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Power System Analysis

Power System Analysis

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Sections

  • 1.2 Network Models
  • 1.3 Faults and Analysis
  • 1.4 The Primitive Network
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definitions
  • 2.3 Tree and Co-Tree
  • 2.4 Basic Loops
  • 2.5 Cut-Set
  • 2.6 BasiC Cut-Sets
  • 3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix
  • 3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix
  • 3.3 Branch -Path Incidence Matrix K
  • 3.4 Basic Cut-Set Incidence Matrix
  • 3.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix
  • 3.6 Network Performance Equations
  • 3.7 Network Matrices
  • 3.8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix
  • 3.9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices
  • 3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices
  • 3.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection
  • Worked Examples
  • 4.1 Partial Network
  • 4.2 Addition of a Branch
  • 4.3 Addition of a Link
  • Questions
  • 5.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies
  • 5.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System
  • 5.3 The Power Flow Equations
  • 5.4 Classification of Buses
  • 5.5 Bus Admittance Formation
  • 5.6 System Model for Load Flow Studies
  • 5.7 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method
  • 5.8 Gauss -Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution
  • 5.9 Newton-Raphson Method
  • 5.9.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method
  • 5.9.2 The Polar Coordinates Method
  • 5.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices
  • 5.11 Triangular Decompostion
  • 5.12 Optimal Ordering
  • 5.13 Decoupled Methods
  • 5.14 Fast DecoupJed Methods
  • 5.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus
  • 5.15.1 Bus Impedance Formation
  • 5.15.2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus
  • 5.16 Convergence Characteristics
  • \Vorked Examples
  • Problems
  • 6.1 Per Unit Quantities
  • 6.2 Advantages of Per Unit System
  • 6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits
  • 6.10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current
  • 6.11 Reactors
  • 6.12 Construction of Reactors
  • 7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases
  • 7.3 Power in Sequence Components
  • 7.4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance
  • 7.5 Sequence Impedances
  • 7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load
  • 7.7 Transmission Lines
  • 7.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer
  • 7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine
  • 7.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines
  • 7.10.1 Positive Sequence Network
  • 7.10.2 Negative Sequence Network
  • 7.10.3 Zero Sequence Network
  • 7.11 Unsymmetrical Faults
  • 7.12 Assumptions for System Representation
  • 7.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator
  • 7.14 Line-to-Line Fault
  • 7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault
  • 7.16 Single-Line to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance
  • 7.17 Line-to-Line Fault with Fault Impedence
  • 7.18 Double Line-to-Ground Fault with Fault Impedence

Power System Analysis

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Power System Analysis
Prof. P.S.R. Murthy
B.Sc. (Engg.) (Hons.) ME.,
Dr. - ING (Berlin), F.I.E. (India)
Life Member - ISTE
(Formerly Principal O.U. College of Engineering &
Dean, Faculty of Engineering, O.U. Hyderabad)
Principal,
Sree Datha Institute of Engineering and Science,
Sheriguda, Ibrahim Patnam, Hyderabad (AP).
BSP BS Publications
4-4-309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar,
Hyderabad - 500095 A.P.
Phone: 040-23445688
Copyright © 2007, by Publisher
All rights reserved
No part of this book or parts thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system
or transmitted in any language or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the
publishers.
Published by :
SSP BS Publications
4-4-309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar,
Hyderabad - 500 095 A. P.
Phone: 040-23445688
e-mail: contactus@bspublications.net
www.bspublications.net
Printed at:
AdithyaArt Printers
Hyderabad.
ISBN: 978-81-7800-161-6
Preface
Power System analysis is a pre-requisite course for electrical power engineering students.
In Chapter I. introductory concepts about a Power system, network models, faults and
analysis;the primitive network and stability are presented.
Chapter 2 deals with the graph theory that is relevant to various incidence matrices required
for network modelling are explained.
Chapter 3 explains the various incidence matrices and network matrices.
Chapter 4 discusses, step-by-step method of building of network matrices.
Chapter 5 deals with power flow studies. Both Gauss-Seidel method and Newton-Raphson
methods are explained. In Newton-Raphson method both the Cartesion coordinates method
and polar coordinates methods are discussed.
In chapter 6 short circuit analysis is explained Per unit quantity and percentage values are
defined. Analysis for symmetrical faults is discussed. The utility of reactors for bus bar and
generator protection is also explained.
Unbalanced fault analysis is presented in chapter 7. Use of symmetrical components and
network connections are explained.
Chapter 8 deals with the power system stability problem. Steady state stability. transient
stability and dynamic stability are discussed.
It is earnestly hoped that this book will meet the requirements of students in the subject
power system analysis.
- Author
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Acknowledgment
My sincere thanks go to Mr. Nikhil Shah, Proprietor of BS Publications for his constant
encouragement to me to write and complete this book on 'Power System Analysis'.
My thanks also go to Mr. M.Y.L. Narasimha Rao, my well wisher for taking great pains in
transferring script material and proof material between my residence and the press with a great
smiley face, day and night over the last few months.
I thank Mrs. Swarupa for MATLAB assistance.
-Author
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................. (vii)
Acknowledgment ................................................................................................... (ix)
1 Introduction
I. I The Electrical Power System .................................................................. I
1.2 Network Models ...................................................................................... 3
1.3 Faults and Analysis .................................................................................. 3
1.4 The Primitive Network ............................................................................ 4
1.5 Power System Stability ........................................................................... 5
2 Graph Theory
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 6
2.2 Definitions ................................................................................................ 6
2.3 Tree and Co-Tree .................................................................................... 8
2.5 Cut-Set .................................................................................................... 9
2.4 Basic Loops ............................................................................................. 9
2.6 Basic Cut-Sets ....................................................................................... 10
vVorked Examples .. ' .... .. II
Prohlems ....... IS
Questions 16
(xii) C o n t e n t ~
3 Incidence Matrices
3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix ............................................................ 18
3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix ............................................................................ 18
3.3 Branch - Path Incidence Matrix K ....................................................... 19
3.4 Basic Cut-Set Incidence Matrix ............................................................ 20
3.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix ................................................................. 21
3.6 Network Performance Equations .......................................................... 22
3.7 Network Matrices .................................................................................. 24
3.8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix ............................. 25
3.9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices ........................... 26
3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices ................................. 28
3.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection ........................................ 29
Worked Examples. ...... ... ..... ........ ....... ............ . ................................ 33
Problems ........................... : ..................................................... 51
Questions .......... ........................................... '" .......................... 52
4 Building of Network Matrices
4.1 Partial Network ...................................................................................... 53
4.2 Addition ofa Branch .............................................................................. 55
4.3 Addition ofa Link .................................................................................. 60
4.4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with
Mutual Impedance ................................................................................. 66
Worked Examples. ........ " .. . 70
Problems .. . .............. : ............ . .... 96
Questions. . ............. . . ............. 97
5 Power Flow Studies
5.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies ....................................................... 98
5.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System .................... 99
5.3 The Power Flow Equations ................................................................... 99
5.4 Classification of Buses ........................................................................ 101
5.5 Bus Admittance Formation .................................................................. 102
5.6 System Model for Load Flow Studies ................................................ 104
5.7 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method ............................................................ 105
5.8 Gauss - Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution .................... 106
5.9 Newton-Raphson Method ................................................................... 109
5.9.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method .................................. 110
5.9.2 The Polar Coordinates Method ............................................ 112
Contents (xiii)
5.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices .......................................... 115
5.11 Triangular Decompostion .................................................................... 116
5.12 Optimal Ordering ................................................................................. 118
5.13 Decoupled Methods ............................................................................. 119
5.14 Fast Decoupled Methods ..................................................................... 120
5.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus ..................................................... 121
5.15.1 Bus Impedance Formation ................................................... 121
5.15.2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus .............................. 122
5.15.3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus ............................... 122
5.15.4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing
Buses in the System ............................................................. 123
5.15.5 Gauss - Seidel Method Using Z-bus for
Load Flow Solution .............................................................. 124
5.16 Convergence Characteristics ............................................................... 124
Worked Examples ..... .... . . 126
Problems .............. 161
Questions ................................. . . ... . ........................ 175
6 Short Circuit Analysis
6.1 Per Unit Quantities ............................................................................... 176
6.2 Advantages of Per Unit System .......................................................... 178
6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits ................................................................. 178
6.4 Reactance Diagrams ............................................................................ 181
6.5 Percentage Values ................................................................................ 181
6.6 Short Circuit KVA ................................................................................ 182
6.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents ................................................. 183
6.8 Analysis ofR-L Circuit ........................................................................ 184
6.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator ...... 185
6.10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current ........................................ 185
6.11 Reactors ............................................................................................... 186
6.12 Construction of Reactors .................................................................... 186
6.13 Classification of Reactors .................................................................... 187
Worked Examples. ..... ....... ....... ..... . .. . . ........... 189
Problems . ................................... . . ............ 216
Questions........ ... ... ....... ......... .. .......... .. .............. ................ .. 2 I 6
(xiv) Contents
7 Unbalanced Fault Analysis
7. I The Operator "'a'" ................................................................................. 218
7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases ......................... 219
7.3 Power in Sequence Components ........................................................ 221
7.4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance ................................... 222
7.5 Sequence Impedances ......................................................................... 224
7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load ........................................................... 224
7.7 Transmission Lines .............................................................................. 226
7.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer ............................................... 227
7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine ................................ 228
7.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines ................................. 228
7.10.1 Positive Sequence Network .................................................. 228
7.10.2 Negative Sequence Network ................................................ 229
7.10.3 Zero Sequence Network ....................................................... 230
7.11 Unsymmetrical Faults .......................................................................... 231
7.12 Assumptions for System Representation ............................................ 232
7.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator ............................... 232
7.14 Llne-to-Line Fault ................................................................................ 235
7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault ............................................................... 238
7.16 Single-Line to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance ............................ 241
7.17 Line-to-Line Fault with Fault Impedence ............................................ 242
7.18 Double Line-to-Ground Fault with Fault Impedence .......................... 243
Worked Examples............................. . ................ ............ .. .............. 245
Problems ............... .. .............. ............ ............ ...... ........ .. ........ 257
Questions . ...................................................................................... 257
8 Power System Stability
8.1 Elementary Concepts ........................................................................... 259
8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept ..................................... 260
8.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit ..................... 261
8.4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient ....................................................... 262
8.5 Transient Stability ................................................................................ 262
8.6 Stability ofa Single Machine Connected to lnfinite Bus .................... 262
8.7 The Swing Equation ............................................................................ 263
8.8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation ........................................... 267
Contents (xv)
8.9 Transient Stability Limit ...................................................................... 269
8.10 Frequency of Oscillations .................................................................... 270
8.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle .............................. 272
8.12 Fault on a Double-Circuit Line ............................................................ 274
8.13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault ...... 275
8.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in Double-Circuit System .................. 277
8.15 Solution to Swing Equation Step-by-Step Method ............................. 277
8.16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability .................................................. 279
8.17 Dynamic Stability ................................................................................ 280
8.18 Node Elimination Methods ................................................................... 282
Worked Examples ............. . , ........ ....... ...... ... . ........................ 285
Problems ..... , ........................ ............................ ................ . ... 303
Questions. ........................ .......... ...... . ...... .................. ....... . ...... 304
Objective Questions ................................................................................. 305
Answers to Objective Questions ............................................................ 317
Index ........................................................................................................... 319
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
1 INTRODUCTION
Power is an essential pre-requisite for the progress of any country. The modern power system
has features unique to it self. It is the largest man made system in existence and is the most
complex system. The power demand is more than doubling every decade.
Planning, operation and control of interconnected power system poses a variety of
challenging problems, the solution of which requires extensive application of mathematical
methods from various branches.
Thomas Alva Edison was the first to conceive an electric power station and operate it in
Newyork in 1882. Since then, power generation originally confined to steam engines expanded
using (steam turbines) hydro electric turbines, nuclear reactors and others.
The inter connection of the various generating stations to load centers through EHV and
UHV transmission lines necessitated analytical methods for analysing various situations that
arise in operation and control of the system.
Power system analysis is the subject in the branch of electrical power engineering
which deals with the determination of voltages at various buses and the currents that flow in
the transmission lines operating at different voltage levels.
1.1 The Electrical Power System
The electrical power system is a complex network consisting of generators, loads, transmission
lines, transformers, buses, circuit breakers etc. For the analysis of a power system in operation
2 Power System Analysis
a suitable model is needed. This model basically depends upon the type of problem on hand.
Accordingly it may be algebraic equations, differential equations, transfer functions etc. The
power system is never in steady state as the loads keep changing continuously.
However, it is possible to conceive a quasistatic state during which period the loads
could be considered constant. This period could be 15 to 30 minutes. In this state power flow
equations are non-linear due to the presence of product terms of variables and trigonometric
terms. The solution techniques involves numerical (iterative) methods for solving non-linear
algebraic equations. Newton-Raphson method is the most commonly used mathematical
technique. The analysis of the system for small load variations, wherein speed or frequency
and voltage control may be required to maintain the standard values, transfer function and state
variable models are better suited to implement proportional, derivative and integral controllers
or optimal controllers using Kalman's feed back coefficients. For transient stability studies
involving sudden changes in load or circuit condition due to faults, differential equations
describing energy balance over a few half-cycles of time period are required. For studying the
steady state performance a number of matrix models are needed.
Consider the power System shown in Fig. 1.1. The equivalent circuit for the power
system can be represented as in Fig. 1.2. For study of fault currents the equivalent circuit in
Fig. 1.2 can be reduced to Fig. 1.3 upto the load terminals neglecting the shunt capacitances of
the transmission line and magnetizing reactances of the transformers.
Generators
Generators
Sending end step up
transformer
Sending end
Transformer
Transmission Line
.;;>----+-+ Loads
Receiving end step-down
transformer
Fig. 1.1
Transmission
Lines
Fig. 1.2
Receiving end
transformer
Load
Introduction
TransmIssIon
Lines
Fig. 1.3
3
Tran,former
While the reactances of transformers and lines which are static do not change under
varying conditions of operation, the machine reactances may change and assume different
values fot different situations. Also, composite loads containing 3-phase motors, I-phase
motors, d-c motors, rectifiers, lighting loads, heaters. welding transformers etc., may have
very different models depending upon the composition of its constituents.
The control of a turbo generator set to suit to the varying load requirement requires a
model. For small variations, a linearized model is convenient to study. Such a model can be
obtained using transfer function concept and control can be achieved through classical or
modern control theory. This requires modeling of speed governor, turbo generator and power
system itself as all these constitute the components of a feedback loop for control. The
ultimate objective of power system control is to maintain continuous supply of power with
acceptable quality. Quality is defined in terms of voltage and frequency.
1.2 Network Models
Electrical power network consists of large number of transmission lines interconnected in a
fashion that is dictated by the development of load centers. This interconnected network
configuration expands continuously. A systematic procedure is needed to build a model that
can be constantly up-graded with increasing interconnections.
Network solutions can be carried out using Ohm's law and Kirchoff's laws.
Either e = Z . i
or i =Y. e
model can be used for steady state network solution. Thus, it is required to develop both
Z-bus and V-bus models for the network. To build such a model, graph theory and incidence
matrices will be quite convenient.
1.3 Faults and Analysis
Study of the network performance under fault conditions requires analysis of a generally
balanced network as an unbalanced network. Under balanced operation, all the three-phase
voltages are equal in magnitude and displaced from each other mutually by 120
0
(elec.). It may
be noted that unbalanced transmission line configuration is balanced in operation by transposition,
balancing the electrical characteristics.
4 Power System Analysis
Under fault conditions, the three-phase voltages may not be equal in magnitude and the
phase angles too may differ widely from 120
0
(elec.) even if the transmission and distribution
networks are balanced. The situation changes into a case of unbalanced excitation.
Network solution under these conditions can be obtained by using transformed variables
through different component systems involving the concept of power invariance.
In this course all these aspects will be dealt with in modeling so that at an advanced
level, analyzing and developing of suitable control strategies could be easily understood using
these models wherever necessary.
1.4 The Primitive Network
Network components are represented either by their impedance parameters or admittance
parameters. Fig (1.4) represents the impedance form, the variables are currents and voltages.
Every power system element can be described by a primitive network. A primitive network is
a set of unconnected elements.
a
8
b
• •
Zab

v·1
e
ab
~
I
iab
Vb
• •
Fig. 1.4
a and b are the terminals of a network element a-b. Va and Vb are voltages at a and b.
Vab is the voltage across the network element a-b.
e
ab
is the source voltage in series with the network element a - b
zab is the self impedance of network element a-b.
jab is the current through the network element a-b.
From the Fig.( 1.4) we have the relation
Vab + e
ab
= zab iab ..... ( 1.1)
In the admittance form the network element may be represented as in Fig. (1.5) .
.lab
+-
(])
a b

Yab

Va r
~
r Vb
lab
~
. +'
lab .lab


Vab=Va-Vb
Fig. 1.5
Introduction 5
Yab is the self admittance of the network element a-b
jab is the source current in paraliel with the network element a-b
From Fig.( 1.5) we have the relation
iab + jab = Yab Vab ..... ( 1.2)
The series voltage in the impedance form and the parallel source current in the admittance
form are related by the equation.
-Lb=Yabeab ..... (1.3)
A set of unconnected elements that are depicted in Fig.( 1.4) or (1.5) constitute a primitive
network. The performance equations for the primitive networks may be either in the form
..... (1.4)
or in the form
i+ j =[y]y ..... (1.5)
In eqs.{lA) and (1.5) the matrices [z] or [y] contain the self impedances or self
admittances denoted by zab, ab or Yab,ab' The off-diagonal elements may in a similar way contain
the mutual impedances or mutual admittances denoted by zab, cd or Yab, cd where ab and cd are
two different elements having mutual coupling. Ifthere is no mutual coupling, then the matrices
[z] and [y] are diagonal matrices. While in general [y] matrix can be obtained by inverting the
[z] matrix, when there is no mutual coupling, elements of [y] matrix are obtained by taking
reciprocals of the elements of [z] matrix.
1.5 Power System Stability
Power system stability is a word used in connection with alternating current power systems
denoting a condition where in, the various alternators in the system remain in synchronous
with each other. Study of this aspect is very important, as otherwise, due to a variety of
changes, such as, sudden load loss or increment, faults on lines, short circuits at different
locations, circuit opening and reswitching etc., occuring in the system continuously some
where or other may create blackouts.
Study of simple power systems with single machine or a group of machines represented
by a single machine, connected to infinite bus gives an insight into the stability problem.
At a first level, study of these topics is very important for electrical power engineering
students.
2 GRAPH THEORY
2.1 Introduction
Graph theory has many applications in several fields such as engineering, physical, social and
biological sciences, linguistics etc. Any physical situation that involves discrete objects with
interrelationships can be represented by a graph. In Electrical Engineering Graph Theory is
used to predict the behaviour of the network in analysis. However, for smaller networks node
or mesh analysis is more convenient than the use of graph theory. It may be mentioned that
Kirchoff was the first to develop theory of trees for applications to electrical network. The
advent of high speed digital computers has made it possible to use graph theory advantageously
for larger network analysis. In this chapter a brief account of graphs theory is given that is
relevant to power transmission networks and their analysis.
2.2 Definitions
Elemellt of a Graph: Each network element is replaced by a line segment or an arc while
constructing a graph for a network. Each line segment or arc is cailed an element. Each
potential source is replaced by a short circuit. Each current source is replaced by an open
circuit.
Node or Vertex: The terminal of an element is called a node or a vertex.
T.dge: An element of a graph is called an edge.
Degree: The number of edges connected to a vertex or node is called its degree.
Graph Theory 7
Graph: An element is said to be incident on a node, if the node is a terminal of the element.
Nodes can be incident to one or more elements. The network can thus be represented by an
interconnection of elements. The actual interconnections of the elements gives a graph.
Rank: The rank of a graph is n - I where n is the number of nodes in the graph.
Sub Graph: Any subset of elements of the graph is called a subgraph A subgraph is said to
be proper if it consists of strictly less than all the elements and nodes of the graph.
Path: A path is defined as a subgraph of connected elements SLlch that not more than two
elements are connected to anyone node. If there is a path between every pair of nodes then
the graph is said to be connected. Alternatively, a graph is said to be connected if there exists
at least one path between every pair of nodes.
Planar Graph : A graph is said to be planar, if it can be drawn without-out cross over of
edges. Otherwise it is called non-planar (Fig. 2. J).
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.1 (a) Planar Graph (b) Non-Planar Graph.
Closed Path or Loop: The set of elements traversed starting from one node and returning to
the same node form a closed path or loop.
Oriented Graph: An oriented graph is a graph with direction marked for each element
Fig. 2.2(a) shows the single line diagram of a simple power network consisting of generating
stations. transmission lines and loads. Fig. 2.2(b) shows the positive sequence network
of the system in Fig. 2.2(a). The oriented connected graph is shown in Fig. 2.3 for the
same system.
r-------,3
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.2 (a) Power system single-line diagram (b) Positive sequence network diagram
Power System Analysis
5
~
CD.---+-....... - - - 1 ~ - - - Q )
4
Fig. 2.3 Oriented connected graph.
2.3 Tree and Co-Tree
Tree: A tree is an oriented connected subgraph of an oriented connected graph containing all
the nodes of the graph, but, containing no loops. A tree has (n-I) branches where n is the
number of nodes of graph G. The branches of a tree are called twigs. The remaining branches
of the graph are called links or chords.
Co-tree: The links form a subgraph, not necessarily connected called co-tree. Co-tree is the
complement of tree. There is a co-tree for every tree.
For a connected graph and subgraph:
I. There exists only one path between any pair of nodes on a tree
') every connected graph has at least one tree
3. every tree has two terminal nodes and
4. the rank of a tree is n-I and is equal to the rank of the graph.
The number of nodes and the number of branches in a tree are related by
b = n-I ..... (2.1 )
If e is the total number of elements then the number of links I of a connected graph with
hranches b is given by
I==e-·h
Hence, from eq. (2.1). it can be written that
l=e-n+1
..... (2.2)
..... (2.3)
A tree and the corresponding co - tree of the graph for the system shown in Fig. 2.3 are
indicated in Fig. 2.4(a) and Fig. 2.4(b).
5
._-...----
.... / . ~ ~ 3 "-
CD -..-
/
2 ..('4
/
/
@
n = number of nodes = 4
e = number of elements = 6
b=n-I=4-1=3
I =e-n+I=6-4+1=3
Fig. 2.4 (a) Tree for the system in Fig. 2.3.
Graph Theory 9
5
CD---+-..... -+-...-:
@
Fig. 2.4 (b) Co-tree for the system in Fig. 2.3.
2.4 Basic Loops
1\ loop is obtained whenever a link is added to a tree, which is a closed path. As an example to
the tree in Fig. 2.4(a) if the link 6 is added, a loop containing the elements 1-2-6 is obtained.
Loops which contain only one link are called independent loops or hasic loops.
It can be observed that the number of basic loops is equal to the number of links given
by equation (2.2) or (2.3). Fig. 2.5 shows the basic loops for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
5
.. - .. - - - .
CD
GL
~ = - - + - - - ~ @
Fig. 2.5 Basic loops for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
2.5 Cut-Set
A Cut set is a minimal set of branches K of a connected graph G, such that the removal of all
K branches divides the graph into two parts. It is also true that the removal of K branches
reduces the rank of G by one, provided no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of G by
one when it is removed from G.
Consider the graph in Fig. 2.6(a).
I
._ - --e
._ - --e
3
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.6
I
._ ---e
_e I
{,
......
.---
3
(e)
10 Power System Analysis
The rank of the graph = (no. of nodes n - 1) = 4 - I = 3. If branches 1 and 3 are
removed two sub graphs are obtained as in Fig. 2.6(b). Thus 1 and 3 may be a cut-set. Also,
if branches 1, 4 and 3 are removed the graph is divided into two sub graphs as shown in
Fig. 2.6(c) Branches I, 4, 3 may also be a cut-set. In both the above cases the rank both of
the sub graphs is 1 + 1 = 2. It can be noted that (I, 3) set is a sub-set of (I, 4, 3) set. The cut
set is a minimal set of branches of the graph, removal of which cuts the graph into two parts.
It separates nodes of the graphs into two graphs. Each group is in one of the two sub graphs.
2.6 BasiC Cut-Sets
If each cut-set contains only one branch, then these independent cut-sets are called basic cut-
sets. In order to understand basic cut-sets select a tree. Consider a twig b
k
of the tree. If the
twig is removed the tree is separated into two parts. All the links which go from one part of
this disconnected tree to the other, together with the twig b
k
constitutes a cut-set called basic
cut-set. The orientation of the basic cut-set is chosen as to coincide with that of the branch of
the tree defining the cut-set. Each basic cut-set contains at least one branch with respect to
which the tree is defined which is not contained in the other basic cut-set. For this reason, the
n -I basic cut-sets of a tree are linearly independent.
Now consider the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
Consider node (1) and branch or twig 1. Cut-set A contains the branch 1 and links
5 and 6 and is oriented in the same way as branch J. In a similar way C cut-set cuts the branch
3 and links 4 and 5 and is oriented in the same direction as branch 3. Finally cut-set B cutting
branch 2 and also links 4, 6 and 5 is oriented as branch 2 and the cutsets are shown in Fig. 2.7.
8 5
- - - -"If'--
@ 3 :;..:----
1 ~ ~ ~ 4 - - - . @ ~
Fig. 2.7 Cut-set for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
Graph Theory 11
Worked Examples
2.1 For the network shown in figure below, draw the graph and mark a tree.
How many trees will this graph have? Mark the basic cutsets and basic
loops.
6
Solution:
Assume that bus (1) is the reference bus
4
Number of nodes n = 5
Number of elements e = 6
The graph can be redrawn as,
5
Fig. E.2.1
Fig. E.2.2
QDe-__________ ~ 5 . _ - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . ®
6 3
- - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - @
CD ® 2
Fig. E.2.3
3
Tree : A connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph, but no closed path is
called a tree.
12 Power System Analysis
5
...... 0
././ \
6
./"-; )..3
./ \
./ \
././ \

