[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012

Subject Markers
-이/가/께서 are used to designate which word in a clause, phrase, or sentence is the subject. This makes clear or emphasis what the sentence or clause is about. -이 is attached to words ending in a consonant -가 is attached to words ending in a vowel -께서 is the honorific form of -이/가 is attached to the noun regardless of whether it ends in a vowel or consonant. It is used to refer people of higher social rank such has teachers, parents, high officials, etc. Examples: 그 개가 작습니다. The dog is small. 제 딸이 우유를 좋아해요. My daughter likes milk. 할아버지께서 자고 있십니다. My grandfather is sleeping.

Object Markers 을/를
-을/를 are used to designate which word is the object of a phrase, clause, or sentence. -을 is attached to a word ending in a consonant. -를 is attached to a word ending in a vowel.

Because 데문에
-데문에/-기 데문에 The -(기) 데문에 grammar pattern is used to show cause and effect. It would best translated as "because". The -기 is only used with a verb stem, otherwise, it's left off. There is no differentiation between whether the preceding syllable ends with a vowel or consonant, nor are there any restrictions on tense. This pattern can't be used if the final/main clause is an imperative or propositive; rather use (으)니까. -기 데문에 is used with a verb. - 데문에 is used with a noun. Examples: 너 데문에 나가 못가!

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012 I can't go because of you! When used with a noun, 데문에 almost always has a negative connotation and conveys blame. 비가 왔기 데문에 못갔어. I couldn't go because it rained. When used with a verb, it may also convey negativity and blame, but it depends on the tone of your voice and how the sentence is put together. As you can see, -(기) 데문에 is just as versatile in Korean as it is in English. When used with a noun, just as in English, it will be difficult to word it without having a negative connotation, however with a verb it depends upon the tone of the speaker's voice as well as the structure and organization of the sentence.

To a (person)
To a (person) -한테/에게/께 This is attached to a (personal) noun or pronoun and indicates the receiver of an action or for whom something is done or exists. It is used only with living things. -께 is the honorific form. -한테 and 에게 are interchangeable. The opposite of this pattern is -한테서. Examples: 저는 제 친구한테 책을 줍니다. I give the book to my friend. 선생님께 물어 보십시오. Please ask the teacher. see also -보고/더러

Tries doing 아/어/여 보다
someone tries doing something action verb + 아 보다 or 어 보다 or 여 보다 is used to show someone tries to do something or has the experience of doing something. -아 보다 is attached to a verb whose last vowel is 아 or 오 and 어 보다 is attached to verbs whose last vowel is any other vowel. It can be used with difference tenses and the honorific modifier -시. If used in an imperative sentence it implies the listener has the choice to refuse. Examples: 한국에 가 봤아요? Have you been to Korea (i.e. have you had the experience of going to Korea)? 가 보세요. You should go (i.e. you should try to go).

honorific infix -시/으시
To show respect for the listener and/or the person talked about insert -시/으시 between the verb stem and the verb ending. Be aware some honorific verbs such as 잠수시다 (to eat) already have 시 built-in. 시 is placed after a vowel whereas 으시 is placed after a consonant.

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012

Examples: 아버지가 키가 작으십니다. My father is short. 제 지휘관이 키가 크십니다. My commander is tall.

Is -이다
I am... The -이다 verb is used like we would use is or am in English. For example, I am twenty years old. It always attaches itself to another word, usually nouns, and falls at the end of a sentence. You can add the honorific infix -시/으시 to show respect. This verb is used to link two nouns that talking about the same thing or person. Think of this verb meaning "equal" i.e. this equals that as in John is my brother. Don't confuse -이다 with -있다 which expresses existence. It is always pronounced as part of the word it's attached to. - the opposite of 이다 is 아니다 Examples: 수무 살입니다. I am twenty years old. John Smith 이에요. I am John Smith.

When vs+ㄹ 때
when, at the time of verb stem (action or stative) + ㄹ 떼/을 때 is to to express when or at the time of. Since 때 is a noun it can be used with any noun marker such as 이/가, 은/는, etc. or noun suffix such as 까지 (until), 부터 (from), 마다 (every), 도 (also, too, even), etc. It cannot be used with the verb -이다 however. Instead use 있다 as in the example 제가 군인이었을 때...(When I was a soldier...). -ㄹ 때 is used after verbs stems ending in a vowel whereas -을 때 is used after verb stems ending in a consonant. If both clauses occur in the past you don't have to use the past base -았- with ㄹ 떼/을 때 and the tense can be indicated in the main clause. However, if the action in the main clause occurs before the dependent clause, then use the past base with ㄹ 떼/을 때 as in the example 미국에 왔을 때,아주 덥었습니다 (When I came to the U.S. it was very hot). When you use this construction you can use a comma between the clauses. Also, the noun 때 means time and can be used with other nouns such as 점심때 (lunchtime), 6 살 때 (when I was six), etc. Examples 저는 먹고 있을 때 누가 왔어요? Who came when (literally the time that I was) I was eating? 구 분이 어렸을 때 아주 뚱뚱헀어요. When that person was young (implies isn't young anymore by use of the past base) he was fat. 집에 나갈 때마다 돈을 냅니다. Every time I leave the house I spend money.


this grammar pattern is restricted to verbs similar the ones above (They must express movement like come. "even". This desk is also good. except when the consonant is a ㄹ."too". 한테 to a person?. 밤에도 일해요. use "으러". 저는 차도 샀습니다. When the verb stem ends with a consonant. Only -만 only.. go around). too. I also work at night. Both phrases must agree.) or be added to it. purpose of coming/going When you need to express the reason for going somewhere or coming from somewhere. That woman has both a car and bicycle. you can use this grammar pattern. 그 여자가 차도 자전거도 있습니다. 그분이 잘도 잡니다. or neither A nor B. Mr. etc. The general translation for this is "in order to". or shorter.from. I have neither time nor money. 음식만 시킬까요? Shall we order just food..[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. "to". etc. I only eat at home. In order to -(으)러 + 가다/오다/다니다 In order to. 돈도 시간도 없어요. When used with a negative form it means "even". 김 씨가 공부를 하지도 않아요. He is the only one smoking. It can replace a subject marker or object marker and can either replace another marker (such as 에 ((to. Note: Tense is specified by the ending clause in the sentence. even. 2012 Also -도 also. go. then do as you do with vowels and simply add 러. Examples: 이 책상도 좋습니다. However. Examples: 저는 집에서만 먹습니다. He sleeps very well. indeed The particle -도 can be attached to almost any word in a sentence and always refers to the word to which is attached. There is no reason to include a 4 . "indeed". at)). just -만 is attached to nouns and means only or just. I also bought a car. Kim doesn't even study. It means "also". When -도 appears in the sentence twice it shows agreement between noun phrases as in both A and B. 그문만 담베를 피우고 있습니다. When attached to an adverb it indicates admiration or emphasizes the adverb itself.

Please read the book. See also -한테서 Imperative Sentences . It's attached to a noun and is always followed by an action verb. Note: when using the verbs 있다/없다 (which are existence verbs). The man is coming from Korea today. At. I leave from school at five o'clock. I went to meet PFC Kim. Examples: 내일 오십시오. 5 . 세요 Please do. Please do it now. This pattern is similar to (으)려 but that pattern can attach to any action verb. 그 남자가 오늘 한국에서 오고 있어요. -십시오 is added to verb stems ending in a vowel whereas -으십시오 is added to verb stems ending in a consonant. -십시오/으십시오 is formal speech spoken to people older than you or of higher social status. -세요 is a polite form but is used with people that you are familiar with. I came to eat with Mr. Use -한테서 to indicate from a person. Wong. From" In. See also Informal Imperative Sentences. 2012 future/past tense infix on the VS connecting to 러. use the particle -에 instead.-십시오. At. From The particle -에서 has two different meanings depending on how it used. Particle -에서 "In. The second meaning is from. from a place. Examples: 김일병을 만나러 갔습니다. 그 책이 읽으십시오. it means at or in and shows where the action is taking place. To make a sentence imperative you can use -십시오/으십시오 or -세요. Please come tomorrow.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. i. -세요 is also used as a polite declarative sentence ending.e. First. 지금 하세요.. 다섯시에 학교에서 떠나요. Add one of these to the verb stem and it becomes imperative.. Examples: 도서관에서 읽어요. 왕씨하고 먹으러 왔어. I read at the library.

by. at. 무엇으로 오겠어요? How will you come? 정열적으로 노래를 볼러요. 에 is always attached to a noun and is followed by an inactive noun such as 있다 (to exist). means with. It can be used in four ways. with. etc. It's easily confused with -에서 but remember -에서 tells where an action takes place. it shows a unit of value or proportion (at. etc. Furthermore it is used to denote when an action takes place (for example.goes after a verb stem with the last vowel -아 or 오 and 여라 goes after after a -하다 verb and finally -어라 goes after any other vowel. in. to. 세시에 가세요. 조용하라. 잡지를 읽어라. to at. on). The particle -로/으로 By means of. See also Imperative Sentences for the formal and polite imperative sentence endings. Also.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. at. towards by means.. .. Manner -ly. in the capacity of. 차동자로 가겠습니다. in. Go home now. Go at 3 o'clock. function as. for. towards The particle -로/으로 is attached to nouns and expresses to or towards or a mean by which something is done. 1. To sum it up. 2. 한국에 유학생으로 방문하겠어요. per). This particle allows you to indicate where a noun is at.) or a destination (for example. for. Be quiet. on. 살다 (to live). with. it can be used to denote location (in. -로 follows nouns ending in a vowel and -으로 follows nouns ending in a consonant. Please write with a pencil. I went to my house). -으라 goes after verb stems ending in a consonant while -라 goes after a verb stem ending in a vowel. I visit Korea as an exchange student. by. 2012 Informal Imperative Sentences -라 Do such and such. Read the magazine. or on. or time (in. The particle 에. for. it sometimes used to mean "for" when used for the object of a passive verb. Lastly. He sings passionately. to The particle -에 is mostly to show someone or something is stationary in a place. Examples: 연필으로 쓰세요. in. by means of 4. with. at. Examples: 이제 집에 가라. in. when used with nouns denoting numerals. I will go by car. 없다 (to not exist). by. by. 많다 (to be many). 우리 집에 갔아요. To request someone to do something informally you can use 아라/어라/여라 or -으라/라 with a verb stem. direction towards. in the direction of 3. to. 6 . by) or destination (to).

Let's drive as far as Seoul. The cat is in the yard. For example. it is mostly used with time words. I slept from beginning to end. 처음부터 끝까지 잤아요. I arrived at the library. etc. you. etc. My room is always ready for inspection. "moreover". verb endings. by The particle -까지 shows a specific that an action or condition continues to when it's preceded by a time expression or phrase.}". 7 . If it is attached to a noun. 2012 Examples: 도서관에 도착했습니다. "저는 책까지 잊어버렸어요/I even forget my book" or "Moreover/on top of that. It's usually interchangeable with -에서. 주말에 무엇을 합니까? What do you on the weekends? 마당에 고양이가 있습니다. For example. 내일까지 가세요. me. The particle 부터 from From -부터 means "from" when attached or following time or place words and indicates a starting time or the place from which a physical movement begins. From now {on} don't from my car. It's opposite is -까지. Examples: 내일부터 학교를 시작하겠습니다. 서울까지 운전합시다. 내 방은 항상 점열에 준지되어 있어요. 고등학까지 졸업하고 그걸 몰라요 (You even graduated from high school and you don't know that?)? In other words. I listened to music until now. by. I forget my book". The particle -까지 until.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. it can mean "so far as". Go by tomorrow. I go on vacation one time per year. However. this usage translates to "even {if. I start school from tomorrow. "on top of that". The opposite word from -까지 is -부터. other particles. Examples: 이제까지 음악을 들었어요. 그 차를 엉마에 샀아요? How much did you by the car for? 한 년에 한 번 휴가에 갑니다. It can also be used sometimes to convey the idea that a situation or happenstance is unexpected. It can attach itself to nouns. 이제부터 제 차를 운전하지 마세요. or adverbs. to to. This usage is dependent on context obviously. It can be attached to distance nouns in which case it means "all the way to" the place or until the place. "even". until.

8 . In verb stems where the final vowel is a ㅏ or ㅗ you add 았... 먹었습니다. Examples: 갔습니다 (contraction of 가았습니다)/갔아요. Examples: 사십분 후에 그 지차가 도착하겠어요.e. 궁부했어요 (contraction of 공부하였어요). Then opposite of this pattern is -기 전에 (before). Which of the three bases (았/었/였) you use depends on the last vowel of the verb stem (not the final letter of the verb stem). I went.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. If the verb ends in -하다. -가 can be dropped. later Action verb stem plus -ㄴ 후에/-은 후에 means "after doing {the verb it's attached to}. it implies that the interrupted/shifted action has been completed before the interruption or that the shifted action had come full circle. It can also be placed after a noun to mean after that noun (for example. I ate. as.I go to school. This pattern is mostly synomous with -은 다음에/-ㄴ 다음에 (meaning next).behind). 수영한 후에 샤워합시다. I studied.은 뒤에/-ㄴ 뒤에(literally. If it the final letter is any other vowel such as ㅓ. and then. then you add 였.ㅡ. If the verb stem that is attached is the past form. The two clauses connected by -다가 must have the same subject. In that case. It's also synomous with . It works well when the two clauses contradict each other. 아버지가 책을 읽셨습니다. while doing. let's shower.ㅣ. After doing (something) -후 afterwards. -후에 implies later whereas 다음에 impies immediately later/right after. then the usage is a little different. The train will arrive after 40 minutes. 저는 아침을 먹은 후에 학교에 갑니다. 점심 후에. -ㄴ 후에 is added to verb stems ending in a vowel while -은 후에 is added to verb stems ending in a consonant. 2012 Past tense infix/base -았/었/였 simple past The past tense infix is attached to a verb stem to show simple past. The contracted forms used in the examples below are the normal usage. Also. It all of these patterns the particle -에 can be dropped. after lunch). while Verb stem + -다가 is used when you want to express that some action or state in that past was interrupted and changes to some other state or action i. However. a state of constant alternating actions is suggested when two verbs ending in -었다가/았다가 are followed by 하다. Father read a book (note: the honorific infix -시 can be/has been added before the past base). then.ㅜ. "switch gears". Transferetive Ending -다(가) did and then. use 었. did but. After swimming. After I eat breakfast .

