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Adedeji, A. A. and Salami A W. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
This report presents the causes and preventions of flooding in residential buildings at Opomalu/Amilengbe, Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga areas in Ilorin, Nigeria. Deteriorated buildings were observed while the rainfall data and the topography map of Ilorin metropolis were collected from the Niger River Basin Authority and Federal Ministry of Survey respectively on which the analysis was based to access the flood capacity. The computation of the run-off by the Internet Calculations by the Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET), its application for a specific watershed and for general watershed education have shown a poor soil infiltration rate in these flood liable areas, which aggravates flooding that affected the buildings to the points of failure of walls and collapse of roofs. Also, poor drainage system disallowed the flow of water in the desired routes. Construction of detention ponds as well as adequate channels were recommended between the catchment’s areas. Keywords: Environmental hazard, interwet, detention ponds, residential, buildings
Flood has a devastating effect on buildings. The ultimate factor of damage is not the quantity of water but how high water is above normal restraints or embankments. Buildings may deteriorate when flooded as a result of (i) the impermeability of the rocks on the soil on which the building rests that leads to poor water penetration, (b) increase in the height of water table as a result of cumulative rainfall, which causes inability of the soil supporting building to absorb water and/or (c) obstruction of natural flow of water through drainage made to protect the buildings by debris and garbage disposed improperly by human beings Flood is very problematic, it’s devastating effects on buildings can be categorized into three: structural, economic, and health related effects. Disasters Management Center, college of Engineering, University of Wisconsin – Madison (1995) identified the following structural effects on buildings: • • • • • Buildings washed away due to the impact of the water under high stream velocity. Such buildings are usually destroyed or dislocated beyond feasible reconstruction Floatation of buildings caused by rising water. This occurs when light–weight houses are not securely anchored or braced. Damage caused by inundation of buildings: A building may remain intact and stable on its foundation, while its material is gradually and severely damaged. Undercutting of building: here the velocity of flood may scour and erode the building’s foundation or the earth under the foundation. This may result in total collapse of affected buildings. Damage caused by debris: massive floating objects like trees and materials from other collapsed house may have impact significant enough to cause damage to the standing buildings.
so irrigation.4 mm/day whereby induced flood during the period of moisture surplus. deaths and injuries are usually recorded. Dampness as a result of accumulated water in corners. and between 1993-2006. more rain than what the landscape can dispose of. In more severe flooding. Flood is too much water in the wrong place whether it is an inundated city or a single drain. This work is based on: (i) Reconnaissance survey of the study area. Haiti. This action leads to settling of the building i. Indirect and secondary effect on the local and national economy may lead to a reduction in the family income. Economic and Health Effects of Flood on Buildings Flood can have significant effects on long – term economic growth of the affected region. The above are the reasons why human settlements are often located in flood plains Despite the aforementioned advantages of floodplains.e. Between the years 1971 – 1980. hence a river may deposit the topsoil picked up elsewhere so the land is fertile. Review People have long been attracted to flood plains. 40351E). University of Ilorin (Madison. 1995). rug and more. curves and other parts of a building may promote mold growths. while the rains recorded were greater than 25.e.• Flood leads to the exposure of some parts of the buildings foundation and soaking up of base blocks. Ilorin city. The weakening of the base blocks by the flood may result to collapse • When the building foundation is not well rammed i. trying to repair the damage houses and household gadgets like electronics. man activities that causes flood include: (i) farming and deforestation that exposes the soil to erosion and increases runoff. Europe. which coincided with global warming experiencing in the world till today with sad news from US. of recent (as shown in Fig. rapid snow melts. Flood may create conditions that promote secondary treats of waterborne and vector borne diseases as in respiratory diseases. (ii) Collection of metrological data of the research area (iii) Analysis of the data (iv) identifying control areas and flood liable areas in Ilorin (Opomalu/Amilengbe and Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga) and (v) generic recommendations of appropriate solution to these areas and (vi) failure evaluation and analysis of the buildings walled with sandcrete and earth (laterite) due to flooding at these catchment areas. and low infiltration such as clayed soil . flooding. floods are now becoming a feature of the city life at Ilorin (80301N. In general. ploughing and transport (usually aided by the river) are all made easier. topography (low-land close hills). ice flows blocking a river and burst water mains. tsunamis.1) has experienced the occurrence of the flood events. which would eventually result to the increase in spending. Bruce (2003) identified the possibility of human illness syndromes related to indoor mold growth in buildings. ocean storm surges. if not controlled by man would have overwhelmed all the advantages. According to the findings at the Department of Geography. poor watershed management and failure to control the flooding promptly and (iii) river channels that block or narrow river channels. sinking of the building which latter leads to cracking of the walls. Naturally flood could be due to a high water table in an area. well compacted. some of the mechanisms that trigger flood are dam or levee failure. Flood plains are both flat and near water. the torrential rains of hurricanes. Cuba. (ii) urbanization by reckless building in vulnerable areas without regards to town planning regulations. Generally. excessive flood will lead to softening of the foundation base.
