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Adedeji, A. A. and Salami A W. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
This report presents the causes and preventions of flooding in residential buildings at Opomalu/Amilengbe, Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga areas in Ilorin, Nigeria. Deteriorated buildings were observed while the rainfall data and the topography map of Ilorin metropolis were collected from the Niger River Basin Authority and Federal Ministry of Survey respectively on which the analysis was based to access the flood capacity. The computation of the run-off by the Internet Calculations by the Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET), its application for a specific watershed and for general watershed education have shown a poor soil infiltration rate in these flood liable areas, which aggravates flooding that affected the buildings to the points of failure of walls and collapse of roofs. Also, poor drainage system disallowed the flow of water in the desired routes. Construction of detention ponds as well as adequate channels were recommended between the catchment’s areas. Keywords: Environmental hazard, interwet, detention ponds, residential, buildings
Flood has a devastating effect on buildings. The ultimate factor of damage is not the quantity of water but how high water is above normal restraints or embankments. Buildings may deteriorate when flooded as a result of (i) the impermeability of the rocks on the soil on which the building rests that leads to poor water penetration, (b) increase in the height of water table as a result of cumulative rainfall, which causes inability of the soil supporting building to absorb water and/or (c) obstruction of natural flow of water through drainage made to protect the buildings by debris and garbage disposed improperly by human beings Flood is very problematic, it’s devastating effects on buildings can be categorized into three: structural, economic, and health related effects. Disasters Management Center, college of Engineering, University of Wisconsin – Madison (1995) identified the following structural effects on buildings: • • • • • Buildings washed away due to the impact of the water under high stream velocity. Such buildings are usually destroyed or dislocated beyond feasible reconstruction Floatation of buildings caused by rising water. This occurs when light–weight houses are not securely anchored or braced. Damage caused by inundation of buildings: A building may remain intact and stable on its foundation, while its material is gradually and severely damaged. Undercutting of building: here the velocity of flood may scour and erode the building’s foundation or the earth under the foundation. This may result in total collapse of affected buildings. Damage caused by debris: massive floating objects like trees and materials from other collapsed house may have impact significant enough to cause damage to the standing buildings.
This action leads to settling of the building i. if not controlled by man would have overwhelmed all the advantages.e. man activities that causes flood include: (i) farming and deforestation that exposes the soil to erosion and increases runoff. rapid snow melts. University of Ilorin (Madison. Bruce (2003) identified the possibility of human illness syndromes related to indoor mold growth in buildings.e. Dampness as a result of accumulated water in corners. Naturally flood could be due to a high water table in an area. curves and other parts of a building may promote mold growths. Ilorin city. According to the findings at the Department of Geography. Generally. deaths and injuries are usually recorded. which would eventually result to the increase in spending. The above are the reasons why human settlements are often located in flood plains Despite the aforementioned advantages of floodplains. flooding. Europe. well compacted. some of the mechanisms that trigger flood are dam or levee failure. 1995). the torrential rains of hurricanes. The weakening of the base blocks by the flood may result to collapse • When the building foundation is not well rammed i.4 mm/day whereby induced flood during the period of moisture surplus. Flood may create conditions that promote secondary treats of waterborne and vector borne diseases as in respiratory diseases. In more severe flooding. Review People have long been attracted to flood plains. which coincided with global warming experiencing in the world till today with sad news from US. Economic and Health Effects of Flood on Buildings Flood can have significant effects on long – term economic growth of the affected region. ocean storm surges. rug and more.1) has experienced the occurrence of the flood events. and between 1993-2006. more rain than what the landscape can dispose of. while the rains recorded were greater than 25. This work is based on: (i) Reconnaissance survey of the study area. hence a river may deposit the topsoil picked up elsewhere so the land is fertile. sinking of the building which latter leads to cracking of the walls. Haiti. of recent (as shown in Fig. Flood plains are both flat and near water. and low infiltration such as clayed soil . trying to repair the damage houses and household gadgets like electronics. tsunamis. Indirect and secondary effect on the local and national economy may lead to a reduction in the family income. topography (low-land close hills). (ii) urbanization by reckless building in vulnerable areas without regards to town planning regulations. so irrigation. floods are now becoming a feature of the city life at Ilorin (80301N. Between the years 1971 – 1980. Flood is too much water in the wrong place whether it is an inundated city or a single drain. 40351E). (ii) Collection of metrological data of the research area (iii) Analysis of the data (iv) identifying control areas and flood liable areas in Ilorin (Opomalu/Amilengbe and Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga) and (v) generic recommendations of appropriate solution to these areas and (vi) failure evaluation and analysis of the buildings walled with sandcrete and earth (laterite) due to flooding at these catchment areas.• Flood leads to the exposure of some parts of the buildings foundation and soaking up of base blocks. ice flows blocking a river and burst water mains. poor watershed management and failure to control the flooding promptly and (iii) river channels that block or narrow river channels. excessive flood will lead to softening of the foundation base. ploughing and transport (usually aided by the river) are all made easier. In general. Cuba.
