liberal Educahon. If It IS sard. With f!1ost of our students. are made familiar With little labor. nor can there be a doubt. ts far from mconsrderable. knowledge of the Herinade more practical than a knowledge of the Iliad 1 How 15the former to qualify Its possesser to act In the literary world In n manner more advantageous than the latter 1 Do we find that hy cnucs of eminence. nor IS there the same necessity of accurate cornpanson and discnmmeuon. and lays the best foun"datlon for profeSSIOnal study The ancieut languages have here a de- . ' Mo~ern languages. 50 far ~ thul cause should operate. which thev could not foresee. IS sufficient to excite wonder.lly neglect their French.

l!1~1 enough of these languages to undervalue and hate them. Repert on a Uourse of Liberal Education.e quesnon IS still open for ccnsrderanon. These would be the persons to proclaim on everv Side the worthlessness of ancient literature .or the one lung established. But this project IS liable to the objeeuon. as this contradicts the onginal hypothesis. soon find.tn tlns way. If to obtnm the honors of college. at the end of therr course. which the world will not acknowledge to deserve the name -and which those who shall receive degrees. both as respect~ the general esumatron to which It 18 held \0 the literary world. if ancient learrnng IS to be retained at all as a part of Its course. Manifest. Such then. They would umte III reCClVlO<>" their diplomas. IS certainly not the meamng. If the thmg Signified and not the sign only are aimed at. what It long has been. Both parties start in thlll case. and ItII mtrmsic ments. all come together agRIn. as It must rely on Its graduates to instruct 10 the preparatory schools. If the elements of modern languages are lIy instances after their graduating. by which students fur adrmssion to college are required to have some elementary knowledge of Latm and Greek. Wilb few. and have likewise acquired u competent knowledge of some one modern European language besides the English. tbat they had cultivated ancient iearnmg while here.40 Report on a Course of Liberal Educat1(J7l. this scheme rmght not unprobably be approved of by a portion of the commumty . for the office tbey would assume. . Deficrencres \0 modern literature are ellsily and rapidly supplied. that IS. IS not what It 18 called. The only union manifest IS this. sicul literature. and a temperary popularity follow tho change. as respects themselves. the ancient languages arc to be thrown aside. who have visited Europe. have found themselves the best qualified to make a full use of their new advantages. t~ose who have excelled In clas. but after they are once adrnuted. whether to pursue this new COUTse. however much time they might have devoted to thrs subjeet. are to have their opnon. ns they are called. that they would be nil admitted to a degree. before their final separation to the various occupanons of life. the cause of instrucuon must necessarily suffer under their man age 111 ent. further acqursiuons will be easily made. on their admISSIOn to college. and like travellers to the capital of the UnIon take different roads. hey had even forj!olten nil they ever knew.-if the college should confer degrees upon students for their uttamrnents 10 • modern literature only. what IS intended. that they had all acquired the sam~ education. these persons. It IS bestdes u matter of some CUrLosltyto know. On the contrary. whatever course the college should adopt. that students who should discontinue the study of Lnun and Greek on their admusion to college. by the final union of students who take these different paths. that.-th. tha t th IS IS the limit of improvements on the old modes of literary travelling. find It pracncally eonvement to set up 08 mstructors III these worthless languages. 'I'he college. and had derived no benefit from them. been afforded. A sort of middle course has. the exaet truth. when they grad. But if the substance and not tho shadow. and In most instances. would be the first sufferer from this Improved sya· tern. would Without doubt continue to be. thiS Improvement III the old collegiate course might be con~ldered ns real. Ancient literature IS too deeply mwrought IOta the ~vhole system of the modern literature of Europe to be so easilv laid aside. rm perfectly. complaints have scmetimes been heard. where circumstances render them Important and useful. From the graduates of thrs college. and abundant facilities for tim purpose. uat~. 41 acquired by our students In connection with the established collegiate course. would know . deficiencies m ancrent literature are supplied tardily. would In mn- cided advantage. berng the value of ancient literature. • • • • • 'will Il . nt<~lde~. WIlS the great object of an education. that they hud learned the Latin and Greek languages. but at last. but none are recollected to have expressed regret. indeed. Or students. with the exception of their over estimate of their [lirmer knowledue. to entirely different regiOns. however. and thus be made to munster to Its own destrucnon. and modern literature alone au ended lo. that their classical attamments were too small for the literature of the old world. thus educated fat the purposes of real lite. would be. as IS the fallacy of subslLtutmg a diploma for an education. That they would find. from the same POLOt. It ~ said.c-whetber these different roads would not lend those who travel them. Nor IS there reason to believe. have for a long time. or rather no qualificauons. where the nund has had n proper previous discipline. All which. been proposed by Borne. A liberal educnnon. It would be to declare that to be a liberal educauon.

