IS : 2720 ( Part XL) - 1977

( Reaffirmed 1997 )

Indian Standard
METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS
PART XL DETERtJilNATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS
(Third Reprint AUGUST 1997 )

UDe 624.131.434

~;)Copyright 1978

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
9

INDIAN
BAHADUR

STANDARDS
SHAH ZAFAR MARG

BHAV AN.

NEW DEUfl 110002

Gr 2

March

1978

SEN (Alternate) ( Continued on page 2 ) Representing Central Building Roorkee Research Institute (CSIR). BDC 23 Chairman PROF DINESHMOHAN Members ADDITIONAL CHIEF ENGINEER Public Works Department. DIVANJI Asia Foundations & Construction ( P) Ltd. DASTIDAR In personal capacity (5 Hungerford Street. New Delhi SHRI A. Khagaul. DEWAN Irrigation Research Institute. ' P' New Alipore.JANGLE (Alternate) DR SHASHIK. Calcutta 700053 ) SHRI A. BALCHANDANIAllernate ) ( SHRI O. S. Calcutta SHRI S. N. H. RAO (AltlTnate) SHRI V. V. K. MARYA Roads Wing (Ministry of Shipping & Transport). H. Government of Uttar Pradesh SHRI D. KANITKAR( Alternate) DR A. HEGDE National Buildings Organization. BUREAU @) Copyright 1978 OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act. S. New Delhi SHRI N. Army Headquarters MAJ V. C. BANERJEE Cementation Co Ltd. G. G.IS : 2720( Part XL ) -1977 Indian Standard METHODS PART XL OF TEST FOR SOILS DETERMINATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS Soil Engineering Sectional Committee. N. New Delhi SHRI S. CHATURVEDIAlternate) ( ADDITIONALDIRECTOR RESEARCH Railway Board ( Ministry of Railways) (ROSO) DEPUTY DIRECTORRESEARCH ( ROSO) ( Alternate) PROFALAMSINGH University of Jodhpur. 12{1 Hungerford Court. L. P. GULHATI Indian Institute of Technology. Patna DR G. DmLLoN Indian Geotechnical Society. GUPTA ( Alternate) CHIEF ENGINEER( D & R ) Irrigation Department. DADINA In personal capacity (P-820. Government of Punjab DIRECTOR( IPRI ) (Alternate) SHRI K. MALHOTRA Public Works Department. . Bombay SHRI A. Jodhpur LT-COL AVTARSINGH Engineer-in-Chief's Branch. Calcutta 700017) SHRI R. Government of Punjab SHRIJ. New Delhi DR G.

VASUDEVAN (Alternate) SHRI D. Bombay Building & Roads Research Laboratory. NATARAJAN REPRESENTATIVE RESEARCH OFFICER SRaI K. N.1977 ( Continued from page 1 ) Members Representing SHRI R. Khagaul. Army Headquarters MAJ V. SHRI AMARSINGH LT-COL AVTARSINGH Branch. MENON (Alternat. T. ssociation. Roorkee Public Works Department. New Delhi University of Roorkee. Bombay ~ & Dealers SHRI G. lSI Soil Testing Procedures and Equipment Subcommittee.IS : 2720 ( Part XL ) . New Delhi Hindustan Construction Co Ltd. K. Delhi Cenue. K.tary India Instruments Manufacturers . Jodhpur Central Building Roorkee Engineer-in-Chief's Research Institute ( CSIR ). D. lSI ( Ex-officio Member) Director ( Civ Engg) Secr. PREM( Alternate) SHRI H. SAXENA SECRETARY DEPUTYSECRETARY (Alternate) *DR SHAMSHER PRAKASH Oft GOPALRANJAN( Alternate) SHRI H. UNWALLA SHIHT.. BRATTACHARAYA (Alternate) SlIRI SHASHIK. S. AJITHASUfHA. K. BDC 23: 3 Convener PROF ALANSINGH Members University of Jodhpur. GULHATI Indian Institute of Technology. L. Talwara Township SHRI K. R. K. ( ContiliUld on pag' 5 ) 2 . DB (Alternate ) -Also represents Institution of Engineers ( Iadia ). GUllA Geologiat Syndicate Pvt Ltd. VBRMA Central Water Commission. KANITKAR(Allernale) SHRIR. New Delhi DR P. JAIN United Technical Consultanta ( P ) Ltd. RAMAN Deputy Director (Civ Engg). Government Nadu Concrete Association of India. DEWAN Irrigation Research Institute. New Delhi SHRI R. K. MELKOTE DEPUTYDIRECTOR(CSMRS) SHRI T. C. K. S. Roorkee Irrigation Research Institute. Bombay All of Tamil SHitI V. Hyderabad Central Board of Irrigation & Power. Chandigarh Engineering Research Laboratories. Calcutta SaRI N. Director General. Patna D E PUT Y DIRECTOR RESEARCH Railway Board (Ministry of Railways) ( SOIL MECHANics-I) ( RDSO ) Ass IS TAN T DIRECTOR RESEARCH (SOIL MECHANics-I) (RDSO) (Alternate) DIRECTOR(I & C ) Beas Dams Projects. M. SHARMA SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER EXECUTIVE ENGINEER(Alternate) SHRI B. New De hi (Alternate) Central Road Research Institute (CSIR).) SHRI H.