@ 2 ®
Fig. E.2.4
Number of branches n-1 = 5-1 = 4
Number of links = e-b = 6-4 = 2
(Note: Number of links = Number of co-trees).
D ....
® ___
c


Fig. E.2.S
The number of basic cutsets = no. of branches = 4; the cutsets A,B,C,D, are shown
in figure.
2.2 Show the basic loops and basic cutsets for the graph shown below and verify
any relations that exist between them.
(Take 1-2-3-4 as tree 1).
8
Fig. E.2.6
Graph Theory
Solution:

, . '
Fig. E.2.7 Tree and Co-tree for the graph.
13
If a link is added to the tree a loop is formed, loops that contain only one link are called
basic loops.
Branches, b=n-1 =5-1=4
I =e-b =8-4=4
The four loops are shown in Fig.
Fig. E.2.S Basic cut sets A, B, C, D.
The number of basic cuts (4) = number of branches b(4).
2.3 For the graph given in figure below, draw the tree and the corresponding
co-tree. Choose a tree of your choice and hence write the cut-set schedule.
CD
Fig. E.2.9 Oriented connected graph.
14 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Fig. E.2.10 Basic cut sets A, B, C, D.
The f-cut set schedule (fundamental or basic)
A: 1,2
B: 2,7,3,6
c: 6,3,5
D: 3,4
2.4 For the power systems shown in figure draw the graph, a tree and its
co-tree.
Fig. E.2.11
Solution:
<D Q---..... - - O - - - - . - - O - + - - ~ @
Fig. E.2.12
Graph Theory 15
CD ®
Fig. E.2.13 Tree and Co-tree 2.4.
Problems
P 2.1 Draw the graph for the network shown. Draw a tree and co-tree for
the graph.
Fig. P.2.1
P 2.2 Draw the graph for the circuit shown.
Fig. P.2.2
16 Power System Analysis
P 2.3 Draw the graph for the network shown.
Fig. P.2.3
Mark basic cutsets, basic loops and open loops.
Questions
2.1 Explain the following terms:
(i) Basic loops
(ii) Cut set
(iii) Basic cut sets
2.2 Explain the relationship between the basic loops and links; basic cut-sets and the
number of branches.
2.3 Define the following terms with suitable example:
(i) Tree
(ii) Branches
(iii) Links
(iv) Co-Tree
(v) Basic loop
2.4 Write down the relations between the number of nodes, number of branches, number
of links and number of elements.
2.5 Define the following terms.
(i) Graph
(ii) Node
(iii) Rank of a graph
(iv) Path
3 INCIDENCE MATRICES
There are several incidence matrices that are important in developing the various networks
matrices such as bus impedance matrix, branch admittance matrix etc., using singular or non
singular transformation.
These various incidence matrices are basically derived from the connectivity or incidence
of an element to a node, path, cutset or loop.
Incidence Matrices
The following incidence matrices are of interest in power network analysis.
(a) Element-node incidence matrix
(b) Bus incidence matrix
(c) Branch path incidence matrix
(d) Basic cut-set incidence matrix
(e) Basic loop incidence matrix
Of these, the bus incidence matrices is the most important one :
18 Power System Analysis
3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix
Element node incidence matrix A shows the incidence of elements to nodes in the connected
graph. The incidence or connectivity is indicated by the operator as follows:
a = 1 if the plh element is incident to and directed away from the g the node.
pq
a = -I if the plh element is incident to and directed towards the g the node.
pq
a = 0 if the plh element is not incident to the glh node.
pq
The element-node incidence matrix will have the dimension exn where 'e' is the number
of elements and n is the number of nodes in the graph. It is denoted by A .
The element node incidence matrix for the graph of Fig. 2.3 is shown in Fig. 3.1.
~
(0) (I) (2) (3)
1 1 -I
2 1 -I
4
A
3 1 -I
4 1 -1
5 -I 1
6 1 -1
Fig. 3.1 Element-node incidence-matrix for the graph of Fig. (2.3).
It is seen from the elements of the matrix that
3
g ~ O u
pg
= 0; p = I. 2, ...... 6 ..... (3.1 )
It can be inferred that the columns of A are linearly independent. The rank of A is less
than n the number of nodes in the graph.
3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix
The network in Fig. 2.2(b) contains a reference reflected in Fig. 2.3 as a reference node. [n
fact any node of the connected graph can be selected as the reference node. The matrix
obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference node in the element node
incidence matrix A is called bus incidence matrix A. Thus, the dimension of this matrix is
ex (n - I) and the rank will therefore be, n - 1 = b, where b is the number of branches in the
graph. Deleting the column corresponding to node (0) from Fig. 3.1 the bus-incidence matrix
for the system in Fig. 2.2(a) is obtained. This is shown in Fig. 3.2.
Incidence Matrices 19
~
(I ) (2) (3)
1 -I
2 -I
.,
+1 -1
-'
A=
4 -1
5 -I +1
6 1 -1
Fig. 3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix for graph in (2.3).
If the rows are arranged in the order of a specific tree, the matrix A can be partitioned
into two submatrices Ab of the dimension bx (n -- 1) and AI of dimension I" (n - I). The rows
of A" correspond to branches and the rows of A I correspond to links. This is shown in
(Fig. 3.3) for the matrix in (Fig. 3.2).
~
(1) (2) (3)
~
(1 ) (2) (3)
1 -1 1
A=
2 -1
3 1 -I
A=
2
Ab
3
4 -I 4
5 -1 I 5
AI
6 1 -1 6
Fig. 3.3 Partitioning of matrix A.
3.3 Branch - Path Incidence Matrix K
Branch path incidence matrix, as the name itself suggests, shows the incidence of branches to
paths in a tree. The elements of this matrix are indicated by the operators as follows:
Kpq = I If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the
same direction.
K = -1 If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the
pq
opposite direction.
Kpq = 0 If the pth branch is not in the path from the qth bus to reference.
For the system in Fig. 2.4(a), the branch-path incidence matrix K is shown in Fig. 3.4.
Node (0) is assumed as reference.
20 Power System Analysis
-.... -
"..--- 5 - .................
'" ......
/'''' ......
/' 6 3"""
CD - - P:h .1 Path 3 / /

/
®

(I) (2) (3)
1 -1
2 -1 -1
3 0 -1
--tree - - - cotree
Fig. 3.4 Branch-Path Incidence Matrix for network
While the branch path incidence matrix relates branches to paths. the sub matrix Ab of
Fig. 3.3 gives the connectivity between branches and buses. Thus. the paths and buses can be
related by All Kl U where LJ is a unit matrix.
Hence Kl = Ab I ..... (3.2)
3.4 Basic Cut-Set Incidence Matrix
['his matriA depicts the connectivity of elements to basic cut-sets of the connected graph. The
elements of the matrix are indicated by the operator as follows:
0"Ci if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth
hasic cut-set.
. if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the
qth basic cut-set.
r3 cc 0 if the pth element is not incident to the qth basic cut-set.
rq
The basic incidence matrix has the dimensiol1 e x b. For the graph in Fig. 2.3(a)
(he basic clit-set incidence matriA B is obtained in Fig.
_-4 __
/ "-
• C
CV 3
/
.(4
/

1
2
B=
3
4
5
6
BaSIC Cut-sets
A B C
I
1
\
1 1
I -\ -\
-I I
Fig. 3.5 BaSIC Cut-set incidence matrix for the graph in 3.5(a) drawn and shown.
It is possible to partition the basic cut-set incidence matrix B into two submatrices U
B
and lJ I cOl:responding to branches and I inks respectively. For the example on hand. the partitioned
matrix is shown in (Fig. 3.6).
Incidence Matrices 21
~
Basic Cut-sets
A B C
Basic Cut-sets
<Jl
QJ
..c:
\ \
0
U C
«l
b
2 \
"-
co
B=
3 \
4 \ \
5 \ -\ -\
<Jl
BI ..:.::
c
6 -\ \ 0
,
--'
Fig. 3.5
The identity matrix U
b
shows the one-to-one correspondence between branches and
basic cut-sets.
It may be recalled that the incidence of links to buses is shown by submatrix AI and the
!Ilcidence of branches to buses by A
b
. There is a one-to-one correspondence between branches
and basic cut-sets. Since the incidence of I inks to buses is given by
BlAb = AI
Therefore BI = AI Ab -I
However from equation (3.2) Kt = A
b
-
I
Substituting this result in equation (3.\)
BI=AIK
t
This is illustrated in Fig. (3.6).
0 0 -\
- \ 0 \
\ -\ 0
-\
0
0
0 0 0
-\ 0 \
--1 -\ -\
Fig. 3.6 Illustration of equation AI Kt = 8
1
,
3.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix
\
--I
\
\
\
0
..... (3.3 )
..... (3.4)
..... (3.5)
In section 2.3 basic loops are defined and in Fig. 3.7 basic loops for the sample system under
discu<,sion are shown. Basic Loop incidence matrix C shows the incidence of the elements of
the connected graph to the basic loops. The incidence of the elemenb is indicated by the
operator as follows:
Y rq ., I if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth
basic loop.
22 Power System Analysis
Ypq = -1 if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the
qth basic loop.
Ypq = 0 if the pth element is not incident to the qth loop.
The basic loop incidence matrix has the dimension e x I and the matrix is shown in
Fig. 3.8.
~
D E F
1 -I I
c=
2 -1 1 -1
3 -I 1
4 1
5 1
6 0 1
Fig. 3.7 Basic loops (D, E, F) and
open loops (A, B, C).
Fig. 3.8 Basic loop incidence matrix for Fig.3. 7.
It is possible to partition the basic loop incidence matrix as in Fig. 3.9.
~
Basic loops
1 1
2 -1 -1
c=
3 -1 1
4 I
5 I
6 I
I
I
I ~
'"
<lJ
..<::
u
c::
c::I
....
CO
'" ~
c::
:J
Basic loops
C
b
U
I
Fig. 3.9 Partitioning of basic loop incidence matrix.
The unit matrix V, shown the one-to-one correspondence of links to basic loops.
3.6 Network Performance Equations
The power system network consists of components such as generators, transformers,
transmission lines, circuit breakers, capacitor banks etc., which are all connected together to
perform specific function. Some are in series and some are in shunt connection.
Incidence Matrices 23
Whatever may be their actual configuration, network analysis is performed either by
nodal or by loop method. In case of power system, generally, each node is also a bus. Thus.
in the bus frame of reference the performance of the power network is described by (n-1)
independent nodal equations, where n is the total number of nodes. In the impedance form the
performance equation, following Ohm's law will be
-
V ==[ZBUS] IBus
..... (3.6)
where, V BUS = Vector of bus voltages measured with respect to a reference bus.
T BUS = Vector of impressed bus currents.
[ZBUS] = Bus impedance matrix
The elements of bus impedance matrix are open circuit driving point and transfer
impedances.
Consider a 3-bus or 3-node system. Then
(1) (2)
(1) rZ11 z12
[ZBUS] = (2) Z21 Z22
(3) Z31 Z32
The impedance elements on the principal diagonal are called driving point impedances of
the buses and the off-diagonal elements are called transfer impedances of the buses. In the
admittance frame of reference
..... (3.7)
where [Y
BUS
] == bus admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point
and transfer admittances.
By definition ..... (3.8)
In a similar way, we can obtain the performance equations in the branch frame of
reference. If b is the number of branches, then b independent branch equation of the form
-
V BR == [ZBR ].IBR
..... (3.9)
describe network performance. In the admittance form
..... (3.10)
where
f BR Vector of currents through branches.
24 Power System Analysis
V BR
Vector of voltages across the branches.
[Y BR] = Branch admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving
point and transfer admittances of the branches of the network.
[ZBR] = Branch impedance matrix whose elements are open circuit driving
point and transfer impedances of the branches of the network.
Like wise, in the loop frame of reference, the performance equation can be described
by I independent loop equations where I is the number of links or basic loops. In the
impedance from
-
V lOOP -= r Z LOClP 1. I LOOP
..... (3.11 )
and in the admittance form
-
I LOOP = [YLOOP].VLOOP
..... (3.12)
where, V LOOP = Vector of basic loop voltages
-
It O()p
Vector of hasic loop currents
[ZLOOp J = Loop impedance matrix
[ Y LOOP] = Loop admittance matrix
3.7 Network Matrices
It is indicated in Chapter - 1 that network solution can be carried out using Ohm's Law and
KirchoWs Law. The impedance model given by
e =Z. i
or the admittance model
i =Y. e
can be used depending upon the situation or the type of problem encountered.
In network analysis students of electrical engineering are familiar with nodal analysis and mesh
analysis using Kirchoff's laws. In most of the power network solutions, the bus impedance
or bus admittance are used. Thus it is necessary to derive equations that relate these
various models.
Network matrices can be formed hy two methods:
Viz. (a) Singular transformation and
(b) Direct method
Network Matrices 25
Singular Transformations
The network matrices that are used commonly in power system analysis that can be obtained
by singular transformation are :
(i) Bus admittance matrix
(ii) Bus impedance matrix
(iii) Branch admittance matrix
(iv) Branch impedance matrix
(v) Loop impedance matrix
(vi) Loop admittance matrix
3.8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix
The bus admittance matrix Y BUS can be obtained by determining the relation between the
variables and parameters of the primitive network described in section (2.1) to bus quantities
of the network using bus incidence matrix. Consider eqn. (1.5).
-
i+ j =[y]u
Pre multiplying by [N], the transpose of the bus incidence matrix
[A I] i + [A I] ] = A I [y] u ..... (3.13)
Matrix A shows the connections of elements to buses. [AI] i thus is a vector, wherein,
each element is the algebraic sum of the currents that terminate at any of the buses. Following
Kirchoff's current law, the algebraic sum of currents at any node or bus must be zero. Hence
[AI] i = 0 ..... (3.14)
Again [AI] J term indicates the algebraic sum of source currents at each of the buses
and must equal the vector of impressed bus currents. Hence,
IBus = [AI]]
..... (3.15)
Substituting eqs. (3.14) and (3.15) into (3.13)
I BUS = [A I ] [y] U
..... (3.16)
In the bus frame, power in the network is given by
[IBus']IYBus = P
BUS
..... (3.17)
Power in the primitive network is given by
..... (3.18)
26 Power System Analysis
Power must be invariant, for transformation of variables to be invariant. That is to say,
that the bus frame of referee corresponds to the given primitive network in performance.
Power consumed in both the circuits is the same.
Therefore
- • - -* -
[I BUS ]V BUS = [j ]u
Conjugate transpose of eqn. (3.15) gives
[I BUS • r = [j' r A'
However, as A is real matrix A = A *
[IBus']1 = (j")t[A]
Substituting (3.21) into (3.19)
G*) t [A]. VBUS = (j')tu
i.e.,
Substituting eqn. (3.22) into (3.16)
IBUS == [N] [y] [A] V BUS
From eqn. 3.7
I BUS == [y BUS] V BUS
Hence
[Y BUS] = [N] [y] [A]
..... (3.19)
..... (3.20)
..... (3.21)
..... (3 :22)
..... (3.23)
..... (3.24)
..... (3.25)
..... (3.26)
Once [Y BUS] is evaluated from the above transformation, (ZBUS) can be determined
from the relation.
ZBUS =Y
s
0s = {[At][y][A] }-l
..... (3.27)
3.9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices
In order to obtain the branch admittance matrix Y BR' the basic cut-set incidence matrix [8], is
used. The variables and parameters of primitive network are related to the variables and
parameters of the branch admittance network.
For the primitive network
-
i + j = [y]u
..... (3.28)
Prerpultiplying by Bt
[B]l i + [8]t j == [8]1 [y] ~ ..... (3.29)
Network Matrices 27
It is clear that the matrix [B] shows the incidence of elements to basic cut-sets.
Each element of the vector [Bt] i is the algebraic sum of the currents through the
elements that are connected to a basic cut-set. Every cut-set divides the network into two
connected sub networks. Thus each element of the vector [Bt] i represents the algebraic sum
of the currents entering a sub network which must be zero by Kirchoff's law.
Hence, .. ... (3.30)
[Bt] j is a vector in which each element is the algebraic sum of the source currents of
the elements incident to the basic cut-set and represents the total source current in parallel with
a branch.
therefore,
[Bt] j = IBR
IBR = [Bt][y]u
For power invariance.
_. t _ _.t_
IBR .VBR = j \)
..... (3.31 )
..... (3.32)
..... (3.33)
conjugate transpose of eqn. (3.3\) gives r t [B] • = I BR"t. Substituting this in the
previous eqn. (3.32)
(j)'t [B]*VBR = (f)t u
As [B] is a real matrix [B]* = [B]
Hence,
-
(i.e. )
\) = [B]V BR
Substituting eqs. (3.35) into (3.32)
IBR = [B]t[y][B]V BR
However, the branch voltages and currents are related by
-
lBR =[YBR].VBR
comparing (3.37) and (3.38)
[Y BR] = [B]l [y] [B]
..... (3.34)
..... (3.35)
..... (3.36)
..... (3.37)
..... (3.38)
..... (3.39)
Since, the basic cut-set matrix [B] is a singular matrix the transformation [Y BR] is a
singular transformation of [y]. The branch impedance matrix, then, is given by
[Z]BR = [Y BR]-I
[Z]BR = - [V] B ~ = {[B
t
][y][B]} -1 ..... (3.40)
28 Power System Analysis
3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices
The loop impedance matrix is designated by [ZLooP]' The basic loop incidence matrix [C] is
used to obtain [ZLoOp] in terms of the elements of the primitive network.
The performance equation of the primitive network is
\) + e = [Z] i
Premultiplying by [CI]
..... (3.41)
..... (3.42)
As the matrix [C] shows the incidence of elements to basic loops, [CI] \) yields the
algebraic sum of the voltages around each basic loop.
By Kirchoff's voltage law, the algebraic sum of the voltages around a loop is zero.
Hence, [CI] ~ = O. Also [CI] e gives the algebraic sum of source voltages around each basic
loop; so that,
From power invariance condition for both the loop and primitive networks .
for all values of e .
Substituting V LOOP from eqn. (3.43)
(ILOOP*)I [CI]e=[i*]'e
Therefore,
i = [Co] I lLOoP
However, as [C] is a real matrix [C] = [CO]
Hence,
i = [C]ILOOP
From eqns. (3.43), (3.45) & (3.47)
V LOOP = [C
t
] [z][C]lLOoP
..... (3.43)
..... (3.44)
..... (3.45)
..... (3.46)
..... (3.47)
..... (3.48)
However, for the loop frame of reference the performance equation from eqn. (3.11) is
-
V LOOP = [Z LOOP ]1 LOOP
..... (3.49)
Network Matrices
comparing (3.48) & (3.49) equation
[ZLOOP] == [ct] [z] [C]
29
..... (3.50)
[C] being a singular matrix the transformation eqn. (3.50) is a singular transformation
of [z].
The loop admittance matrix is obtained from
[Y LOOP] == [Z-I
LOOP
] == {[C]I [z] [C]}-I
Summar.y of Singular Transformations
[ztl == [y]
[AI] [y] [A] == [Y BUS];
[Y BUS]-I == [ZBUS]
[BI] [y] [B] == [Y BR];
[Y BR]-I == [ZBR]
[CI] [Z] [C] == [ZLOOP];
[ZLOOPt
l
== [Y LOOP]
3.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection
..... (3.51)
Bus admittance matrix can be obtained for any network, if there are no mutual impedances
between elements, by direct inspection of the network. This is explained by taking an example.
G
I
Consider the three bus power system as shown in Fig.
Load
<II ..
Fig. 3.10
The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. below. The generator is represented by a voltage
source in series with the impedance. The three transmission lines are replaced by their
"1t equivalents".
30 Power System Analysis
Fig. 3.11
The equivalent circuit is further simplified as in the following figure combining the
shunt admittance wherever feasible.
VI VI
II
CD
'7 Z7 17
@
12
Is
®
19
'4
Zs
V3
Z9
Z4
13
15
16
Z6
Z5
Z3
Fig. 3.12
The three nodes are at voltage V I' V 2 and V 3 respectively above the ground. The Kirchofrs
nodal current equations are written as follows:
At Node I :
I] = 17 + Is + 14
I] = (V] - V 2) Y 7 + (V] - V 3) Y 8 + V] Y 4
.... (3.52)
At Node 2 :
12 = 15 + 19 - 17
= V 2 Y 5 + (V 2 - V 3 ) y 9 - (V I - V 2) Y 7
..... (3.53)
Network Matrices
At Node 3 :
13 = Ig + 19 - 16
= (V 1 - V 3) Y g + (V 2 - V 3) Y 9 - V 3 Y 6
Re arranging the terms the equations will become
I I = VI (Y 4 + Y 7 + Y g) - V 2 Y 7 - V 3 Y g
I2=-VI Y7+V2(YS+Y7+Y9)-V3 Y
9
I3 = VI Y g + V 2 Y 9 - V 3 (Y g + Y 9 + Y 6)
The last of the above equations may be rewritten as
-13 = -VI Y g - V 2 Y 9 + V 3 (Y 6 + Y g + Y 9)
Thus we get the matrix relationship from the above
31
..... (3.54)
..... (3.55(a))
..... (3.55(b))
..... (3.55(c))
..... (3.56)
..... (3.57)
It may be recognized that the diagonal terms in the admittance matrix at each of the
nodes are the sum of the admittances of the branches incident to the node. The off - diagonal
terms are the negative of these admittances branch - wise incident on the node. Thus, the
diagonal element is the negative sum of the off - diagonal elements. The matrix can be written
easily by direct inspection of the network.
The diagonal elements are denoted by
YII = Y4 + Y7 + Yg }
Y
22
= Y
5
+ Y
7
+ Y
9
and
Y
33
= Y
6
+ Yg + Y
9
..... (3.58)
They are called self admittances of the nodes or driving point admittances. The off-
diagonal elements are denoted by
Y
I2
=-Y
7
Y
13
=-Yg
Y 21= -Y
7
Y
23
=-Y
S
Y
31
=-Yg
Y
32
= -Y
9
..... (3.59)
using double suffix denoting the nodes across which the admittances exist. They are
called mutual admittances or transfer admittances. Thus the relation in eqn. 3.91 can be
rewritten as
32 Power System Analysis
..... (3.60)
..... (3.61)
In power systems each node is called a bus. Thus, if there are n independent buses, the
general expression for the source current towards the node i is given by
n
Ii = I YI) v
J
; i '* j
j=l
..... (3.62)
Network Matrices 33
6
Worked Examples
E 3.1 For the network shown in figure form the bus incidence matrix, A. branch
path incidence matrix K and loop incidence matrix C.
® @
5
3
2
Fig. E.l.1
Solution:
For the tree and co-tree chosen for the graph shown below, the basic cutsets are marked. Bus
(l) is taken as reference.
5
@O--------_._-----4-----o@
/
/
/
4 /
J(
/
/
/