• Velocity: high velocities of water flow may create high erosive forces and hydrodynamic pressures. the following factors affect the bulks of flood resulting from rainfall and flow of river(s): Land use/Land cover (LULC): the first characteristics to be considered when determining flood risk is the LULC. 1 Taiwo road threatened by flood in Ilorin (Source: The Punch. 2008) The danger of floodwater to buildings is associated with a number of different characteristics. • Rate of Rise: the rate of rise of river level and discharge is related to the time available for giving flood warning or making flood fighting arrangement. not necessarily independent of each other but creating different types of hazards. Factors Affecting Flood Magnitude According to Annie (2000). • Duration: this is the time of inundation and it applies to structural safety.Fig. These features often result in complete or partial failure of structure by creating instability or destroying foundation support. This is because the runoff results from rainfall farmland or forest. and flood proofing has different degrees of tolerance to inundation. The degree of damage is often related to this factor. These are: • Depth of water: building stability against floatation and foundation failures. • Frequency of occurrence: total potential damage in a flood plain relates to the cumulative effect of depth. . duration and velocity hazards measured over a very long period of time. This is very useful for planning.
htm (2001) construction materials are graded into four classes relevant to their resistance to flood water. Sandstones are compacted rocks that are hard to erode. these could be the: most suitable which are materials having a relatively high resistance to submersion and floodwater exposure or second preference which are also known as minor effects. thus reducing or eliminating the needs for major downstream flood control facilities. They are used when the most suitable materials are uneconomical. concrete of cobblestones may be more appropriate in different locations. Water flowing at high velocity will cause more erosion and damage tall buildings than the one flowing with low velocities. Concrete-lined channels require the least amount of right-of-way and the least amount of routine maintenance. planners. The two types of soils have higher risk than sandstone and limestone. the runoff. television and newspaper. wire-enclosed rock. Houses built on soils that are prone to erosion are at higher risk of collapsing than those built on resistant rocks.canterbury. at the urban centres. government and other organizations need to understand the nature of the hazard.nsw. Based on that understanding. First. Flood detection and warning system This can range from inexpensive networks to announce the flood liable areas and their flooding regime to the dissemination of flood ways by radio. Alluvium is the worst. they have limited multiple uses. Floodplain width: when the floodplain is wide. Others are drainage system and environmental sanitation by the Town Planning Authorities. They resist flood but not as good as most suitable materials. Prevention and Control of Flood Construction of structures A great deal can be done to lessen the impact of flood on residential buildings.gov. additional multiple use possibilities such as playground and soccer fields – this type of channel requires the largest amount of right-of-way in order to reduce the water velocity. An example of detention facility is a dam.dcp28. But. Shale as well as alluvium are soft and could be easily eroded. To prevent erosion channels can be lined with grass. Prevention and control of flood may include: Canalization: The construction of open channels is a commonly used method of reducing the size of floodway of floodplain. Houses close to the river and at low elevation are at higher risk than those far away from the river and at high elevation. they are expensive and have no multiple uses. though the general public as well as the engineers. Construction material in flood liable area According to http. Elevation away from the floodplain: a volume of water flowing through a river will rise to a specific elevation. a decision and a commitment need to be made to provide mitigation measures to reduce flood damage effects. . Soil moisture content: how dry or wet a land is affecting the rate of infiltration hence. Grass-lined channels This provides.Geology: the rock beneath the soil can play a vital role in a flood. But. The moisture content is inversely proportional to the rate of infiltration. water velocity is low and vise versa.//www.au/building/dcp. Detention Facilities These facilities store floodwaters and release them at lower rates. Rock-lined channels can withstand higher velocity thus reducing the right-of-way required. which must be designed and constructed by competent engineers.
2) and topographic map of Ilorin metropolis was also collected. The floodplain widths of the streams are narrow whereby making Opomalu/Emirs road extremely liable to flood. 2. fig 1 (max imum monthly rainfall in ilorin metropolis) rainfall in millimetres 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 months (JAN-DEC) Series1 Fig. This has a lower resistance of to erosion compared to Opomalu/Amilengbe. 4. the area is less liable to flood based on this factor. Maximum rainfall data of 25 years (See Fig. Feeder rivers and floodplain width It was found that Asa and Aluko stream feeds Opomalu/Emirs road. Gaa-Akanbi area is both rocking and clayish. Maximum monthly rainfall in Ilorin metropolis between 1997-2006 Reconnaissance survey of study area Proper study of the area using visual inspection was carried out to obtain required information for the areas that are liable to flood.Research Methodology Reconnaissance survey of study area were conducted to determine the feeder rivers. Geology of the area The most conspicuous things about the geology of Opomalu/Emirs road area is the presence of small hard rocks which is liable to resist erosion but disallow proper infiltration. . geology of the area and the level of deterioration of buildings as a result of flood. The feeder river in Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga area is Agba river with a wide flood width and a dam has been constructed to control the river. Topographical map of Ilorin and the study areas are shown in Figs. Consequently. Statistical analysis of data collected and calculation of runoff flood level using InterWET calculator were embarked upon. Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga residential buildings are faraway from the feeder river. 3a and 3b while the section across the cathment areas is shown in Fig.