It can be used to with the past tense to indicate wondering about a past event. The pattern 아/어/여서 shows a certain continuity from a first action to the next. "두 시간이면 그곳이 도착할 수 있을까요? Do you think we can arrive at that place in two hours?" When used to refer to a third person then it implies "Do you suppose. Han returned from Korea yesterday? {shown with the honorific -시 inserted}" This form is somewhat less direct or assertive than the verb stem +(으)ㅂ시다 pattern. If used to refer to a second person it expresses speculation about the subject's action or condition. Examples: 제가 먼저 아내를 소개할까요? Shall I introduce my wife first? 영화를 볼까요? Shall we see a movie? 내일 날씨가 더울까요? Do you suppose the weather will be hot tomorrow? 그것이 재미있을까? Will it be interesting (what's your opinion)? 9 . 학교에 갔다가 도서과에 들를까요? Shall we go to school {first} and then drop by the library? 뛰어가다가 넘어졌어요.. 백화점에 갔다가 제 친구를 만났어요. Thanks to Ms. **constrast these examples to "백화점에 가서 제 친구를 만났어요" which implies it was an expected meeting by which they went to the store to meet their friend. "차가 노무 더러울까요? Do you suppose the car is too dirty?". 구 분이 옷가게를 봇 찾아서.this pattern differs from the pattern -다가 in that -다가 shows an interruption of an action whereas -어/아/여 다가 shows that an action was completed followed by a change of location. On the way to the department store I met my friend (in this case it's unclear if he/she continued to the department store or changed his/her plans and went with the friend).. Examples: 백화점에 가다가 제 친구를 만났어요. -을 까요 Shall we. -을 까요 is attached to a verb stem ending in a consonant while -ㄹ 까요 is attached to a verb stem ending a vowel.. In this case. He was running and then fell down. I wonder if. I met at the department store ( this implies he/she unexpectedly met his/her after he/she go to the department store). When the sentence subject is we. 그 길에서 올러갔다 내려갔다 합니다 (He can't find the clothing store and so he keeps going up and down the street).? Verb stem+ -을 까요/-ㄹ 까요 is to ask someone about their opinion or view and can be used with any verb. it can be used be as confirmation of the speaker's wish or to ask permission (제가 맥주 시킬까요? Shall I order you a beer?). The polite ending -요 can be dropped.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. Chong Royal for the examples. it's used for conjecture about an action or state of what you are talking about. "한 선생님이 어제 한국에서 돌아오셨을까요? I wonder if Mr. the speaker is suggestion that something been done together (공원에 갈까요? Shall we go to the park?).. For example. For example. 식당에 가다가 제 선생님을 만났어요. etc." For example. When the sentence subject is I. The honorific -시 can be added between the verb stem and this construction. When I was going to the restaurant I met my teacher.?/Will it be. 2012 .

If an affirmative question form is used with the particle -도. 사과도 삽니까/Are you also buying an 10 . what kind. 에서. Also.. For example. As for the dog. etc. I didn't see it.. see also -(으)까요. Now the dog -은/는 is eating the bone in the yard. Furthermore. 2012 See also -(으)ㄹ 까 해요. etc. if a car is the "what" in a previous sentence and it would be 차가 and not 차는). Not used with questions and is mostly interchangeable with -(으)려고 하다 but this form suggests the speaker is more tentative than -(으)려고 하다 does.". who. -(으)ㄹ까 해요. What I want to mention about the bone is. This particle can be attached to almost any part of a sentence. it can be used to emphasize a particular part of the sentence as seen in the following examples. 이 차는 좋지만 그 차는 나쁩니다/This car is good but that car is bad. The contrast particle -은/는 The particle -은/는 is used to compare topics being discussed. in a subsequent sentence this particle is not attached to the word that answers the interrogative word in the preceding sentence (for example. 어디 respectively)... 무슨. For example. Now -은/는 the dog is eating the bone in the yard.)... with other particles (such as -에. -고/and. though one the topics might only be implied. The -하다 can be changed to other forms such as 하니까 (since/because). etc. Thinking of doing. 하고 (and). Examples: 비행기로 갈 까 합니다. -은 is attached words ending in a consonant whereas -는 is attached to words ending in a vowel.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. object particles. Verb stem + -을 까 하다/ㄹ 까 하다 means "is thinking of doing so and so. it can replace subject markers. with negative forms For example 보지는 않아요/I don't see it (but since this particle implies contrast I may have heard it or smelled and at any rate.). It is not used with interrogative words such as what. where (무엇. i. 해도 (also).. etc. To talk about what's going in the yard. For example. Now the dog is eating the bone in the yard -은/는. It is used in sentences that have a pattern showing comparison between two different subjects such as -지만/but. -아도/even though.. I think of going by airplane. a negative answer always takes this particle. 누구. Now the dog is eating the bone-은/는 in the yard... to express intentions or future plans and intentions. as those focus attention on that part of the sentence anyways... As to what is happening now.e.

pull on 착용하다: To wear necktie. fasten on.) 끼다: To wear gloves. literally to put on. 사과는 안 삽니다/No. Warning: The particle -는 can be confused with the attributive suffix/processive modifier -는 and so you must examine the context in which it's used to discern the true intent. rings. literally to put on. belt.fasten 차다: To wear a watch. etc. They are: 입다: To wear clothes 매다: To wear a necktie. they are marked with -은/는 is designate them as old information in the discussion. 세수하다: To clean. 2012 apple? 아니오. when speaking new topics tend to have the subject markers -이/가 attached to mark them as new information and the same topics are mentioned subsequently. necktie. literally to put on. 세탁하다: To clean/wash clothes 청소하다: To clean up. glasses. contact lenses. earrings. wipe. or vacuum house.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. building. knot. shoes. vehicles. room. literally to do 11 . wash your face 세차하다: To clean/wash a car 닦다: To clean/polish/wash windows. bind. literally to use 신다: To wear footwear (socks. seat belt. belt. literally to tie. To clean/wash The Korean language uses different verbs for different types of cleaning. seat belt. self 감다: To wash hair 설거지하다: To wash dishes 빨래하다: To launder/wash clothes 깨끗하다: To be clean/washed To wear/use The Korean language uses different verbs for different items that you wear or use. wear (formal word) 하다: To wear necklace. I'm not buying an apple. carry 쓰다: To wear glasses. They are. teeth. etc. shoes 걸레질히다: To wipe/clean with a cloth/mop 씻다: To wash the body. Furthermore. hat.

e. Examples: 12 . The weather will probably be cold tomorrow/is going to be cold tomorrow. Together with -하고 같이/와/-과 같이 This pattern shows something is accompanied or associated with something else. I won't go. The exact meaning depends on the context of the conversation or text.갔을 거에요. 안 가겠어요. something that will probably take place or will likely take place). 영어를 잘 할 수 있을 거에요.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 같이 means together. . . -같이 can be omitted -In place of -하고 -와/과/이랑/랑 can be used -같이 can be replaced by 함께 --같이 tends to be used more in speech whereas 함께 is used more in writing. -을/ㄹ is the future suffix attached directly to the verb stem. Jong Guen will probably eat kimchi/is going to eat kimchi.informal form of -ㄹ/을 것이에요. -안 tends to be used more by children whereas adults tend to use -지 않다. With a 하다 verb it is normally place between the stem and -하다. Examples: 정근. You can probably speak (literally do) English well. 2012 Negative adverb 안Used with action verbs to negate them as well with the honorifc existence verb 계시다. She/he probably went) is used to express speculation. It can be placed before but it sounds awkward.conversely the -겠 future additive expresses definite or firm intentional future -Using past tense with this pattern(ex. 내일 날씨가 추울 겁니다. Used to indicate prospective future (i. I didn't study. Likewise is 을 겁니다 is more formal. Will probably do -ㄹ 거에요. Examples: 공부를 안 했어요. 씨가 김치를 먹을 거에요.

I haven't been able to write you a letter! 버스가 오는군요! The bus is coming! "Isn't it?" ending -지요. 2) It can be used as a confirming statement spoken with a level intonation. For example. The -지요/-지 form has many different uses and the exact meaning is derived from the context that it's used for. particle -하고 Used to link nouns similar to 와/과 or 이랑/랑. This pattern shows exclamation when the speaker realizes or discovers something the listen is already assumed to know. 1) When -지요 is used to form a question sentence ending. 3) It can be used as a propositive statement. 2012 TV 을 친구하고 같이 봤어요.adjectives.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 그분이 조종사이지요?/He's a pilot. Exclamation ending 는군요. 4) You can also use it as a tentative/suppositive statement. clauses. I bought apples and cabbage.. For example. isn't he? This use is spoken with rising intonation. I work with that person.할 일이 많지요/There's a lot of work to be done I daresay. 그 여자가 아름답지겠지요/ (I presume)she is beautiful. I watched TV together with my friend. -Never connects verbs. And. For example. sentences or adverbs Examples: 사과하고 배주를 샀아요. 내일 오지요?/You'll come tomorrow. 누구하고 같이 갔아요? With whom did you go? 저는 그 분하고 일합니다.right? 13 . 수영하고 승마를 좋아해. For example. Spoken with level intonation. 5) It can be used in a request.. it functions as a casual question indicating doubt or supposition. -는군요! is attached to action verbs in present tense — Otherwise attach -군요! -the informal pattern is -구나/는구나 -past base (았/었/였) or future base (겠) can be added between verb and this pattern Examples: 편지를 못 썼구나! Oh. 같이 가지요/Let's go together. 바빠요?/Are you busy?. I like swimming and horseback riding. For example.

.../There is no doubt that he's smart. ㄴ 데.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 고말고. wonder.the past tense -았/었/였 or the future tense -겠 can be inserted between the verb and this pattern . sentence ending -고 말고요. surprise. interest. 그 남자가 똑똑하고 말고. of cours. "of course". needless to say. it is a matter of course that. there is no doubt about it.used with any verb . -ㄴ데요 attaches to vowel-ending verb and 은데요 attaches to consonant-ending verb . Exclamation ending -ㄴ 데요/은 데요/는 데요.by contrast the exclamation -네요 is used for a spontaneous reaction without expecting a reply from the listener and the exclamation -군요 is used for first realizations.e.some references show a space between 고 and 말 but others don't. 은데 This pattern is used for general exclamation and is used to draw the listener's attention. i.요 is optional .-ㄴ/(은)데요 is attached to present tense descriptive verbs and the copula 이다. "of course" sentence ending -고 말고요.. Exclamation ending -ㄴ 데요/은 데요/는 데요. it is needless to say that. astonishment.. delight.used with any verb . 고말고요. 2012 6) Lastly it can be used to express intention. 제 집에 와서 저녁을 준비하지요/Come to my house and I'll prepare dinner. -요 is optional.is used to confirm what is being said with the verb is true. Examples 오늘 학교에 갈 겁니까?/Will you go to school today? / 가고 말고요. is synomous with 는 걸요! but that pattern is used less than the pattern described here Examples 14 .요 can be dropped from the end .-는데요 attaches to all other verbs . 고 말고요. . -는데. This grammar pattern is extremely common in colloquial Korean and you'll hear very frequently. etc./Of course I'll go. 고 말고 . .

not pretty. size. __ Examples __ 어디쯤 있어?/ About where is it? 기차가 다섯 시쯤 오겠습니다. can't./I couldn't sleep. in which case it simply makes the verb meaning negative.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. amount. 못 + verb or verb stem+지 +못하다. etc. not good. . 자지 못했습니다. Two ways to use it it. 이쯤에 주차하게 어떨까?/How about parking around here? 15 . 2012 바지가 잘 어울리는데요!/Those pants really look good on you/really suit you! 차가 아주 비싼데!/ The car is really expensive! Adverb -못./The train will come at about 5 o'clock. can't. won't Adverb -못. or quantity words to indicate approximate time. or denial except when used with descriptive verbs. won't. i.e.지 못하다 is always used with 하다 verbs .has a similar meaning to ㄹ 수 없다 __ Examples__ 뭇 오겠어요. approximately Is attached to time. about. Suffix -쯤. refusal. not (possible)texttext This adverb denotes impossibility. etc.the 하다 part of 지 목하다 can be changed for tense or have a connective added to it . place./I can't come. It's usually used with action verbs. location.

your mom's brother or your dad's? Your dad's oldest brother or youngest?). honorific 아빠 dad 시아버지 woman's father-in-law 장인 man's father-in-law 어머니 mother.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. also generically siblings 자매 sisters 아들 son 16 . honorific 할머니 grandmother 손자 grandson 손녀 granddaughter 손주 grandchildren 형제 brothers.e. 2012 Family terms Korean uses very specific terms for each family memory with the result that are many words you have to memorize. unlike English. On the plus side. Uncle? Which. 부모 parents 양친 both parents 아버지 father 아버님 father. there is little ambiguity (i. honorific 엄마 mom 시어머니 woman's mother-in-law 장모 man's mother-in-law 며느리 daughter-in-law 사위 son-in-law 의붓어머니/계모 stepmother 의붓아버지/계부 stepfather 고주부 great-great-grandfather 고주모 great-great-grandmother 증조부 great-grandfather 증조모 great-grandmother 주부모 grandparents 할아버님 grandfather. honorific 할아버지 grandfather 조부 grandfather (man's) 할머님 grandmother.

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 2012 딸 daughter 동생 younger brother or sister 남매 brother and sister 오누이 brother and sister 외아들 only son 외동딸 only daughter 장남 oldest son 장녀 oldest daughter 차남 second oldest son 삼남 third oldest son 차녀 second oldest daughter 오빠 woman's older brother 형 man's older brother 처남 man's older brother-in-law 시아주버니 woman's older brother-in-law (husband's brother) 형부 woman's older brother-in-law (sister's husband) 매형 man's older brother-in-law (sister's husband) 자형 man's older brother-in-law (sister's husband) 누나 man's older sister 언니 woman's older sister 손윗 누이 young boy's older sister 새 언니 woman's older sister-in-law (older brother's wife) 형수 man's older sister-in-law (older brother's wife) 처형 man's older sister-in-law (wife's sister) 여동생 man/woman's younger sister 누이동생 younger sister (from older boy) 처제 man's younger sister-in-law (wife's sister) 제수 man's younger sister-in-law (younger brother's wife) 수누이 woman's younger sister-in-law (husband's sister) 올케 older/younger sister-in-law (woman's brother's wife) 동서 husband of wife´s sister or wife of husband´s brother 형님 woman's older sister-in-law (husband's sister) 아가씨 unmarried younger sister/generic term for young woman 남동생 man/woman's younger brother 처남 man's older/younger brother-in-law (wife's brother) 시동생 woman's younger brother-in-law 도련님 woman's younger brother-in-law (husband's brother) 처형 man's older sister-in-law (wife's sister) 제부 man's younger brother-in-law (wife's brother) 17 .

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. different stomach sibling) 의붓 형재 stepbrother/sister 18 . 2012 매부 man's sister's husband 매재 man's younger brother-in-law (younger sister's husband) 매형 man's older sister's husband 아저씨 uncle/generic term for older married man 삼천 uncle (generic) 외삼촌 uncle (mother's brother) 큰아버지 uncle (married older brother of father) 각은아버지 uncle (married younger brother of father) 고모 aunt (father's sister) 외숙모 aunt (mother's brother's wife) 숙모 aunt (father's brother's wife) 이모 aunt (mother's sister) 큰어머니 aunt (father's older brother's wife) 작은어머니 aunt (father's younger brother's wife) 조카 nephew 조카딸 niece 사촌 cousin (generic) 이종사촌 cousin (mother's side) 고종사촌 cousin (father's side) 막내 last born/youngest child 배다른 형제 half-brother/sister (lit.