have been brought down to the pres: ent day.to confer degrees on those only who have finished the present established course. "the course of public instructron reOlaIOS. and particularly. those to whom It IS to look for countenance and patronage. One wnter.. even In thts country. . that rndivrduals are clam orous on this subject. IS there such II rlernand on the part of the public for these changes lJS to make It rmpcrauve on the college to adopt them In nny of the forms III which they have been presented? Til at there are com plUIOIS of the old system of collegiate education m some of the public journals . are places where abuses are chenshed . I hesitate not to lay. If It should confer Its honors according to a rule which IS not sanctioned by literary men. and Its reputation would be Irrecoverably lost. to our American colleges. after &tatmg that our systems of education were denved from the European instuuuons. who mny be thought to speak authoritatively on tlns pomt. whether two schemes of educauon. of late." Another writer. goes on to say..11 proposals of tlns kind. what: ever may be the state ofthmgs there. and that at f rst. but by deserting the high-road which It has so long travelled. certainly. \gnorant of ItS true design nnd objects. The ultimate consequence. and now reign JO our public semmane. It would tritle with Its prosperity. to notice bnefly 0.-while the general circumstances of the country have become totally changed. and wandermg m lanes and bye-patbs. Important Improvements are necessary. nod especrally. here.. and put at hazard the very meuns of Its support and existence. the facultj see nothing to expect for favoring such mnovattons but that they wiII be considered visionaries III education." And again. The same systems. 43 The college ought not to presume upon Its influence nor to set Itself up III any manner as a dictator. by methods designed to furm eccleeiasnce under the monarchies of the old world 1" From such representations as these. the mquiry should be. and unfit for their places. the impresaron IS len on the rnmds of many.~dfrom this. And.. tOPIC. and nothing to fear . be that which IS acquired by the great body of the community. Tills scheme It 18 supposed. 15 almost mvanably introduced whenever the present state of our colleges IS discussed. nil acknowledge..) have been thoroughly disciplined m both ancrent and modern learning. IS. that the last persons to make Improvements m education. where antiquated no110ns and habits are retained long after they are discarded by all the world besides. that colleges. however With slight alterations. tha t . that our colleges are. tliat the encouragement to It should be every way adequate to the object. If It should' pursue ~ course very difieren. ann as far as possible excluded. 1'. that In dlls country. • II . if Dut With respect to 0.42 Report em a Oourse of Libel'al Educatiou. what they were when originally Instituted. . But that the great body of the supporter. The only question IS. on those only wh. AllUSion IS here made to the charge reiterated m 110 mnny forms.0 diverse. they were ill adapted to the peculiar character of 'tillS country." . By persevermg In the course of conferring degrees. both classes of students would only LOJureeach other. nnd consider every thing old as of COurse wrong. no reason appears for believing.t from that which the present state of literature demands. I~ will satisfy the WIshes of those who are pleased \\'llh the old system. here all rmprovement IS opposed. cun be properly united III the snrne semmary The objecuons to such an union In tlus collesre are obvious and eat• b w • • $ • II • In colleges differently consuu. Such an eduentron must. It may not be thought Irrelevant to the subJect. and every thlllg new as of course nsht IS admitted. Tho college would be distrusted by the public. of tlns college. Is It wise to endeavor to qualify a youth for exertion and usefulness In the United States. who do not al mat til e hon ors of the co liege. nearly the same. arc those to whom educauon 19 a businesa . be unobjcenonable . after all. After these general remarks on the quesnon which has been proposed. II . to at tend on the instrucnon of the classes as far us they shall choose. Another plan for Improvmg 011the collegmte system. the college has much to expect. IS not demed.. that. has a manifest superionty over all others. after the lapse of two centuries. Report on a Course of Liberal Edueatum. and open the advnntnges of the college to such us from their Circumstances WIsh for u parual educauon. Thnt the means of such an education should be abundant . It lS not difficult to predict.c--but to allow other students. are to he numbered III the ranks of these mnovatON. says. and still useful. which. The system of European education has been transferred With little vananon. In every important respect. .. such a union rmgh. That an educuuon may be pnrunl.