2
Fig. E.l.2
The basic loops are shown in the following figure.

__
/
I
I
t


Fig. E.l.l
34 Power System Analysis
(i) Bus incidence matrix
Number of buses == number of nodes
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
1 -1 0 0 0
2 1 -1 0 0
A==
3 0 1 -1 0
4 1 0 -1 0
5 0 0 1 -1
6 0 0 0 -1
Fig. E.3.4
Wl
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
GO
-=
Y
1 -1 0 0 0
= ..
~ s
..
=
2 1 -1 0 0
B
A==
5 0 1 1 -1
branches
6 0 0 0 -1
.:.:
3 0 1 -1 1
=
~
L links
4 1 0 -1 0
Fig. E.3.S
(ii) Branch path incidence matrix (K) :
@o----------0111:---------1J@
5
I
I
I
61
I
I
~
,-------
I
I
I
I
I
~
+-------®
2
+--------------
Fig. E 3.6 Branches and the paths.
Buses
Ab
Al
Network Matrices 35
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
1 -1 -1
K=
2 -1 0
5 1
6 -1 -1
Fig. E.3.7 Branches and the paths.
(iii) Basic loop incidence matrix C :
~
A B
r ~
A B
1 1 1
1 1 1
2 0 1
2 0 1
C=
3 0 1
C=
5 1 1
4 1 0
6 -1 -1
5 1 1
3 0 1
6 -1 -1
4 1 0
Fig. E 3.8 Branches and the paths.
E 3.2 Form the Y BUS by using singular transformation for the network shown
in Fig. including the generator buses.
jO.4
j 0.4
j 0.25
jO.25
Fig. E.3.9
36 Power System Analysis
Solution:
The given network is represented in admittance form
Fig. E.3.10
The oriented graph is shown in Fig. below
@:-
a,
b
CDC>--------il-----o@
f
c
o------4f-------o@
e
d
Fig. E.3.11
---@
The above graph can be converted into the following form for convenience
b c
f
e
Fig. E.3.12
Network Matrices 37
the element node incidence matrix is given by
e \ n I
0 2 3 4
a +1 -1 0 0 0
b 0 +1 0 -I 0
1\
0 0 -1 +1 0
A = c
d +1 0 -1 0 0
e 0 0 +1 0 -1
f 0 -1 0 0 +1
Bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the
reference bus.
e\bl
2 3 4
a -1 0 0 0
b +1 0 -1 0
A=C
0 -1 +1 0
d 0 -1 0 0
e 0 +1 0 -1
f -1 0 0 +1
b\el
a b c d e f
[ _ ~ 1
1 0 0 0
- ~ 1 1
N=2 0 -1 -1 1
3 -1 1 0 0
4 0 0 0 -1
The bus admittance matrix
Y BUS = [A]I [y] [A]
a b c d e f
(1) (2) (3) (4)
a Y
a
0 0 0 0 0
-1 0 0 0
b 0
Yb
0 0 0 0 1 0 -1 0
[y] [A] = c
0 0
Yc
0 0 0 0 -1 1 0
d 0 0 0
Yd
0 0 0 -1 0 0
e 0 0 0 0
Ye
0 0 1 0 -I
f 0 0 0 0 0
Yf
-1 0 0
38
5 0
-2.5 0
[y][A] =
0
0
0
2.5
a b
Y BUS = [A]l [y] [A] = (2) 0
(lr
0
whence,
(3) 0 -1
(4) 0
[
-10
YBUS = 2 ~ 5
2.5
0
4
5
-4
0
c
0
-1
0
0
-13
4
4
Power System Analysis
0 0
2.5 0
-4 0
0 0
0 4
0 -2.5
d f
2 0 0
e
0 0
~ I l
-2.5 0 2.5 0
-1 1
0 4 -4 0
0 0
0 5 0 0
0 -1
0 -4 0 4
2.5 0 0 -2.5
2.5
4
-6.5
0
E 3.3 Find the Y BUS using singular transformation for the system shown in
Fig. E.3.S.
Fig. E.3.13
Network Matrices
Solution: The graph may be redrawn for convenient as follows
7
Graph
Fig. E.3.14
A tree and a co-tree are identified as shown below.
____ Tree
- - - - - - - - - -CO-tree
Fig. E.3.1S
1\
The element mode incidence matrix A is given by
1\
A=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
(0)
-I
-I
-1
-1
0
0
0
0
0
(1)
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
-1
(2) (3) (4)
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 -1
-1 1 0
-1 0 0
-1 0 1
0 1 0
39
40 Power System Analysis
The bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the first column taking (0) node as
reference.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 1 0 0 0
2 0 1 0 0
3 0 0 0
4 0 0 0
[ 1 [ l
A=
Ab U I
5 0 0 -1
= Al = ~ J
6 0 -1 1 0
7 1 -1 0 0
8 0 -1 0 1
9 -1 0 0
YIO
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Y30
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
Y 40
0 0 0 0 0
Given [y] ==
0 0 0 0
Y34
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Y23
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
YI2
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y24
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3
[Y Bus] == AI [y] A
YIO
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0
Y30
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0
Y40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[y][A] == 0 0 0 0
Y34
0 0 0 0 0 0 -1
0 0 0 0 0
Y23
0 0 0 0 -1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
Y12
0 0 1 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y24
0 0 -1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 -1 0 0
Network Matrices 41
YIO
0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0
0 0
Y30
0
0 0 0
Y40
0 0
Y34
-Y34
0
-Y23
Y23
0
YI2
-Y12
0 0
0
-Y24
0
Y24
-Y\3
0
Y\3
0
YIO
0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0
Y30
0
(1)
[ ~
0 0 0 0 0 1 0
r']
0 0 0
Y 40
[At] [y] [A] = (2)
1 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1
0 0
Y34
-Y34
(3) 0 0 1 0 0
0
- Y23 Y23
0
(4) 0 0 -1 0 0
Y12
-Y12
0 0
0
- Y24
0
Y24
-Y13
0
Y\3
0
f l Y " ~ +y" +y,,)
-Y12
-y13 0
Y = -Y12
(Y20 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24) - Y23
~ y ~ 1
BUS - Y13
- Y23 (y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23 + Y 34 ) - Y34
0
-Y24 -Y34 (y 40 + Y 34 + Y 24 )
E 3.4 Derive an expression for ZIOOP for the oriented grapb shown below
5
Fig. E.3.16
42 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Consider the tree and co-tree identified in the Fig. shown
----•• Basic loops
- - - - - --+- Open loops
Fig. E.3.17
1\
The augmented loop incidence matrix C is obtained as shown from the Fig.
e I A B C D E F G
1 1 0 1 1
2 1 1 1 1
1\
C
3 I 1 0 0
4 1 0 0 -1 [*.l
5 1
6 1
7 1
The basic loop incidence matrix
e I E F G
1 0 1 1
2 1 1 1
C =
3 1 0 0
6 0 0 -1
4 1
5 1
7 1
ZIOOp = [Ct] [Z] [C]
=
[Zloop]= + [Zbb]cb +CaZbl]+[Zn]
Network Matrices 43
Note: It is not necessary to form the augmented loop incidence matrix for this problem
only loop incidence matrix suffices].
E 3.5 For the system shown in figure obtain Y BUS by inspection method. Take
bus (l)as reference. The impedance marked are in p.u.
Solution:
(2)
j 0.4
(1) (3)
Fig. E.3.18
[
1 1
(2) -+-
Y
_ jO.5 jO.l
BUS - 1
(3) - jO.l
1 1
jO.l
1 1
-+-
jO.l jOA
(2)
= (2)[_ j12
(3) jl0
(3)
+ jl0 ]
- j12.5
E 3.6 Consider the linear graph shown below which represents a 4 bus
transmission system with all the shunt admittance lumped together. Each
line has a series impedance of (0.02 + j 0.08) and half line charging
admittance of jO.02. Compute the Y BUS by singular transformation.
Compute the Y BUS also by inspection.
3

Fig. E.3.19
44 Power System Analysis
Solution:
The half -line charging admittances are all connected to ground. Taking this ground as reference
and eliminating it. The bus incidence matrix is given by
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1 0 1 -1 0
2 0 0 1 -1
A=
3 0 1 0 -1
a
4 1 -1 0 0
5 1 0 0 -I
incidence matrix is given by; the transport of the bus
1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 -I 0
2 -I 1 0 0 0
3 0 -I -I 0 -I
The primitive admittance matrix [ y ] is shown below.
YI
0 0 0 0
0
Y2
0 0 0
[y]= 0 0
Y3
0 0
0 0 0
Y4
0
0 0 0 0
Ys
The admittance of all the branches are the same
i.e
=-=----
Z 0.02 + jO.08
2.94 - jl1.75 0 0 0 0
0 2.94 - jl1.75 0 0 0
[y]= 0 0 2.94 - jl1.75 0 0
0 0 0 2.94- jll.7,5 0
0 0 0 0 2.94 - jl1.75
Network Matrices 45
[y] [A] =
2.94 - jI1.75 0 0 0 0 0 1 -I 0
0 2.94- jl1.75 0 0 0 0 0 1 -I
0 0 2.94 - jI 1.75 0 0 • 0 1 0 -I
0 0 0 2.94- jI 1.75 0 1 -I 0 0
0 0 0 0 2.94 - jll. 75 1 0 0 -I
0+ jO 2.94 - j11.75 - 2.94 + j11.75 0+ jO
0+ jO 0+ jO 2.94 - j11.75 - 2.94 + j11.75
0+ jO 2.94 - j11.75 0+ jO -294+ j11.75
2.94 - j11.75 - 2.94 + j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO
2.94 - j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO - 2.94 + j11.75
Y BUS = [N] [y] [A]
[ ~ I
0 0
j}
0+ jO 2.94- j11.75 - 2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO
0 1 -1
0+ jO 0+ jO 2.94 - jl1.75 - 2.94 + jl1.75
1 0 0
0+ jO 2.94- j11.75 0+ jO - 294 + jl1.75
-1 -1 0
2.94 - j11.75 - 2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO 0+ jO
2.94 - jl1.75 0+ jO 0+ jO - 2.94 + jl1.75
5.88- j23.5 - 2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO - 2.94 + j11.75
I
- 2.94 + j11.75 8.82 - j35.25 -2.94+ j11.75 - 2.94 + j11.75
0+ jO - 2.94 + j11.75 5.88- j23.5 - 2.94 + j11.75
- 2.94 + j11.75 - 2.94 + j11.75 -2.94+jll.75 8.82 - j35.7
Solution by inspection including line charging admittances:
Yoo = Y01 + Y03 + Yo ~ + Yo 3/2
Yoo = [2.94 - j 11.75 + jO.02 + jO.02 + 2.94 - j 11.75]
Yoo = [5.88 - j 23.46]
Yoo = Y22 = 5.88 - j23.46
Yl1 = YIO + Y12 + Y13 + Y
IO
/2 + Y12/2 + Y13/2
Y33 = [Y30 + Y31 + Y32 + Y30/2 + Y31/2 + Y32/2]
46 Power System Analysis
Yll = Y33 = 3 (2.94 - j 11.75) + 3 00.02)
= 8.82 - j 35.25 + j 0.006
YII = Y33 = [8.82 - j 35.19]
the off diagonal elements are
YOI = YIO = -YOI = -2.94 + j 11.75
YI2 = Y21 = (-Yo2) = 0
Y03 = Y30 = (-Y03) = -2.94 + j 11.75
Y2b = Y32 = (-Y23) = (-2.94 + j 11.75)
Y31 = Y\3 = (-Y\3) = (-2.94 + j 11.75)
5.88 - j23.46 - 2.94 + jl1.75 0
- 2.94 + jl1.75 8.82 - j35.l9 - 2.94 + jl1.75
0 -2.94+ jl1.75 5.88 - j23.46
-2.94+jll.75 -2.94+ jl1.75 -2.94+ jll.75
-2.94+ jl1.75
- 2.94 + jl1.75
- 2.94 + jll.75
8.82 - j35.19
I
The slight changes in the imaginary part of the diagnal elements are due to the line
charging capacitances which are not neglected here.
E 3.7 A power system consists of 4 buses. Generators are connected at buses 1
and 3 reactances of which are jO.2 and jO.l respectively. The transmission
lines are connected between buses 1-2, 1-4, 2-3 and 3-4 and have reactances
jO.25, jO.5, jO.4 and j 0.1 respectively. Find the bus admittance matrix (i) by
direct inspection (ii) using bus incidence matrix and admittance matrix.
Solution:
jO.25 @
jO.4
®
"-""'"
jO.5
j 0.1
j 0.1
j 0.2
Fig. E.l.20
Taking bus (1) as reference the graph is drawn as shown in Fig.
Network Matrices
47
@ . - - - - ~ - ~ ....... ------:-:--:--- CD
j 0.4 3 ® 4
Fig. E.3.21
Only the network reactances are considered. Generator reactances are not considered.
By direct inspection:
(1) (2) (3) (4)
I
I I I
0
I
--+- --- --
jO.2S jO.S jO.2S jO.S
2
I I 1 1
0 --- -+-- --
jO.2S jO.4 jO.2S jO.4
3 0
1 1 I 1
-- -+- --
jO.4 jO.4 jO.1 jO.1
4
I
0
I I I
-- -- -+-
jO.S jO.I jO.1 jO.5
This reduces to
(1) (2) (3) (4)
I - j6.0 j4.0 0 j2.0
2 j4.0 - j6.5 j2.S 0
3 0 j2.S - j12.S
JIO
4 + j2 0 JIO
- jI2
Deleting the reference bus (1)
(2) (3) (4)
Y
BUS
=
(2) - j6.S j2.S 0
(3) j2.5 - jI2.5 jlO
(4) 0 JIO - jI2.0
48 Power System Analysis
By singular transformation
The primitive impedance matrix
1 2 3 4
1
IT
0 0
II
[z]= 2
jO.5 0
3 0 jO.4
4 0 0
The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by taking the reciprocals of z elements since
there are no matrices.
1 2
j2
3
1
-j4
4
3
- j2.5
The bus incidence matrix is from the graph
and
[-I
NyA= ~
A=2
3
4
A=
(2) (3) (4)
-1 0 0
0 0 -1
+1 -1 0
0 -1 +1
0 0
0 0
I i4
i21
y. - j;.5 j2.5
- ~ 1 O jl0
~ }
j4 0
0 1
0 0
0 -1
- j2.5 j2.5
-1 0
0 jl0
0
[- j6.5
j2.5
o 1
j2
= j2.5 - j125 jl0
0
0 jIO - j120
- jl0
Network Matrices 49
E 3.8 For the system shown in figure for m Y BUS'
j 0,2 4
j 0,2
5
j 0,5
- ~
~ j O ' 1
CD 1---__,
Q)
Fig. E.3.22
Solution:
Solution is obtained using singular transformation
The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by inverting the primitive impedance as
2 3 4 5
10 0 0 0 0
1
0 6,66 0 0 0
[y]= 1
0 0 6,66 0 0
2
0 0 0 -0.952 2.381 I
0 0 0 2.831 -0.952 J
®
@
CD
®
Fig. E.3.23
50 Power System Analysis
From the graph shown in figure the element-node incidence matrix is given by
A=
e \ node 0 2 3
1
2
3
4
5
-1
0
0
0
0
0
+1
+1
-1
0
+1 0
-1 0
-1 0
0 +1
-I +1
Taking bus zero as reference and eliminating its column the bus incidence matrix A is
given by
(I) (2) (3)
0 +1 0
2 +1 -1 0
A=
3 +1 -1 0
4 -1 0 +1
5 0 -1 +1
IO 0 0 0 0
0 1 0
0 6.66 0 0 0
1 -1 0
[YJ= 1
0 0 6.66 0 0