without any external constraints. observed or calculated. the Indian Standards Institution has brought out this Indian Standard Methods of test. initial water content.IS: 2720(Part XL) . surcharge loading and several other environmental factors. 0.1 This Indian Standard (Part XL) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 30 December 1977. :3 .2 With a view to establish uniform procedures for the determination of different characteristics of soils and also for facilitating comparative studies of the results. Forty-one parts of this standard have been published. Inferential testing is resorted to reflect the potential of the system to swell under different simulated conditions.3 In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to international co-ordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. is to be rounded off. at the outset. by an investigation of those soils likely to possess undesirable expansion characteristics. on submergence in water. 0. The possibility of damage to structures due to swelling of expensive clays need be identified.4 In reporting the result of a test or analysis made in accordance with this standard. This part [IS: 2720 ( Part XL )-1977] deals with the method of test for the determination of free swell index of soils. Actual magnitude of swelling pressures developed depends upon the dry density. after the draft finalized by the Soil Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. if the final value. Free swell is the increase in volume of a soil. FOR E W 0 R D 0. 0. it shall be done in accordance with IS : 2·1960· • • Rules for rounding off numerical values ( ""ised).1977 Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS PART XL DETERMINATION OF FREESWELL INDEX OF SOILS o.for soils (IS: 2720) which is being published in parts.

and Vk = the volume of soil specimen read from the graduated cylinder containing kerosene .IS I 2720 ( Part XL ) • 1977 1. The free swell index of the soil shall be calculated as follows: all the original 4. PROCEDURE 3. APPARATUS 2. 2.2 Glass Graduated 1956* ). One cylinder shall then be filled with kerosene oil and the other with distilled water up to the 100 ml (see Note under 3. 2.In the case of highly swelling soils. The level of the soil in the distilled water cylinder shall be read as the free swell level. CALCULATION cylinder shall be read volume of the soil samples.1 The level of the soil in the kerosene graduated Free swell index. percent where = VII - Vic Vk X 100 cylinder containing distilled water. Cylinders . soil specimens of oven dry soil passing NOTE . After removal of entrapped air (by gentle shaking or stirring with a-glass rod). the soils in both the cylinders shall be allowed to settle. V" = the volume of soil specimen read from the graduated 4 . the sample size may be 5 g or alternatively a cylinder of 250 ml capacity may be used. The final volume of soils in each of the cylinders shall be read out. kerosene being a non-polar liquid does not cause swelling of the soil. 3.425-micron IS Sieve.Two. Sufficient time (not less than 24 h ) shall be allowed for the soil sample to attain equilibrium state of volume without any further change in the volume of the soils. 4.1 Take two 10 g (see Note) through 425-micron IS Sieve.1 Sieve .1) mark. such as sodium bentonites.1 This standard ( Part XL) covers a test for the determination of free swell index of soil which helps to identify the potential of a soil to swell which might need further detailed investigation regarding swelling and swelling pressures under different field conditions. • Specification for graduated measuring cylinders. SCOPE 1.2 Each soil specimen shall be poured in each of the two glass graduated cylinders of 100 ml capacity. 100-ml capacity (see IS: 8iB- 3.

THOMAS ( Alternate) SHRI M. New Delhi ( Alternate) Central Road Rese irch Institute ( CSIR ). P. SEN SHRI P. DHAWAN (Alternate) SHRI V. S. Government of Uttar In personal capacity ([i'-24. MELKOTE DEPUTY DIRECTOR (CSMRS) SHRI P. New Delhi) Associated Instruments Manufacturers ( I ) Pvt Ltd. S. SETH DR B. New Delhi . New Delhi Public Works Pradesh Department. Green Park. L. C. D. JAGANNATHA RAO SHRI N. M.1977 ( Continued from page 2 ) Members SHRI O. RAO SHRI H. MALHOTRA RESEARCH OFFICER (Bl. Chandigarh Central Water Commission. VERMA Building & Representing & Roads Research Laboratory.IS : 2720 ( Part XL ) . New Delhi Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing). V.DG ROADS) (Alternate) SHRI R. K.

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