the students had heard of a certam new and strange philosophy. Locke. With some chapters of the Hebrew Psalter. Dr. "Books of the languages and scrences recited in my time. knew not Homer. that the study of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. In hIS letter he says. Burgersdicius' and Ramus' LogIC. It IS obviously Implied m the language of Dr.--Dur advanrages 10 that day. so far 8S It respects the extent of the course of study. Johnson. What Yale College was In Its infancy ~e are told. Johnson graduated III 1714. the mterests of the msutunon have been regularly advanced. and ethrcs that were then taught. The logic. 45 those who rnstruct III colleges. Benjamin Lord of Norwich In Ihls state. &'c. Free cornmumcauons have at all times been held between the faculty and the corporanon. at the time when Mr. with their eyes fixed on the path In which they are constantly movmg the same round. When the aid of the corporation has been thought necessary. has been greatly enlarged. Chandler. are left to the Judgment and discretion of the faculty. were Tully and Virgil.tament. It IS unnecessary here to go mto a general defence of our calleges. &c.-a few statements respecting this collece will be sufficient. In the last thirty years. were entangled In the scholastic cobwebs of a few paltry systems. It 19 now impcssible to trace the successive changes With exactness. Indeed. on subjects connected With tbe Instruction of the college. We recued Ames' Medulla on Saturdays. that from ] 714 to 1828. from Dr. and those who make the fullest mvestigation. Pierson's Manuscript of PhYSICS. for any to me high 1Il any branch of literature. was to construe five or Sll of Tully's oranons. Report on a Course of Liberal Educauon. In part. Boyle. was greatly advanced dunng the Presidency of Presrdent Clap.Report VII a Course of Liberal Educauon. and are content to be forever p:rrnding m the same mill. and many of the most Important details In the practical concerns of the college.and indeed every branch. Dr. m the lear 1784. who was hUD!elf a graduate of the college. and by this course of proceeding. ready to approve what tbey find. Lord graduated the same year as Dr. were the fie plus ultra of mathematical aequrrernents. Chandler. that new departments have been added. No remark ISmore frequently made by those. but that Ius account of the college. metaphysrca. student. With. but they were not suffered to thmk that any valuable Improvements were to be expected from philosophical innovauons. were too low. By what appears-to be a wise provisron m our laws. Johnson took his Bachelor's degree. and rendered more practically useful. had reached them.. surpass nit others III stupidity. who has the least knowledge of the subject. tho changes which have been mtroduced. and Newton. than that changes have been made for tbe better. It 18 well known. at the college. that the college III' stationary. the corporation having at all umes the right of'revisron. at the time Dr. the first President of King's College. some of the plainest thmgs III them . the selection of text-books. and who has no sumter object in view. appears from other evidence altogether independent. A'!. that IS. for Mathematics. are the most." says Dr.. being then ninety years old. that great Improvements bad been made even m hIS time. and hIS biographer probably denved his ruformunon respecting the college. No question has engaged the attennon of the faculty more con. J oh nson. So far 18 thrs from being true. and to subsequent years. and also hiS cases of Conscience sometimes. as many books of Virgil. physres. . therefore. as It was when he was 0. the course of the examinations. In classical learmng. In Chandler's Life of Dr. mathematics. In 1714. that nil exertions are for the . we studied and recited little more than the rudiments. recited the Psalms in Hebrew. that was \0 vogue 10 England. Dr. NewYork. wrote to President Shies an account of the college." &. &c. and the names of Descartes. Surely It will not be mamtamed by anyone. both mto the course of study. the mode of instrucuon. Johnson lnmself "For many years. who VISItthe college after the absence of some years. than how the course of education In the college might he Improved. stantly. and a little surveying. 'We reCited the Greek TCl. It has been asked." From the peculiar prejudices of this writer. that no efforts are made to accommodate It to the wants of the age. that would now be laid by as proper food for worms. Common anthrneuc. The charge. the utmost that was generally attempted. are withm the recollection of members of the faculty and of the corporation. IS substantially correct. as Jt was at that time. Attention to English cornposmon and oratory was much mereased about the year 1770. some of hIS representations arc to be received WIth Important deducuons . J ohnson was nn undergraduate. and the modo of IQstruction.c. only" slight alterations " have been made In the 'll1tem of education In thts college. and part only of the Greek Testament. and the course of languages.