1 -1 0
2
0 0 0 -0.952 2.381
-1 0 1
0 0 0 2.831 . -0.952
0 -1 1
The bus admittance matrix Y BUS is obtained from
Y
BUS
=Ny A
0 10 0
~ r : 1
+1 +1 -I
~ }
-6.66 0 6.66
-I -I 0 0 -6.66 6.66
0 0 +1 +1
1.42 -1.42 0
1.42 -1.42 0
r 9.518
-2.858
-6.66J
= -2.8580 19.51 -6.66
-6.66 -6.66 13.32
Network Matrices 51
Problems
P 3.1 Determine ZLOOP for the following network using basic loop incidence matrix.
CD
@
""
jO.5
/
j 0.5 i 0.5
/
j 0.5
""
@
®
Fig. P.3.1
P 3.2 Compute the bus admittance matrix for the power shown in figure by (i) direct
inspection method and (ii) by using singular transformation.
j 0.4
j 0.25 j 0.2

j 0.3
Fig. P.l.2
52 Power System Analysis
Questions
3.1 Derive the bus admittance matrix by singular transformation
3.2 Prove that ZBUS = Kt ZBR K
3.3 Explain how do you form Y BUS by direct inspection with a suitable example.
3.4 Derive the expression for bus admittance matrix Y BUS in terms of primitive admittance
matrix and bus incidence matrix.
3.5 Derive the expression for the loop impedance matrix ZLOOP using singular
trar.sformation in terms of primitive impedance matrix Z and the basic loop incidence
matrix C.
3.6 Show that ZLOOP = C
t
[z] C
3.7 Show that Y BR = Bt [y] B where [y] is the primitive admittance matrix and B is the
basic cut set matrix
3.8 Prove that ZBR = AB ZBUS ABT with usual notation
3.9 Prove that Y BR = K Y BUS Kt with usual notation
4 BUILDING OF
NETWORK MATRICES
Introduction
In Chapter 4 methods for obtaining the various network matrices are presented. These methods
basically depend upon incidence matrices. A, B. C, K and B, C for singular and non-singular
transformation respectively. Thus, the procedure for obtaining Y or Z matrices in any frame of
reference requires matrix transformations involving inversions and multiplications. This could
be a very laborious and time consuming process for large systems involving hundreds of
nodes. It is possible to build the Z bus by using an algorithm where in systematically element by
element is considered for addition and build the complete network directly from the element
parameters. Such an algorithm would be very convenient for various manipulations that may
be needed while the system is in operation such as addition of lines, removal of lines and
change in parameters.
The basic equation that governs the performance of a network is
-
V BUS = rZBlJ<i 1.1 BIIS
4.1 Partial Network
In order to huild the network element hy element, a partial network is considered. At the
beginning to stal1 with, the building up of the network and its ZS\ IS or Y sus model a single
element I is considered. Further, this element having two terminals connected to tWll nodes
54 Power System Analysis
say (1) and (2) will have one of the terminals as reference or ground. Thus if node (1) is the
reference then the element will have its own self impedance as ZBUS. When we connect any
other element 2 to this element 1, then it may be either a branch or a link. The branch is
connected in series with the existing node either (1) or (2) giving rise to a third node (3).
On the contrary, a link is connected across the terminals (1) and (2) parallel to element I. This
is shown in (Fig. 4.1).
CD e-------.... @
2
2
CD @
(a) Branch
(b) Branch and Link
Fig. 4.1
In this case no new bus is formed. The element I with nodes (1) and (2) is called the partial
network that is already existing before the branch or link 2 is connected to the element. We
shall use the notation (a) and (b) for the nodes of the element added either as a branch or as a
link. The terminals of the already existing network will be called (x) and (y). Thus, as element
by element is added to an existing network, the network already in existence is called the partial
network, to which, in step that follows a branch or a link is added. Thus generalizing the
process consider m buses or nodes already contained in the partial network in which (x) and
(y) are any buses (Fig. 4.2).
PARTIAL NETWORK
®
@6 Ref. BUS
Branch
ADDITION OF A BRANCH
®
CD @ @
@ @
PARTIAL NETWORK
Fig. 4.2
Building of Network Matrices 55
Recalling Eqn. (4.1)
V BUS = [ZBUS ]1 BUS
in the partial network [ZBUS] will be of[m x m] dimension while VBUS and IBUS will be of
(m x 1) dimension.
The voltage and currents are indicated in (Fig. 4.3)
PARTIAL NETWORK
I I
I I
II 12
t t
~
(
6 6 mlO ) Ref. BUS
V 2 ~ · ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
V I ~ · ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J
Fig. 4.3 Partial Network.
The performance equation (4.1) for the partial network is represented in the matrix
form as under.
VI ZII ZI2 ... Zlm II
V
2 Z21 Z22···
Z
2m 12
..... (4.1 )
Vm Zml Zm2 ... Zmm 1m
4.2 Addition of a Branch
Consider an element a-b added to the node (a) existing in the partial network. An additional
node (b) is created as in (Fig. 4.4)
l
PARTIAL NETWORK
I
I
( 6 ® ()
) Ref. BUS
CD @ @ @
Branch added ®
Fig. 4.4 Addition of a Branch.
56 Power System Analysis
The performance equation will be
..... (4.2)
Zml Zm2 ... Zma ... Zmm 2mb
_______ -- ___ -- ____ L __ _
Zbl Zb2 ... Zba ... Zbm : Zbb
The iast row and the last column in the Z-matrix are due to the added node b
Zbi = Zib········ ...... where i = 1,2, ............... m for all passive bilateral elements.
The added branch element a-b may have mutual coupling with any of the elements of
the partial network.
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
It is required to find the self and mutual impedance elements of the last row and last column of
eq. (4.2). For this purpose a known current, say I = 1 p.u. is injected into bus K and the
voltage is measured as shown in (Fig. 4.5) at all other buses. We obtain the relations.
PARTIAL NETWORK
®
iab ~
~
Branch added
®
!
: ~ :
b ~
Ref. BUS
Fig. 4.5 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Mutual Impedances).
VI = ZIk1k
V
2
= Z2k
1
k
..... (4.3)
Building of Network Matrices
Since Ik is selected as 1 p.u. and all other bus currents are zero.
Zbk can be known setting Ik=l.O, from the measured value of Vb'
We have that
Also,
[
~ ab 1 = [Yab-ab
I xy Y"y-ab
Y ab-xy 1 [e
ab
1
Y xy-xy exy
Yab-ab = self admittance of added branch a-b
57
..... (4.3a)
..... (4.4)
..... (4.5)
. -Y b = mutual admittance between added branch ab and the elements x-y of
a -xy
partial network
Y xy-ab = transpose of Yab-xy
Y"y-xy = primitive admittance of the partial network
iab = current in element a-b
e
ab
= voltage across the element a-b
It is clear from the (Fig. 4.5) that
iab = 0 ..... ( 4.6)
But, e
ab
is not zero, since it may be mutually coupled to some elements in the partial
network.
Also,
exy=Vx-V
y
..... (4.7)
where V x and Vy are the voltages at the buses x and Y in the partial network.
The current in a-b
iab = Yab-ab e
ab
+ Y ab-xy ~ xy = 0
..... (4.8)
58
From equation (4.6)
Yab-ab e
ab
+ Yab-xy e xy = 0
substituting equation (4.7)
- Yab-xy e
xy
Yab-ab
-
- Y ab-xyCV x - V y )
Yab-ab
From equation (4.4)
-
Y ab-x/
V
x - V y )
Vb = Va + -----"-----
Y ab-ab
Power System Analysis
..... (4.9)
..... (4.10)
..... (4.11)
Using equation (4.3) a general expression for the mutual impedance Zbl between the
added branch and other elements becomes
Yab-xy (Zxi - ZYI )
Zbi = Zai + ----'-----
Yab-ab
i = I,2, ....... ,m; i i: b
Calculation of self impedance of added branch Zab'
..... (4.12)
In order to calculate the self impedance Zbb once again unit current Ib = 1 p.u. will be
injected into bus b and the voltages at all the buses will be measured. Since all other currents
are zero.
VI = ZIb1b
V
2
= Z2b
1
b
Vm = 2mb1b
Vq = Zbb1b
..... (4.13)
Building of Network Matrices
PARTIAL NETWORK
6 ®
@ CD
59
I
©
Fig.4.6 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Self Impedance).
The voltage across the elements of the partial network are given by equation (4.7). The
currents are given by equation (4.5)
Also, iab=-Ib =-1 ..... (4.14)
From equation (4.8)
- -
iab = Yab-abeab + Y ab-xy exy = -1
-
But exy = Vx - Vy
Therefore
-1 = Yab-ab e
ab
+ Yeb-xy (Vx - V
y
)
Hence
Note:
= (Zxb - Zyb) Ib
= (Zxb - Zyb)
substituting from equation (4.16) into (4.15)
-[I+Yab-xy(Zxb -ZYb)]
Yab-ab
From equation (4.4) Vb = Va - e
ab
Therefore
ll+Yab-xy(Zxb -ZYb)J
Vb=Va+
Yab-ab
Yab _ ab is the self admittance of branch added a-b also
-
Yab-xv is the mutual admitt",nce vector between a-b and x-yo
..... (4.15)
..... (4.16)
..... (4.16a)
60 Power System Analysis
and
Hence,
Special Cases,'
Vb=Zbblb'
Va = Zab Ib'
Ib = 1 p.u.
-
Zbb = Zab +
1 + Y ab-xy (Zxb - Zyb)
Yab-ab
If there is no mutual coupling from equation (4.12)
1
with
Z =--
ab - ab Y
ab-ab
- -
And since
Yab-xy = 0
IZb, = Zall; i = 1,2, ................ , m; i -=1= b
From equation (4.17)
IZbb = Zab + Zab-abl
..... ( 4.17)
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference bus equation (4.12) further
reduces to
with
Zal = 0
Z = 0
bl
i=I,2, ................. ,m;i-=l=b
From eqn. (4.17)
Zab = 0
and
Zbb = Zab - abo
4.3 Addition of a Link
PARTIAL NETWORK

CD
® Ref. BUS
@


V, .. ____________________ I


Fig. 4.7 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Mutual Impedance).
Building of Network Matrices 61
Consider the partial network shown in (Fig. 4.7)
Consider a link connected between a and b as shown.
The procedure for building up ZBUS for the addition of a branch is already developed.
Now, the same method will be used to develop an algorithm for the addition of a link. Consider
a fictitious node I between a and b. Imagine an voltage source VI in series with it between I
and b as shown in figure (4.6).
Voltage VI is such that the current through the link ab (ie) i
ah
= 0
e
ab
= voltage across the link a-b
VI = source voltage across I-b = e
lb
Thus we may consider that a branch a-I is added at the node (a) since the current
through the link is made zero by introducing a source voltage VI.
Now consider the performance equation
-
E
BUS
= [ZBUS] . !sus
..... (4.18)
once again the partial network with the link added
2 a ... m
VI ZlI Z12 Zli Zla Zlm
I
ZII
II
I
I
V
2
2
Z21 Z22 Z2i Z2a Z2m : Z21
12
I
I
I
VI Zil ZI2 Zii Zia Zun
I
Zil
I
I I
I
..... (4.19) ==
I

I
I
Va Za1 Za2 ZI2 Zaa Zam
I
Zal
la
a I
I
I
I
I
Vm
m
Zml Zm2 Zml Zma Zmm : Zml
1m
---
--------------------------------T---
VI I Z/1 Z/2 ... Z/i ... Z/a ... Z/m : Z"
I I
Also, the last row and the last column in Z-matrix are due to the added fictitious node I.
VI=VI-V
b
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
..... (4.20)
The element Zh' in general, can be determined by injecting a current at the ith bus and measuring
the voltage at the node i with respect to bus b. Since all other bus currents are zero we obtain
from the above consideration.
VI = Zh Ii; k = 1, 2, ........................ m
and
VI = Z" II
..... (4.21)
..... (4.22)
62 Power System Analysis
Letting II = 1.0 p.u. Zh can be seen as v I which is the same as vI
But v/=Va-Vb-eal
..... (4.23)
It is already stated that the current through the added link iab = 0
Treating a-I as a branch, current in this element in terms of primitive admittances and
the voltages across the elements
i
al
= Yaf- al • e
al
+ Ya/-xy . e
xy
..... (4.24)
Where
Yaf-XY are the mutual admittances of any element x-y in the partial network with respect
to al and exy is the voltage across the element x-y in the partial network.
But iaf = iab = 0
Hence, equation (4.23) gives
Note that
and
Therefore
(i.e.)
since
Also,
Yal-af = Yab-ab
Yaf-xy = Yab-xy
eaf = [- Yab-xy ' ~ X y 1
Yab-ab
Yab-xyexy
v, = va - Vb +
Yab-ab
II = 1.0 p.u.
i = 1, ............... , m
i "# I
exy=vx-vy
Thus, using equation 4.20 and putting II = 1.0 p.u.
..... ( 4.24)
..... (4.26)
..... ( 4.27)
..... (4.28)
..... ( 4.29)
Building of Network Matrices 63
..... (4.30)
i = 1,2, ............... , m
i-::l=l
In this way, all the mutual impedance in the last row and last column of equation (4.19)
can be calculated.
Computation of Self impedance
Now, the value of ZII' the self impedance in equation (4.30) remains to be computed. For this
purpose, as in the case of a branch, a unit current is injected at bus I and the voltage with
respect to bus b is measured at bus I. Since all other bus currents are zero.
and
But
PARTIAL NETWORK
® U----<it--"--{
Ref. BUS
@
Fig. 4.8 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Self Impedance).
Vk=Zk' I,; k = 1,2 ............... , m
v, = Z, I,
,
I, = 1 p.u. = -ial
..... (4.31)
..... (4.32)
..... (4.33)
The current i
a
, in terms of the primitive admittances and voltages across the elements
=-1
Again, as
YaI-xy = Yab-xy and
- -
Then, from eqn. (4.34) -1 = Ya'-a' eat + Yab-xyexy
..... (4.34)
..... (4.35)
..... (4.36)
64 Power System Analysis
- -
eal =
- (1 + Yab-xy exy )
...... (4.37)
Yab-ab
Substituting
e =V-V
xy x y
- - I - I
- ZXI 1- ZYI' I
= ZXI - ZYI (since II = 1.0 p.u)
-
Z" = Zal - Zbl +
1 + Yab-xy (ZXI - ZYI )
Yab-ab
..... (4.38)
Case (i) : no mutual impedance
If there is no mutual coupling between the added link and the other elements in the
partial network
Hence we obtain
-
Yab-xy are all zero
1
--=zab-ab
Yab-ab
Z/i = Zai - Zbl; i = 1, 2, ............. m
i ~ I
Case (ii) : no mutual impedance and a is reference node
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference node
Zal= 0; }
Z/i = -Zbl
Also
Z " = -Zbl + zab-ab
..... (4.39)
..... (4.40)
..... (4.41)
..... (4.42)
..... (4.43)
Thus all the elements introduced in the performance equation of the network with the
link added and node I created are determined.
It is required now to eliminate the node \.
For this, we short circuit the series voltage source VI' which does not exist in reality
From eqn. (4.19)
Building of Network Matrices
-
V BUS = [ZBUS ]IBUS + Z,iI,
V, = Z'j.lBUS + Z"I,; j = 1,2, ................. , m
= 0 (since the source is short circuited)
Solving for II from equation (4.45)
I
_ - Z'J.lBUS
,-
ZI/
Substituting in equation (4.44)
65
..... (4.44)
..... (4.45)
..... (4.46)
..... ( 4.4 7)
This is the performance equation for the partial network including the link a-b
incorporated.
From equation (4.47) we obtain
and for any element
ZBUS (modified) = [ZBus(befOreaddition oflink) - ZI' Z,j]
Z"
Z'j(mod ified) = [Z,j(befOre addition of link - ZI,Z'j 1 ..... (4.48)
Z"
Removal of Elements or Changes in Element
Consider the removal of an element from a network. The modified impedance can be obtained
by adding in parallel with the element a link, whose impedance is equal to the negative of the
impedance to be removed.
In a similar manner, if the impedance of the element is changed, then the modified
impedance matrix obtained by adding a link in parallel with the element such that the equivalent
impedance of the two elements is the desired value.
66
@
PARTIAL
OR
Zxy
FULL NETWORK
6)
@
NETWORK
Zxy
6)
-ZXy
Z"xy
Power System Analysis
PARTIAL
OR
FULL NETWORK
NETWORK
x
Y
Fig. 4.9 Removal or Change in Impedance of an Element.
Zxy changed to ZI
XY
1 I 1
-=--+-
I Z il
Zxy xy ZXY
However, the above are applicable only when there is no mutual coupling between the
element to be moved or changed with any element or elements of partial network.
4.4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance
Changes in the configuration of the network elements introduce changes in the bus currents of
the original network. In order to study the effect of removal of an element or changes in the
impedance of the element can be studied by considering these changes in the bus currents.
The basic bus voltage relation is
-
with changes in the bus currents denoted by the vector ~ I B u s the modified voltage
performance relation will become
..... ( 4.49)
Building of Network Matrices 67
V BUS is the new bus voltage vector. It is desired now to calculate the impedances Z:j
of the modified impedance matrix [ Z I BUS ] .
The usual method is to inject a known current (say 1 p.u) at the bus j and measure the
voltage at bus i.
Consider an element p-q in the network. Let the element be coupled to another element
in the network r-s. If now the element p-q is removed from the network or its impedance is
changed then the changes in the bus currents can be represented by
®ee----il
M<
- - - I ~ ~ irs
I-----... ®
0 ~ . - - ~ 1 ~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - . 0
Fig. 4.10
Inject a current of 1 p.u. at any jlh bus
I
j
= 1.0
Ik = 0 [k = 1,2, ................. , n; k:;t: j]
Then
n
v/ = IZlk (Ik +AI
k
)
k=1
..... ( 4.50)
i = I, 2 ................... n. With the index k introduced, equation may be understood
from (Fig. 4.10).
68 Power System Analysis
From equation
)
Lllk --Lllpq,k-q
LlIk =Llirs;k=r
LlIk =-Llirs;k=s
V,' = Z lje1 + Z ,j Llipq - ZiqLl ipq + Z,r Lli
rs
- Z,sLli
rs
= Z'J + (Z,p -Z,q)Llipq + (Zir -ZJLl irs
..... (4.50(a))
..... (4.51)
If n, are used as the subscripts for the elements of both p-q and r-s then
V,' = Zij + (ZiCl - i = 1, 2, 3 .............. , n ..... (4.52)
From the performance equation of the primitive network.
. .... (4.53)
Where [Y
sm
] and [Ysm]-l are the square sub matrices of the original and modified primitive
admittance matrices. Consider as an example, the sytem in Fig 4.11 (a), Y matrix is shown.
IfY2 element is removed, the yl matrix is shown in Fig. 4.11(b).
Y,
(1)1--_----..
@
(1) (2) (3)
Y2
(1)
[Yf
0
Y: j
y = (2)
Y22
(3)
Y32 Y33
Y,
@
(1) (2) (3)
I _ (I)
[Yf
0

Y - (2)
Y22
(b)
(3) 0
@
Fig. 4.11
Building of Network Matrices 69
Then, Y
sm
and Ysm
l
are given: Y
sm
= and Y'sm =
Thus, the rows and column of the sub matrices Y
sm
and Ysm
l
correspond to the network
elements p-q and r-s (Fig. 4.10)
The subscripts of the elements of (Iy sm I-Iylsm I ) are and y8. We know that
substituting from eqn. (4.52)
for
-I -I
vyand v8
..... ( 4.54)
1 - -
Vy8 =ZYJ -Z8J ...... (4.55)
Substituting from eqn.(4.55) for into eqn.(4.53)
..... (4.56)
Solving eqn. (5.56) for
Where U is unit matrix
Designating sm ) = [y sm ] - ] giving the changes in the admittance matrix ..... (4.58)
and the term
by F, the multiplying factor
[Zyj -Z8J]
substituting equation (4.60) in equation (4.52)
V! = Zij + (Zlo. - ZiP )[F ]-1 sm] 1 [ZYJ - Z8J
..... ( 4.59)
..... ( 4.60)
..... (4.61 )
The above equation gives the bus voltage vi at the bus i as a result of injecting I p.u.
current at bus j and the approximate current changes.
The ij the element of modified bus impedance matrix is then,
ZI'J = ZiJ + (Zlo. - ZiP) [F ]-1 sm] [Zy, - ZOJ]
The process is to be repeated for each j = 1, 2, ........ n to obtain all element of ZI
BUS
'
70 Power System Analysis
Worked Examples
E.4.1 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance
0.4. Another line of impedance 0.2 p.u. is connected in parallel with it making
it a doubl-circuit line with mutual impedance of 0.1 p.u. Obtain by building
algorithm method the impedance of the two-circuit system.
Solution:
Consider the system with one line
Bus 1
Bus2
0.4 p.u line
Fig. E.4.1
Taking bus (1) as reference the ZBUS is obtained as
(1) (2)
(1) 0 0
(2) 0 0.4
-1QU