-서 can sometimes be dropped with 한테서 and it's meaning must be derived from the context. 19 ./I borrowed it from a friend. 에게서 This pattern is the opposite of 한테/에게./I cannot even cook. -If the contrast particle 는/은 is added. 2012 Particles used in verb phrases Particles used in verb phrases. 가 lends the meaning of possibility to the clause when used with 을/ㄹ 수 있다 and 을/ㄹ 수 없다.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. -However. -가/이. 요리를 할 줄을 몰라./It's not possible for me to cook. From (a person)./I don't know how to cook./I can't cook (but. __ Examples:__ 친구한테서 빌렸어요. -은/는 Sometimes particles are added to verbal phrases such as -ㄹ 수 있다/없다 or 지 않다.. when 도 is added it adds the meaning of "even".) In this case the contrast is unspoken but implied. -도. 한테서. These mainly serve to emphasis the meaning of the verbal phrase. it adds contrast. -를/을. Examples: 요리할 수도 없습니다. Additionally. the particle -한테서/에게서 From (a person). They mean "from a person". Examples 요리할 수는 없어요. 에게서 tends to be used in written/formal language while 한테서 tends to be colloquial. -when 가/이/을/를 are added they make the phrase more formal and tend to emphasize the clause.. Examples: 요리를 할 수가 없어. etc./I don't cook. 요리를 하지가 않아.

noun + 밖에 + 없다.. I like swimming and horseback riding. For example. 수영와 승마를 좋아해.. adverbial phrase.. noun + 밖에 + 없다 Only. there is no one but.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. -Never connects verbs. noun modifier.-ㄴ used for verb stems ending in a vowel . sentences or adverbs -와 follows nouns ending in a consonant -과 follows nouns ending in a vowel Examples: 사과과 배주를 샀아요. relative clause.adjectives.. there is nothing but or there is no one but. 찍은 사진/the taken pictures Only.e. nothing but. past tense This pattern is used to turn a descriptive verb into an adjective. or noun modifier.using 밖에 vice 만 implies a choice made unwillingly or reluctantly whereas using -만 implies a willing choice 20 . 밖 by itself means "outside". clauses. descriptive verb +-ㄴ/은.. the particle 와/과. the particle 와/과 And. relative clause. there is nothing but. 2012 And. i. This pattern denotes exclusiveness. . etc. It always goes in front of the noun being modified. nothing but. between nouns Like 하고 and 이랑/랑. etc.. descriptive verb +-ㄴ/은 noun modifier. . "the exterior".usually must be used with an accompanying negative . 와/과 connect nouns. When it is placed behind a noun and in front of a negative predicate/verb it means basically "only".은 used for verb stems ending in a consonant Examples 크다 (verb to be big/large) + ㄴ + 집 (house) = 큰 집/big house 좋다 (verb to be good) + 은 + 사람 (person) = 좋은 사람/good person Note: ㄴ/은 used with an action verb denotes past tense. I bought apples and cabbage.

말다 by itself means "to stop". 모자를 쓰지 맙시다. Examples 만원짜리 책/10. stop doing. quit doing. Examples: 이 책 밖에 없어. 오든지 말든지 마음대로 하세요.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30../Let's not wear hats. It's usually used in relation to money but not always. cease doing. "to cease"...usually used with in the negative propositive or imperative forms — can be used to negate other verbs however .. verb+지 않다) = only with a meaning the same as 만. don't do.. don't do..말다 is an irregular verb Examples 걱정하지 마. Negative imperative form.noun + 밖에 + negative predicate (ex. action verb + -지 말다. This suffix indicates the value ./Don't worry 추월하지 마시오../There is nothing in sight but the desert (or Only the desert can be seen). see also -지 말고 21 ..000 won book 오천짜리 지폐/5000 won bill/note(currency) 방 세개짜리 집/3 bedroom house Negative imperative form.. Suffix -짜리. 2012 . Usually used with action verbs to advise someone not to do something. 사막 밖에 보이지 않다. . "to refrain from" ./Come or not./This is the only book I have. action verb + -지 말다.do as you wish..../Do not pass. (a thing) worth Suffix -짜리. (a thing) worth.

. -아/어/여 드리다 Sentence ending "do.for you? This very common and useful pattern is used to request a favor or ask someone to do something for you. stop (doing) Adverb 그만-. but when placed before an action verb./I will explain it to you. it means stop(doing).noun it's attached to limits following noun .usually pronounced "에" . stop (doing).. Sentence ending "do.for me". Examples: 그만 해. . to that extent only. "no more than that".. Sometimes it can be translated "of"... negative propositive 그만 means "to that extent only". . action verb +-아/어/여 드리다. etc.if the final vowel of the verb is 아 or 오.. possessive marker 의 is a possessive particle and corresponds to "'s" in English. no more than that. static location. 공군 기지 전문 앞에 세워 줘. 2012 Adverb 그만-. the particle -의. 네(너의)/your 22 .for me".. 그만 자세요. "Of. Shall I.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30..etc. possessive. It's usually used with a negative imperative or propositive form. origin.. use 아 주다/아 드리다 else used 어 주다/어 드리다 or 여 주다/여 드리다 with 하다 verbs Examples 운전해 주세요./Stop sleeping. the particle -의 Of./Please drop me off at the air force base gate. 그만 하자. 뭐 해드릴까요?/What should I do for you? 설명해 드리겠어요. 's". -아/어/여 주다. would you. relationship. It can indicate possession./Stop doing that. . Possessive marker.only used with action verbs .some pronouns when 의 is attached become contracted — 제 (저의)/my./Please drive for me. negative imperative.. 내 (나의)/my. 's.드리다 is the humble form of "give" and so should be used to superiors or when you wish to be polite./Let's stop.for me. that much and no more. action verb + -아/어/여 주다.

not the verb it attaches to . Unlike the English word "can". Examples: 수영할 수 없어. lack of capability. this pattern is not normally used to express permission..ㄹ 수 없다 attaches to verb stems ending in a vowel . 23 . See here.. -ㄹ 수 없다/을 수 없다 Cannot do. .을 수 있다 attaches to verbs that end with a consonant .을 수 없다 attaches to verb stems ending in a consonant . In that case.tense is expressed in the ending 없다 part of this pattern..ㄹ 수 있다 attaches to verbs that end with a vowel . -을 수 있다/-ㄹ 수 있다. use -면 안 된다. -을 수 있다/-ㄹ 수 있다 Can do. This pattern denotes inability.particles can be added to 수 to change the meaning somewhat.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. .opposite of ㄹ/을 수 있다 ./I can't swim. or impossibility. . capability. not the verb it attaches to . -ㄹ 수 없다/을 수 없다. Examples: 내일 갈 수 있어.. can't.opposite of 을/ㄹ 수 없다 . 2012 Examples 표현의 자우/freedom of speech 은민의 차/Eun Min's car 인제 군산의 날씨는 어떻어요?/How is the weather in Kunsan now? Cannot do. See here.this pattern can be confused with -ㄹ/을 줄 알다/모르다 but that pattern shows knowledge of how to do something rather than merely being able to do or being possible... am able to This pattern indicates ability.tense is expressed in the ending 있다 part of this pattern.particles can be added to 수 to change the meaning somewhat.attaches to action verbs . possibility. can. It usually doesn't indicate lack of permission (can't in English can indicate lack of permission or inability). etc./ I can go tomorrow. see also -아서는 안 된다 Can do.

intentional.ㄹ 게요 attaches to a action verb ending in a vowel ./I will cook breakfast. 2012 Will do. I/we) . It implies a promise on the part of the speaker. would like".을 게요 attaches to a action verb ending in a consonant . Sentence ending "want to do". -ㄹ 게요/을 게요./He wanted to marry Lee Hyolee. Examples: 아침을 요리할 게요. -used with action verbs and 있다 . 1st person intentional -ㄹ/을 게요 shows the speaker's intention or plans when attached to an action verb. 께요./I want to buy a car.tense or negation is expressed in the final 싶다 or 하다 Examples: 차를 사고 싶습니다.고 싶다 is used with 1st person . .attaching 요 on the end is optional NOTE: Before 1988 this pattern was spelled/pronounced as ㄹ/을 께요 and you may still encounter it like that.only used in the 1st person (i.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. -ㄹ 게요/을 게요 Will do. -고 싶다/-고 싶어 하다 Sentence ending "want. see also -었으면 하다 24 .e. 게 께. -고 싶다/-고 싶어 하다 This pattern express want or desire.고 싶어 하다 is used with 3rd person . 이효리와 결혼하고 싶어 했어요.

.when the subject of the dependent clause (the "if" clause) is different from the main clause.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30./If it rains. 2012 Irregular .만일 (if) or 만약 (if) may placied at the beginning of the dependent clause and serve to emphasize the suppositional nature of the clause.면 attaches to a verb ending in a vowel or the consonant ㄹ . then the dependent clause's subject takes the contrast marker 은/는 . you just have to memorize them. I won't go. the final ㄹ is dropped. see also -ㄹ 때 25 . 가지 않겠어요. you should rest./When you catch a cold. . it always takes a subject marker (i. 으면/면 If. conditional. 으면/면. If followed by other vowels or consonants. it usually is attached as (이)라면 Examples: 만약 비가 오면. The dependent clause comes before the main clause (opposite of English). When.ㄹ verbs Some verbs with a final consonant of ㄹ are irregular./I will sell apples These verbs are irregular 들다 to eat 팔다 to sell 알다 to know 살다 to live 울다 to cry 놀다 to play 쓸다 to sweep 만들다 to make 열다 to open There aren't any shortcuts for remembering which verbs are irregular or not. When followed by the consonants ㄴ/ㅂ/ㅅ or the vowel 오.으면 attaches to a verb ending in a consonant except ㄹ . 사과를 팔겠어요. 이/가) — if the subjects are the same. It is also normally followed by a comma. Examples: 사과를 팝니다./I sell apples.can attach to any verb but when attached to 이다 or 아니다.e. it is kept. If. suppositional Shows a condition or stipulation when used to connect two clauses. 감기에 걸리면 쉬어야 합니다. When.

nominalizing suffix. etc.there are other ways to form verb nouns but these are irregular and best memorize them as you encounter them.allows the verb attached to retain it's action semantic Examples: 일본에서 여행하기가 재미있을 것 같아요. .If the verbal noun is used as a subject it can take 가/이./Traveling in Japan seems like it would be fun. 닭고기가 먹기가 좋다.more common in colloquial Korean than the -ㅁ/음 nominalizer . and then equivalent in English is "-ing" or the infinitive "to (do)". . extent./This chicken is good to eat. 오늘 수업이 없음/No class today {left on a note on the classroom door} 26 . state of being. quantity. quality./It's certain she is at the store. 2012 see also -다가는 see also -거든 Gerund suffix -기 Gerund suffix -기.-음 attaches to a consonant-ending verb . — if used as an object can take 을/를 . etc. However. These words then indicate activity. Examples:가게에 있음은 확실해요. fixed. see also noun-forming suffix -ㅁ/음 Noun-forming suffix -ㅁ/음 Noun-forming suffix -ㅁ/음. the -ㅁ/음 nominalizer is used for a completed. ads. or decided action or an abstract proposition.This pattern tends to be used in formal speech/writing. brochures.I've noticed it tends be used when Koreans write in bullet or abbreviated form such as on Powerpoint slides. . . some simple nouns such as "싸움/a fight" are derived from this construct. verbal noun Whereas the -기 nominalizer suffix is used to express an act or a fact. nominalizing suffix. infintive Most Korean verbs can be turned into a verbal noun or gerund by adding -기 to the verb stem. etc.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.-ㅁ attaches to a vowel-ending verb .

is often used with "-더/more" 27 . 2012 But -지만 But -지만. (more) than This pattern is used to show contrast between two things. 경기가 곧 끝날 것 겉아요.을/ㄹ 것 같다 is used to express a future likeness or resemblance ./The bus seems to be coming.) ./I have money but it's still too expensive.the tense is normally attached to the second clause Examples 돈이 있지만 아직도 너무 비싸요./The employees seem busy.in colloquial form it can be contracted to 은/ㄴ/ㄹ/는 거 같다 .는 것 같다 attaches to an action verb ..sometimes ends the sentence to form an incomplete sentence (I wanted to go but. Sentence ending "it seems to be/like"./It seems the game will end soon.ㄴ 것 같다 attaches to a descriptive verb ending in a vowel .같아요 is sometimes pronounced 같애요. -ㄴ 것 같다/은 것 같다/는 것 같다/거 같다/을 것 같다/ㄹ 것 같다. . Examples: 버스가 오는 것 같아.usually attaches to the second noun of the comparision .negation can be in the final 같다 or main verb but the meanings will be different . . -ㄴ 것 같다/은 것 같다/는 것 같다 Sentence ending "it seems to be/like". 것만 같다 This pattern is used with any verb and the copula 이다 and shows likeness or resemblance. 직원들이 바쁜 것 같습니다.can be attached to any verb .sometimes is followed by a comma . (more) than By: System Administrator (1238 Reads) -보다. .은 것 같다 attaches to a descriptive verb ending in a consonant .tense is attached to the final 같다 part of this pattern .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. see also 듯하다 -보다. constrastive This construct connects two contrasting clauses and simply means "but". ..if the particle 만 is attached as in 것만 같다 it has an emphatic meaning.

it indicates future tense. -ㄹ/을 This pattern attaches to action verbs and 있다/없다.as Attaches to nouns and adds the meaning of extent or degree.if -ㄴ (vowel ending stem) or -은 (consonant ending stem) are affixed to an action verb./The daughter is as pretty as the mother. 28 . .가장/제일 are interchangeable but 가장 tends to be used in formal/written usage../Korean is harder than English. 제일/가장 The most. it shows past tense or a present state resulting from a completed process (ex.살찐 사람/a fat person). 노력한 만큼 성적을 받 게 돼 있어요. Noun modifier suffixes -ㄴ/은. It acts as a relative clause in English and indicates a present. "As much as". Examples: 소녀가 어마니만큼 예뻐요. -est. existing condition. -는. -ㄹ/을 Noun modifier suffixes -는. -ing." . 제일/가장. as. to the greatest degree This marker is used to make comparisions and is usually placed before adverbs. The most. Examples: 이효리가 세계에 제일 아름다운 여자이다./You're supposed to recive as much credit as the effort you make.. 2012 Examples: 한국어가 영어보다 더 어려워요. -ㄴ/은.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. particle –만큼 "As much as".used to compare three or more things (even if unstated as in "It is the most beautiful flower./Lee Hyolee is the most beautiful woman in the world.if -을 (consonant ending stem) or -ㄹ (vowel ending stem) is attached to either an action or descriptive verb. . to the extent of. noun modifiers. . It's equivalent to "-ing" in English and is similar to -기. equal to. particle -만큼.제일 originally means "the first" . or descriptive verbs.