" says thiS wnter . wluch hnve Imposed on nobody." &e. if any 19 necessary. and the mode of the exarmnanon 18 the same as of the other classes. have not been greater than the ehnnges III the college. The time I~ extended. have probably studied th~ les8QJ. us now conducted. there IS no inducement. "The most that an mstructer now undertakes.ys exarnmed afterwards. At the close of the year.. and sometimes three days and 11 half. durmg the last century. whether the young men who are assembled 10 lus presence. Whenever mdivrduais are absent. for degrees. formmg a sattsfuctory opmion of the attaiuments of each IndlVIQUal student. r:'lght defend themselves With equal success. Though the gentlemen of the committee may be aware how little applicable this censure IS to the exammatrons of this college. who from his situntron might be believed fully acquainted wltb the Teal state of facts. which. the same (19 It was at the time of rts foundation. IS. to be disunctly stilted. They are examined In two dIVISIons.46 Report on a Course of Liberal Educauou. that charges of very grave Import have been correctly preferred.1 ims or . In the present rnstanco. except for very urgent reasons. es· peelnlly In connection WIth other opportunities. the mterruption IS ollly' 'partial. 'I'he. According to this writer. Each of our classes IS exammed twice a year. the ordinary instruction In the college III unmterrupted. this IS the same as an examination of all: or seven days for the whole class together. In Apl'il. Ordmary mistakes or misrepresentations should pass unheeded. 47 purpose of perpetuating abuses. the course which the examsnanon IS to take. that. Somewhat more than a day IS assigned to each class. It may be Justly expected by the committee. therefore. appenra to demand notice. If It Iii /0 fa(!t II. are wholly grauntous. It ought. It JJ very seldom. Report on a Gaur3e of Liberal Education. That these emrmnatrons can adrmt of no Improvement. if " to fI. 10 wlneh so many Interests of the cnl!ege nrc brought mto View. as IU history IS here best known . but.mmllhons of tho classes. 111 our colleges. ff all this is a miserable farce. Any . corporation on thiS subjeet will bo received With all possible nttenuon. It not been suspected euher by those who examme. on the present oceasicn. 111". and 10 which It IS deemed proper thnt some of ItS Internal rcgulauons should be stated and defended. nnd on the whole con~ge course. they are alwa. that some notice should be taken of certain statements lately made rcspectmg all our colleges by II wnter." " It IS Idle. hended the rneamng of the term. have been miserable farces. tho exa.vlsmnll.other charge. and that the college III much. no doubt. the time IB the same as if each class was examined In a body about two days and a half. other colleges alluded to In the above quotations. silence mrght be interpreted as an adrmssion. each or them 11\ two divisrone. the sem'or class III examined In tbe studies of . are a powerfullOcentlvc to study. for m akiug two of these charges the subject of remark. that durmg the elnmlOation for degrees. or by those who are exammcd . the three lower classes are exarnmed m the studies of the year. and afford the means. that any student IS absent from the e. or they have not rightly appre. nod as each class IS exarmned In two divisions. of." he saY8. yet It may not be Improper to state With. to as" certain fram day to dny. It should be added. however. and more particularly. and durunr the other exarmnattcns. at thet rate generally of eight hours a day. In other respects the exarmnanons are the same as before. It IB time that a reform should commence. thiS exammancn ha. that In none our colleges IS there any . In July the Semora are e:f~m~ med for therr degrees. the three lower classes ate exarnmed mall their studies from the time of therr admission to college. some partrculanry. especially from the exammatt0ll. if 'If In a report. IS not pretended. )AlI examrnatrons IQ tho languages are ad aperturam libn 1 and ID 00 study.ug~ gestrons from the committee or the. Ilt the regular time. how these exammauons are In fact conducted. through the exarntnation of fluty young men In th e studies of a year. These remarks have been limited Co Yale College. than they could have been. to think of hurrying. except West POlOt.thorough tttu!hmg.the semor vear to that time.t&m!nation of hiS c1tU9. not even on the students subjected to them. and to have weIghed WIth some care the Import of his declarations. and never. III a smgle day. For a number of yean past. It would be mterestmil"to Imow what would be a reality. II the public exarmnauons at most of our places of education. As the class IS In two d. ThIS' IS the apology.. farce. The changos In the country. If they nrc really 'farces. For absence. extended through not lesa than three days. At the close of the month of April of each yenr. rn the opimon of the faculty. does any understanding exist between the exam mer and the erammed as to.