1 n° 2
_ ! O.lp.u _
0.4 p.u
Fig. E.4.2
Now consider the addition of the second line in parallel with it
The addition of the second line is equivalent to addition of a link. The augmented
impedance matrix with the fictitious node I introduced.
Z = (2)
zl
(I)
Building of Network Matrices
Z = 1- 2(2)
ab-xy 1-2(1)
a=l;x=l
b = 2; Y = 2
1-2(1) 1-2(2)
[
0.4 O.IJl
0.1 0.2
Y ab-xy (ZXI - ZYI)
Zii = Zal - Zbl + ---=----'--
Yab-ab
71
[
1
1 - 2(1) 1 - 2(2)
Yab-Xy=[Zab-XyJ
1
-(008
1
00)=1-2(1) [2.857 -1.4286]
. . -. I 1-2(2) -1.4286 5.7143
Z =Z -7. +
Yab-xy - )
h ai -bl Y
ab-ab
(-1.4286)(0 - 0.2)
Z21 = ZI2 = 0 - 0.4 + 5.7143 = -0.35
II + Yab-XY - [1 + (-1.4286)(0 - (-0.35)]
Z" = ZaJ - a bl + = 0 - (-0.35) +
Yab-ab 5.7143
= 0.35 + 0.2625 = 0.6125
(2) (I)
Z d = (2) [0.4 -0.35]
augmente
(I) -0.35 0.6125
Now, eliminating the fictions bus 1 (modified) = = Z22 _ Z21 - zl2
zll
= 0.4 - (-0.35)(-0.35) = 0.4 - 0.2 = 0.2
0.6125
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I 2 I
72 Power System Analysis
E. 4.2 The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by the addition
of a transmission line from bus (1). The new line by virtue of its proximity to
the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. and a self - impedance
of 0.3 p.u. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm.
Solution : Consider the extended system
Fig. E.4.3
Nowa=landb=3
Also a is the reference bus
- - -
Yab-xy (ZXI - Zy;)
~ i = z a l +
Yab-ab
The primitive impedance matrix Zab-xy is given by
2
1- 2(1)
1- 2(1) r 0.4
1- 2(2) 1- 3
Zab-xy = 1- 2(2) 0.1
1-3 0.05
[Yab-XY ] = [Zab-XY t J
1.2(1)
1- 2(1)
r
2.9208
-1.4634
- 0.4878
=
1- 2(2)
1-3
0.1 0.051
0.2 0
o 0.3
1.2(2)
-1.4634
5.7317
0.2439
1.3
-04878]
0.2439
3.4146
Building of Network Matrices 73
Setting b = 3; i = 2; a = 1
[y 1-31-2(I)Y 1-31-2(2)] [Z12 - Z22] 0 + [(-0.4878)(0.2439)] [0 - 0.2]
z12 - Z22 0 - 0.2
Z 32 = Z 12 + -----Y-13--1-3 -=--=-----== = 3.4146
= 0.04828 = 0.014286
3.4146
1 + YI-31-2(1)YI-31-2(2) 1 + - 0.4878 0.24.)9
[
][
Z13 -Z23] [ " ][-0.014286
l
J
z13 -Z23 -0.014286
Z33 = ZI3 + ---------'=--.:.:--= = 0 + ----------='------=-
Yl-3-13 3.4146
1.0034844 = 0.29388
3.4146
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(2)
[
0.2
0.01428
(3)
0.01428]
0.29388
E 4.3 The system E4.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to
bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .3 p.u .0 bta.in tile Z BUS
Solution:
2 0.2
0.3
1
/=
0.4
3
4
0.3 p.u
Fig. E.4.4
74 Power System Analysis
Consider the system shown above with the line 4 added to the previous system.
This is the case of the addition of a branch. Bus (3) is not the reference bus.
a=3
b=4
There is no mutual coupling.
i = 1, 2, ........... m i :;: b
Zbb = zab + zab-ab
setting i = 1, 2 and 3 respectively we can compute.
Z41 = z41 = 0 (ref. Node) = z31
Z42 = z32 = 0 == 0.01428
Z41 == Z33 == 0.29288
z4i == z31 + Z44_44 = 0.29288 + 0.3 = 0.59288
(2) (3) (4)
(2) l 0.2 0.1428 0.1428 j
ZBUS = (3) 0.01428 0.29288 0.29288
(4) 0.01428 0.29288 0.59288
E. 4.4 The system in E 4.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted
into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply. Obtain
the ZBUS.
The self impedance of element 5 is 0.1 p.u
Solution:
2
I
3 5
4
Fig. E.4.5
Building of Network Matrices 75
The ring system is shown in figure now let a = 2 and b = 4 addition of the line 5 is addition of
a link to the existing system. Hence initially a fictitious node I is created. However, there is no
mutual impedance bus (2) is not a reference node.
with i = 2
with i = 3
setting i = 4
Z,i = zal - zbl
zil = zal - zbl + zab-ab
zZI = zZ2 - Z42 = zi2 = 0.2 - 0.01428 = 0.18572
z31 = ~ 3 - z43 = zl3 = 0.01428 - 0.29288 = - 0.27852
Z41 = ZI4 = z24 - Z44 = 0.1428 - 0.59288 = -0. 5786
Z (augmented) = zll + zal - a
bl
+ zab-ab
= Z21- Z41 + 0.1 = 0.18572 + 0.5786 + 0.1 = 0.86432
(2) (3) (4) (I)
(2)
[0.2 0.01428
0.01428
0.
18572
1
(3) 0.01428 0.29288 0.29288 - 0.27852
(4) 0.01428 0.29288 0.59288 - 0.5786
(I) 0.18572 - 0.27582 - 0.5786 0.86432
Now it remains to eliminate the fictitious node I.
( d
·fi d) = - Z21 ZI2 - 0 2 _ (0.18572)(0.18572) - 0 16
z?2 mo 1 Ie Zz2 - . - .
- zn 0.86432
z_ (modified) = Z _ Z21 ZI3
-.l3 23 Z
Ii
= 0.01428 - (0.18572)(-0.27852) = 0.01428 + 0.059467 = 0.0741267
0.86432
Z?I ZI4
Zz4 (modified) = z33 - ----
ZII
= 0.01428 - (0.18572)(-0.5786) = 0.01428 + 0.1243261 = 0.1386
0.86432
• z31 zl3
Z33 (modIfied) = Z33 = --
zn
= 0.59288 - (-0.27582)(-0.27852) = 0.59288 - 0.0897507 = 0.50313
0.86432
76 Power System Analysis
Z34 (modified) = z43 (modified)
= 0.2928 - (-0.27852)(-0.5786) = 0.29288 - 0.186449 = 0.106431
0.86432
z (modified) = z _ Z41 Zl4
44 44 Z
II
= 0.59288 - (-0.5786)(-0.57861) = 0.59288 - 0.38733 = 0.2055
0.86432
The ZBUS for the entire ring system is obtained as
(2) (3)
(2) [0.16 0.0741267
ZBUS = (3) 0.0741267 0.50313
(4) 0.1386 0.106431
(4)
0.
1386
1
0.106431
0.2055
E 4.5 Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding
element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus
Solution:
j 0.25 p.u
@
Fig. E.4.6
Step-l Taking bus (1) as reference bus
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I j0.25 I
0.1 p.u
t
@
Building of Network Matrices 77
Step-2 Ass line joining buses (2) and (3). This is addition of a branch with mutuals.
a = (2); b = (3)
j 0.25
@
Fig. E.4.7
(2) (3)
Z = (2) jO.25 Z23
BUS
(3) Z32 Z33
- - -
Y ab-xy (ZXI - zYI)
zbl = zal +
Yab-ab
j 0.5
The primitive impedance matrix.
Hence
[
jO.5 - jO.l]
z(pnmitive) = •
- JO.l jO.2S
[
- j4.347 jO.869]
Yab-xy = [z]pnmlllve-
1
= jO.869 - j2.1739
Z3-2 = J·0.25 + jO.869(0 - jO.25) = J·0.25 + J·0.099 = J·0.349
- j2.1739
= . + 1 + 0.869(0 - j0.349) = '0.349 + '0.5 = '0.946
Z33 JO.349 _ j2.1739 J J J
78 Power System Analysis
(2) (3)
z = (2) jO.25 j0.349
BUS
(3) j0.349 jO.946
Step-3 : Add the live joining (l) and (3) buses. This is addition of a link to the existing
system with out mutual impedance.
A fictitious bus I is created.
j 0.25
Unk oddod /
Zli = -Zbl
j 0.25
®
Fig. E.4.8
zn = -z bi + zab--ab
Z12 = -Z32 = -j 0.349
zl3 = -z33 = -j 0.9464
zn = -Z31 + zl3-13
= +j 0.9464 + j 0.25
= j 1.196
The augmented impedance matrix
(2)
ZEUS = (3)
(2)
jO.25
jO.349
j 0.5
(3)
jO.349
jO.946
(I) - jO.349 - jO.9464
The factious node (I) is now eliminated.
Z ry (modified) = Z ry _ z21 Z12
2_ 2_ Z
11
(4)
- jO.349
- jO.9464
j1.l96
Building of Network Matrices
Hence
= jO.25 _ (- j0.349)( - j0.349) = 0.1481
jl.196
Z? (modified) = z (modified) = z ,_ Z21 zp
~ u ~ Z
II
= '0.349 _ (-jO.349)( -jO.9464) = 0.072834
J j1.l96
. Z31 zl3
z33 (modIfied) = z33 - --
Z II
(
- '09464)2
= j 0.94645 - J. = 0.1976
j1.196
Z _[iO.1481 i
O
.
0728
l
BUS - iO.0728 jO.l976J
79
E. 4.6 Using the building algorithm construct zBUS for the system shown below.
Choose 4 as reference BUS.
@
0.2 p.u
4
0.1 p.lI
3
0.5 p.lI
0.3 p.u
2
0.3 p.u
1
@
Fig. E.4.9
Solution:
Step-l Start with element (1) which is a branch a = 4 to b = 1. The elements of the bus
impedance matrix for the partial network containing the single branch are
80
0.3
Fig. E.4.10
Taking bus (4) as reference bus
(4) (1)
(4) rrffij0
z -
BUS - (1) 0 0.3
Power System Analysis
Since node 4 chosen as reference. The elements of the first row and column are zero
and need not be written thus
(1)
ZBUS = (1) ~
Step-2 Add element (2) which is a branch a = 1 to b = 2. This adds a new bus.
Ref. ®
0.3
Fig. E.4.11
(1) (2)
Z =
(I) 0.3 Z12
BUS (2)
Z21 Z22
Z12 = Z21 = Zll = 0.3
z22 = Z12 + z1212 = 0.3 + 0.5 = 0.8
(I) (2)
(1) ~ . 3 0.3
Z -
BUS - (2) 0.3 0.8
---.--@
Branch Added
2
0.5 p.u
Step-3 Add element (3) which is a branch a = 2 to b = 3. This adds a new BUS. The
BUS impedance matrix.
Building of Network Matrices
@---r--
Ref. ® _----1 __
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
0.2 p.u
3
0.3 .u
Fig. E.4.12
(1) (2) (3)
0.3 0.3
z\3
OJ 0.8
Z23
Z31 Z23 Z33
ZI3 = ~ 1 = Z21 = 0.3
z32 = z23 = ~ 2 = 0.8
0.5 p.u 2
_--1-_...1.-_ CD
Z33 = ~ 3 + Z2323 = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1.0
(1) (2) (3)
(1) OJ 0.3 0.3
Hence, ZBUS = (2)
0.3 0.8 0.8
(3) OJ 0.8 1.0
81
Step-4 Add element (4) which is a link a = 4; b=3. The augmented impedance matrix
with the fictitious node I will be.
I
0.2 p.u
I
3
4 0.3 p.u
0.5 p.u
2
0.3 p.u
I I
Fig. E.4.13
82
(1) (2) (3) (l)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(l)
0.3
0.3
0.3
Z/1
0.3
0.8
0.8
Z/2
0.3
0.8
1.0
Z/3
ZIf = zlI - z31 = -0.3
Zzl = z12 - z32 = -0.8
z31 = Z \3 - Z 33 = -1.0
z\I
Z2/
Z3/
zli
zlI = -z31 + Z4343 = -{-I) + 0.3 = 1.3
The augmented matrix is
(1) (2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(l)
0.3
0.3
0.3
-0.3
To eliminate the [Ih row and column
0.3
0.8
0.8
-0.8
(3) (l)
0.3 -0.3
0.8 -0.8
1.0 -1.0
-1.0 1.3
Power System Analysis
1 _ _ (Zll XZn) _ 0 3 _ (-0.3)(-0.3) - 0 230769
Zll - Zll - . - .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll)(Z21) -03- (-0.3)(-0.8) -01153
Z21 - z12 - z12 - . - .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll )(ZI3) _ 0 3 _ (-0.3)(-1.0) - 0 06923
Z31 - zI3 - zI3 - . - .
Zll 1.3
1 _ _ (Z21 )(Z12) _ 0 8 _ (-0.8)(-0.8) - 0 30769
Z22 - Z22 - . - .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Z31)(Z12) _ 08- (-1.0)(-0.8) - 018461
Z23 - Z32 - Z32 - . - .
Zll 1.3
Building of Network Matrices 83
and, thus,
Step-5
4
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(1)
0.230769·
0.1153
0.06923
(2) (3)
0.1153 0.06923
0.30769 0.18461
0.18461 0.230769
Add element (5) which is a link a = 3 to b = 1, mutually coupled with element
(4). The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be
0.3
(1)
(2)
(3)
(I)
0.3
Fig. E.4.14
(1) (2)
0.230769 0.1153
0.1153 0.30769
0.06923 0.18461
Zll z12
(3)
0.06923
0.18461
0.230769
z13
Y3123(Z21 -Z31)
zll =z/l =Z31 -Zll +-----
Y3131
Y3123(Z22 -Z32)
zl2 = Z21 = Z32 - z12 + -----
Y3131
2
(I)
Zu
Z21
Z31
Zll
84 Power System Analysis
Invert the primitive impedance matrix of the partial network to obtain the primitive
admittance matrix.
4 -1(1) 1- 2(2) 2 -3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5)
4 -1(1) 0.3 0 0 0 0
1- 2(2) 0 0.5 0 0 0
[ZXYXY] = 2 - 3(3)
0 0 0.2 0 0.1
4-3(4) 0 0 0 0.3 0
3 -1(5) 0 0 0.1 0 0.4
4 -1(1) 1- 2(2) 2 -3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5)
4-1(1) 3.33 0 0 0 0
I 1- 2(2) 0 0.2 0 0 0
[ZXYXY t = [y XYXy] = 2 - 3(3)
0 0 5.714 0 -1.428
4-3(4) 0 0 0 3.33 0
3 -1(5) 0 0 -1.428 0 2.8571
(-1.428)(0.1153 - 0.06923)
zll = Z12 =.0.06923 - 0.230769 + = -0.18456
2.8571
= = (-1.428)(0.30769 - 0.18461) = 000779
z12 z21 0.18461 - 0.1153 + 2.8571 .
Z31 = zI3 = 0.230769 - 0.06923 + (-1.428)(0.18461 - 0.230769) = 0.1846
2.8571
_ 8 ) 1 + (-1.428)(0.00779 - 0.1846) - 0 8075
zlI-
0
.
1
46-(-0.1845 + 2.8571 - .
(1)
(2)
(3)
(I)
(1)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
- 0.18456
(2)
0.1153
0.30769
0.18461
0.00779
(3) (1)
0.06923 - 0.18456
0.18461 0.00779
0.230769 0.186
0,1846 0.8075
Building of Network Matrices 85
To Eliminate [lh row and column:
Z ~ \ = ZII _ (ZlI)(Z\1) = 0.230769- (-0.18456)(-0.18456) = 0.18858
ZII 0.8075
\ - \ - - _ (ZlI)(Z\2) _ 01153- (-0.18456)(0.00779) - 011708
Z12 - Z2\ - Z\2 - - . - .
z\\ 0.8075
(Z21 )(Z\2) = 0.30769 _ (-0.00779)(0.00779) = 0.30752
z\l 0.8075
\ - \ - - (ZlI)(Z\3) _ 0 06923 _ (-0.18456)(0.1846) - 011142
z\3 - Z3\ -- z\3 - - . - .
ZII 0.8075
Z ~ 3 = Z33 - (Z31 )(Z13) = 0.230769 _ (-0.1846)(0.1846) = 0.18857
z\\ 0.8075
Z ~ 2 = Z ~ 3 = Z23 - (Z21 )(Z3\) = 0.18461 _ (0.00779)(0.1846) = 0.18283
zlI 0.8075
(1) (2) (3)
(1)
and ZBUS = (2)
0.18858 0.11708 0.11142
0.11708 0.30752 0.18283
(3) 0.11142 0.18283 0.18858
E 4.7 Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S.
@
@
I
3
I
0.2
4 0.3
0.5 2
I
0.3
I
®
CD
Fig. E.4.1S
86
Its ZBUS is as follows.
(1)
laus = (2)
(3)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
Power System Analysis
0.1153 0.0623
0.30769 0.18461
0.18461 0.230769
If the line 4 is removed determine the Z BUS for the changed network.
Solution: Add an element parallel to the element 4 having an impedance equal to impedance of
element 4 with negative sign.
1 1 1 1 1
--=--+ =--+-=0
lnew ladded lexisting
0.3 0.3
This amount to addition of a link.
®
5 4
-OJ 0.3
where
I
®
(1)
Zsus = (2)
(3)
(l)
3
0.2
1
OJ
Fig. E.4.16
(1) (2)
0.230769 0.1153
0.1153 0.30769
0.06923 0.18461
ZII Z/2
ZII = zlI = -z31 = -0.06923
~ I = z12 = -Z32 = -0.18461
Z31 = zl3 = -z33 = -0.230769
z/1 = -Z31 + z4343
~
0.5
I
(3)
0.0623
0.18461
0.230769
z/3
= (-0.230769) + (-0.3) = --0.06923
@
2
<D
(/)
zlI
Z21
Z31
zl/
Building of Network Matrices
The augmented zBUS is then
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(I)
Eliminating the fictitious node I
(1)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
-0.06923
(2) (3) (I)
0.1153 0.0623 -0.06923
0.30769 0.18461 -0.18461
0.18461 0.230769 -0.230769
-0.18461 -0.230769 -0.06923
Z ~ 2 = Z ~ 3 = Z23 - (Z21 )(ZI3) = 0.18461- (0.18461)(-0.2307669) = 0.8
z" - 0.06923
Z ~ l = Z:3 = z13 - (Z21 )(Z31) = (0.06923) - (-0.230769) = 0.3
z"
Z ~ 2 = Z22 - (Z21 )(Z12) = (0.30769) _ (-0.18461)(-0.18461) = 0.8
z\\ - 0.06923
Z\ = Z _ (Z31 )(Z\3) = (0.230769) _ (-0.230769)(-0.230769) = 1.0
33 33 Z\\ _ 0.06923
The modified Zaus is
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(1) (2) (3)
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.3 0.8 0.8
0.3 0.8 1.0
87
88 Power System Analysis
E 4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17.
0.08 + jO.24
Fig. E.4.17
Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm.
Solution:
Bus (1) is chosen as reference. Consider element 1 (between bus (I) and (2))
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I 0.08 + jO.24 I
Step-I Add element 2 ( which is between bus (1) and (3))
0.08 + jO.24
®
Fig. E.4.18
This is addition of a branch. A new bus (3) is created. There is no mutual impedance.
(2) (3)
ZBUS = (2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0 + jO.O
(3) 0.0 + jO.O 0.02 + jO.06
Building of Network Matrices
Step-2 add element 3 which is between buses (2) and (3)
0.08 + jO.24
@
Fig. E.4.19
A link is a ~ d e d . Fictitious node I is introduced.
(2)
0.08 + jO.24
(3)
0.0+ jO.O
(I)
0.08+ jO.24 (2)
ZBUS = (3)
0.0+ jO.O 0.02 + jO.06 - (0.02 + jO.06)
(I) 0.08+ jO.24 - (0.02 + jO.006)
eliminating the fictitious node I
7_ (modified) = 7_ _ Z21 Zl2
-l2 -l2 Z
II
= (0.08 + jO.24) _ (0.08 + jO.24)2 = 0.04 + jO.l2
0.49+ j0.48
~ 3 (modified) = ~ 2 (modified)
0.16+ jO.48
= [ _ ZZI ZIJ] _ 0 0 '00 (0.8 + jO.24 )(0.02 + jO.06)
ZZ3 - • + } . +
zl/ 0.16+ j0.48
= 0.01 + jO.03
Z33 (modified) = 0.0175 + j 0.0526
The zBUS matrix is thus
(2) (3)
ZBUS = (2) [0.04 + jO.12 0.01 + jO.03 ]
(3) 0.01 + jO.03 0.0175 + jO.0526
89
90 Power System Analysis
E 4.9 Given the system of E4.4. An element with an impedance of 0.2 p.u. and
mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. with element 5. Obtained the modified bus
impedance method using the method for computations of ZBUS for changes
in the network.
Solution:
0.3
3
~
and
2
0.2
t 0.1
0.4
I
0.3
4
Fig. E.4.20
Element added is a link
a = 2 ; b = 4. A fictitious node is I is created.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(/)
(2)
0.16
0.0741267
0.1386
Z/2
(3) (4)
0.0741267 0.1386
0.50313 0.106431
0.106437 0.2055
Z/3 Z,4
1 + Yab-xy (ZXI - Zyt)
Z" = Zal - Zbl + ----..::...----..::...-
Yab-ab
The primitive impedance matrix is
I
I
1
0
.
2
I
5
I
0.1
I
I

~ 1 6
0.05
I
I
I
I
I
Z21
Z31
Z41
Zll
Building of Network Matrices
1- 2(2)
[z]= 1- 3
3-4
2 - 4(1)
2 - 4(2)
91
1 - 2(1) 1.2(2) 1 - 3 3 - 4 2.4(1) 2.4(2)
0.4 0.1 0.05 0 0 0
0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0
0.05 0 0.3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.3 0.1 0.05
0 0 0 0 0.05 0.2
The added element 6 is coupled to only one element (i.e.) element 5. It is sufficient to
invert the sub matrix for the coupled element.
2-4(1) 2-4(2)
Z b = 2 - 4(\) 0.1 0.05
a -'Y
2 - 4(2) 0.05 0.2
[
\ 1.4285 - 2.857]
YalHY = _ 2.857 5.7 \ 43
= 0.16 -0.1386 + (-2.857)(0 -16 - 0.1386) = 0.01070
5.7143
Z =Z =0.741267-0.10643+ (-2.857)(0.741-0.10643) =-0.1614
31 13 5.7143
= O. \ 386 - 0.2055 + (-2.857)(0.1386 - 0.2055) = -0.03345
5.7143
Z = 0.0107 _ (-0.03345) + 1 + (-2.857)(0.0107 - (-0.03345) = 0.19707
1/ 5.7143
The augmented matrix is then
92 Power System Analysis
(2) (3) (4) (I)
(2)

0
1600
0.0741 0.1386
0
0
0107]
(3) 0.0741 0.5031 0.1064 -0.01614
(4) 0.1386 0.1064 0.2055 -0.0.3345
(I) 0.0107 -0.01614 -0.03345 0.19707
(0.0107)2
Z22 (modified) = 0.16 - = 0.1594
0.19707
Z23 (modified) = Z32 (modified)
= 0.01070x(-O.01614) = 0 7497
0.0741 0.19707 .
Z24 (modified) = Z42 (modified)
= 0.1386 _ 0.01070 x (-0.03345) = 0.1404
0.19707
Z33 (modified) = 0.50313 _ (-0.01614)2 = 0.5018
0.19707
Z43 (modified) = Z34 (modified)
= 0.106431 - (-0.03345)(-0.01614) = 0.10369
0.19707
(-0.0334)2
Z44 (modified) = 0.2055 - = 0.1998
0.19707
Hence the ZBUS is obtained by
(2)
ZBUS= (3)
(4)
(2)
[
0.1594
0.07497
0.1404
(3)
0.07497
0.5018
0.10369
(4)
0.1404]
0.10369
0.1998
Building of Network Matrices 93
E 4.10 Consider the problem E.4.9. If the element 6 is now removed obtain the
ZBUS'
Solution:
2
0.2
0.3 ! 0.1