요 can be dropped for informal usage 29 . 한국에서 운전할 때마다 무서워. Examples: 저기 있는 차가 제차입니다. each. etc. 날마다 10 시간씩 근무해요. etc. 한 주 다섯 번씩 운동해. each.attaches to the number. apiece. 2012 -learning these modifiers (ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을) is very important because they appear very. very frequently in Korean. Examples: 조금씩 먹으세요. intentional This pattern is used to express intention or planning. -ㄹ(을)래요 will do. each. counter./Eat a little by little.ㄹ 래요 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel\ . respectively -씩.used with 1st person statements and 2nd person questions but can't be used for 3rd person .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 사과를 산 사람이 제 친구이야. . -씩./I work 10 hours per day./I'm scared every time I drive in Korea. intend to do. ./Every cat likes milk./The person who bought the apples is my friend. "respectively" "per". all This pattern can be affixed to any noun and means "every". apiece." Examples: 고양이마다 우유를 좋아해요. 본부에 갈 장교는 누가입니까?/Who is the officer who will go to headquarters? Every -마다 Every -마다.을 래요 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant . action verb/있다+ㄹ(을)래요./The car over there is my car.. respectively This particle means "each"./I exercise five times per week.is used often used with the pattern -ㄹ 때 (-ㄹ 때마다) to mean "everytime one does. "apiece".. intend to do.used with action verbs and 있다/없다 . . will do.

then use this pattern rather than -고. It can be attached to number made with a counter. For example. etc. 아서/어서 And then. In this usage. 첫번째 (1st time). 살 수 없어요: I couldn't buy the bike because it was too expensive. so. If the two clauses have different subjects and a sequence of actions isn't implied. 사일째(the fourth day). The tense of the whole sentence is usually carried in the second clause. For example. Korean suffix. For example. 둘째..e go/가다. -고 is not normally used if the verb in the first clause is a movement or posture verb (i. -고 -고. it shows a reason or cause for what is shown in the subsequent clause. 2nd. then use -고. That is bad and cheap. If the first clause verb is a movement verb such as 가다/to go.can be confused with (으)래요 which is a contracted quotation of a command Examples: 뭐 마실 래요?/What will you drink? Ordinal numbers (1st. The cause always is expressed in the first clause and the effect shows up in the second clause. 2012 . 오다/to come. -째.. etc. 그분은 군인이고 저는 조종사입니다. 3rd. etc. 자전거가 너무 삐사거. using Sino-Korean? numbers by using -째 as a prefix. unlike 와/과/이랑/랑/하고. etc. Let's not drink alcohol and let's sleep (when used with negative form it shows rejection of one action vice another). Sino-Korean? prefix. First. come/오다. 두번째 (2nd time).). is used to link two clauses (not nouns). it's 30 . and. third. He is a soldier and I am a pilot. etc.). The use of -고 often suggests a discontinuity between the actions of the two clauses. And then. Secondly. 셋째.. it's used to link two clauses that have the same subject and are sequential (movement/action in first clause comes before action in the second clause). we get 첫째. However. 술을 미시지 말고 잡시다. It may be used with any verb and the subjects of the two clauses don't have to agree but if they are different they usually take the contrast particle -은/는. Thus.. -nd. second. Verb stems whose final vowel is 아 or 오 take -아서 and all others take 어서. And. -th With pure Korean numbers you add the suffix -째 to the number except for 1 which is 첫째.. since. You can express first. etc.. Examples: 저것이 나쁘고 비쌉니다. 째일 (first). 아서/어서.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. this pattern is much less common than the Korean ordinal number pattern. because vs+아서/어서 has two uses. Instead 아/어서 is used. 제오 (fifth). -째 Ordinal numbers. -st.

use -(으)니까 instead. See also -(으)니까 and -기 때문에. . is attached.since. you can use this pattern but in such a case -기 때문에 and 아/어서 can't be used. it can be used with any verb). Furthermore. Because. This pattern shows a certain continuity from a first action to the next.etc. CAUTION: In colloquial Korean. If the action of the main clause come after the dependent clause (i. when used like this the subjects of the two clauses must be different and the main clause usually is in the past tense. Furthermore it also differs from -어/아/여 다가 which shows that an action was completed followed by a change of location. so... so. 31 . I'll go home and immediately {go to}sleep. they sometimes are added but not contracted. If the final clause is an imperative or propositive.. since. 비가 와서 그냥 집에 있겁니다. It is raining and so I'll probably just stay home." This pattern is sometimes heard as -으니깐/니깐/니까는/으니까는 when a contrast marker. 은/는. -니까/으니까. since. the first clause). It can only be used with action verbs in this manner (whereas when it means "because". Additionally. it is used to mean "when". etc.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30." or "Because it's nice. This pattern is sometimes used as a sentence ending with or without a -요 attached to it as an unfinished sentence and corresponds to an English sentence such as "I'm hungry. the -서 is can be omitted and so only the -아 or -어 would be added in that case. -으니깐/니깐/니까는/으니까는 -니까 (verb stems ending in a vowel)/으니까 (verb stems ending in a consonant)connects clauses and is used as a casual connector meaning so. 2012 mostly used with descriptive verbs. sequential form. If the final clause is an imperative or propositive.this pattern differs from the pattern -다가 in that -다가 shows an interruption of an action.e. -니까/으니까 Because. Furthermore. because.. It can be used with any verb and is usually used with a comma. you can attach a past base infix to -니까/으니까. "so". Tense and/or negation is expressed in the final clause. Examples: 집에 가서 곧 자겠습니다. when. For example with a 하다 verb you may see it as -하여 instead of -해서.

see also 더니 Even if.여도 follows 하 or in the stem of a 하다 verb . go to the pool. . even though. see also -더라도 Must.. 괜찮다. . 아야 하다/되다 Must. obligation.colloquial speech seems to use 아/어/여야 되 more than the 하다 form 32 . 아야 하다/되다.". have to.어야 하다/되다 follows any other vowel . etc.can be used with any verb except 이다 (이다 uses 이라도 instead) . 아도 Even if.아야 하다/되다 follows 오 and 아 .when followed by such verbs as 좋다.(어/아/여)야 되다 is never used with past tense. even if someone does so-and-so This pattern is used for concession or permission as in "Is it alright if I do X.?" or "Even if..여야 하다/되다 attaches to 하다 verbs .아도 used after 아 and 오 . necessity This pattern shows obligation and can be used with any verb. 2012 Examples: 더워니까 수영장에 가세요.tense is normally expressed in the final 하다/되다 . 되다.negation is normally expressed in the main verb and this pattern is normally attached to the -지 않다 . in that case you have to use it with 하다 ./Even if it's not interesting.어도 used after any other vowel . it shows the meaning of something be OK to do.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. Examples: 차를 운전해도 괜찮아요?/May I drive the car? 재미없어도. 지금 바쁘니까.. 사무실에 나가니까. 내일 전화하세요. Because it's hot.. 학생을 봤어요. 아야 되다/어야 하다/어야 되/여야 하다/여야 되다. 공부하라. study it. 아도/어도/여도. When I went out of the office I saw a student. I'm busy now. so call tomorrow. have to.

여간+ . 아무도+negative predicate. "ordinarily". "anyone"./ " " 하교에 가야 했어요./Nobody will go. "anybody". a little./You should have gone to school. next This pattern shows that an action will be done later after something else. ./Anyone can do it.If the two clauses have the same subject. it is uncommon/unusual/extraordinary/remarkable The word 여간 means "commonly". but when followed by a negative construction. 2012 Examples: 학교에 안 가야 해요. 여간+verb+negative. 아무라도 할 수 있어요. 33 . after something happened. etc. 아무도+negative Nobody does/nobody is. Examples: 아무도 가지 않겠다. etc. etc. but when it is attached to a negated verb it takes the opposite meaning.subject(s) of the two clauses can be same or different .. 아무 (any person. some.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. After doing. The opposite is 기 전(에). this pattern can't be used with 가다/오다 ../You should not go to school. it means "nobody".this pattern is most common in speaking whereas the synonymous-은 후 is more formal sounding and the also synonymous-은 뒤 is usually used in recipes. +ㄴ 다음에/ 은 다음에..-ㄴ 다음에 attaches to verb stems ending in a vowel . after something happens.-은 다음에 attaches to verb stems ending in a consonant . 학교에 가지 않야 해요. +ㄴ 다음에 After doing. "normally".is uncommon. Examples: 공부한 다음에 잡니다.used with action verbs .tense/negation is expressed in final clause . Nobody does/is. etc. "no one". anyone. . anybody) The noun 아무 means "any person".is uncommon../I sleep after I study. weather forecasts.

. see also 이만 저만 + verb +negative Plural suffix. 그 사람들) but not if a the nouns are numbered (i.can attach to any noun . .the final 되다 verb can be used with or without the past tense infix but is usually used with it. 열심히/diligently.can be directly attached to almost any word in a sentence to imply a plural sentence subject. This pattern. 그 두 장교/those two officers). 구분이 여간 많이 운동하지 않습니다. . vs+ㄴ 지가+time word+되다 The time since.) is used placed between it and the action verb../He exercises a really lot.-ㄴ 지 follows a verb ending in a vowel . 저. 왜들 안 가요?/Why don't you guys go? 서울에서 많이 외국인들이 살아요..when attached to an action verb an adverb (많이/many. The time since.in place of 되다 other verbs such as 지나다/elapse\pass can be used 34 . etc. "it's been X time since".e. you must attach -들 (i./Many foreigners live in Seoul.. etc. etc. Examples: 이효리가 여간 예쁘지 않아요.if a demonstrative (그. Examples: 들어오 세요 들.은 지 follows a verb ending in a consonant . ..[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.. -들.. . shows an interval of time beginning at a certain point and extending to the present. from the time when.. It means "the time since".etc. ..) is used. To ensure that the plural is understood.Koreans tend to leave this off if the context is clear but tend to use it when refering to people (사람들/people. even verbs or adverbs. 직원들/workers. it's been (x amount) a time since.the particle -가 after the -지 can be left off .. 2012 . vs+ㄴ 지가+time word+되다/vs+은 지가+time word+되다. you can attach the suffix 들.e.Usually used with descriptive verbs but can affix to action verbs as well.) if even the context is clear that they mean plural. 들 Plural suffix. -es Generally in Korean singular and plural are not specifically stated but are infered from context./You all please come in. ./Lee Hyolee is really pretty... which attaches to action verbs.

and so.can have a negative attached to it (지 않기로 하다) and then it means to decide not to do something 35 . 2012 Examples 한궁에 온지가 일년 판 되었어요...은데 attaches to descriptive present tense verbs ending in a consonant and the verb 이다 ..[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.. this pattern shows that something is "like" or indentical to the noun that it's attached to. -ㄴ데 But.. It can be thought of as a "verbal" semicolon or dash to link two clauses when the first clause leads into or transitions to the second clause. . 작정하다 (to make up one's mind to do). 지금 바쁜데. But.. ..는데 is attached to all other cases . 결정하다 (to decide). This is a very common pattern in Korean..May be used with any kind of verb .ㄴ데 attaches to descriptive present tense verbs ending in a vowel . so will you come later? Similiar to the ending -ㄴ데요/는데요/은데요.. so. as.attaches to action verbs . Like. noun+처럼. It can be used to connect two clauses together while expresses "but". He is a good student but he doesn't like school.. and so. arrange to do. "and". the same as./Please study diligently like Sang Hyang.. so. 결심하다 (to make up one's mind). -처럼 particle Like...may be attached to past tense verb stem Examples: 그 분이 좋은 학생인데. action verb+기로 하다. .. Examples: 상향처럼 열심히 공부아세요. -기로 하다 Decide to do. make up one's mind to do. or similar verbs..as Attached to a noun.. This pattern indicates making a choice or coming to a decision or solution./It's been a year and a half since I came to Korea. -ㄴ데/는데/은데. Decide to do. as. 학교를 좋아하지 않아요. ".so". 나중에 오겠어? I'm busy now.하다 in this pattern can be replaced by 약속하다 (to promise).

etc. "-(으)려고 하다 Going to do. It denotes that the subject intends to do something i. Have nothing to do.tense and negation are expressed in the final verb (i. 는데. 오상에서 돌아갈 일이 있습니다.려고 하다 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . plan to do.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. -ㄹ 일이 있다/-을 일이 있다.sometimes the 고 part of this pattern is dropped . intend to do. have it in the mind to do This pattern is used with action verbs and 있다. I decided to go. or 3rd person — as a comparision -ㄹ(을)께요 is only used with 1st person . etc. Going to do. "intend to do". I have to return from Osan.can be used with 1st.-을 일이 있다 is attached to action verbs ending in a vowel .it can also express that something seems like it will happen (비가 곧 멎으려고 해요/It seems that the rain will soon stop. 있다) .) . 2nd. I have to meet my older brother. . "-려고 하다/으려고 하다/려 하다/으려 하다.e. 을 일이 없다/-ㄹ 일이 없다 This pattern is used when you want to relate that you have something do in the future. Have something to do. -ㄹ 일이 있다 Have something to do. 가기로 약속했어요. I promised to go. "plan to do".can only be used with action verbs . . not the final 하다 .the negation is expressed in the vowel this pattern is attached to.으려고 하다 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant . .the tense is expressed in the final 하다 .this pattern can be combined with sentence connectives such as 면.interchangeable with -ㄹ(을) 참이다 and -ㄹ(을)터이다 Examples: 36 .e.-ㄹ 일이 있다 is attached to action verbs ending in a consonant . 2012 Examples: 가기로 했어요.if 없다 is used instead of 있다 the opposite meaning of having nothing to do in the future is conveyed Examples: 형을 만날 일이 있어요.

see also -는 중이다 37 . I intend to go to the bank tomorrow. 내일 운행에 가려고 합니다.can't be used for the immediate future (i. avs+(으)려고.is synomous with 기 위해서 Examples: 서울에 비행하려 일찍 일어났어요.when used with verbs of wearing or contact.) . 아내를 만나려고 여기에 왔습니나. +(으)려고 In order to.tense and/or negation is expressed in the final verb (usually the verb following 려고) .attaches to any action verb . .tense and/or negation are expressed in the final 있다 .) Examples: 개가 자고 있다. In order to. etc. I'll be taking a test soon.e. similar to (으)러 but that pattern only attaches to movement verbs (가다. -ing. He has been working diligently.려고 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . 려고 This pattern is used with action verbs to express in order to do something or intention/purpose. 2012 공보하려 하면 아기가 운다. see also -고자 progressive tense.never used with future tense .있다 can be replaced by honorific verb 계시다 ./ I woke up early to fly to Seoul. The dog is sleeping 열심히 일하고 있었어요. . -고 있다.) whereas this pattern can attach to any action verb.e. the baby cried.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.으려고 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant . He is putting on{or is wearing} a shirt. 으려고. -고 있다 progressive tense./ I came here in order to meet my wife. continuous action This pattern is attached to action verbs to show a process or continuing action. can mean either ongoing action or present state resulting from having done the action (i. 오다.When I was going to study.

-아서 죽겠다 Strong feeling. but.아서 죽겠다 is used after 아 or 오 . 38 . 지 말고. not water. An attempt to dissuade something from doing something in favor of something else is shown by this pattern. This pattern is the clause connective form of -지 말다..can be used with any verb except 이다 — normally used with descriptive verbs .I could die. negative imperative. not. 여서 죽겠다..a slightly different pattern is using 말고 attached to a noun and has a similar of meaning of rejecting one thing for another . Examples: 피곤해서 죽겠어.어서 죽겠다 is used after any other vowel .. 맥주를 주세요. I'm so. I could die.usually used in the 1st person with the present tense. 2012 Strong feeling. I could die. . 지 말고 not.. 어서 죽겠다. I'm dead tired (literally "I'm so tired. I could die..the "서" part of this pattern can be omitted . Give me a beer. . 일어나라! Don't sleep...used with action verbs and 있다 .여서 죽겠디 is used after 하다 or 하다 verb .") 아파 죽겠어요. but.. I'm so sick/hurt so much. noun + 말고. This grammar pattern is used by the speaker to show strong feelings about something. get up! 물 말고.usually used with imperative or propositive forms Examples: 자지 말고.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. -아서 죽겠다.

n+ 이나/나 or something.. . . neither.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. approximately ex: 몇 말이나 봤어요?/ABout how many horses did you see? . 몇+n+이나/나=about. both.noun + (이)나: or something.몇 + noun + (이)나: about.and..and if the predicate is in the affirmative ex: 나도 그분도 미국 사람입니다/He and I are both American.... see also -도 39 .. ..number + noun + (이)나:more than expected ex: 소주를 다섯 병이나 마셨습니다/He drank 5 bottles of soju (more than I thought he could). approximately. attached to two consecutive phrases it means neither.and -도. -이나 attaches to words ending in a consonant -나 attaches to words ending a vowel The particle -도.noun + (이)나: just.or ex: 사과나 먹겠어/I'll eat an apple (or something) ex: 등산이나 수영이나 하고 싶어요/I want go hiking or go swimming. -conversly.nor if the predicate is in the negative ex: 감자도 배주도 안 좋아해요/I like neither potatoes nor cabbage... either...noun + other particle + 나: selection of time or place 공원에나 갈까?/Shall we go to the park (or someplace)? 아침에나 시간이 있을 것 같아요/It seems I shall have some time in the morning (or some time).. noun+other particle+나=selection (of the noun) This pattern has many different meanings as follows: .-도. -attached to two consecutive phrases it means both.nor There are three more uses of 도 as follows: -when followed by a negative predicate it means either ex: 저도 먹지 않겠다/I won't eat it either... nothing else but 방학동안 낮잠이나 자겠어요/I'm just going to sleep during the vacation.-도. number+n+이나/나=more than expected. 2012 particle 이나/나 particle 이나/나. TV 나 보기로 했다/I decided to just watch TV (there was not much else to do).. both.