3a. Topographical map of Ilorin showing Gaa-Akanbi Onikanga study area .STUDY AREA Fig.
4. Topographical map of Ilorin showing Opomalu/Amilegbe study area) 1400 1200 ELEVATION (mm) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 300 600 700 750 800 850 1000 1100 1300 1400 DISTANCE (Km) Fig. Cross section across the catchment’s areas .STUDY AREA Fig. 3b.
galvanised iron (Wall/roof): block. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture and wide cracks Height above sea level: 1000 mm Fig. 5. Total Rainfall: this is the summation of all annual rainfall for the recording period. failures of walls by cracking and moisture laden are the characteristics of the buildings. Pictures of some of the typical collapsed or dilapidated buildings were taken and presented in Fig.Records of some Damaged Buildings From some of the observed buildings in the flood affected areas. Mean Daily Rainfall is the ratio of the mean monthly rainfall to the number of days in that month. Location: Opomalu/Amilengbe Materials: (Wall/roof): block. 5. block. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture and cracks Height above sea level: 1500mm Location: Opomalu/Amilengbe Opo-malu/Emir’s road Materials: Wall/roof. . Mean Annual Rainfall is the ratio of total rainfall to the number of year for which rainfall value was recorded. wall. Deterioration of buildings at Opomalu/Amilengbe and Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga Analysis Parameters Annual Rainfall: this is the summation of all monthly rainfall in a year. Monthly Rainfall: this is the summation of all daily rainfall for a month. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Total collapse of structure wall and roof Height above sea level: 950 mm Height above sea level: 950 mm Location: Gaa-Akanbi Materials: Wall/roof: block. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture attacks Height above sea level: 930 mm Location: Gaa-Akanbi/Onokanga MaterialsLWall/roof): mud brick.
894mm Construction of Detension Ponds Conclusion From the results obtained.45 + 4. Similarly. the runoff in Opomalu/Emirs road = 4.444mm.088 = 18. From the calculator. Therefore. 6b.53mm.444 = 16.45 + 2. flood level = peak daily rainfall + runoff = 14. the following conclusions have been drawn. the runoff in Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga area = 2.088mm But flood level = mean daily rainfall + Runoff = 14. .Fig. 6a. A typical example of results interface for Gaa-Akanbi Onikanga area The wet soil moisture is assumed because flood is likely to take place when the soil is saturated. A typical example of results interface for Opomalu area Fig.
University of Ilorin.htm.H. should be constructed to divert flow of rivers from the flood liable areas. Audet. Meixler. most of the affected buildings were not constructed with regard to the town planning regulations. Embankment should be constructed to raise the bank of Asa and Aluko River to disallow them from overtopping their natural bank.L. Poor soil infiltration rate as a result of impermeable rocks in these flood liable areas aggravate flood effects on the buildings. (2003). ActiveMaps Version 2. Virginia: InternetGIS.cornell. a well planned drainage system should be constructed and proper means of solid wastes disposal be provided in these study areas. (2003). • • • • • Proper channelization of rivers (Asa and Aluko) as well as adequate numbers of flood detention basins. Most building walls (of sandcrete and laterite/mud) collapsed totally and few were failed by crack forming and moisture laden. From the visual observation.com. and M.S.wru. Environmental Harzard: Effect if flood on buildings.dnr. pp 1-34. Department of Geography. University of Ilorin.• • • • Some buildings in the study areas close to Aasa river with narrow channels are more liable to flood than those far from the river.com. InternetGIS. 1996. and G. Using water resistant cement like hydrophobic cement for plastering buildings up to the design flood level of Ilorin metropolis. B Eng Project submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering. Generic Recommendations. improper refuse disposal contributed to the negative effect of flood because refuse are been drop into river channels which eventually blocks water ways making the water to find alternative routes to Asa and Aluko rivers. S. Natural hazards: causes and effect. . Bain. : http://www. All others things being equal. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 33(1): 21-45. The successive collapse of the walls affected the roofs and the openings frames and panels.edu/hydro2/aquagap. R. Oakton. 1997. which is 0. M. Bruce M.edu/rm493-591(2000/students/morris.0.Application of GAP Analysis to Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation. George B. 1998. College of Engineering. between the two dams and the flood liable areas. Creating mold free building disaster. Although help in erosion resistance. Management Center. References Annis (2000) http://www.nrac. This method is suitable for already existing buildings.B. Abegg. Geographic information systems: Implications for problem solving. University of Wisconsin Madison (1995). Building on columns: Elevating structures above the design flood level of Ilorin metropolis on reinforced concrete supporting columns to protect the buildings from under flow water.2m above sea level.
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