0.4
1
3
0.3
4
Fig. E.4.21
where a = 2; = 4 i = 1,2, ............. ,n
and y = 2; 8 = 4
the original primitive admittance matrix
2-4(1) 2-4(2)
[y sm] = 2 - 4(1)
2-4(2) -2.857: 5.7143
I
The modified primitive admittance matrix
1-2(1) 1-2(2)
0.1
[Ysm] 1= 1-2(1) [+ OIl i 0]
1- 2(2) --O·--r----O
I
1
1
0
.
2
1
5
1
1
1
16
0.05
1
1
1
I
{ [ ][ ]
1 }= [11.4285 - 2.857] = [10 0] = [1.4285 - 2.857]
Ysm Y
sm
-2.857 5.7143 ° ° -2.857 5.7143
94
Computing term by term
ZyCl - Zoo - Zyf3 - ZIIf3 = [(2)
(2)
Power System Analysis
[
0. ~ ~ 9 4 0. i ~ ~ 4 ] 1
0.1594 0.1594
(2) (2)
ZlIa =Z24 =Z42 =(4) [0.1404 0.1404]
(4) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
Zya =(2) [0.1404 0.1404]
(2) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
ZIIf3 = (4) [0.1998 0.1998]
(4) 0.1998 0.1998
[
0.1594 0.1594]_ [0.1404 0.1404]
Zya - Zoo - Zyf3 + ZIIf3 = 0.1594 0.1594 0.1404 0.1404
_ [0.1404 0.1404]+[0.1998 0.1998]
0.1404 0.1404 0.1998 0.1998
= [0.0784 0.0784]
0.0784 0.0784
[L\y 8m UZya - ZlIa - Zyf3 - ZIIf3 J
= [1.4285 - 2.857] [0.0784 0.784] [- 0.1120 - 0.1120]
- 2.857 5.7143 0.0784 0.0784 - 0.2240 0.2240
[
1 0] [-0.1120 -0.1120] [1.112 0.112]
F = U - fly sm (Zra - ZOIl - Zrj3 + Zoj3) = 0 1 - 0.2240 0.2240 = _ 0.224 0.7760
[F]-l =[0.87387 -0.12612]
0.25225 1.25225
[
F]-IL\ =[0.87387 -0.12612][ 1.4285 -2.8571]=[ 1.6086 -3.2173]
Ysm 0.25225 1.25225 -2.8571 5.7143 -3.2173 6.435
Building of Network Matrices 95
The elements of modified ZBUS are then given by
= Zij + tztU - )[F ]-1 [fiy sm ][Zyt - ZOt ]
For i = 2; j = 2
z\, Z" + ([Z" z"l- [Z" z"l [M]' ) (
= 0.1594 + [0.15940.1594]- [0.1404 0.1404D
[
1.6086 -3.2173] [ 0.1594 _ 0.1404 I
-3.2173 6.435 0.1594 0.1404)
r ][1.6086 -3.2173][0.019]
= 0.1594 + lO.019 0.019
-3.2173 6.435 0.019
= 0.1594 + [- 0.03056 0.0611] = 0.1594 + 0.00058026 = 0.15998 = 0.16
[
0.019]
0.019
Let i = 2; j = 3
[
1.6086 - 3.2173] [- 0.03146]
=0.07497+[0.0190.019]
-3.2173 6.435 -0.03146
= 0.07491 + [- 0.030560.0611] = 0.07497 - 0.00096075 = 0.074040
[
- 0.03146]
- 0.03146
Let i = 2; j = 4
Zi4 = 0.1404 + [- 0.03056 0.0611] = 0.1404 - 0.001814 = 0.13858
[
-0.0594]
-0.0594
Let i == 3;j = 3
[
- 1.6086 - 3.2173] [- 0.03146]
= 0.5018 + [- 0.03146 - 0.03146]
-3.2173 6.435 -0.03146
= 0.5018 + [0.0506 - 0.10 1228] = 0.5018 + 0.001592 = 0.503392
[
- 0.03146]
- 0.03146
For i == 3; j = 4
96
P 4.1
Power System Analysis
[
-0.0594]
Z ~ 4 = 0.103691 + [0.05060 - 0.101228 J
- 0.0594
= 0.103691 + 0.003006 = 0.106696
Similarly for I == j =
[
1.6086
Z ~ 4 =0.1998+[-0.0594 -0.0594J
-3.2173
- 3.2173] [- 0.0594]
6.435 - 0.0594
=0.1998+[0.09556 -0.19113J =0.205476
[
- 0.0594]
-0.0594
Hence the ZBUS with the element 6 removed will be
(2)
ZBUS = (3)
(4)
3
(2) (3)
0.15998 0.074040
0.07404 0.503392
0.13858 0.106696
Problems
CD
Fig. P 4.14
(4)
0.13858
0.106696
0.20576
2
Form the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in Fig. P 4.1 the line data is
given below.
Element Numbers Bus Code Self Impedance
I (2) - (3) 0.6 p.u.
2 (I) - (3) 0.5 p.u.
3 (I) - (2) 0.4 p.u.
Building of Network Matrices 97
P 4.2 0 btam 1he m odilied ZBUS if a line 4 is added parallel to line I across the busses (2)
and (3) with a self impedance of 0.5 p.u.
P 4.3 In the problem P 4.2 ifthe added line element 4 has a mutual impedance with respect
to line element 1 of 0.1 p.u. how will the ZBUS matrix change?
Questions
4.1 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step - by - step how you will
obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added to a bus in the
existing network.
4.2 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step by step how you will obtain
the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added between two buses
of the existing network.
4.3 What are the advantages of Z BUS building algorithm?
4.4 Describe the Procedure for modification of Z BUS when a line is added or removed
which has no mutual impedance.
4.5 Describe the procedure for modifications ofZ BUS when a line with mutual impedance
is added or removed.
4.6 Derive the necessary expressions for the building up of Z BUS when (i) new element
is added. (ii) new element is added between two existing buses. Assume mutual
coupling between the added element and the elements in the partial network.
4.7 Write short notes on
Removal ofa link in Z BUS with no mutual coupling between the element deleted and
the other elements in the network.
4.8 .Derive an expression for adding a link to a network with mutual inductance.
4.9 Derive an expression for adding a branch element between two buses in the ZBUS
building algorithm.
4.10 Explain the modifications necessary in the Z BUS when a mutually coupled element is
removed or its impedance is changed.
4.11 Develop the equation for modifying the elements of a bus impedance matrix when
it is coupled to other elements in the network, adding the element not creating a
new bus.
5 POWER FLOW STUDIES
Power flow studies are performed to determine voltages, active and reactive power etc. at
various points in the network for different operating conditions subject to the constraints on
generator capacities and specified net interchange between operating systems and several other
restraints. Power flow or load flow solution is essential for continuous evaluation of the
performance of the power systems so that suitable control measures can be taken in case of
necessity. In practice it will be required to carry out numerous power flow solutions under a
variety of conditions.
5.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies
Power flow studies are undertaken for various reasons, some of which are the following:
I. The line flows
2. The bus voltages and system voltage profile
3. The effect of change in configuration and incorporating new circuits on system
loading
4. The effect of temporary loss of transmission capacity and (or) generation on system
loading and accompanied effects.
5. The effect of in-phase and quadrative boost voltages on system loading
6. Economic system operation
7. System loss minimization
8. Transformer tap setting for economic operation
9. Possible improvements to an existing system by change of conductor sizes and
system voltages.
Power Flow Studies
99
For the purpose of power flow studies a single phase representation of the power network
is used, since the system is generally balanced. When systems had not grown to the present
size, networks were simulated on network analyzers for load flow solutions. These analyzers
are of analogue type, scaled down miniature models of power systems with resistances,
reactances, capacitances, autotransformers, transformers, loads and generators. The generators
are just supply sources operating at a much higher frequency than 50 Hz to limit the size ofthe
components. The loads are represented by constant impedances. Meters are provided on the
panel board for measuring voltages, currents and powers. The power flow solution in obtained
directly from measurements for any system simulated on the analyzer.
With the advent of the modern digital computers possessing large storage and high
speed the mode of power flow studies have changed from analog to digital simulation. A large
number of algorithms are developed for digital power flow solutions. The methods basically
distinguish between themselves in the rate of convergence, storage requirement and time of
computation. The loads are gerally represented by constant power.
Network equations can be solved in a variety of ways in a systematic manner. The most
popular method is node voitage method. When nodal or bus admittances are used complex
linear algebraic simultaneous equations will be obtained in terms of nodal or bus currents.
However, as in a power system since the nodal currents are not known, but powers are known
at almost all the buses, the resulting mathematical equations become non-linear and are required
to be solved by interactive methods. Load flow studies are required as has been already explained
for power system planning, operation and control as well as for contingency analysis. The bus
admittance matrix is invariably utilized in power flow solutions
5.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System
There are the following:
1. There should the adequate real power generation to supply the power demand at
various load buses and also the losses
2. The bus voltage magnitUdes are maintained at values very close to the rated values.
3. Generators, transformers and transmission lines are not over loaded at any point of
time or the load curve.
5.3 The Power Flow Equations
Consider an n-bus system the bus voltages are given by
~ VI LO
l
V= ............ .
Vn LOn
The bus admittance matrix
[Y] = [G] + j [B]
..... (5.1 )
..... (5.2)
100
Power System Analysis
where

-"- glk -j j b
lh
Y
I
= IVII L8
1
= iV
2
1 (Cos 8
1
+ j sin (
1
)
VI: = IVkl L-i\ = !Vki (Cos c\ + j sin 8
k
)
The current injected into the network at bus 'i'
..... (5.3)
..... (5.4 )
II = YII VI T YIC Vc + .... + Yin Vn where n is the number of buses
n
II - L Y
lk
V
k
bl
The complex power into the system at bus i
S=P+J'O=VI*
1 I ! 1 I
n
L IV V, Y,lexp(8 -0, -8,)
k=1 I I,
Equating the real and imaginary parts
11
PI = k:1 IV
I
V k Ylkl Cos (8
1
-- (\ - 8
1k
)
n
and 0
1
= L IV V, Y,I Sin(8 -8, -8,)
k=1 I I. I, I,
where j= 1.2 ...... , n
..... (5.5 )
..... (5.6)
..... (5.7)
..... (5.8)
Excluding the slack bus, the above power flow equations are 2 (n - I) and the variables
are PI" 0
1
, IVII and Ld
l
Simultaneous solution to the 2 (n - I) equations
p -
01
n
, IV
I
V
k
Cos «\ -- i\ - 8
1k
) -= 0
-, I
k ct slack bus
n
OGI - 0
01
- IV
I
V k Ylkl Sin (8
1
- c\ - 8
1k
) = 0
k *' slack bus
Constitutes the power flow or load flow solution.
..... (5.9)
..... (5.10)
The voltage magnitudes and the phase. angles at all load buses are the quantities to be
determined. They are called state variables or dependent variables. The specified or scheduled
values at all buses are the independent variables.
Y matrix interactive methods are based on solution to power flow equations using their
current mismatch at a bus given by
..... ( 5.11 )
Power Flow Studies
101
or using the voltage form
fl.1,
..... (5.12)
I YII
At the end of the interactive solution to power flow equation, fl.1, or more usually fI. V,
should become negligibly small so that they can be neglected.
5.4 Classification of Buses
(a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is
called a load bus. At this bus real and reactive load demand P
d
and Q
d
are drawn
from the supply. The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast
or metered and measured from instruments. Quite often, the reactive power is
calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor. A load bus is
called a p, Q bus. Since the load demands P
d
and Q
d
are known values at this
bus. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its
phase angle at the bus. In a power balance equation P d and Q
d
are treated as negative
quantities since generated powers P g and Q g are assumed positive.
(b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus:
A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can
be controlled. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied
b: changing the prime mover input. This in turn changes the machine rotor axis
position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference
bus. In other words, the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real
power generated by the machine. The voltage magnitude on the other hand,
mainly, influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. Thus at a generator
bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified. It
is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too. They
compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage
control. At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus, also called a PV-bus the
reactive power Q
g
and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed.
(c) ,",llIck htl.\'
In a network as power from the generators to loads through transmission
lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when
included, we get the power balance relations
Pg-P
d
- ..... (5.14)
Qg-Qd-QI =0 ..... (5.15)
where P <; and Qo are the total real and reactive generations, P d and Q d are the total
real ancf reactive power demands and P land OI. are the power losses in the
transmission network. The values ofP g' 0 g' P d and 0 d are either known or estimated.
Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not
known in advance, PI. and OI. remains unknown before the analysis of the network.
But. these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system. For this
102
Power System Analysis
purpose, one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or
'swing bus'. At this bus the generation P g and Q
g
are not specified. The voltage
magnitude is specified at this bus. Further, the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at
this bus. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured
with respect to voltage at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as
reference bus. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus.
Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this
bus. The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
Slack bus IV d. 8
1
= 0° specified P l'
Q
1
to be
determined at the
end of the
solution
P 3' Q3' IV 31. 8
3
Load bus P 3. 0
3
specified IV 31.8
3
are not known
Fig. 5.1
Bus classification is summarized in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1
Generator bus P 2'
IV 2i spcified O
2
,
8
2
to be known
Bus Specified variables Computed variables
Slack- bus Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Real and reactive powers
Generator bus Magnitudes of bus voltages and real Voltage phase angle and
(PV - bus or voltage powers (limit on reactive powers) reat.:tive power.
controlled bus)
Load bus Real and reactive powers Magnitude and phase
angle of bus voltages
5.5 Bus Admittance Formation
Consider the transmission system shown in Fig. 5.1.
Fig. 5.2 Three bus transmission system.
Power Flow Studies
103
The line impedances joining buses 1, 2 and 3 are denoted by z 12' z 22 and z31 respectively.
The corresponding line admittances are Y\2' Y22 and Y31
The total capacitive susceptances at the buses are represented by YIO' Y20 and Y30'
Applying Kirchoff's current law at each bus
In matrix from
II : VI Y \0 + (V 1 - V 2) Y \2 + (V 1 - V 3) Y \3 }
12 - V 2 Y20 + (V 2 - VI) Y 21 + (V 2 - V 3) Y23
13 = V 3 Y 30 + (V 3 - VI) Y 31 + (V 3 - V 2) Y 32
- Y12
..... (5.15)
- Y0 1 X
Y 20 + Y 12 + Y 23
- Y23
- Y13 1
Y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23
where
Y12
Y22
Y32
Y
II
:YlO+YI2+Y13}
Y
22
- Y20 + YI2 + Y23
Y33 = Y30 + Y\3 + Y23
are the self admittances forming the diagonal terms and
Y
12
: Y
21
: -Y12}
y 13 - Y 31 - -y 13
Y
23
=Y
32
=-Y23
..... (5.16)
..... (5.17)
..... (5.18)
are the mutual admittances forming the off-diagonal elements of the bus admittance
matrix. For an n-bus system, the elements of the bus admittance matrix can be written down
merely by inspection of the network as
diagonal terms
11
Y
II
= Ylo + LYlk
k;\
b'l
off and diagonal terms
Y
1k
=-Ylk
..... (5.19)
If the network elements have mutual admittance (impedance), the above formulae will
not apply. For a systematic formation of the y-bus, linear graph theory with singular
transformations may be used.
104 Power System Analysis
5.6 System Model for Load Flow Studies
The variable and parameters associated with bus i and a neighboring bus k are represented in
the usual notation as follows:
Bus admittance,
Y
lk
= I Y ik I exp j e Ik = I Y ik I (Cos qlk + j sin elk)
Complex power,
S
- p +' Q - V I"
I - I J I - I I
Using the indices G and L for generation and load,
PI = P
GI
- P
LI
= Re [Vi I*J
Q
I
= Q
Gi
- Q
Li
= 1m [Vi I"J
The bus current is given by
I
BUS
= Y BUS' V BUS
Hence, from eqn. (5.22) and (5.23) from an n-bus system
" P - iQ. n
II = I : '=YiIV, + LYikV
k
Vj k=l
k"l
and from eqn. (5.26)
V = __ 1 [PI - jQ, - ~ Y V 1
' y. V. .L... ,k k
II , k=l
k"l
Further,
n
Pi + jQj = V , L Y , ~ V:
k=l
In the polar form
n
P,+jQj=L lV, V
k
Y,klexpj(D
I
-D
k
-elk)
k=l
so that
n
P, = L lV, V
k
YjkICOS(Oj -Ok -elk)
k=1
and
n
Q, = L IV
i
V
k
Y,k Isin (OJ -Ok -elk)
k=l
i = 1, 2, ..... n; i =F- slack bus
..... (5.20)
..... (5.21)
..... (5.22)
..... (5.23)
..... (5.24)
..... (5.25)
..... (5.26)
..... (5.27)
..... (5.28)
..... (5.29)
..... (5.30)
..... (5.31)
Power Flow Studies
105
The power flow eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) are nonlinear and it is required to solve 2(n-l)
such equations involving i V, I, 8
"
P, and Q
,
at each bus i forthe load flow solution. Finally, the
powers at the slack bus may be computed from which the losses and all other line flows can
be ascertained. V-matrix interactivt! methods are based on solution to power flow relations
using their current mismatch at a bus given by
n
~ I = I -- "Y
"
V,
1 1 L
or using the voltage from
, ~ I ,
~ V, - ~ ---
YII
..... (5.32)
..... (5.33)
The convergence of the iterative methods depends on the diagonal dominance of the
bus admittance matri\.. The self·admittances of the buses, are usually large, relative to the
mutual admittances and thus, usually convergence is obtained. Junctions of very high and low
series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits long, EHV lines, series and
shunt compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal
dominance in the V-matrix. The choice of slack bus can affect convergence considerably. [n
difficult cases. it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant
row and column of Y. The salient features of the V-matrix iterative methods are that the
elements in the summation tenm in cqn. (5.26) or (5.27) are on the average only three, even
for well-developed power systems. The sparsity of the V-matrix and its symmetry reduces
both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. For a large, well conditioned
system of n-buses, the number of iterations required are of the order of n and total computing
time varies approximately as n
2
.
Instead of using eqn (5.25). one can select the impedance matrix and rewrite the
equation a ~
v = Y -I I ~ 7. I
..... (5.34 )
The Z-matrix method is not usually very sensitive to the choice of the slack bus. It can
easily be verified that the Z-matrix is not sparse. For problems that can be solved by both
Z-matrix and V-matrix methods, the former are rarely competitive with the V-matrix methods.
5.7 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method
Gauss-Seidel iterative method is very simple in concept but may not yield convagence to the
required solution. However, whcn the initial solution or starting point is very close to the actual
solution convergence is gcncrally ontained. The following example illustrator the method.
Consider the equations:
2x + 3y = 22
3\. +- 4y = 31
The free solution to thc above equations is .... == 5 and y = 4
106
Power System Analysis
If an interactive solution using Gauss-Seidel method is required then let u,; assume a
starting value for x = 4.8 which is nearer to the true value of 5 we obtain from the given
equations
22 - 2x 34 -4y
Y = --- and x = --3--
3
Iteration 1 : Let x = 4.8; y = 4.13
with y = 4.13; x = 6.2
Iteration 2 x = 6.2; y = 3.2
Y = 3.2; x = 6.06
Iteration 3 : x = 6.06 y = 3.29
y = 3.29 x = 5.94
Iteration 4 : x = 5.96 y = 3.37
Y = 3.37 x = 5.84
Iteration 5 : x = 5.84 Y = 3.44
Y = 3.44 x = 5.74
Iteration 6 : x = 5.74 Y = 3.5
Y = 3.5 x = 5.66
The iteractive solution slowly converges to the true solution. The convergence of the
method depending upon the starting values for the iterative solution.
In many cases the conveyence may not be ohtained at all. However, in case of power
flow studies, as the bus voltages are not very far from the rated values and as all load flow
studies are performed with per unit values assuming a flat voltage profile at all load buses of
(I + jO) p.LI. yields convergence in most of the cases with appriate accleration factors chosen.
5.8 Gauss - Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution
In this method, voltages at all buses except at the slack bus are assumed. The voltage at the
slack bus is specified and remains fixed at that value. The (n-I) bus voltage relations.
v = J_ r P, .- jQ, -- y V
'y V* k
" , 0_1