Examples: 미국에 대해서 이야기했어요. concerning. "in relation to". -에 관해서. "concerning". .at all. no matter-it is. -에 과하여. about. 이 첵은 한국 역사에 대한 책이지요? This book is about Korean history. this pattern show's the speaker's indifference to the noun it is attached to or when attached to an interrogative. in relation to. ever it is interrogative -라도/이라도. pump (water) Regular ㄷ verbs (don't change): 닫다 to close (a door) 바닫 to receive 믿다 to believe 얻다 to obtain 묻다 to bury 쏟다 to pour -애 대해서. grasp 듣다 to hear 걷다 to walk 긷다 to draw. toward. any-at all. etc. apprehend. ever it is.). etc. 40 . Just have to memorize them.. 에 대하여 This pattern means "about". I have a question concerning English pronunciation.. -에 관해서 means the same thing as -애 대해서 but is more formal.when followed by a vowel. the ㄷ turns into a ㄹ ex: 묻다=물었어요/I asked. Irregular ㄷ verbs: 묻다 to ask 싣다 to load 개닫다 to perceive.when followed by a consonant. . it doesn't change ex: 묻다 =묻지 마세요/Don't ask.no rules of thumb for which ㄷ ending verbs are regular and which are irregular. 2012 irregular -ㄷ verbs Some verbs ending in ㄷ are irregular. 영어 발음에 대해서 질문이 있습니다. it shows an indefinite (any. isn't it? -(이)라도. even if When spoken. . about noun+애 대해서.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. I talked about the United States.

has someone ever done something. 무엇/what. when it follows an interrogative phrase (어느 것/which thing.. has ever done -ㄴ 일이 있다/은 일이 딨다/-ㄴ 일이 없다/은 일이 없다. etc.) or an interrogative word (누구/who. etc.ㄴ 일이 있다 (없다) is connected to verbs ending in a vowel . etc. -used only with action verbs .. it will be fine.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.) it carries the meaning "no matter (what. any-at all. buy it please. etc. denotes "no matter (who. what. -ㄴ 일이 있다. 무엇/what.) or an interrogative word (누구/who. 누구한테서라도 사세요/No matter who it is from. even if (it be). has never done. when) This pattern. 모르는 것은 배워서 알아야 해요/You must know you you don't know even if you have to learn more. 그 영화를 본 일이 있습니까?/Have you seen that movie? see also -ㄹ 일이 있다 -이든지. 어서 . 부터. when.tense is expressed in the final 있다/없다 . etc.. 몇 분/how many minutes.. has ever done. 2012 ./나 and -든지 Examples: 누구라로 좋습니다/Anyone at all is good.). no matter (who. when). what. who.is interchange with no matter. -can also be attached to particles such as 에서. has had the experience of This pattern denotes one's past experience. "any at. etc.. any.. ever it is./I have been to the Han River (literally the experience of going to the Han River exists for me.). 어떤 것이라도 괜찮아/No what kind of thing it is.when attached to an interrogative phrase (어느 것/which thing. 몇 분/how many minutes.라도 attaches to words ending in a vowel .all".은 일이 있다 (없다) is connected to verbs ending in a consonant .has the same meaning as the pattern ㄴ/은 적이 있다/없다 Examples: 한간에 간 일이 있어요. (or the)like. has someone never done something.이라도 attaches to words ending in a consonant .) it is. no matter. just.it is. ever it is By: System Administrator (1201 Reads) -이든지/든지.at all. 41 . etc.

. what. when followed by any other consonants. the final ㅎ is dropped. no matter. ever it is -이든지/든지. . "any at. etc. when).이든지 attaches to consonants .) or an interrogative word (누구/who. 2012 -이든지. .ㅁ. 몇 분/how many minutes. denotes "no matter (who. 어떤 차를 사든지 비싸군요!/Whichever car I buy. 누구든지 whoever. I'll read it.ㄹ. it carries a generic meaning.든지 irregular -ㅎ verbs Some descriptive verbs ending in ㅎ are irregular.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. the final ㅎ is kept. anywhere 언제든지 whenever. When followed by the consonants ㄴ.Any amount at all will be good. etc.. ever it is. as much as 어떻게든지 no matter how see also -든지. when it follows an interrogative phrase (어느 것/which thing. On a similar note.. any time 얼마든지 any amount. etc. no matter (who.sometimes the 지 can be dropped with the park Examples: 무슨 책이든지 읽겠어요./No matter what kind of book it is.all". what. anyone. any-at all.든지 attaches to vowels .. if an interrogative is followed by an action verb with (이)든지 attached.synomous with 이라도 and -나/no matter. it's okay. when) This pattern. everyone 무엇이든지 whatever.ㅇ./Whoever goes. 얼마든지 좋습니다.. The following verbs behave in this manner: 빨갛다 to be red 하얗다 to be white 노랗다 to be yellow 42 .). it's expensive! Also. anything 어디든지 wherever.. However.it is. 무엇/what. Examples: 누가 가든지 괜찮아.

-는 일도 있다 This pattern express the idea that someone sometimes (or never) does something.sometimes can be used with 도 as in -는 일도 없다/있다 with no change in meaning. there are times when. and a ending with a vowel is attached. distasteful 넣다 to put in 낳다 to give birth -는 일이 있다. that something never happens.. an ever-present posibility. However. the final vowel becomes 애. someone sometimes does something.. sometimes does. .. okay 싫다 to be disagreable. clean. some ㅎ ending verbs never change and some of these include: 좋다 to be good 많다 to be many 옳다 to be right 점잖다 to be gentle 괜찮다 to be alright. It is like that. someone never does something.) 서울에서 운전하는 일이 없다/I never drive in Seoul. or when used with 없다.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.tense is expressed in the final 있다/없다 . -는 일도 없다.only used with action verbs . if the ending vowel is 아 or 어. unpleasant. It will probably be blue 빨갛습니다. 2012 까맣다 to be black 파랗다 to be blue 이렇다 to be like this 그렇다 to be like that 저렇다 to be like that (over there) 어떻다 how 말갛다 to be clear. serene Examples: 빨간 red (adjective) 파랄 것입니다. Example: 어때요? How is it? 그래요. pure.. sometimes does By: System Administrator (1163 Reads) action verb +-는 일이 있다/-는 일이 없다.. 43 . i. It is red. the experience of. Examples:술을 마시는 일이 있습니다/ I sometimes drink alcohol (literally there are times when I drink. Also.e a recurring happening.

usually used with the past tense .s 사 년 만에 진급되었어요. it's never advisable to use panmal upon first meeting someone if even they are your social inferior (lower rank. . age. Examples: 한 달 만에 병원에 돌아왔어요. Sentence Present Past Future Statement v+어/아 v+었어/았어 v+ㄹ/을 거야 n+(이)야 n+이었어/였어 n+ㄹ/일거야 Question v+어/아? v+었어/았어? v+ㄹ/을 거야? n+(이)야? n+이었어/였어? v+ㄹ/을 거니? v+니? v+었니/았니? n+(이)니? n+이었니/였니? Propositve/ v+자 "let's" Command v+어/아 v+어라/아라 v+너라/거라 Exclamation v+(는)구나! v+었구나/았구나! v+겠구나! v+(ㄴ/는)다! v+었다/았다! v+겠다! n+(이)다! n+(이)었다/였다! n+(이)겠다! -만에.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. after (a period of time) When this pattern is preceded by time words it shows the passage of time.느냐. passage of time. after. 44 .usually followed by the particle 에 to indicate the time at which something took place — can be followed by the 이다 copula is in 오래간 만입니다/It's been a long time since I've seen you./It took me two months to find this car. after time word+ 만에. statement -ㄴ 다./It took me four years to become promoted. 다. plain style 반말 endings. 2012 반말 endings. imperative 아라/어라/여라 반말/panmal is the informal speech level used from senior to junior or between friends. etc. propositive -자./I returned to the hospital after two month. question 냐. 으냐. However. . 는다. Ex: 이 차를 세 달 만에 찾았아요.when followed by certain verbs it indicates it takes a certain amount of time to do something. plain style.).

집을 짓겠어요. 2012 irregular -ㅅ verbs Some verbs ending in ㅅ are irregular in that they sometimes drop the final ㅅ.when followed by a vowel. 2) to rise. connect Examples: 녹차를 저어야 해요./I will build a house. take away Examples: 웃었어요. there is no good method of differentiating the irregular from regular verbs and you must simply memorize them. get well 젓다 to stir. 옷을 벗겠어요./I laughed. spring. 낫다 to recover.when followed by a consonant. tower. to row 붓다 to pour 짓다 to build 긋다 to draw 잇다 to unite. deprive. soar 빼앗다 To snatch a thing. 45 . the ㅅ is kept The following verbs follow this pattern./I will take off my clothes. The following verbs are regular and always keep the final ㅅ: 벗다 to take off (clothes) 웃다 to laugh 씻다 to wash 빗다 to comb 솟다 1) to gush out. .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. As with other irregular verbs. the ㅅ is dropped ./You have to stir your green tea.

. When the final ㅂ is followed by a vowel.. 46 . 2012 irregular -ㅂ verbs Some verbs ending in ㅂ are irregular.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. happy 반갑다 to be glad 고맙다 to be thankful 맵다 to be spicy Some verbs are regular and the final ㅂ never changes: 곱다 to be numb (with cold) 뽑다 to pick out. If it's cold. The following verbs are irregular: 가볍다 to be light (mass) 간지럽다 to be ticklish. gather 즐겁다 to be delightful. seize. it changes to a 우 but if it is followed by a consonant..... itchy 곱다 to be pretty 깁다 to sew 눕다 to lie down 덥다 to be hot 더럽다 to be dirty 돕다 to help 무겁다 to be heavy (mass) 아름답다 to be beautiful 어둡다 to be dark 줍다 to pick up.. pluck 씹다 to chew 업다 to carry (someone) on one's back 입다 to put on (clothes) 잡다 to catch.you simply must memorize them.. grasp 접다 to fold 집다 to pick up 넓다 to be wide 좁다 to be narrow 붙잡다 to catch. take hold of There is no good rule for differentiating which are regular vice irregular. 춥지만. it remains the same. Examples: 추우면. It's cold but.

die. intransitive verbs used with 있다 intransitive verb + -아 있다/어 있다/여 있다.tense and negation are expressed in the final 놓다 . 47 .어 놓다 is used after any other vowel . a present result of a past action. 이 교과서를 읽어 놓았습니다/I read this textbook in advance.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.어 있다 follows all other vowels .e.여 놓다 is used after the 하다 verb Examples: 비행기표를 사 놓으세요/Please buy airplane tickets in advance.) .only used with action verbs . etc.the subject of the clauses use 이/가 Examples: 제 친구가 독일에서 가 있습니다/My friend lives in Germany (literally he went to Germany and is there. complain. to do something in preparation.아 놓다 is used after 아. present result of past action 어/아/여 있다 expresses a continuing state i.) 창문이 닫혀 있다/The window is closed. .여 있다 follows the 하다 verb . 오 .used with mostly with intransitive verbs (i. the past infix).is interchangeable with 아(어. This pattern focuses more on how things are now rather than how things were done if you compare it to the pattern 었 (i.the tense and/or negation is expressed in the final 있다 .e.아 있다 is used after 아 or 오 . . 어 놓다 action verb + -어 놓다/아 놓다/여 놓다. to do something in advance This pattern is used when you wish to indicate an action done in advance of something or in preparation for something. an action verb which doesn't take an object such as sleep. 웃을 빨래해 놓았어요/ I washed the clothes and set them aside (for later). to do something and put aside. 여)두다 with no change in meaning .e. 2012 Do something in advance.

the 요 can be dropped when this pattern is used to close friends or social inferiors Examples: 차가 있었는가요?/Did you have a car? 영화가 좋은가요?/Is the movie good? see also -나요 48 .most often attaches to descriptive verbs . 2012 While.e. * 으며 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant * 며 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel * NOTE: 으며/며 has another meaining. .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 있다. while doing something.tense and/or negation is done in the final/main clause . -면서 action verb+ -면서/으면서. single subject This grammar pattern shows a single person is doing two actions. . i.attaches to action verbs .both clauses must have the same subject .는가요 is used in all other cases. use -는 동안에 . it connects two clauses with the meaning "and" like the pattern -고 Examples: 운전하면서 라디오를 들었어요/I listened to the radio while I was driving.은가요 attaches to descriptive verbs in the present tense when they end in a consonant . 으며.으면서 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant .면서 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . the final clause) carries the most emphasis * the first or dependent clauses is additional information . past tense descriptive verbs.if the subjects of the clauses are different. 며. . Informal polite question ending -ㄴ가요? Informal polite question ending -ㄴ가요/은 가요/는가요?. express doubt informally but politely This pattern is used to ask a polite question or ask a question softly.ㄴ가요 attaches to descriptive verbs and 이다 in the present tense when they end in a vowel .the main clause (i.으며/며 can be used in a similar fashion but this usage is less common and less colloquial. etc.e.

. 고 하다 someone says that./That thing over there is a book.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30...../Hyolee likes to dance... attributive form This pattern is similar to when verbal nouns/gerunds are made with the suffix 기. in this pattern.. it's used as infinitive (as in to do. . use this pattern.. came close to. gerund...is present tense Examples: 저기 있는 것이 차이에요. . nearly. 2012 someone says that. I almost suffered a traffic accident.used mostly with action verbs . 효리가 춤을 추는 것을 좋아해. the thing that someone is doing. -ing. 고 하다. However....... It is also an adnominal suffix i. -는 것 To. infinitive.ㄹ 뻔했다 is attached to verbs ending in a vowel . action verb + -는 것. 이 잡지를 누가 읽는 거에요?/Who is reading this magazine? (in this case 거 is the contracted form of 것) Almost. . almost did.ing something.e.을 뻔했다 is attached to verbs ending in a consonant Example:직장에 가는 길에 교통 사고 당할 뻔했어요. just barely escaped.. When you want to show that something almost happened or nearly occured. barely missed.always used in the past tense ./On the way to work. something) or . 49 . -ㄹ 뻔했다 Almost. -ing.can be used with 있다/없다 but is mainly used with action verbs . indirect quotation UNDER CONSTRUCTION: PLACE MARKER To.. -ㄹ 뻔했다/을 뻔했다....