and involving a radical departure from the origmal object of Its establishment. and thlH IJ. not only whcn they are assembled In classes. and what they easily might learn. and 119 direct beating upon the mterests and reputauon of the college.e have probably studied the lesson prescribed to them. have done the utmost which It has been In their power to do. That JO clnssical liternture. which It IS desir able to Know. who has been taught any thing at our colle:ges With the thoroughness thnt will enable him to go safely arnl directly onward to disunctlon m the de. particularly. as to leave out of said COUrsethe study of the dead languages subsututtng therefor other studies." And agam.4. The most abundant pams are taken to explain and enforce the pnnciples of every branch oflearnmg to which the students are rcqmred to attend. That In evcry department. IS not mamtumed. whose JIISt pretensions rise so hIgh. There his duty stops.. 4. rcsuiung from long experience and careful observanon In the business of mstructron. IS what we believe. nor have they known or heard of any set of mstructors. by means here offered him. the committee deemed It udvrsable to refer the subject to the faculty of the college With a request that their VIews. something very much like It exists here. all IS not accomplished which In other circumstances nught be hoped for. WIthout returnmg to lay anew the foundations for their success't-i-there IS no higher evidence to be produced. These topic« have been retamed In the second part. or. and 10 their other pursuus. looking a! It does to a fundamental change to ItS orgaruzauon and Jaws.9 prescribed to them. Report on a Ilours« of Liberal Educauon. 7 . 80 far only at they were mtroduced III a fOlllcwbat different connecholl. and either requmng a competent knowledge of those languages as a condition of admittance into the college. might be fully explamcd. and thus to encourage.8 Report 011 a Course of Liberal EducaluJII. they will not say.n who graduate derive from their classical knowledge important aid m their professronal studies. In all cases. that. and not one of the better class of them does half of what It might do. and their objections to the proposed mnovauon adduced and discussed. our students are taught With that thoroughness which enables them. but to the assertion. enable and compel them to learn what they ought to learn. "Who in tlns country. whether the voung men assembled m their presenr. us they need assistance. presupposed m every country-" to go sufely and directly onward to disunctron In the department they have thus entered. a few oj the same tOpiCS were eonstdered tn botli.. ~ • • ~ * [AI the two parts of tlus repm·t were written vulependetu1y of each other. That this branch of the collegtate course IS gradually improvmg." respectfully report . nnd to be able and disposed to make future advances \0 the same department . '1'h19 writer goes on to ask. than general notoriety. either at home or abroad." they would oppose an unqualified denial.] REPORT 0' THE COMMITTEE or THE conpORATIOX. that all they undertake "IS to ascertam from day to day. has been enabled to make himself n good Grcek scholar? Who has been taught thoroughly to read. Not one of our co !leges II a place for thorough teaclung .That aware of the magnitude of the propositmn presenteel to them. and to tlus the appeal I!! made. or proyu1ing rnstrucuon m the same for such all shall choose to study them after admutance. mdividually If the faculty know what IS meant by ." they thmk they should fail In their duty to themselves and 10 the msututinn. With prf)per cxernons=-a condition so fur as we know.lg not denied. and speak Lannt Nay. partment he hus thus entered." That the faculty of this college have always fallen upon the best methods ofmstructmg. Their mstructors are verv far from laymg claim 10 such attainments themselves. amidst nil the discouragements under which It labors-e-discouragements which ongmate chiefly from without. if they did 110t assure the commutee. WIthout returnmg to lay anew the fou ndations for hIS success '" That the students of this college learn every tiling m the several branches here taught. To the Corporation of Yule Cullrgc - The ccmrmttee appointed "til enqUIre into the expediency of so altermg the regular course of mstrucuon In this college. that many -cholars leave the college each year so well versed to the Greek and Roman classics 8! to perceive and relish their beauties. by bringlOg the mmds of Its mstructors to act directly and vigorously on the minds of Its pupils. write. brmgmg the minds of the instructors to act riirectlv and vigorously on the rmnds of their pupils. 10 rcgard to the matter. In their belief. but often.