I = 1, 2, ..... n; i :f= slack bus
..... (5.35)
are solved simultaneously for an improved solution. In order to accelerate the convergence, all
newly-computed values of bus voltages are substituted in eqn. (5.35). Successively the bus
voltage equation of the (m + 1)th iteration may then be written as
V(m+l) = _I [p ,-jQ, _ y v:(m+l) _ y v:(m) l
I Y V(m)* k k I
"i J
..... (5.36)
Power Flow Studies
107
The method converges slowly because of the loose mathematical coupling between the
buses. The rate of convergence of the process can be increased by using acceleration factors
to the solution obtained after each iteration. A fixed acceleration factor ex (I ::; ex ::; 2) is
normally used for each voltage change.
Y _
L\ i-ex y*y ..... (5.37)
I 11
The use of the acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of VJ" For a given
system. it is quite often found that a near-optimal choice of ex e>.ists as suggested in literature
over a range of operating conditions. Even though a complex value of ex is suggested in
literature, it is more convenient to operate with real values given by
..... (5.38)
Alternatively, different acceleration factors may be used for real and imaginary parts of
the voltage.
Treatment of a PV - bus
The method of handling a PV-bus requires rectangular coordinate representation for the voltages.
Letting
Y
i
= v, + jv, ..... (5.39)
Where v, and v, are the real and imaginary components ofY
i
the relationship .
..... (5.40)
must be satisfied. so that the reactive bus power required to establish the scheduled bus
I b
. f IITI) (m) f
vo tage can e computed. The estimates 0 voltage components. v, and v, a ter
m iterations must be adjusted to satisfy eqn. (5.40). The Phase angle of the estimated bus
voltage is
[
"(m)]
8(m) = tan -I _V_I_
I '(m)
v,
..... (5.41)
Assuming that the phase angles of the estimated and scheduled voltages are equal, then
the adjusted estimates of V'(II1) and V"(JII) are
. I
v
l
(lIl) = IV I cos8(m)
I ( new) I scheduled I
..... (5.42)
and
V"(I11) = IV I sin 8(111)
I(ncw) I scheduled I
..... (5.43)
These values are used to calculate the reactive power Using these reactive powers
0:
1111
and voltages I a new estimate V:
r
<1+11 is calculated. The flowchart for computing
the solution of load tlow using gauss-seidel method is given in Fig. 5.3.
108
Power System Analysis
While computing the reactive powers, the limits on the reactive sourCt! must be taken
into consideration. If the calculated value of the reactive power is beyond limits. Then its value
is fixed at the limit that is violated and it is no longer possible to hold the desired magnitude of
the bus voltage, the bus is treated as a PQ bus or load bus.
No
VIm) =_I_[<PJ -jQ,J
I Y,J vim)
!.=..!.. Y v(m"l) _ i Y VIm)]
k = I Ik k I . ~ I + I II. k
Yes
Yes
m=m+ I
Calculate line flows and slack bus
PO\\ er
Fig. 5.3 Flowchart for Gauss - Seidel iterative method for load flow solution using V-8us.
Power Flow Studies
109
5.9 Newton-Raphson Method
The generated Newton-Raphson method is an interactive algorithm for solving a set of
simultaneous nonlinear equations in an equal number of unknowns. Consider the set of nonlinear
equations.
fl (Xl' X
2
' ...... , Xn) = YI' i = I, 2, .... , n
. .... (5.44)
with initial estimates for \
. (0) (0) (0)
XI • x
2
..... ., xn
which are not far from the actual solution. Then using Taylor's series and neglecting
the higher order terms, the corrected set of equations are
(
(0) + AX (0) + A XIO) + A. )_ ..... (5.45)
XI 0 I,X
2
oX
2
, .. •• .. , n oXn - YI
where L\ \ are the corrections to XI = (i = I, 2, ..... , n)
A set of linear equations, which define a tangent hyperplane to the function fl (x) at the
given iteration point (x:O)) are obtained as
L\Y= JL\X ..... (5.46)
where L\ Y is a column vector determined by
f (
(0) (0»)
YI - I XI , ..... ,x
n
L\X is the column vector of correction terms L\ x" and J is the Jacobian matrix for the
function f given by the first order partial derivatives evaluated at X (0) The corrected solution is
I
obtained as
X;IJ = x;O) + L\xl
The square Jacobian matrix J is defined by
Of
l
J =--
II. Cx
k
..... (5.47)
..... (5.48)
The above method of obtaining a converging solution for a set of nonlinear equations
can be used for solving the load flow problem. It may be mentioned that since the final voltage
solutions are not much different from the nominal values, Newton - Raphson method is
particularly suited to the load flow problem. The matrix J is highly sparse and is particularly
suited to the load flow application and sparsity - programmed ordered triangulation and back
substitution methods result in quick and efficient convergence to the load flow solution. This
method possesses quadratic convergence and thus converges very rapidly when the solution
point is close.
There are two methods of solution for the load flow using Newton - Raphson method.
The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables, while the second method uses
the polar coordinate formulation.
110
Power System Analysis
5.9.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method
The power entering the bus i is given by
parts.
Where
and
S, = P, + j 0,
v =0- v, + jv,
,
Y ,k = G,k + j B,k
(P, + jO,) = ((v: + jv:')t - jB,k - - j
k=1 )
..... (5.49)
..... (5.50)
Expanding the right side of the above equation and separating out the real and imaginary
. .... (5.51 )
0, = f[v:(G" -G'k +G,k
..... (5.52)

These are the two power relations at each bus and the lineanzed equations of the form
(5.46) are written as
I

r oP
I
oP
I
oP
I
I r Av,
l
I
Uv'; 0<_1
av
ll
_
1

oP
II
_
1
oP
lI
_
1
oP
n
_
1
oP
II
_
1

av'l
av:'_1 av:: av::_
1
II-I
..... (5.53)

00
1 OQn-1 00
1
00
112

av'; av
"
av'; av
"
II-I II-I
00,,-1 00,,-1 0011-1 oon-I
av'l av';
"

"
av
II-I
av
II-I n-I -'
Matrix equation (5.53) can be solved for the unknowns and (i = I, 2, ... , n -1),
leaving the slack bus at the nth bus where the voltage is specified. Equation (2.33) may be
written compactly as
..... (5.54)
where H, N, M and L are the sub-matrices of the Jacobian. The elements of the Jacobian are
obtained by differentiating Eqns. (5.51) and (5.52). The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of
Power Flow Studies
H matrix are given by
oP "
Cv.' = G 'k V k + B ,k V k ,i *- k
k
The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofN are:
oP , , "n (" , )
--,: =-B"v,+2G"v
k
+B"v,+2>G,k
V
k+
B
"v
k
oV
k
k=!
k"',
The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of sub-matrix M are obtained as,
aQ " ,
-,-' = G ,k V - B,k v, ' k *- i
av '
k
Finally, the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of L are given by
aQ ' "
-,-' = -G ,k v - B ,k v, , k *- i
0V k '
(lQ, = G " ') B '
, " v, - ~ "v,
GV,
It can be noticed that
L,k = - H,k
and N,k = M,k
i (G ,k v ' ~ - B ,k V k )
k =!
k ""
111
..... (5.55)
..... (5.56)
..... (5.57)
..... (5.58)
..... (5.59)
..... (5.60)
..... (5.61 )
..... (5.62)
This property of symmetry of the elements reduces computer time and storage.
Treatment of Generator Buses
At all generator buses other than the swing bus, the voltage magnitudes are specified in addition
to the real powers. At the ith generator bus
1 1
2 '0 "7
V, = v,- + v,-
..... (5.63)
112
Power System Analysis
Then, at all the generator nodes, the variable will have to be replaced by

But,
I 1
2 _ , (1(1 11) "
- ,i\V,+ "
?V, ?v,
..... (5.64)
This is the only modification required to be introduced in eqn. (5.60)
5.9.2 The Polar Coordinates Method
The equation for the complex power at node i in the polar form is given in eqn. (5.60) and the
real and reactive pO\vers at bus i are indicated in eqn. (5.30) and (5.31). Reproducing them
here once again for convenience.
and
P, = t lV, V
k
y"lcos(o, - Ok - 8,,)
k=!
n
0, = L lV, V, V,k Isin (0, -0, - 8,,)

..... (5.65)
..... (5.66)
The Jocobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V,' and V, in this case.
Eqn. (5.46) then takes the form
= [: I]
..... (5.67)
The otT-diagonal and diagonal elements of tile sub-matrices H, N, M and L are determined
by differentiating eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) with respect to 8 and IV: as before. The off-diagonal
and diagonal elements of H matrix are
2P, =IV, V, V,kl sin (o,-ok- 8,,),i*k
(lok
..... ( 5.68)
..... (5.69)
The Jacobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V,' and V," in this case.
Eqn. (5.46) then takes the form
[H Nl[ M 1
l - M L i\ 1 V I
..... (5.70)
Power Flow Studies
113
The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of the sub-matrices H, N, M and L are determined
by differentiating eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) with respect to 8 and IVI as before. Tlw off-diagonal
and diagonal elements of H matrix are
(lP
I
= IV V, Y I . 8)' k
I , Ik sin °1 - Uk - Ik' I *
cUk
"'p 11
I = I IV
I
V
k
Ylklcos(8
1
-i\ -8
Ik
),i*k
(,8
k
K=!
The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofN matrix are
= IV
I
Y,k I sin (8, -8
k
-8,k)
8: V
k
I
k"l
The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofM matrix are
=-'-IV
I
V
k
Y,klCos(8
1
-8
k
-8
Ik
)
k
Finally, the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of L matrix are
I = lV, Ylk Isin (81 - i\ - 81k )
..... (5.71 )
..... (5.72)
..... (5.73)
..... (5.74)
..... (5.75)
..... (5.76)
..... (5.77)
..... (5.78)
[t is seen from the elements of the Jacobian in this case that the symmetry that existed
in the rectangular coordinates case is no longer present now. By selecting the variable as
,M and IVI / IVI instead equation (5.70) will be in the form