This pattern is used to indicate uncertainty with regard to a fact or occurrence. It can also show regret or relief of having done something completely. whether. 2012 If. -지/가 If. use up completely. The verb "버리다" means to 1)to throw away.. whether. -은/는. attribute ending (ㄴ/은. . -Always preceded by a suffix modifier — -ㄴ지/은지 is with with descriptive verbs in present tense — -ㄹ/을지 connects to verbs/nouns for future tense — -는지 is used with action verbs ---for past tense use 었는지/았는지 with verbs or (이)었는지 with nouns . 그 남자가 군인인지 물어 보세요. cast away or 2) to finish up.-지 is used more than -가 in everyday speech (you can use -가 in place of -지) .used with action verbs 50 . 도. I don't what it is.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. throw away. 는. 알다 To know 모르다 To not know 말하다 To tell 묻다 To ask 잊다 To forget 생각하다 To think 기억하다 To remember etc. finish up doing. etc. ㄹ/을) + -지/가.. uncertain fact or occurence. to get it done and when attached to action verbs shows thoroughness or completion. get it done. Please ask that man if he is a soldier. -어 버리다.particles such as -를/을. -어 버리다 Do/use completely. Examples: 그것이무엇인지 모르겠어요. 어떤 자동차가 좋은지 아세요? Do you know which car is good? 정근 씨가 한남 대학교에서 공부했는지 알아요? Do you know whether Jong Guen studied at Han Nam University? Do/use completely. can be attached to this pattern This grammar pattern is often followed by verbs such as.

제가 볼 수 있도록 보여주세요.can't be attached to a verb with a past or future tense marker (았. or possibility..여 버리다 attaches to 하다 . to the point Also time word + action verb + 도록= until This pattern expresses a purpose or aim when attached to a verb. 오 . "in such a way so as to"./ Please show it to me so that I can see it. 2012 ./What should I do? I missed the bus. 겠. The English equivalent is "in order to".을 줄 알다/을 줄 모르다 attach to verbs ending in a consonant . 51 . . Know/not know how to do. 도록 So that.모르다 is an irregular 르 verb similiar to .same meaning as 게 but is less colloquial and sounds more formal. so that.e.negation and/or tense is expressed in the final 버리디 not the verb that it attaches to Examples: 빵을 먹어 버렸어요/I ate up all of the bread.. -ㄹ 줄 알다 shows knowledge of a techniquue or a process for doing something and ㄹ 줄 모르다 indicates the opposite..used with action verbs . It has a secondary meaning of "until" i../I worked until late last night. 어떡해? 버스를 놓쳐 버렸어. .아 버리다 attaches to stems ending in 아.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. So that/until. any verb (except 이다) + 도록.can be used with any verb except 이다 .ㄹ 줄 알다/ㄹ 줄 모르다 attach to verbs ending in a vowel .. a continuance of an action/condition to a specified time.. Also interchangeable with 게끔 but that pattern is more emphatic than -게 Examples: 잃어 버러지 않도록 가방에 넣어주세요/Please put this in the bag for me so that I won't lose it. -ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다 Know/not know how to do..the tense/negation for the phrase/sentence is showed in the final ㄹ 줄 알다/ㄹ 줄 모르다 . etc. capability.". 어젯밤에 늦도록 일했어요.) . in such a way that.this pattern can be confused with ㄹ/을 수 있다/없다 but that pattern indicates ability. in order to. -ㄹ 줄 알다/을 줄 알다/ㄹ 줄 모르다/을 줄 모르다.어 버리다 attaches to stems ending in any other vowel . 나중에 읽어 버리겠습니다/Later I will finish reading (all of the books).

makeup. tell 3) to be early.) 오르다/to rise. transport 마르다/to be thirsty. As with other irregular verbs there is no good method to differentiate them from irregular verbs except to memorize them. look at the following examples to clarify as it's easier than it sounds. foster = 아이를 길러 보세요/Please try bringing up a child. spoil. go up 자르다/to cut (off) 다르다/to be different 빠르다/to be quick. 나르다/to carry. to paste.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. rub. irregular 르 verbs with a final vowel other than 오/아 change to ㄹ 러 as in. ruin. to sing 이르다/1)to reach. 가르다/to divide 고르다/to choose 나르다/to carry. medicines. Now that you are confused. apply. arrive at 2)to inform. coat. not know = 몰랐아요/I didn't know/몰라도 좋아요/It's alright if you don't know it. ooze 52 . irregular -르 verbs Some verbs ending in 르 are irregular. etc. mar 주무르다/to fumble 찌르다/to pierce 흐르다/to flow. get dry 바르다/to stick./I know how to swim. When these verbs are followed by the vowel 어 and have as their last vowel 아 or 오. transport = 날라 보세요/Try to carry this. trickle. rapid 구르다/to roll (over) 기르다/to bring up (a child) 누르다/to oppress 두르다/to surround 부르다/to call. The following verbs are irregular. 춤을 출 줄 몰랐어요. put on (cremes. 모르다/to know be unaware of./I don't know how to do dance. fast. Additionally. be premature 저지르다/to commit an error.the 르 changes to 라 and the the ㄹ is added to the remaining stem. 기르다/to bring up. 2012 Examples: 수영할 줄 알아요.

.. 어 보이다 something or someone looks/appears/seems. or similarity based on one's immediate sensory experience (i. Examples: 빛깔이 촣더니 맛도 촣군요./He looks fat.. "so./(I saw) he was sleeping but now he is sleeping.tense and/or negation is expressed in the final 보이다 verb ./It has a nice color and I see it tastes good too! 어제는 춥더니 오늘은 따뜻하네요. the result of which is.. resemblance. -더니... etc.여 보이다 attaches to 하다 Examples: 뚱뚱해 보여요. When someone recalls certain facts.".". . -더니 I recall that. 지금 공부하고 있어요.it allows the speaker to affirm some fact. The use of this pattern in the first person tends to show an unexpected result.. occurences.descriptive verb + -어 보이다/아 보이다/여 보이다. 간강해 보이지 않군요.used with descriptive verbs . recollection../ (I recall/recollect) I went to the office but nobody was there. something you are seeing directly). "when.is similar to the pattern -니까 but that pattern indicates a logical result or natural result.. The final (main) clause.아 보이다 attaches to verbs with a final vowel of 오/아 .". When used like this. 2012 Looks/appears/seems.. — 주무시더니.. it can only used with the 2nd or 3rd person. they can use 더니 to indicate this./I laughed and (now discovered the results that)my stomach now hurts.. experiences. "but. 53 . 추워 보입니다./ You look cold. when preceded by 더니. 아무도 없었어요.never used with the object particle 을/를 .when attached to a verb that has a past infix attached to it./You don't look healthy! see also 모양이다 (bases on indirect evidence. . etc. This pattern attaches to descriptive verbs and shows likeness.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.e.When used with the present tense..어 보이다 attaches to verbs with any other vowel . In other words. can only be used in the first person (except when used in a question) — 사무실에 갔더니. secondhand information) -은 가 보다 I recall that. ... describes an immediate consequence or discovery stemming from an action./It was cold yesterday but it's warm today! 웃었더니 배가 다 아픕니다.

. not in the first clause with 느라고 .' -느라고 Because of doing. Sometimes it can also be "even a. .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 이것이라도 사자.. even if (it be a. even if (it be a..e. what. Assumed fact/expectation/likelihood. .../Because I'm working. expectation.' action verb+ -느라고....as well" . -줄 알다/모르다 This pattern shows an assumed fact.when followed by 알고 있다 use knowledge of an event or fact . 2012 Because of doing. or likelihood. where) it is./ I know Sang Hyang went to Japan. 일을 하느라고 점심을 먹을 시간이 없어요.. no matter (who.tense and/or negation is expressed in the final (main) clause. Particle -이라도.) Particle noun+ -이라도/라도../Even a woman can do it. . 믿다/to believe .. the first (dependent) clause has to have an action verb to attach this pattern to . any./I didn't do my homework because I was sleeping.the 알다/모르다 can be replaced by other verbs such as 생각하다/to think. when. as a result of doing This pattern is used to excuse or explain one's actions.라도 attaches to nouns ending in a vowel . This construction indicates a lack of enthusiasm about one's choice when it attaches to a noun or a noun with a particle.)..the 고 can sometimes be dropped Examples: 잠을 자느라고 숙제를 하지 않았어요.indicates two actions in the dependent and main clause and both clauses must have the same subject . -줄 알다/모르다 Assumed fact/expectation/likelihood. It usually demonstrates something that was contrary to the expectations or desires of the speaker.only used with action verbs i./Let's (settle on)buy this.this pattern can attach to any verb 54 .not normally used with future tense . I have no time to eat lunch.at all.상향 씨가 일본에 간 줄 알고 있다.이라도 attaches to nouns ending a consonant Examples: 여자라도 할 수 있습니다.

To reach/attain a point where/that. However. 55 . is only used with action verbs . 을 (for knowledge) for emphasis Examples: 상향 씨가 올 줄 믿어요. 었더)./I believe Sang Hyang will come.used only with action verbs Examples: 한국말을 가르치고록 되었어요. the subject is usually third person .inappropriate for use when giving a lengthy talk about an experience and not used to talk about oneself or family member. ./I've reached the point where I teach Korean. 구 녀가 예쁜 줄 몰랐어요. facts.e. see also ㄹ/을 줄 알다/모르다 Retrospective infix -더 Retrospective infix -더. etc.when attached to past infix (i. can be used to report one's feelings from one's own perspective.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. ./I didn't know she was pretty. looking back.not used with the formal 합니다 존댓말 style Examples: 선생님이 잘 가르치더군요. . as I recall. 은민이가 잘 공부한 줄 알았어요.sometimes pronounce 드 .can follow particles such as 로 (for supposition). ./(I recall) the teach taught well.when used in a final sentence ending. This pattern when used with an action verb shows a situation has been developed on its own accord. This infix is used when the speaker looks back on events.when used like this but with a descriptive verb. it is normally used with the exclamatory endings 군요 and ㄴ데요 and in that case it must be inserted between the verb and one of those endings.when used like this./I thought Eun Min had studied well. experiences. -도록 되다 By: System Administrator (1208 Reads) To reach/attain a point where/that. it can be used with the first person . 2012 . as I remember. action verb + -도록 되다.

can be implied that events transpired beyond the speaker's control.) 끄다/to turn off (a light. it turns out that. . It can be used to avoid indicating direct involvement so as to reduce responsibility.Example: 바쁘다/to be busy = 바빠요. This grammar pattern shows that something happens in a way that is out of one's control. 어떻게 하다 보니까 그렇게 됬어.Example: 쓰다/to write = 저는 편지를 썼어요. The following 으 verbs are irregular. verb+ -게 되다. hurt. come to" 무서워하던 선생님을 좋아하게 됐어요./It just so happened that I couldn't got to Japan./I am busy./One thing lead to another and it just turned out that way. etc. ./Turns out I'll be getting promoted this time (in this case the speaker is trying to avoid bragging or is trying to be humble). 2012 Irregular -으 verbs Most verbs ending in the final vowel of 으 are irregular. it is arranged that. 56 .) It just so happens that. 나는 일본에 못 가게 되었어요. Also. the 으 is dropped .if the final vowel of the verb is 아 or 오. it happens to become soand-so.used with action verbs Examples: 저 이번에 승진하게 됐습니다.if the final vowel of the verb is any other vowel./I came to like the teacher that I was once was afraid of. then the the 으 changes to 아 . . Of similar appearance is when a verb is is turned into an adverb with 게 and then attached to 되다 also means to "become. -게 되다 It just so happens that.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. etc. 바쁘다/to be busy 나쁘다/to be bad 아프다/to be painful./I wrote a leter. sick 배가 고프다/to be hungry 잠그다/to lock 예쁘다/to be pretty 기쁘다/to be happy 슬프다/to be sad 크다/to be big 뜨다/to rise (the sun.

.. plan.the tense is expressed in the final -이다.. 뛰어 봐야 이미 늦은걸요. 오 . or schedule./Provided he goes. I'll go. the meaning of there being no point to doing something is expressed Examples: 그 차가 좋아야. -어 야 Provided (that). provided something takes place. One plans to do. provided something is true This pattern shows the meaning "if some takes place" (now or in the future) or "provided that something takes place or is true".can attach 만 (as in 어야만) to make it more emphatic . I'll buy it.normally followd by grammar patterns that show future.여야 comes after 하다 . ..is interchangeable with (으)면 but is never used with imperative or propsitive forms (unlike 으면) .if the verb in the main (final) clause is a negative. a schedule.아야 comes after 아. any verb+ -어 야/아 야/여 야.conversely. if something takes place.the noun 예정 means a plan./I plan not to meet my boyfriend.verb+ -ㄹ 예정이다. 살 거야. 그분이 가야 가겠습니다.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.을 예정이다 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant . possibility or speaker's intention . a prearrangement .tense is expressed in the main (final) clause .어야 comes after any other vowel ./ (Go ahead and) Run. not the verb this pattern attaches to . . but it's already too late.ㄹ 예정이다 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel Examples: 남자친구를 만날 예정이에요./If the car is good.을 예정이다 This grammar construct denotes one's intentions. 남자친구를 만나지 않을 예정입니다. .can be used with any verb except 이다 ./I plan to meet my boyfriend. -ㄹ 예정이다 One plans to do. 2012 Provided (that). 57 . not the final -이다.. negation is expressed in the verb this pattern attaches..

inclination. 공부를 못하는 편이야. . less commital Examples: 이 도시는 작은 편입니다. as soon as This pattern shows an immediate chain of events or succession of occurrences.can attach to any verb . ㄴ 편이다/는 편이다 On the small.".. tasteful./Jong Geun is pretty brave.if used with out a modifier suffix (-ㄴ/은/는) then it be used with some nouns to indicate that you are someone's/something's side as in 저는 김 씨 편입니다. party.. "to be not as good as". Pak's side. ./This town is on the small side. ㄴ 편이다/는 편이다. 2012 Sentence ending "To be inferior to"../This chicken doesn't taste as good as that chicken. tends to. 이 차는 그 차만 못해. -기가 무섭게 Immediately after. The English equivalent is "tends to./He's kinda of not good at studying/He tends to not to be able to study well.use if you want to be less assertative.ㄴ 편이다 is attached to descriptive verbs in the present tense ending in a vowel (when ending in a consonant use 은 편이다) plus 이다 in the present tense. Immediately after. etc.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30./This car is inferior to that car. to be worse than. 무섭다 means to be "fearful". direction 2. When used with any verb. or degree.attaches to nouns Examples: 이 닭고기는 맛이 그 닭고기만 못해요. .v. kind of. etc. . successions of things happening is so fast it's frightening. side 3. "is on the _side".. contrast. a. -만 못하다. a way.. etc. side. 58 . immediate succession of developments/occurrences. "afraid". ./I'm on Ms. this sentence ending shows an inclination or contrast. The noun 편 means 1. On the [] side. 장근 씨는 용감한 편이에요.. conservative... quality. The literal meaning of the expression is that things happened in succession so fast it was scary. "to be worse than". -만 못하다 Sentence ending "To be inferior to". side. etc. ability. team. "is rather". a means.+-기가 무섭게.. to be not as good as This pattern shows inferiority with regards to quantity. "terrible".. is rather.는 편이다 is used in all other cases. The equivalent English meaning is "to be inferior to".