but we should become. and to excite to no. and subsequent events and experience have confirmed their dectsron. In literature. Bnt that example. The standard of scholarship would not only be lowered here. or political eminence. would become valueless. by its presentation. and Chnstian countnes. every . What have been the effects of that neglect upon the literature of that country 1 Notwithstanding lughly Important improvements and discovcrres have there been made 10 some of the sciences and arts. Germany has left her far behind. and the disastrous expenence of the other before us. and In our own country. to msprre the liveliest patnonsm. nevertheless. we consign classical literature to a secondary place or rnfenor rank III the course of mstrnction. If. Sink into a mere academy. can demand our Imitation. and matchless ability.50 Report on u Course of Liberal Educ«llOlI. The ability with which this subject has been discussed. and the rmneral and geological kmgdoms have been penetrated and explored with untiring zeal. in the sculptured Imitation of the statuary. constitutes an obstacle to literary distinction. and the facilines afforded by Its prelimmary study In their attmnment. In the umversiues of Europe. By the esnrnanon In which classical Ilteruture IS held in any cornmumty. relieves the committee from a high degree of responsibili ty. or of professional. by the faculty. be udmnted. the thorough study and accurate knowledge of their claSSICS. than are the warmth. while Its degrees. the Importance of the measure will be considered a sufficient apology for briefly detailing the grounds of their oppcsiucn to a scheme calculated In thetr Judgment fatally to affect the pros pent V of the college. ThIS paper hnvlUg fully and ably exhibited the consideratrons which ought to be weighed and regarded m fonmng a decrsion upon the contemplated measure. It IS hoped. the committee have fulfilled the trust confided to them. and the effect upon the learned professions. 51 The committee arc much gratified that the faculty. IS already perceived. WIth the enlightened oprmons and settled practice of one portion of Europe. To appreciate justly the charaeter of the ancients. Report oil a Course of Liberal Educauon. and the statesmen of France. indeed.directly accessary to the depression of the present literary character of our country. the genius of whose government and mstitutions more especially nnd tmperrously than any other. energy. us well continental as InSU· Iar. and striking peculiariues of these pnstme exemplars offreedom which are for. or even the most farthful translations. Its advancement in CIViliZo. bemg no longer evidence of great literary and SCientific attamrnents. have tnkeu a comprehensive view of the whole course of mstrucnon. In the document herewnh submitted. at no distant day. On the contrary. With constantly mereasmg avidity. The learned world long ago settled this mutter. It must. Immediately preceding and durmg the revolution. While claSSIC literature IS pursued In other Civilized. achve and intelligent bemg. and are therefore peculiarlv adapt. her literary fame IS eclipsed. m the langunge of the onginals. Tho models of ancient lit. ciblyand beautifully displayed 10 their models of classie lite. rature. and even adnnt lind graduate students. as It IS proposed to do WIthout the slightest knowledge of the ancient language9: may we not expect that the lngh literary reputation which this msutunon has hitherto marntamed WIllbe essentially impaned? Indeed this college would probably. that m France. there IS not great diversity of sentiment. On this subject In Europe. Il concurrent oplmon nnd practice appear to pre· vail among men of disnnginshed learning. are mdlspensable . nnd developed the elements of a liberal education and the pnnerples by which it should be regulated and adrmnistered . exhibumg forcibly the Intimate connexion which classrcal literature has with other learnmg and the sctences. It may be considered that. can hardly fail to Imbue his mind with the pnnerples of liberty. and the arts of war brought to grea t perfection. and Intellectual illurmnation of the livmg. m the same class. are scarcely more discoverable m ordinary. ble and generous action. ed to the Amertcnn youth. demands that the field of claestcal learnrng be mdusrnously and thoroughly explored and cultivated. It IS pre!<um· ed. seldom surmounted. the learned Ianguage~ were neglected. neither by ItS literary or moral results. and ItS richest productions gathered.tlOn and general learnmg may be satisfactorily ascertnmed. ammunon. which arc put mto the hands of the young student. erature. we are the people. while Ignorance of those languages. a thorough knowledge of the ancrent languages seems to be universally deemed an unportant prercqursue to the attainment of very considerable success and reputation In either of the learned professions . as the srmplieuy.

It lS urged that the dead languages are not necessary nor used 10 the rntercourae and business of life even by the scholar. wuh the hope of obtammg valued. they are fully satisfied. and that the time spent m acqUlrmg them IS. and must continue through the progress of time to be an object of intense and augmenting mterest. measure ha vrng a tendency to depreciate the value and unporlance. the comnuttee would for these reasons alone. Such study carnes the young pupil back to the earliest ern m the history of mental efforts. IS. Tile stud. an ardent desire of knowledge. at the same time. and temper lns ardor. hrs mmd becomes well stored WIth knowledge. The thorough study of the ancient languages. lfl tbeir opiruon. the genl"TIlJ standard of intellectuul and moral worth lowered. parucularly the Latrn and Greek. us {he measure under considerauon IS. Report on Q Oooree of Liberal Educatt(m.S they do. on the madrmssible postulate. do not rest their Opposition