and flood proofing has different degrees of tolerance to inundation. duration and velocity hazards measured over a very long period of time. 2008) The danger of floodwater to buildings is associated with a number of different characteristics. • Velocity: high velocities of water flow may create high erosive forces and hydrodynamic pressures. • Frequency of occurrence: total potential damage in a flood plain relates to the cumulative effect of depth. . 1 Taiwo road threatened by flood in Ilorin (Source: The Punch. • Duration: this is the time of inundation and it applies to structural safety. The degree of damage is often related to this factor. These are: • Depth of water: building stability against floatation and foundation failures. This is because the runoff results from rainfall farmland or forest.Fig. not necessarily independent of each other but creating different types of hazards. the following factors affect the bulks of flood resulting from rainfall and flow of river(s): Land use/Land cover (LULC): the first characteristics to be considered when determining flood risk is the LULC. These features often result in complete or partial failure of structure by creating instability or destroying foundation support. • Rate of Rise: the rate of rise of river level and discharge is related to the time available for giving flood warning or making flood fighting arrangement. Factors Affecting Flood Magnitude According to Annie (2000). This is very useful for planning.
wire-enclosed rock. . television and newspaper. Prevention and Control of Flood Construction of structures A great deal can be done to lessen the impact of flood on residential buildings. water velocity is low and vise versa. Houses built on soils that are prone to erosion are at higher risk of collapsing than those built on resistant rocks.//www. But. Detention Facilities These facilities store floodwaters and release them at lower rates. Houses close to the river and at low elevation are at higher risk than those far away from the river and at high elevation. Soil moisture content: how dry or wet a land is affecting the rate of infiltration hence. To prevent erosion channels can be lined with grass. thus reducing or eliminating the needs for major downstream flood control facilities.au/building/dcp. Elevation away from the floodplain: a volume of water flowing through a river will rise to a specific elevation. a decision and a commitment need to be made to provide mitigation measures to reduce flood damage effects. But. they are expensive and have no multiple uses. The two types of soils have higher risk than sandstone and limestone. additional multiple use possibilities such as playground and soccer fields – this type of channel requires the largest amount of right-of-way in order to reduce the water velocity. Prevention and control of flood may include: Canalization: The construction of open channels is a commonly used method of reducing the size of floodway of floodplain. Floodplain width: when the floodplain is wide. Concrete-lined channels require the least amount of right-of-way and the least amount of routine maintenance. Based on that understanding. Shale as well as alluvium are soft and could be easily eroded.Geology: the rock beneath the soil can play a vital role in a flood. They are used when the most suitable materials are uneconomical.gov. Grass-lined channels This provides.dcp28. government and other organizations need to understand the nature of the hazard. Alluvium is the worst. concrete of cobblestones may be more appropriate in different locations. at the urban centres.canterbury. planners. which must be designed and constructed by competent engineers. though the general public as well as the engineers. They resist flood but not as good as most suitable materials. Construction material in flood liable area According to http. Rock-lined channels can withstand higher velocity thus reducing the right-of-way required. these could be the: most suitable which are materials having a relatively high resistance to submersion and floodwater exposure or second preference which are also known as minor effects. The moisture content is inversely proportional to the rate of infiltration.nsw. First. Sandstones are compacted rocks that are hard to erode.htm (2001) construction materials are graded into four classes relevant to their resistance to flood water. Flood detection and warning system This can range from inexpensive networks to announce the flood liable areas and their flooding regime to the dissemination of flood ways by radio. Water flowing at high velocity will cause more erosion and damage tall buildings than the one flowing with low velocities. An example of detention facility is a dam. Others are drainage system and environmental sanitation by the Town Planning Authorities. they have limited multiple uses. the runoff.
the area is less liable to flood based on this factor. 4.Research Methodology Reconnaissance survey of study area were conducted to determine the feeder rivers. This has a lower resistance of to erosion compared to Opomalu/Amilengbe. . fig 1 (max imum monthly rainfall in ilorin metropolis) rainfall in millimetres 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 months (JAN-DEC) Series1 Fig. Feeder rivers and floodplain width It was found that Asa and Aluko stream feeds Opomalu/Emirs road. Gaa-Akanbi area is both rocking and clayish. Topographical map of Ilorin and the study areas are shown in Figs. 2) and topographic map of Ilorin metropolis was also collected. Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga residential buildings are faraway from the feeder river. Geology of the area The most conspicuous things about the geology of Opomalu/Emirs road area is the presence of small hard rocks which is liable to resist erosion but disallow proper infiltration. Consequently. 2. geology of the area and the level of deterioration of buildings as a result of flood. Maximum monthly rainfall in Ilorin metropolis between 1997-2006 Reconnaissance survey of study area Proper study of the area using visual inspection was carried out to obtain required information for the areas that are liable to flood. Maximum rainfall data of 25 years (See Fig. The floodplain widths of the streams are narrow whereby making Opomalu/Emirs road extremely liable to flood. The feeder river in Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga area is Agba river with a wide flood width and a dam has been constructed to control the river. 3a and 3b while the section across the cathment areas is shown in Fig. Statistical analysis of data collected and calculation of runoff flood level using InterWET calculator were embarked upon.