-ㄴ 채/-은 채. or experience that happened just once in the past or a past state at a certain point of time Examples: 제가 근무하던 회사에요. or experiences that regularly happened in the past i. or events.infers surprise on the part of the speaker from the rapidity of events Examples: 일본에 도착하기가 무섭게 일본말을 공부하기 시작했어요. event. "just as it is".can be used with any verb but is mostly used with action verbs .when attached to a verb in the present tense it refers to facts. For example. they did an inspection at that company for one day and then worked somewhere else the next)./It's the company where I used to work (as you see in this case it refers to a past habitual action). 제가 근무했던 회사에요. etc. retrospective marker -던.can have the particle 로 attached 59 . retrospective marker. 2012 .is used with action verbs . The English equivalent is "with no change".[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. "intact". Just as it is. experiences. as it stands./The man who had no money became a rich man.when attached to a verb in the past tense it refers to a fact. indicates things that happened in the past on a regular basis. events. a situation continued for a while and then changed ./I started to study Japanese as soon as I arrived in Japan. with no change This pattern indicates a state is unchange despite an action being performed. intact.is always followed by a noun . "as it stands".is mostly used with the main clause in the past tense .은 채 is affixed to verbs ending in a consonant. ㄴ 채로. see also 자마자 -던. . "as it was".only used with action verbs . . 집에서 출발하기가 무섭게 교통 사고를 당했어요.ㄴ 채 is affixed to verbs ending in a vowel . ./It's the company where I worked(in this case as compared to the previous example the speaker only worked there once. 은 채로.e. -던었 = something in the past that happened only once This pattern is used when the speaker thinks back about facts. 돈이 없던 남자가 부자가 되었어요. As soon as I left the house I suffered a traffic accident. -ㄴ 채 Just as it is.

.can be used with any verb but tends to be used mainly with action verbs . 60 ./It seems the economy is bad. 경제가 나쁘나 봐요.subject is usually in the third person Examples: 교실에 계시나 봐요.. 한국에 돌아갈래야. 은가 보다.the verb with ㄹ 래야 must be repeated in the main (final) clause ./Even though I want to return to Korea. . Even if you want to (do something). action verb +ㄹ 수 없다.is used with action verbs .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.을 래야 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant . I think that. 는가 보다 This pattern is used when one wishes to express supposition or conjecture. it is not possible.alternatively this pattern can be 는가 보다 for action verbs ./Even though we want to solve it politically. 물에 뛰어 들어갔어요. it is impossible for us to do so.action verbs in the present tense occur with 나 보다 . -나 보다/은가 보다 Sentence final ending it seems that. Using these forms presupposes some type of observable evidence.ㄹ 래야 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel Examples: 그것을 정치적으로 해결할래야. 2012 Examples: 옷을 입은 채.tense is expressed in the main (final) clause .decriptive verbs in the present tense usually occur with 은가 보다 — in the past tense both use 나 보다 — 이다 verb only used in past tense form ../It seems he is in the classroom. -나 보다. 을 수 없다 This grammar pattern expresses the futility or impossibility of something event in spite of one's wishes or desires./He jumped in the water with his clothes on.. Sentence final ending it seems that.. +ㄹ 수 없다 Even though. . it appears that.. action verb +-ㄹ 래야. 해결할 수 없다. it's impossible.it's impossible. 사고난 차를 길에 버려둔 채로 도망갔습니다.. 을 래야. 돌아갈 수 없어요.it's impossible. Even though. -ㄹ 래야./They left the car they had the accident in as it was in the street and fled.

This pattern shows results or outcomes decided by agreement between parties and is a passive pattern. panmal style This is a interrogative sentence ending used between close friends or parents to children./It has been decided that we will import cars. ./It has been arranged to visit Grandfather next week. 다음 달에 출장을 가기로 돼 있어요. Women tend to use it more than men especially among older generations in Korea. action verb + -는 버릇이 있다.. -기로 되다. It is decided that. boss. -는 버릇이 있다 Have a habit of. 2012 Interrogative ending -니? Interrogative ending -니?.). The English meaning is "it is scheduled that". -기로 되다 It is decided that..[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.can only be used with action verbs Examples: 남을 방해하는 버릇이 있습니다. It should never be used to social superiors (i. have a bad habit of doing This pattern is used to show habitual action and it tends to carry a negative connotation. etc. teacher. etc./She has a habit of disturbing others. 그는 말을 되풀이하는 버릇이 있다. . it is schedule that. etc. older person. -usually used with action verbs -used mostly in the past tense ./He has the habit of repeating himself.e. 61 .can be used after any tense Examples: 언제 이사하겠니?/When will move? 경치가 아름답니?/Is the scenery beautiful? Have a habit of...can be used with the pattern 어 있다 which changes the meaning some to having an obligation or schedule (see examples below) Examples: 차를 수입하기로 되었어요... it is arranged that./We are supposed to/schedule to go on a business trip next month. "it has been arranged that". "it has been decided that". 내주 할아바지를 방문하기로 되었습니다.

. see also -기로 하다 In order to/for.ㄹ 자신이 있다 follows verbs ending in a vowel .the subjects of the main and dependent clauses must be the same Examples: 공부하기 위해서 대학교에 다녀요. -기 위해서./I attend college in order to learn..is interchangeable with (으)려고 .. 62 . action verb +-ㄹ 자신이 있다/을 자신이 있다./If we drive intoxicated.. . with the intention of.always used with action verbs . -ㄹ 자신이 있다 Confident that.. 를 위하여. for. for the purpose of.tense and/or negation is expressed in the final 있다/없다 .the ㄹ/을 portion shows future tense Examples: 이 고장을 수리할 자신이 있어요?/Are you sure you can repair this break-down? 운전을 할 자신이 없었어요. 을 위해서. we are supposed to receive punishment. +-ㄹ 자신이 없다/을 자신이 없다. 2012 음주 운전하면 벌을 받기로 돼 있습니다.. 를 위해서.을 자신이 있다 follows verbs ending in a consonant .is synomous with 기 위하여 but this pattern is used more in writing than speaking .can be attached to nouns but it changes to 을/를 위해서 . one is not confident that one can This pattern is used to show one's confidence to do something/some action (or lack thereof if used with 없다). One is confident that one can./I wasn't confident that I could drive. 을 위하여. Confident that. 기 위하여 This pattern is extremely common and you will hear it often. It is used to indicate the purpose of some action or of doing something.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30./I exercise everyday for my health.. 건강을 위하여 매일 운동해요. .is always used with action verbs . for the sake of... -기 위해서 In order to.

It's very rarely used with the future tense . 오 .used with indirect quotation stems in the propositive.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 자. . .. Because/so. derogatory modifier. -어 가다 Sentence final ending keeps doing. 2012 Sentence final ending keeps doing. progressive development This pattern indicates development to a better or more advanced state./My daughter's illness is getting better.아 가다 follows 아.오 .. declarative.어 가다 follows any other vowel ." and so I went. (it) keeps doing. 제 상사가 가자는 바람에 저도 갔아요. or propositive. attached to imperative. 어 먹다 Sentence ending. declarative. as a consequence of This pattern shows the reason something happened and usually connotates a sudden happening..아 먹다 attaches to verbs with the final vowel of 아. or imperative forms. action verb+ -어 먹다/아 먹다/여 먹다. as a result of.여 가다 is attached to the verb 하다/to do Examples: 딸의 병이 나아 가요.normally used with present or past tense 63 .can be used with any verb . i.normally used with action verbs . 다. I too went. 대구의 인구가 늘어 갑니다. . -는 바람에 Because/so.어 먹다 attaches to verbs with the any other final vowel .is interchangeable with -는 통에 with no change in meaning Examples: 제 상사가 가는 바람에 저도 갔습니다.used with the main clause (final clause) verb in the present or past tense. This pattern adds a derogatory meaning to the verb it's attached to. Sentence ending.e./My boss said.used with action verbs . -는 바람에. "Let's go./Because my boss went. derogatory modifier.여 먹다 attaches to the 하다 verb ./Daegu's population keeps increasing. 라 . -어 가다/아 가다/여 가다.

이만 저만 + Extremely./Hyolee is extremely beautiful. This pattern is used to show an uncommon or remarkable state/condition.can be used with any verb . 적으로. Examples: 이만 저만 불편하지 않아요./He cheated me. . -al Some nouns of Chinese origin can be turned into adjectives or adverbs with these patterns.적으로 forms adverbs 64 ./He's no good. action verbs. 못 돼 먹었어요.is interchangeable with 는데요 but is used less than that pattern Examples: 사람들이 많았는 걸요!/There were a lot of people! 그 차가 멋있은 걸요!/That car is cool! Suffix -적. see also 여간+verb+negative Exclamation ending -ㄴ 걸요/-는 걸요! Exclamation ending -ㄴ 걸요/은 걸요/-는 걸요! This pattern expresses the speaker's astonishment. -cal. -ive. 나를 속여 먹었어요. 효리가 이만 저만 예쁘지 않아요. past tense descriptive verbs. etc./It's really inconvenient.적으로. it's really (extremely) such and suc.적 forms adjectives .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.ㄴ 걸요 attaches to present tense descriptive verbs ending in a vowel and present tense 이다 . -ic. This is an important grammar pattern to remember as it's used so much.는 걸요 attaches to all other cases i.e. Extremely. cally Suffix noun+-적./He did as he wanted. etc. while wondering about reactions/feelings of listener. .은 걸요 attaches to present tense descriptive verbs ending in a consonant . . 2012 Examples: 마음대로 해 먹었어요. 이만 저만 +verb+ negative.

i.can be a sentence ending or connective between two clauses .-느니 Whether../It's all the same whether you go or not.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.attaches to verb stems or plain style base . -나 마나. 교수가 보수적이라느니. 이라느니 This pattern is used when one is arguing between two possibilities. 진보적이라느니 싸워요..or not.. 전화를 하나 마나 동환이 오지 않을 거에요. 65 . it doesn't matter This pattern is used when there isn't much difference between two courses of action or behaviors.when attaches to the 이다 verb becomes 이라느니 Examples: 부부가 이혼을 하느니.apparently this pattern is also used without the space. 안 하느니 항상 싸우고 있습니다/That couple is always arguing about whether they should divorce or not.. it's the same. 나마나 Examples: 가나 마나에요. -나 마나 It is all the same if you do or not./It doesn't matter if you call Dong-hwan or not.e./They argue about whether the professor is conservative or progressive. Whether you do (something) or not. . verb+-느니. It is all the same if you do or not.verb+-느니.used with action verbs and 있다 . -느니.. . he won't come.. 2012 Examples: 의학적 medical 의학적으로 medically 역사적 historical 역사적으로 historically 문화적 cultural 문화적으로 culturally 충동적 impulsive Whether or not.

-ㄹ 필요가 있다 It is necessary to do (something). etc.이라서 attaches to nouns ending in a consonant Examples: 국제 공항이라서 늘 붐빈다. 좋은 차라서. 이라서 Because/so/therefore. After having done. after./Since she's a kind woman. Use the pattern 어서 with those verbs . 이 문장을 쓰고나서 차겠어요.영화를 봤어요. I will go to sleep. it's always crowded. 샀어요. and then. -ㄹ 필요가 없다/을 필요가 없다 = not necessary to do Necessity or pressure to do something is shown by this pattern 66 . verb+-ㄹ 필요가 있다/을 필요가 있다. and so This pattern functions like 어서 but is attached to nouns instead of verbs and shows a casual relationship between two clauses. see also -고 나면 see also -고 나니까 It is necessary to do. 오다/to come. 착한 여자라서 마나겠어요.the subject must be the same for both clauses . 서다/to stand up.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. ./Because it's an international airport.라서 attaches to nouns ending in a vowel .not used with movement verbs such as 가다/to go./It's a nice car and so I bought it./I read this book and then watched a movie. -고 나서 After having done (something). .negation and/or tense are attached to the independent/main/final clause Examples: 이 책을 읽고 나서.used with action verbs . action verb+-고 나서. 눕다/to lie down. This pattern shows a sequence of actions that appear in the two clauses (independent/final clause and the dependent/first clause).tense and/or negation are expressed in the independent(final) clause . noun+ -이라서/라서. 2012 Because/so/therefore. After I write this sentence. I will meet her.

social inferiors (kids. -니? This style when attached to the plain style shows the listeners's astonishment or incredulity. plain style +니요? plain style verb+니요?. etc.the particle 가 is optional .e.the negative (i. This pattern is used when the speaker has a spontaneous emotional reaction. 나는 저녁을 먹었네. then this pattern is used to make a statement in the familiar form/반말 i./It is not necessary to go.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.) Examples: 이 인도가 미끄럽네요!/This sidewalk is slippery! 공장에 불이 났네요!/A fire broke out at the factory! contrast with the missing 요./I ate dinner.used with action verbs and 있다 . etc.을 필요가 있다/없다 attach to verbs ending in a consonant . delight.can be used with any verb — when used with the verb 이다.ㄹ 필요가 있다/없다 attach to verbs ending in a vowel . .e. incredulity.used with all verbs . 2012 . changes to (이)라니요? Examples: 도망갔다니요?/He ran away!?! 내일까지 한다니요?/Do it by tomorrow!?! 욕심쟁이라니요?/He is a selfish person!?! 67 . 인제 공부할 필요 있습니다/It is necessary to study now.NOTE: if the 요 is omitted. . to close friends. Exclamation ending -네요 Exclamation ending -네요 This pattern is an exclamatory ending used to expresses astonishment/surprise. oppositve) form is ㄹ/을 필요가 없다 -tense is expressed in the final 있다/없다 Examples: 갈 필요가 없어요.

. etc. . If one finishes. 잠 자고 나면 괜찮을 걸 겁니다.).씁디다 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant Examples: 사람들이 많습디까?/Were there many people (when you look/were there. -ㄹ 적에/을 적에 This pattern shows the time when some occurs and is interchangeable with the pattern interchangeable with -을 때.attaches to action verbs but is usually followed by descriptive verbs in the main clause Examples: 열 시간 운전하고 나면 너무 피곤해요./There were many people (when I looked/was there. -ㄹ 적에 When. results in the state/condition of the main/independent clause. .ㅂ디다/씁디다 is used in response to the above pattern to make a statement about a past fact or event.습디까? attaches to verbs ending in a consonant .ㅂ디까?/습디까? are used to ask about a certain event or fact in the past.ㅂ디까? attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . I feel very(too) tired. 2012 Retrospective endings -ㅂ디까?/-ㅂ디다 Retrospective endings -ㅂ디까?/습디까?/-ㅂ디다/씁디다 These patterns are used to refer to a past event or fact retrospectively. -고 나면 If one finishes (something). -고 나면 When this pattern is used. see also -고 나서 see also -고 나니까 When. .[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.the subject is normally in the 3rd person ./You will feel better after you sleep. 68 . etc.)? 사람들이 많습디다.ㅂ디다 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . the completion of a first action (shown in the dependent clause)./If I drive for ten hours.

even the most basic.can be used with any verb except 이다 . 까지 is used more to indicate the extremes or lengths to which an situation has developed. such as 부터. the wind is blowing. . 미용실 같은 것 여기 없네요.attaches to nouns . 마다.also emphasizes an additional condition piled on Examples: 이름조차고 기억이 나지 않아요. and on top of that. ./There is nothing like a beauty shop here. it rains. so far as. noun+-조차. Such as./I don't want to study a difficult thing such as math. etc. to boot. . it maybe used if the action of the main/independent clause takes place before the dependent clause's action . noun+ 같은 것. something like. However. Even/on top of that.것 can be replaced with other nouns Examples: 수학 같은 어러운 것을 공부하고 싶지 않다.the particle 에 can be replaced with other particles (similar to ㄹ 때). 69 . besides that./When I came to Korea.if the actions of the clauses happen at the same time./I can't even remember her name. it was already hot.ㄹ 적에 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel . 우산을 가지고 갈 적마다. in the bargain This pattern is used to emphasize the word that is attached to. something is similar to This pattern is used to make a comparision or demonstrate similarity. I met my younger sister.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 이미 더웠습니다. 같은 것 Such as./When I went to Germany. . 한국에 왔을 적에.is less colloquial than -ㄹ 때 . 비가 오는데./It's raining. 비가 내려요. 2012 .is similar to 까지 but is used for undesireable situations and shows the most basic condition that exists./Everytime I don't take my umbrella. -조차 Even/on top of that.attaches to nouns . 바람조차 불어요. do not use the past infix 었.을 적에 attaches to verbs ending in a consonant Examples: 독일에 적에 여동생을 만났어요.