to the propo!':ed pin n solely on the consnlerauons Illrendy suggested. and pursuing the operanona of gifted mtellects. Let the value of a collegiate education be re. by provmg to the student that the rnmes of learmng can be penetrated only by unceasing exeru . and will hardly be questioned by many whose Judgments are guided by the light of expenence. but the Wisdom of tbelT precepts will enlil. and tending as It does to discourage. rn later times. It sumulates to Industry and severe and faithful application. while It admonishes him of the inutility and fate of genIus when unaided by deep lind labonous research. direcung him to the fields of SCience. but.. as to all practical results. by ulurnutely disqualifywg our citizens for the exercise of the rzght and privilege of self-government. Begmnmg With language In its primitive SimpliCIty nnd tracmg Its progress to ItS present state. The heroic exploits they celebrate may indeed arouse hls ambiuon. to our own country. cannot be reasonably denied. not only discloses the degree of perfection to which language was early earned and Its susceptibility of almost math- emaucal precisron. prenounce Its. generate a habit of close and connected thought. or to discourage the PUrsuit of high classie attarnments. as well as the chronology and geography of the ancients. as II.luccd and the diflusron of intelligence amonz the people would be checked. or direct the student to lay aside Euclid because the perfect arrangement of the signs of the one. and IflvolvlOg II departure frorn the well and long established epirnons and practice of the lenrned lind Wise. as the means of euhrsaung a knowledge of the .n. and to un intimate knowledge of a most extraordinary and unexampled people. by undervalumg what has hrtherto been deemed an nnportant branch of learning.. which he derives from their CIIlS~ICS.Report on a Course of Liberal Educatxon. and prepare the student for tile successful use of the matenuls he may have derived from miscellaneous learmng. he seIzes the refined treasures of aunquity. but bloodless trophies. that the student should be confined to merely practrcal leanung. Ills recollection quick. should be resisted. If for no other reason. In many respects deCidedly und posiuvely useful to the pupil. But the reasons for dlepensmg With the st\ldy of classrcal literature are not more cogent. however. Interwoven therefore. and to commumcate thought. the Importance of the study of those languages. In the uncllectunl discipline of youth. naturally ezcites In the mmd of tbe student. liS The acquumtance With the elements of language and the mythology. mean of communication. may not be directly and practically useful to men of busrnesa I These exercises give Ylgor to the rnmd. and no reasonable effort should be omuted to enhance the estimation In which education shall be held by the great body of the ccmmunrtj. while Ius rmagmanon IS fired by their poetry and eloquence. resting 8. the studeut can hardly fail to Improve lns taste and to enlarge his capacrty to thmk. not only before but subsequently to nn admISSIOn into college. and hrs power of eritrcal discnrmnanon more accurate.l:hten and guide his judgment. but for general usefulness. The student's memory IS thus rendered retentive. Who would consent to part with the mental discipline the studj of algebra imposes. or the problems and demonstrauons of the other. lost. lind be 18 fitted not only for mtercourse With the learned throughout the world. of Greek as a branch of elementary edueanon. adoptIon a most hazardous experiment. But the committee do not conSider thrs objecuou well founded. whose intellectual history exhibits unrivalled success. bnngs the student to the contemplanon. In the conflicts of rmnd. With the structure of our invaluable msutuucns . and our Civil and religIOus liberty jeoparded. lays open to him the most SImple and orrgmal operauons of the mind and acquamts him with Its hrillinn. The committee. HllvIn~ access to the derosltones of the earliest and most splendid results of menta labors. endungering then durability. and unnvalled producuons.

are satisfied. With the more effect.or JO pursuit of science. That the modern languages most extensively spoken should be learned. and other modern languages. The committee do not deem It an equivalent COUTee. controversies mvolvmg eternal mtereets are often deternuned. or as a test of scholarship. and IllIprovmg taste. the progress of the student III French. will g-enerally be found to lament their mnbility to command the rich illustrations and embellishments. The deep and intimate knowledge of the human character too.d state. when the student shnll have made sufficrenr progress In the ancient claSSICS the French may bo studied without any derangement of th. The utility of classical literature to the learned profossiona however. a strllng motive for Its holding a protmnant place In the course of collegiate studies. High respectability wnhout rts aid. mvesugated and scanned mdustnously. which the scholar copiously draws from claSSIC Jenrmng. rnd style. even 10 their present advo. 1 As by biblical crmcism. The single conssderation that divine truth was commUnicated to man In the ancient languages. The ancient languages having been made the organ of commumcanng revealed religion to man. norance of classlcallearnmg and the safest means of explain109 the oracles of truth. a~d give to them perpetuity. by lawyers of extrsordinerj' mental endowments. the ancient languages will here become the objects of more intense pursuit. classicalliterature. It ISgenerally admitted. The committee therefore. the indispensable qualificauon of a lawyer. IS not formed by casual and superficial views of men and things. that ID the more advanced penods of collegiate life. beauty and force. either as u condition of admiSSIOn. cl. Report on a Course of Liberal EUl/catlOn. BeSide. th~se