STUDY AREA Fig.3a. Topographical map of Ilorin showing Gaa-Akanbi Onikanga study area .
4. Topographical map of Ilorin showing Opomalu/Amilegbe study area) 1400 1200 ELEVATION (mm) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 300 600 700 750 800 850 1000 1100 1300 1400 DISTANCE (Km) Fig. Cross section across the catchment’s areas . 3b.STUDY AREA Fig.
wall. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture attacks Height above sea level: 930 mm Location: Gaa-Akanbi/Onokanga MaterialsLWall/roof): mud brick. Monthly Rainfall: this is the summation of all daily rainfall for a month. galvanised iron (Wall/roof): block. failures of walls by cracking and moisture laden are the characteristics of the buildings. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture and cracks Height above sea level: 1500mm Location: Opomalu/Amilengbe Opo-malu/Emir’s road Materials: Wall/roof. Total Rainfall: this is the summation of all annual rainfall for the recording period. Mean Annual Rainfall is the ratio of total rainfall to the number of year for which rainfall value was recorded. 5. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Wall affected by moisture and wide cracks Height above sea level: 1000 mm Fig. Mean Daily Rainfall is the ratio of the mean monthly rainfall to the number of days in that month. galvanised iron sheet on wooden rafters Failure Type: Total collapse of structure wall and roof Height above sea level: 950 mm Height above sea level: 950 mm Location: Gaa-Akanbi Materials: Wall/roof: block.Records of some Damaged Buildings From some of the observed buildings in the flood affected areas. Location: Opomalu/Amilengbe Materials: (Wall/roof): block. Pictures of some of the typical collapsed or dilapidated buildings were taken and presented in Fig. . Deterioration of buildings at Opomalu/Amilengbe and Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga Analysis Parameters Annual Rainfall: this is the summation of all monthly rainfall in a year. block. 5.
Similarly. the following conclusions have been drawn.Fig.088 = 18.444 = 16.088mm But flood level = mean daily rainfall + Runoff = 14.894mm Construction of Detension Ponds Conclusion From the results obtained. 6a. A typical example of results interface for Opomalu area Fig. Therefore.45 + 4.45 + 2.53mm. the runoff in Gaa-Akanbi/Onikanga area = 2. the runoff in Opomalu/Emirs road = 4. A typical example of results interface for Gaa-Akanbi Onikanga area The wet soil moisture is assumed because flood is likely to take place when the soil is saturated. From the calculator. flood level = peak daily rainfall + runoff = 14. .444mm. 6b.
Department of Geography.cornell.com. 1998.dnr. Natural hazards: causes and effect.L. . Geographic information systems: Implications for problem solving. University of Ilorin. Most building walls (of sandcrete and laterite/mud) collapsed totally and few were failed by crack forming and moisture laden. : http://www. This method is suitable for already existing buildings. Meixler. M. Bruce M. Creating mold free building disaster. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 33(1): 21-45. From the visual observation. and G. Poor soil infiltration rate as a result of impermeable rocks in these flood liable areas aggravate flood effects on the buildings. between the two dams and the flood liable areas. Bain. Using water resistant cement like hydrophobic cement for plastering buildings up to the design flood level of Ilorin metropolis. University of Wisconsin Madison (1995).S. Abegg.Application of GAP Analysis to Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation. Oakton. College of Engineering. 1997. R. (2003). All others things being equal. Generic Recommendations.edu/rm493-591(2000/students/morris. George B. most of the affected buildings were not constructed with regard to the town planning regulations. (2003).com.edu/hydro2/aquagap. Embankment should be constructed to raise the bank of Asa and Aluko River to disallow them from overtopping their natural bank.0. The successive collapse of the walls affected the roofs and the openings frames and panels. pp 1-34. • • • • • Proper channelization of rivers (Asa and Aluko) as well as adequate numbers of flood detention basins.• • • • Some buildings in the study areas close to Aasa river with narrow channels are more liable to flood than those far from the river. should be constructed to divert flow of rivers from the flood liable areas. Environmental Harzard: Effect if flood on buildings. InternetGIS. ActiveMaps Version 2. References Annis (2000) http://www.nrac. a well planned drainage system should be constructed and proper means of solid wastes disposal be provided in these study areas.wru. University of Ilorin.htm. 1996. B Eng Project submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering. S.B. which is 0. Although help in erosion resistance. and M. Building on columns: Elevating structures above the design flood level of Ilorin metropolis on reinforced concrete supporting columns to protect the buildings from under flow water.H.2m above sea level. Management Center. improper refuse disposal contributed to the negative effect of flood because refuse are been drop into river channels which eventually blocks water ways making the water to find alternative routes to Asa and Aluko rivers. Audet. Virginia: InternetGIS.
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