2012 For doing./These clothes are handy/convenient/useful for swimming. in doing.. -는데에/는데. when attached to a noun. I'm going to use it. -과는 다르다/와는 다르다 This pattern is used to indicate contrast.. (same construction) also can be used to show purpose or fitness. 는 is a modifier marker.preceded by action verbs . noun+-만하다.). etc. and.In the situation of repairing the house. to be as little as. and noun clauses .the final 에 is optional Examples: 집을 수리하는 데에 쓰려고 합니다. -는데에 For doing../The elephant is almost as big as a house.the contrast particle 는 is normally attached to the particle 와/과 .. to the same extent as. 이 옷이 수영하는 데에 편리해요. the 데 is dependent noun meaning place or situation.과는 다르다 attaches to words ending in a consonant . be as. to be the size of.와는 다르다 attaches to words ending in a vowel . see also -ㄹ 만하다 To be different from. . shows comparison or similarity. verbal nouns.attaches to nouns Examples: 작기가 이만한 것 있어요?/Do you have something this small? 코기리가 거의 집만해요.다르다 is an irregular verb Examples: 70 . . to be as large as.. -만하다 to be as large as.used with nouns.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. In this particular usage. and the particle 에 expresses in or for. . for This pattern in addition to meaning but. be like This pattern. to be as much as./I'm going to use it to fix the house (literally. -과는 다르다 To be different from.

는가 보다 is used in all other cases . 모르겠습니다 doesn't mean. For example./It is different than what I thought (it would be). You must have waited a lot. 일하지 않겠어요. 정근의 얘기는 효리의 이야기와는 다릅니다/Jong Guen's story is different than Hyolee's. Infix -겠/future tense Infix -겠. -ㄴ 가 보다 It appears. future tense. 나 보다/는가 보다/은 보다 This pattern is used to indicate the speaker's presumption or conjecture.. Smith plays soccer well but have never seen him play to make your own guess.when used with verbs of knowledge (모르다/don't know. but most occurs with descriptive verbs or action verbs in the past tense. 저는 서점에 곧 가겠어.은가 보다 is used with descriptive verbs in the present tense ending in a consonant .e for weather forecasts. For example. -If combined with past tense it can show conjecture/speculation about that past event. it means I don't know and is a common response when you don't know the answer to someone's query.. I will go to the book store soon. By using this pattern you are showing strong intention or simply that sometime will happen. -을/ㄹ 것이다/거에요 denotes a simpler future and shows less intention or will. .ㄴ가 보다 is used with descriptive verbs in the present tense ending in a vowel and the verb 이다 (present tense) . It appears. Example: 많이 기다렸겠어요.used with any verb usually with the subject in the third person . looks like. you can use this pattern. It can be used in this way with any verb.these pattern is used when you don't have direct evidence of the conjecture you are talking about (in that case use 것 같다). when used to express future tense. 2012 그 것은 제가 생각했던 것과는 달라요. it can also be used to indicate supposition/conjecture. supposition This pattern is usually used to indicate future tense. . it occurs in 1st/2nd person only with action verbs and 있다/없다. strong intentional. Examples: 서울에서 내일 하루 정일 비가 오겠습니다. I will not know. will. 알다/to know. if you've heard Mr. I guess. If you are basing your conjecture on having seen him. I will not work.a synomous pattern is -나 봐다 and this tends to be used mostly with action verbs but descriptive verbs in the past tense can also use this . However. Conversely. .if used to show conjecture.) it means present tense. -When used with 3rd person subject conveys simple factual pronunciation i. -ㄴ 가 보다. announcements. Tomorrow it will rain all day in Seoul. 71 . use 것 같다. etc.etc. the subject is usually in the 3rd person.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30.

is often followed by the expression 불구하고(in spite of. 관장히 추워요. The contents of the second/main clause come about in spite of the facts expressed in the dependent/first clause. in order to This pattern shows purpose or aim./Jong Geun appears to be happy.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 72 ./I guess Hyolee will go the day after tomorrow. it's very cold.also used as a rhetorical sentence ending.a similiar pattern is is when it's attached to the nominalizer (으)ㅁ to make (으)ㅁ에도 불구하고 Examples: 삼월달인데도. I'll catch a cold. 미리 예고를 했음에도 불구하고 안 듣고 사고를 내더군요. it must be used with (으)면 or 다가는. .는 데도 is used in all other cases . so that 게. ㅁ에도 불구하고 This pattern shows disregard for an undesireable or unexpected fact/event./Please go quick so that you won't be late. If used in this manner. . Examples: 늦게 않게./Apparently he is leaving. Also interchangeable with -게끔 but that pattern is more emphatic than -게 . 여기서 자다가는 감기에 걸리게요?/If I sleep here. 떠나나 봐요. notwithstanding) . 효리가 모레 가겠는 봅니다. 빨리 가세요. won't I? In spite of. 2012 Examples: 정근이가 뱅복한 봐요. see also 어 보이다 모양이다 (based on indirect evidence. despite./Although it's March. secondhand information) 게. verb+-ㄴ데도/은데도/는데도. -ㄴ데도 In spite of.ㄴ 데도 is attached to descriptive verbs in the present tense and the verb 이다 .interchangeable with -도록 but this pattern is more informal and common than -도록. 음에도 불구하고.can be used with any verb . The particle 요 may be added to make it a polite sentence. they didn't listen and caused an accident.used mostly with action verbs . in such a way./In spite of the fact that we notified them in advance. See the example below. although. so that.

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012

Even though...how?; +어야, 얼마나..겠습니까?

Even though...how?; verb+어야, 얼마나+verb+겠습니까?/아야, 얼마나..겠습니까/여야, 얼마나..겠습니까; This construct shows the idea that someone is underestimating the actual size, quantity, condition, number, etc. of something. - always ends in a question - the verb with 어야/아야/여야 is repeated in the final/independent clause - past tense is express in the final/indepedent clause, not the dependent clause

Examples: 선생님이 야단쳐야, 얼마나 야다치겠습니까?/Even though the teacher will give me a scolding, how bad can it be? 한국어 실력이 있어댜, 얼마나 있겠어요?/Granted that he's proficient in Korean, how good can he be? 동환이가 가야, 얼마나 갔겠어여?/Even though Dong Hwan was going far, how far could he have gone?

Even though; -ㄴ들
Even though; -ㄴ들/은들; granted that...; When someone uses this pattern, they are showing an act/instance of reluctant admittance or conceding a point made in an argument and this pattern is usuall followed by a rhetorical question. - used with rhetorical questions (verb is typically in the future/겠 tense) - may be used with any verb - ㄴ들 attaches to verbs ending in a vowel - 은들 is attached to verbs ending in a consonant - when used with 얼 마나+verb+겠습니까?, is synomous with 어야, 얼마나+verb+겠습니까? Examples: 구분이 영어를 잘 한들, 미국사람만큼 잘 하겠어요?/Even if he speaks English well, can he speak it like an American? 그 남자인들 무슨 힘이 있겠어요? What sort of power would he have? (lit. Even though it be him, what power would he have?) 그 소녀는 고집이 세니 얘기한들 뭘 해요?/That girl is so stubborn, what is the point of talking to her?


[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012

It might be; -ㄹ는지도 모르다

It might be; -ㄹ는지도 모르다/을 는지도 모르다; This pattern shows the speakers doubt about a certain event or fact. - can be used with any verb - subject is usually in the third person - ㄹ는지도 모르다 is used after verb stems ending in a vowel - 을는지도 모르다 is used after verb stems ending in a consonant - can be used interchangeably with ㄹ(을)지도 모르다 but tends to be more conjectural than that pattern Examples: 그 분이 부자일는지도 몰라요./He might be a rich man (for all I know).

Through; -를 통해서
Through; noun+-를 통해서/을 통해서; throughout; 를 통해/을 통해 This pattern shows by which medium, means, etc. (through) something happened or shows the whole period or time (throughout) during which something happened. - the final -서 is optional - 을 통해서 attaches to nouns ending in a consonant - 를 통해서 attaches to nouns ending in a vowel Examples: 상사를 통해서 소식을 들었어요./I heard the news through my superior. 일생을 통해 수학만 가르쳤습니다./I taught only math throughout my life.

In spite of; 를 무릅쓰고
In spite of; noun+ -를 무릅쓰고/을 무릅쓰고; despite When using this pattern, one shows willingness to continue despite some thing (danger, obstacle, etc.). 무릅쓰다 means to defy, risk, brave, etc. - 를 무릅쓰고 is used after nouns ending in a vowel - 을 무릅쓰고 is used after nouns ending in a consonant Examples: 폭뭉우를 무릅쓰고 산책을 계속했습니다. We continued on our stroll (leisure walk) despite the

[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30, 2012 rainstorm. 앞음을 무릅쓰고 열심히 공부했어요./I studied hard in spite of the pain.

someone says that...; 말하기를
someone says that...; person + 말하기를 + indirect discourse (i.e. -라고 하다, etc.) This pattern, when followed by an indirect discourse, indicates the source of the information relayed, i.e. who said it. - the verbs 말씀하다 (to tell)/말하다(to say), can be replaced by other verbs such as 명령하다 (to order, command), 약속하다(to promise), etc. 대위께서 명령하시기를 이 일은 오늘 마치래요./The captain ordered that this work be finished today. 친구가 말하기를 그 영화는 볼 만하대요./My friend says this movie is worth seeing.

Had the experience of; -ㄴ 적이 있다
Had the experience of; action verb+-ㄴ 적이 있다/은 적이 있다; ㄴ 적이 없다/은 적이 없다; have ever done (something); This grammar construction indicates that someone has had a certain experience. Literally it means the experience of having done something exists. - only used with action verbs - tense is expressed in the final 있다/없다 - is interchangeable with 은/ㄴ 일 있다 but that pattern is more colloquial - can substitute -없다 in place of -있다 to mean never had the experience of (doing something) - 은 적 있다 is attached to verbs ending with a consonant - ㄴ 적 있다 is attached to verbs ending with a vowel Examples: 남산에 가 본 적 있어요?/Have you been to Namsan? 상을 받은 적 있어요?/Have you ever received a prize?

No matter how; 아무라+verb+ㄹ지라도
No matter how; 아무라+verb+-ㄹ지라도/아무라+verb+-을지라도/암만+verb+ㄹ지라도/암만+verb+-을지라도; however; maybe, 더라도 This pattern forms an adverbial concessive clause,i.e. the speaker concedes a certain condition exists.


imperative.. -자면 If someone says. if (one)sleeps/자면 Examples: 76 . i. present modifier suffix (는).is always followed by a independent(main) clause .this pattern can be easily confused with 자다 (to sleep) + 면 (if). or propisitive sentence (showing up in the independent clause) . how could you not even get one answer correct? 아무리 자신이 있더라도 충고를 듣는 게 좋을 겁니다.ㄹ(을)지라도 is interchangeable with 아/어/여도 or 더라도 with no change in meaning Examples: 문제가 어려웠다치더라도.".only used with action verbs ... Since someone does.아무리 can be replaced by 암만 with no change in meaning but 아무리 is more colloquial . .is used with past modifier suffix (ㄴ/은). since one does/since one did.usually used with an obligatory.similiar to 김에 but that pattern cannot be used with the future tense modifier suffix Examples: 서울까지 온 바에야.tense and/or negation occurs in the final/main clause . 아무리 좋아도./Since you came to Seoul. 암만 떠들지라도. If someone says./No matter how much noise they make. This pattern shows that one should take an opportunity that has appeared. .. I won't buy it. or future tense modifier suffix (을/ㄹ) ./No matter how confident you are. "Let's do (something). action verb+-자면 This pattern shows that someone has proposed to do something aand the speakers reaction is conditional to what upon what the other party said.if you use with the future tense. 2012 . it will do you well to listen to advice. it has a slightly different meaning of "one is supposed to do something" . 전쟁기념박물관에 구경하세요. 사지 않겠습니다.e. 어떻게 하나고 못 맞출 수가 있어?/Even though the problems were difficult.". "Let's do (something). go sightseeing at the War Museum.abbreviated form of 자고 하면 . verb+ adverbial modifier/attributive form+바에야./However good it may be. you shouldn't worry about it. 항복할 바에야 차라리 죽겠다/I would rather die than surrender. 바에야 Since someone does.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 염려할 것 없어요.

을 생각이다 is attached to verbs ending in a consonant . but. but he doesn't know how to spend it. 먹었어요. 77 . how should we do it? As long as..can be used with verbs ending in consonants ㅆ or ㅄ (such as 없다) . -ㄹ 생각이다 I thinking of doing. "Let's eat. -되 As long as.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30. 어떻게 해다 합니까?/If the president says./Let's buy it.the 을/ㄹ portion refers to the future tense Examples: 자녁에 체육관에 갈 생각입니다. . 대통령이 한국을 현대화자면./I was thinking of meeting my girlfriend.only used with action verbs . 친구는 돈은 많되."./I'm thining of going to the gym this evening. 마시긴 마시되 적당히 마셔라. 여자친구을 만날 생각이었어요.tense is expressed in the final 이다 portion .can't be used with the final verb in the main clause being in the past or future tenses.very similiar to the pattern ㄹ(을) 생각이 있다 (this pattern shows intention rather than consideration however) . although.act of concession appears in the first clause and the condition is shown in the final/main clause .ㄹ 생각이다 is attached to verbs ending in a vowel . but let's wait until next year./You can drink. action verb+-ㄹ 생각이다/을 생각이다 This pattern shows that the speaker is considering doing something or thinking about doing something. he ate. Examples: 그 것을 사되. 쓸 줄 몰라요. 내년까지 기다립시다. . -되. "Let's modernize Korean..used with any verb except 이다 . Thinking of doing./My friend has a lot of money. but drink moderately. 2012 내가 먹자면. even though This pattern shows conditional concession./When I said..".

.only used with action verbs .the 을/ㄹ portion refers to the future tense Examples: 운전할 계확입니다.interchangeable with the pattern ㄹ(을) 계획이 있다. 78 . project. It literally means "My plan is to..ㄹ 계획이다 is attached to verbs ending in a vowel . ./We plan to build a factory. The 이 can be dropped in colloquial speech. intention. 공장을 세울 계획이 있어요. 2012 Plans to do.tense is expressed in the final 이다 portion . -ㄹ 계획이다 Plans to do. action verb+-ㄹ 계획이다/을 계획이다 This pattern shows one's plan.". etc.[KOREAN GRAMMAR] April 30./I plan to drive.을 계획이다 is attached to verbs ending in a consonant . .

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