langua. compounded of and built upon the ancient languages. I Indeed to dilate on this pomt cannot be necessary. as Ig. enables him who has made proficiency to It. carefully nnd minutely through aU the develorments of history up to the ancient claSSICS. when It IS recollected that a great portion of the language of those arts. established system. In their angina language. to the thorough knowledge of It the study of those languages IS indispensable.H Report (III (t (. however. to know and commuRlcate the truth in Its simpliCity. Even the French. IS to become well versed m the ancient. deeply. or as a part of Its rczular course of studies. a statesman. Without classical literature. by him who desues disuncnon as a junst or a statesman. what teacher will be disposed to forego any nvailable means of nscertmmng the truth. while It opens the most COpiOUS sources of illustration and explanauon. competent understanding of Latin.'ollr$C of Liberal Educanou. or a judge sound and discnrmnctmg Judgment. 'rols mesurnable charactensuc of Wisdom. They ought to be studied. rn accordance with the example and mtennons of the Fathers and Patrons of this Instituuon. By 0. the committee willingly concede. But so intimately IS the English connected With. the ancient languages should be early. ges may be considered the baSIS of most of the modern. Dut the readiest way to acqUire the modern languages 10 general use. By the vanous compansons thus Instituted. can be most effectually attained b explOring and developing the !prmgs of human action. the time of the student may be usefuliy employed In acquirmg a knowledge of hrs own. from which they are derived. to press the performance of duty. In this profession. faithfully and perseveringly studied. To rngh attainments and extended usefulness In phYSIC and surgery. both by students who expect to be called abroad. if not actually acquired. the Importance of a knowledge of the Latm and Greek languages will hardly be derned.. If then we desrre. may indeed be nttamed. so directly Is It denved from.asslc o~lgln. may be greatly lmp"'ro'ved.nce. and by those who seek literary distincnon. Indeed. the Oflg\llals must be considered the standard of nccuracy and truth. so essential to the lawyer and the statesman. IS much facilitated. ought to put thrs questl~n at rest. has 0. must be generally deplored. III their Judgment should not be substituted for the claSSICS. and augmented patronage. presents a further and In the oprruon of the cornmutce. or 10 the regular course of study. that. The Spamsh and Italian nre so easily acquired by . 55 )bilosophy and powers of language. as It has been. faithfulness to the souls of men Imposes an Imperative obligation to read and know the SCriptures III their onginal sunplicrty and purnv. and the only safe resort to explain and rcmove difficulties and doubts too often occasioned by translations euher Ignorantly or wilfully erroneous. in al ages. but suc~~ It IS presumed. either by busmess . the Divine win expetJence serrous embarrassment 10 a profession of tremendous responsl' bility and mfimte moment. In a matter of such deep concern. It has been urged that if the study of the ancient languages shall no longer be required as a prelimlDilry of ad rmssron mto the college. and With great advantage as a parallel course.

have been considerably augmented. and believing that much misconception regarding their utility has arisen from the fact that they have been but partially studied and acquired. the committee deem judicious and proper. The period of academic preparation having been prolonged. Fully convinced of the importance of the thorou gh study. and received from them a specific recommendation. . than the laws of the college at present prescribe. much less ore they entitled to precedence. until they shall have availed themselves of the information and experience of the Faculty. as to leave out of the same. and that the classical and other attainments required as D. at this college. at which students will ordinarily apply for admittance extended. Yal~ College. that they may we!! be considered a!'. appendages to it. however. that within the last twenty-five yents those languages have here received increased attention. one who is versed in Latin.56 Report OJ! a Course of Liberal Edllca/ioll. especially in the classics. The effect of such augmentation has evidently been to elevute the character of the institution. Approving highly the course which has hitherto been pursued. and consequently the age. where this language is taught. as a condition of admission. much greater acquirements. September 9th. The committee. The considerations briefly adverted to. in the necessarily rapid view which they have taken of the subject referred to them. do Hot deem it advisable that the corporation should net on this subject. and an accurate knowledge of the ancien! languages. they are enabled the more successfully to pursue the studies requiring maturity of intellect. The present regulation which allows the students to study French and Spanish at their option. and they are of opinion that suitable facilities should be continued to all who may signify their desire to study those languages. be included in d systematic course of collegiate studies. 182S. when properly advanced in the ancient. have brought the committee to the conclusion that it is inexpedient so to alter the regular course of instruction. be gradually raised so as uitimutely to render necessary. the study of the ancient languages. and the standard of scholarship. and need not In the opinion of the cornmittel'. and further to advance in learning and science. the co~mittee entertain the opinion that the terms of admission may very properly. the committee have seen with nppro· bation. qualification for admittance into the college.

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