= I H N] r
LM L IN
..... (5.79)
[n this case it will be seen that
Hlk = Llk
and
114
Power System Analysis
or, in other words, the symmetry is restored. The number of elements to be calculated for an
n-dimensional Jacobian matrix are only n + n
2
/2 instead of n
2
, thus again saving computer
time and storage. The flow chart for computer solution is given in Fig. 5.4.
m=m+l
p,(I11) = It VY. V,. cos(i" - Ok - e,k )
0,(111) = f V,V
k
V,k sin(o, -Ok -e,k)
,=1
= P (scheduled) _ p(m) .
I I ,
=O,(scheduled)-O,(m)
Solve the equation:
Calculate the changes in variables
1 V I(m+ 1)= 1 V I(m) + i\V I(m)
8(m+ 1)= 8(111) +
Yes
Calculate Ime llows
and power at slack
bus
Fig. 5.4 Flow chart for Newton - Raphson method (Polar coordinates) for load flow
. solution.
Power Flow Studies
115
Treatment of Generator Nodes
For a PV-bus. the reactive power equations are replaced at the ith generator bus by
1 I
" '2 "2
VI = VI +VI
..... (5.80)
The elements of M are given by
..... (5.81)
and ..... (5.82)
Then elements of L are given by
- )1 1-" - .
Llk --"-1-1 Vk -O,I,ck
C V
k
,
.. ... (5.83)
and
')2
L = II Iv 'I:::: 21
V
112
01 ciVil I I
..... (5.84)
Newtons method converges in 2 to 5 iterations from a flat start ([V} = 1.0 p.u and 0 = 0)
independent of system size. Previously stored solution can be used as starting values fONapid
convergence. Iteration time can be saved by using the same triangulated Jacobian matrix for
two or more iterations. For typical, large size systems, the computing time for one Newton -
Raphson iteration is roughly equivalent to seven Gauss - Seidel iterations.
The rectangular formulation is marginally faster than the polar version because there are
no time consuming trigonometric functions. However, it is observed that the rectangular
coordinates method is less reliable than the polar version.
5.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices
For many power networks, the admittance matrix is relatively sparse, where as the impedance
matrix is full. In general, both matrices are nonsingular and symmetric. III the admittance
matrix. each non-zero off diagonal element corresponds to a network branch connecting the
pair of buses indicated by the row and column of the element. Most transmission networks
exhibit irregularity in their connection arrangements, and their admittance matrices are relatively
sparse. Such sparse systems possess the following advantages:
1. Their storage requirements are small, so that larger systems can be solved.
2. Direct solutions using triangularization techniques can be obtained much faster unless
the independent vector is extremely sparse.
3. Round off errors are very much reduced.
The exploitation of network sparsity requires sophisticated programming techniques.
116
Power System Analysis
5.11 Triangular Decompostion
Matrix inversion is a very inefficient process for computing direct solutions, especjally for
large, sparse systems. Triangular decomposition of the matrix for solution by Gussian
elimination is more suited for load flow solutions. Generally, the decomposition is accomplished
by elements below the main diagonal in successive columns. Elimination by successive rows is
more advantageous from computer programming point of view.
Consider the system of equations
Ax=b ..... (5.84)
where A is a nonsingular b is a known vector containing at least one non-zero element
and x is a column vector of unknowns.
To solve eqn. (5.84) by the triangular decomposition method, matrix A is augmented by
b as shown
I all
an aln
b
l
I
a
22
a
2n
bo
l:::
a
n2 ann
b
n
The elements of the first row in the augmented matrix are divided by all as indicated by
the following step with superscripts denoting the stage of the computation.
. .... (5.85)
..... (5.86)
In the next stage a
21
is eliminated from the second row using the relations
,(I) _, II) . - 2
a
21
.. a21-a.:'lall'.I- ........... n
..... (5.87)
..... (5.88)
(2) _ ( I ] (I) ._
a
2J
- a
2J
'.I-
3
' ......... ,n
..... (5.89)
Power Flow Studies
The resulting matrix then becomes
using the relations
1
o
a
lll
all}
b
l
b b(1)
(3) = 3 - a
31
I
~ : : : I
ann b
ll
J
b
(2) - b(l) (l)b(2)' - 4
3 - 1 -an -' ,J- , ....... ,n
f 1
(3) _ 1 (1)·_
a
3
-lTl a
3J
,J-4, ....... ,\1
a
13
117
..... (5.90)
..... (5.91 )
..... (5.92)
..... (5.93)
..... (5.94)
..... (5.95)
The elements to the left of the diagonal in the third row are eliminated and further the
diagonal element in the third row is made unity.
After n steps of computation for the nth order system of eqn. (5.84). the augmented
matrix will he obtained as
a(l)
III
b(l)
I
a
(2
)
2n
b ~ 2 )
o
bIll)
11
By back substitution, the solution is obtained as
x = b(ll)
n n
- b(Il-I) (n-I)
x
n
_
l
- n-I -an-I ,n ........ xll
11
X = b
ll
) - "all)x
I I ~ 1J I
1=1+1
..... (5.96)
..... (5.97)
..... (5.98)
For matri" inversion of an nth order matrix. the number of arithmetical operations required
is n
3
while for the triangular decomposition it is approximately ( ~ ~ ) .
118
Power System Analysis
5.12 Optimal Ordering
When the A matrix in eqn. (5.84) is sparse, it is necessary to see that the accumulation of
non- zero elements in the upper triangle is minimized. This can be achieved by suitably
ordering the equations, which is referred to as optimal ordering.
Consider the network system having five nodes as shown in Fig. 5.5.
2
3
@
4
Fig. 5.5 A Five Bus system.
The y-bus matrix of the network will have entries as follows
234
x x y x
2 x x 0 0 =y
3 x 0 x 0
4 x 0 0 x
After triangular decomposition the matrix will be reduced to the form
123 4
I x y x
2 0 x x =y
300 I x
4 0 0 0
..... (5.99)
..... (5.100)
By ordering the nodes as in Fig. 5.6 the bus admittance matrix will be of the form
1 2 ~ 4
I I x 0 0 x
210 x 0 x =Y ..... (5.101)
310 0 x y
4 I x x x x
Power Flow Studies
3
4
Fig. 5.6 Renumbered five bus system.
As a result of triangular decomposition, the V-matrix will be reduced to
123 4
I ~
210 lOx =Y
300 I x
4 0 0 0
119
..... (5.102)
Thus, comparing the matrices in eqn. (5.100) and (5.102) the non-zero off diagonal
entries are reduced from 6 to 3 by suitably numbering the nodes.
Tinney and Walker have suggested three methods for optimal ordering.
I. Number the rows according to the number of non-zero, off-diagonal elements before
elimination. Thus, rows with less number of off diagonal elements are numbered
first and the rows with large number last.
2. Number the rows so that at each s.tep of elimination the next row to be eliminated is
the one having fewest non-zero terms. This method required simulation of the
elimination process to take into account the changes in the non-zero connections
affected at each step.
3. Number the rows so that at each step of elimination, the next row to be eliminated is
the one that will introduce fewest new non-zero elements. This requires simulation
of every feasible alternative at each step.
Scheme I. is simple and fast. However, for power flow solutions, scheme 2. has proved to be
advantageous even with its additional computing time. If the number of iterations is large,
scheme 3. may prove to be advantageous.
5.13 Decoupled Methods
All power systems exhibit in the steady state a strong interdependence between active powers
and bus voltage angles and between reactiye power and voltage magnitude. The coupling
between real power and bus voltage magnitude and between reactive power and bus voltage
120
Power System Analysis
phase angle are both relatively weak. This weak coupling is utilized in the development of the
so called decoupled methods. Recalling equitation (5.79)
by neglecting Nand M sub matrices as a first step, decoupling can be obtained .so that
I f1P I = I HI· IMI
and
I f1Q I = I L I . I f1 I VI/I V I
..... (5.103)
..... (5.104)
The decoupled method converges as reliability as the original Newton method from
which it is derived. However, for very high accuracy the method requires more iterations
because overall quadratic convergence is lost. The decoupled Newton method saves by a
factor of four on the storage for the J - matrix and its triangulation. But, the overall saving is
35 to 50% of storage when compared to the original Newton method. The computation per
iteration is 10 to 20% less than for the original Newton method.
5.14 Fast DecoupJed Methods
For security monitoring and outage-contingency evaluation studies, fast load flow solutions
are required. A method developed for such an application is described in this section.
The elements of the sub-matrices Hand L (eqn. (5.79)) are given by
H,k = I (V, V k Y,k) I sin (0, - Ok - e,k)
where
= I (V, V k Y,k) I sin O,k Cos e,k - cos O,k Cos e,k)
= I V, V
k
I [G,k sin e,k - B ,k cos O,k]
0, - Ok = O,k
Hkk=- ~ ] V , V
k
Y,kl
sin
{o,-D
k
-8,k)
= + I V, e I YII I sin e,k -I V, 12 i V,k I sin e,k
- .zJV, V
k
Y,k Isin{o, - Ok - e,k)
Lkk = 2 V, YII sin 8
11
+ L V
k
Y,k sin(D, --Ok - 8
,k
)
With f1 IVI / IVI formulation on the right hand side.
..... (5.105)
..... (5.106)
..... (5.107)
LKK = 2 jV,2 YIII sin 9
11
+ LIV, V
k
Y,klsin{o, -Ok -8
ik
)
..... (5.108)
Assuming that
Power Flow Studies
and
Sin 8
1k
=:= 0
Gik sin 8
1k
::; B'k
Q
::; B ly21
I 11 1
H
-I y21 B
kk - 1 l' II
L =IV"IB
kk I l' 11
L
- 'V"I B
Ik - i" Ik
Rewriting eqns. (5.103) and (5.104)
or
lL1pl = [IVI B' I V] L18
IL1QI =1 y I B" I V I ~ ~ ~ I
lL1pl = B' [L18]
IVI
IL1QI = B"[L11 V I]
IV!
121
..... (5.109)
..... (5.110)
..... (5.11 I)
..... (5.112)
..... (5.113)
Matrices R' and B" represent constant approximations to the slopes of the tangent hyper
planes of the functions L1P / iVI and L1Q / IVi respectively. T h ~ y are very close to the Jacobian
sub matrices Hand L evaluated at system no-load.
Shunt reactances and off-nominal in-phase transformer taps which affect the Mvar
110ws are to be omitted from [B '] and for the same reason phase shifting elements are to be
omitted from [Bit].
Both l B '1 and [B It] are real and spars e and need be triangularised only once, at the
beginning of the study since they contain network admittances only.
The method converges very reliably in two to five iterations with fairly good accuracy
even for large systems. A good, approximate solution is obtained after the 1 SI or 2nd iteration,
The speed per iteration is roughly five times that of the original Newton method.
5.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus
5.15.1 Bus Impedance Formation
Any power network can be formed using the following possible methods of construction.
I. A line may be added to a reference point or bus.
122
Power System Analysis
2. A bus may be added to any existing bus in the system other than the reference bus
through a new line, and
3. A line may be added joining two existing buses in the system forming a loop.
The above three modes are illustrated in Fig. 5.7.
(a)
Lllle added to
reference bus
k
0--+-<>----0 New
System Zhne
(b)
Lme added to any bus other
than reference line
Fig. 5.7 Building of Z - Bus.
bus
Zhne
B,
i
System r k
(cl
Line added Joining two
existing buses
5.15.2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus
If unit current is injected into bus k no voltage will be produced at other buses of the systems.
Zlk = Zkl = 0, i 7- k
The driving point impedance of the new bus is given by
Zkk = Zlllle
i = 1.0
. Z ..... 1----
System :>-+------<1 J ~ l
Fig. 5.8 Addition of the line to reference line
5.15.3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus
: .... (5.114)
..... (5.115)
Injection of unit current into the system through the new bus k produces voltages at all other
buses of the system as shown in Fig. 5.9.
These voltages would of course. be same as that would be produced if the current were
injected instead at bus i as shown.
i = I 0
Z ..... 1----
System :----+----1 J ~ l
Fig. 5.9 Addition of a radial line and new bus.
Power Flow Studies
123
Therefore,
therefore,
..... (5.116)
The dimension of the existing Z - Bus matrix is increased by one. The off diagonal
elements of the new row and column are the same as the elements of the row and column of
bus i of the existing system.
5.15.4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System
Since both the buses are existing buses in the system the dimension of the bus impedance
matrix will not increase in this case. However, the addition of the loop introduces a new axis
which can be subsequently eliminated by Kron's reduction method.
System i = 1.0
:l
SystCI11
r
(a)
Fig. 5.10 (a) Addition of a loop (b) Equivalent representation
The 5ystems in Fig. 5.1 O( a) can be represented alternatively as in Fig. 5.1 O(b).
The link between i and k requires a loop voltage
V
100p
= 1.0 (ZI1 - Z2k + Zkk - Zlk + Z Illle)
for the circulation of unit current
The loop impedance is
..... (5.117)
Zioop = ZII + 7:
kk
-- 2Z
,k
+ ZI111e ..... (5.118)
The dimension of Z matrix is increased due to the introduction of a new axis due to the
loop 1
and
The new loop axis can be eliminated now. Consider the matrix
124
Power System Analysis
It can be proved easily that
..... ( 5. J 18)
using eqn. (5. J 18) all the additional elements introduced by the loop can be eliminated.
The method is illustrated in example E.5.4.
5.15.5 Gauss - Seidel Method Using Z-bus for Load Flow Solution
An initial bus voltage vector is assumed as in the case ofY - bus method. Using these voltages,
the bus currents are calculated using eqn. (5.25) or (5.26).
P - iQ
1= I . I -v V
y' - I I
..... (5.119)
where Y
I
is the total shunt admittance at the bus i and Y
II
VI is the shunt current flowing
from bus i to ground.
A new bus voltage estimate is obtained for an n-bus system from the relation .
y '=Z I ~ y
bu, bu, bus R
..... (5,120)
Where Y R is the (n -- I) x ! dimensional reference voltage vector containing in each
clement the slack bus voltage. It may he noted that since the slack bus is the reference bus, the
dimension of the Zhu, is (n- I y (n I).
The voltages are updated from iteration to iteration using the relation
1--1 n
ym+1 =y + "Z I III +1 + "Z I
fm
)
I S L. ~ I k k L. Ik k
k ~ 1 k ~ 1
k"S b,S
Then
5.16 Convergence Characteristics
..... (5.121)
i = 1,2, ........ , n
S = slack bus
The numher of iterations required for convergence to solution depends considerably on the
correction to voltage at each bus. If the correction DY, at hus i is multiplied by a factor a, it is
found that acceleration can be obtained to convergence rate. Then multiplier a is called
acceleration factor. The difference between the newly computed voltage and the previous
voltage at the bus is multiplied by an appropriate acceleration factor. The value ofa that generally
improves the convergence is greater than are. In general I < a < 2 and a typical value for a =
1.5 or 1.6 the use of acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of bus voltage YI' For
a given system, it is quite often found that a near optimal choice of a exists as suggested in
literature over a range of operating condition complex value is also suggested for a. Same
suggested different a values for real and imaginary parts of the bus voltages.
Power Flow Analysis ]25
The convergence of iterative methods depends upon the diagonal dominance of the bus
admittance matrix. The self adm ittances of the buses (diagonal terms) are usually large relative
to the mutual admittances (off-diagonal terms). For this reason convergence is obtained for
power flow solution methods.
Junctions of high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable
circuits. long EHV lines. series and shunt. Compensation are detrimental to convergence as
these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in Y bus matrix. The choice of swing bus may
also affect convergence considerably. In ditlicult cases it is possible to obtain convergence by
removing the least diagonally dominant row and column ofY-bus. The salient features ofY-bus
matrix iterative mf"thods are that the element in the summation term in equation ( ) or ( ) are on
the average 2 or 3 only even for well developed power systems. The sparsity of the Y-matrix
and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration.
For large well conditioned system of n huses the numher of iterations req uired are of the
order n and the total computing time varies approximately as n ~ .
In contrast, the Newton-Raphson method gives convergence in 3 to 4 iterations. No
acceleration factors are needed to the used. Being a gradient method solution is obtained must
taster than any iterative method.
126 Operation and Control in Power Systems
\Vorked Examples
E 5.1 A three bus power system is shown in Fig. ES.l. The system parameters are
given in Table ES.l and the load and generation data in Table ES.2. The voltage at
bus 2 is maintained at l.03p.u. The maximum and minimum reactive power
limits of the generation at bus 2 are 35 and 0 Mvar respectively. Taking bus 1 as
slack bus obtain the load flow solution using Gauss - Seidel iterative method
using Y B u ~
E 5.1 A three bus power system
Table E 5.1 Impedance and Line charging Admittances
Bus Code i-k Impedance (p.u.) Z,I.. Line charging Admittance (p.u) y,
1-2 O.OS ~ j O 24 0
1-3 0.02 +jO.06 0
2-3 O.06+jO.OIR U
Table E 5.2 Scheduled Generation, Loads and Voltages
Bus No i Bus voltage Vi
I 1.05 +jO.O
2 1.03 +jO.O
..,
.:l
-----
Solution:
The line admittance are obtained as
)'12 = 1.25 - j3.75
Y23 - ~ 1.667 -- j5.00
Y13 = 5.00 - jIS.OO
Generation Load
MW Mvar MW Mvar
-
- 0 0
20
--
50 20
0 0
(j)
25
I
1
Power Flow Analysis 127
The bus admittance matrix is formed using the procedure indicated in section 2.1 as
r 6.25
- j1B.75 -1.25 + j3.75 -5.0
+ j15.0l
Y
Blis
= -1.25 + j3.73 2.9167 - jB.75 -j1.6667 + j5.0 I
• I
-5.0 + j15.0 -1.6667 + j5.0 6.6667 - j20.0 J
Gauss - Seidel Iterative Method using Y Bl!S
The voltage at hus 3 is assumed as 1 + jO. The initial voltages are therefore
Vir!) = 1.05 + jO.O
viol == 1.03 + jO.O
Vf') = 1.00 + jO.O
Base MVA = 100
Iteration 1 : It is required to calculate the reactive power O
2
at bus 2, which is a P- V or voltage
controlled bus
= !V
2
!sch coso
2
= (1.03)(1.0) = 1.03
new) co, V
23Ch
sin oi
U
) = (1.03)(0.0) = 0.00
±
b:d
.>'2
Substituting the values
= k1.03.)2 B.75 + (of 8.75 J+ 0(1.05)(-1.25) + 0.(-3.75)
-1.03[(0)(-1.25) - (1.05)(-3.75)]
+ (0)[(1)( -1.6667) + (0)(-5.0)]
- 1.03[(0)( -1.6667) - (1)( -5)]
= 0.07725
Mvar generated at bus 2
Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar
0.07725 + 0.2 = 0.27725 p.u.
27.725 Mvar
128
This is within the limits specified.
The voltage at bus i is
Operation and Control in Power Systems
y(m+l) = ~ [ P I - jQI _ ~ y(m+l) _ ~ VIm)]
I y Y (In )* L.. Y Ik k L.. Y Ik k
II I k ~ 1 k=I+1
(2.9167 - j8.75)
[
- 0.3 - 0.?7725 _ (-1.25 + j3.75)(l.05 + jO.O) + (-1.6667 + j5.0)(1 + jO.O)]
_ 1.03 - -,0.0
Vii) = 1.01915- jO.032491
= 1.0196673L -1.826°
An acceleration factor of 1.4 is used for both real and imaginary parts.
The accelerated voltages is obtained lIsing
v ~ = 1.03 + 1.4(1.01915 -1.03) = 1.01481
v; = 0.0 + 1.4(-0.032491 - 0.0) = -0.0454874
Yi
l
) (accelerated) = 1.01481- jO.0454874
= 1.01583L - 2.56648°
The voltage at hus 3 is given by
6.6667 -- j20
= 1.02093 - jO.0351381
Power Flow Analysis
The accelerated value of obtained lIsing
v', = 1.0 + 1.4(1.02093 - 1.0) = 1.029302
= 0 + 1.4( -0.0351384 - 0) = -0.0491933
Vjl) = 1.029302 - jO.049933
= 1.03048L - 2.73624
0
The voltages at the end of the first iteration are
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
= 1.01481- jO.0454874
Vjl) = 1.029302- jO.0491933
Check for convergence: An accuracy of 0.001 is taken for convergence
[
'l
0
I [, ll) [, IO)
L1V
2
J = v1J - v
1
=1.01481-1.03=-0.0152
[
"IO) [" ll) [" Ill)
L1v
2
= V2J - v
2
=-0.0454874-0.0=-0.0454874
[
"lUI [,,11 [,,0
1
tW
J
= V,J - V3J =1.029302--1.0=0.029302
129
[AVJIII =-0,0491933 --0.0:--0.0491933
The magnitudes of all the voltage changes are greater than 0.001.
Iteration 2 : The reactive power Q
2
at bus 2 is calculated as before to give
8(11 = tan-I hE = tan-I [=-0.0454874J = -2.56648°
2 [vJII 1.01481
= 1.03cos(-2.56648°) = 1.02837
[
,,)11 _I I' (II -' ° -
V2J - V
2sch
·sm8
2
-1.03sm(-2.56648 ) - -0.046122
[V
2ne
.. J
I
) -= 1.02897 - jO.046122
= (1.02897)' (8.75) +- (-0.046122)" (8.75)
+( -0.0461 22)[1.05( -\.25) + (0)( - 3. 75)J
- (1.02897)[(0)(-\.25) - (1.05)( -3.75)1 +
- (1.02897)[( --n.0491933)( -1.6667) - -5)]
co -0.0202933
130 Operation and Control in Power Systems
Mvar to be generated at bus 2
= Net Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar
= - 0.0202933 + 0.2 = 0.1797067 p.u. = 17.97067Mvar
This is within the specified limits. The voltages are, therefore, the same as before
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
vii) = 1.02897 - jO.0.46122
Vjl) = 1.029302- jO.0491933
~ h e New voltage at bus 2 is obtained as
V
O
) _ 1 [ - 0.3 + jO.0202933 ]
2 - 2.9 I 67 - j8.75 1.02827 + jO.046122
- (-1.25 + j3.75)(I- 05 + jO)
- (--1.6667 + j5) . (\ .029302 - jO.0491933)]
= 1.02486 - jO.0568268
The accelerated value of V?) is obtained from
"
v ~ = 1.02897 + 1.4(\ .02486 - 1.02897) = 1.023216
v ~ =- -0.046 I 22 + 1.4( -0.0568268) -- (-0.046122 = -0.0611087)
vi
2
)' = 1.023216 - jO.0611 087
The new voltage at bus 3 is calculated as
V(l)- I [ -6.6 + jO.25 ]
J - 6.6667 - j20 1.029302 + jO.0491933
-- ( - 5 + jI5)(1.05 + jO.O)
- (-1.6667 + j5.0)· (1.023216 - jO.0611)]
= 1.0226 - jO.0368715
The accelerated value of Vi
2
) obtained from
v ~ = 1.029302 + 1.4(1.0226 - 1.029302) = 1.02
v ~ =(-0.0491933)+1.4(-0.0368715)+
(0.0491933) = -0.03194278
vf) = 1.02 - jO.03194278
The voltages at the end of the second iteration are
V I = 1.05 + jO.O
Power Flow Analysi.\·
vi
2
) = 1.023216- jO.0611087
Vfl = 1.02 - jO.03194278
131
The procedure is repeated till convergence is obtained at the end of the sixth iteration.
The results are tahulated in Table E5.1 (a)
Table ES.I (a) Bus Voltage
Iteration 8us I 8us 2 8us 3
0 1.05 +jO 1.03 +jO 1.0 + jO
I 1.05 + jO 1.01481 -jO.04548 1.029302 - jO.049193
2 1.05 +- iO 1.023216-,0.0611087 I 02 - jO.OJ 19428
3 I 05 ' ,0 I 033·l76 -,0 04813X3 ,003508
·1 lOS + iO I 0227564 - ,0 051 J2l) I 0124428 ,00341309
5 I 05 + ,0 1027726,00539141 I 0281748 - ,0.0363943
6 1.05 +jO 1'()29892 - ,0.05062 1.02030 I - jO.0338074
7 1.05 + jO I. 0284 78 -.iO 05 101 17 1.02412 -jO.034802
Line flow from hus 1 to bus 2
S'2 .' V,(V; - V;)Yt2 = 0.228975 + jO.017396
Line flow from bus 2 to bus 1
S2' = v
2
(v; - V;)Y;1 = -·0.22518 - jO.OOS9178
Similarly, the other line flows can be computed and are tabulated in Table ES.I (b). the
slack bus power obtained by adding the flows in the lines terminating at the slack bus, is
Line
1-2
2-1
1-3
3-1
2-3
3-2
PI + jQI = 0.228975 + jO.017396 -t 0.684006 + jO.225
= (0.912981 + jO.242396)
Table E5.1(b) Line Flows
P Power Flow
Q
+ 0.228975 0.017396
- 0.225183 0.0059178
0.68396 0.224
- 0.674565 -0.195845
- 0.074129 0.0554
007461 ·0.054
132 Operation and Control in Power Systems
E 5.2 Consider the bus system shown in Fig. E 5.2.
5
E 5.2 A six bus power system.
The following is the data:
Line impedance (p.u.) Real Imaginary
14 0.57000 E-I 0.845 E-I
1-5 1.33000 E-2 3.600 /::-2
2-3 3.19999 E-2 1750 E-l
24 I. 73000 E-2 0.560 E-I
2-(, 30()()OO L-2 1500 E-I
4-5 1 94000 f:-2 0625 E-l
Scheduled generation and bus voltages:
Bus Code P Assumed bus voltage Generation Load
MWp.u. Mvar p.u MWp.u. Mvarp.u
1 1 05 +jO 0 --- --- --- ---
(specitied)
2 --- 1.2 0.05 --- ---
3 --- 1.2 0.05 --- ---
. ~
--- --- --- 1.4 0.05
:\ --- --- --- 0.8 0.D3
6 --- --- --- 0.7 0.02
(a) Taking bus - I as slack bus and using an accelerating factor of 1.4, perform load
flow by Gauss - Seidel method. Take precision index as 0.000 I.
(b) Solve the problem also using Newton-Raphson polar coordinate method.
Power Flow Analysis 133
Solution:
The bus admittance matrix is obtained as :
Bus Code Admittance (p.u.)
P-Q Real Imaginary
1-1 14.516310 -32 57515
1-4 -·5 486446 8 13342
1-5 -9.029870 24.44174
2-2 7.329113 -28.24106
2-3 -1.0 II 091 5.529494
2-5 -5035970 16.301400
2-6 -1.282051 6410257
3-2 -1.011091 5.529404
3-3 1.011091 -5.529404
4-1 -5.486446 8 133420
4-4 10.016390 -22727320
4-5 -4.529948 14.593900
5-1 -9029870 2..J.441740
5-2 ·-5.035970 163014()0
5-4 -4.529948 14593900
5 _. 5
18.59579() -55.33705()
6 - 2 ··1.282051 6..J 1()257
6 - 6 1.282051 -6.410254
All the bus voltages, y(O), are assumed to be I + jO except the specified voltage at bus
I which is kept fixed at 1.05 + jO. The voltage equations for the fist Gause-Seidel iteration are:
V(I) '" _1_1 1'2 -.iQ 2
2 y I V (0)'
2 l_ 2
. Y2'V,(0).- Y
2
,V;"I. y, V
IO
)'1
_h I, !
.i
(I) I [ p ~ ' - jQ-1
V CO" .. -- -----.-
~ Y V
IO
)'
II I
134 Operation and Control in Power Systems
y!l) =_I_[P5 -jQ5 _y Y _y y(l) _Y_ y(l)]
) Y y (0)' 51 I 51 2 )4 4
55 5
Substituting the values. the equation for solution are
1 -.28.24100)X[I.2-
j
O.05
J
l
- 7.329113 J l-jO
- (-I .011091 + j5.529404)x (I + jO) -(-5.03597 + jI6.3014)(1 + jO)
- (I - 282051 + j16.30 14 )(1 + jO)
= 1.016786 + jO.0557924
y(l) = ( I _ .5.52424) x [1.2 - jO.05]
:1 1.0 I 109 I J I - jO
_. (- 1.0 I 1091 + j5.529404) x (1.016786 + jO.0557924)
= I .089511 + j0.3885233
y(l) =( I _ .22.72732)X[-I.4+ jO.005]
4 10.01639 J. 1- jO
- (-5.486
2
,46 + j8.133342) x (1.05 + jO.)
- (-4.529948 + jl 4.5939)(1 + jO)
= 0.992808 - jO.0658069
y!l) = ( __ I ___ . ·55.33705) x [- 0.8 +
) 18.59579 J 1- jO
- (-9.02987 + j24.44174) x (1.05 + jO)
- (-5.03597 + jl 6.30 14)(1.016786 + jO.0557929)
- (-4.529948 + jl 4.5939)(0.992808 - jO.0658069)
= 1.028669 - jO.O 1879179
y(I)=( 1 -.6.410257JX[-0.7+
j
O.02]
6 1.282051 J 1 - jO
- (-1.282051 - j6.4 I 0257) x (1.0 I 6786 + jO.0557924)
= 0.989904 - jO.0669962
The results of these iterations is given in Table 5.3 (a)
Table ES.3(a)
It.No Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Bus 6
0 1+ jO.O I +-.10.0 I +-jO 0 I +jO.O I +jO 0
I 1.016789 + jO.0557924 1.089511 + jO 3885233 0.992808 - jO 0658069 1.02669-jO.0 1879179 0989901 -.10.0669962
2 1.05306 + jO.1O 18735 1.014855 + .10.2323309 1.013552 - jO.0577213 1.0·-l2189 + jO.O 177322 1.041933 +.10.0192121
3 I 043568 + jO 089733 I 054321 + jO 3276035 1.021136 - jO 0352727 1034181 +jO.00258192 I 014571-jO 02625271
4 1.047155 +.10.101896 I 02297 + .10.02763564 1.012207 - .10.05()0558 1.035391 + jO 00526437 I 02209 +.10 0064356n
5 1040005+jO.093791 103515 + jO.3050814 1.61576 _. jO 04258692 0.033319 + jO.003697056 1014416-jO.01319787
6 I 04212 + .10.0978431 1.027151 +.102901358 1.013044 -.1004646546 10.33985 + jO.004504417 1.01821-jOOO1752973
7 1.040509 + jO.0963405 1.031063 + jO.2994083 1.014418 - jO.0453101 I 033845 ... jO 00430454 1016182 -.1000770664
1\ 1.041414+j0097518 1.028816 + jO 294465 1.013687 - jO 045610 I I 033845 + jO.004558826 I 017353 - jO 0048398
9 1.040914 + jO.097002 1.030042 + jO.2973287 1-014148 --jO 04487629 1.033711 +jO.0044 13647 1016743 -jO.0060342
10 1.041203 + jO.0972818 1.02935 +.102973287 1.013881 - jO.04511174 1.03381 + jO.004495542 IOI7089-jO.00498989
II 1.041036 + jO.097164 1.029739 + jO.296598 1.01403-.1° 04498312 I 03374 +jO.004439559 1.016877 -jO 00558081
12 1.041127 +-jO.0971998 1.029518 + jO 2960784 1013943 -.1004506212 1.033761 + jO 00447096 1.016997 -- .10.00524855
13 1.041075 +-.10.0971451 1.029642 + .10.2963 715 1.019331 -j004501488 1.033749 + jO.OO4454002 1.016927 -jO 00543323
14 1.041 104 + .10.0971777 1.02571 + jO.2962084 1.0013965 -jO.04504223 1.033756 +- .10.004463 713 IOI6967-jO.00053283
136 Operation and Control in Power Systems
In the polar form, all the voltages at the end of the 14th iteration are given
in Table E5.3(b).
Table E5.3(b)
Bus Voltage magnitude (p.u.) Phase angle (0)
I I OS 0
2 () 045629 5.3326
3 1071334 16.05058
4 1.014964 -2.543515
5 I 033765 2.473992
6 1.016981 -3.001928
(b) Newton - Raphson polar coordinates method
The bus admittance matrix is written in polar form as
[
19.7642L-71.6
0
3.95285L-I08.4°
Y
sus
= 3.95285L-108.4° 9.2233IL-71.6°
15.8114L - 108.4 ° 5.27046L - 108.4
0
Note that
The initial bus voltages are
VI = 1.05 LOO
viol = 1.03LOO
viOl = 1.0LOo
15.8114L -108.4°1
5.27046L -108.4°
21.0819L-71.6°
The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are calculated as follows :
P2 = IV
1
VI Y
11
Icos(oiO) - 01 - 8
21
)+ [vi Yn[ cos(- 8
22
)+
7 (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) cos (108°.4) -+- (1.03)2 (9.22331) cos (-108°.4)
+ (1.03)2 (9.22331) cos (71°.6) +(1.03)(1.0)(5.27046) cos (--108°.4)
~ 0.02575
Power Flow Analysis
137 .
O
2
= IV
2
VI Y21 - 8
1
- 8
21
)+ Iv} y
22
1 sin(- 8
22
)+
IV
2
V
3
Y
23
I sin (8iol
= (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) sin (-108°.4) + (1.03)2 (9.22331) sin (71.6°)
+ (1.03) (1.0) (5.27046) sin (108.4°)
= 0.07725
Generation of p. u Mvar at bus 2
= 0.2 + 0.07725
= 0.27725 = 27.725 Mvar
This is within the limits specitied. The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are calculated
in a similar way.
P3 = -8
1
-8
31
)+!Vj01V
2
Y
32
! -8
2
-8
32
)+
IVjO)2 Y33Icos(-833)
= (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) cos (-108.4°) +
(1.0) (1.03) (5.27046) cos (-108.4°)
+ (1.0)2 (21.0819) cos (71.6°)
=- 0.3
0
3
= -8
1
-8
31
)+lvjO)V
2
-8
2
-9
32
)+
IVJ0
12
Y
31
Isin(- 8
33
)
= (1.0) 1.05 (15.8114) sin (-108.4°) + (1.0) (1.03) (5.27046)
sin (-108.4°)
+ (1.0)2 (21.0891) sin (71.6°)
= - 0.9
The difference between scheduled and calculated powers are
= -0.3 - 0.02575 = -0.32575
= -0.6 -;- (-0.3) = -0.3
= -0.25 - (-0.9) = -0.65
It may be noted that has not been computed since bus 2 is voltage controlled bus.
since I, 1 and I
138 Operation and Control in Power Systems
are greater than the specified limit of 0.0 I, the next iteration is computed.
Iteration I : Elements of the Jacobian are calculated as follows.
oP
2
= Iv, V(O) y" - 8(0) - 8,,)
c8, -) -' - , -.'
= (1.03) (1.0) (5.27046) sin (-I 08.4()) -5.15
ap2 I I . ((O) (0) )
28
2
=-v
2
VI Y21 SIn\8
2
-8
1
-8
21
+
IV2 -8
23
)
= - (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) sin (108.4°) +
(1.03) (!.O) (5.27046) sin (-108.4°)
= 9.2056266
CP2 I I ((O) (0) )
-8, -8
23
Ou,
J
=0 (1.03) (5.27046) cos (108.4°)
= - 1.7166724
cP} =IV(O)V Y ISin(8(O) -8))
"I:: 3 I 31 3 _ L
CU3
= (0.0) (1.03) (5.27046) sin (-108.4°)
= - 5.15
oP, IV(O)V y I . (dO) I:: 8) IV(O)V Y I . {I:: (0) dO) 8 )
00 = 3 1 )1 SIn\u) -UI - 31 + 3 2 32 SIn\U3 -u2 - 32
3
= - (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) sin (-108.4°) - 5.15
= 20.9
IV
2
Y32Icos(ojO) -oiO) -8
32
)
= 2(1.0) (21.0819) cos (71.6°) + (1.05) (15.8114) cos (-108.4°) +
(1.03) (5.27046) cos (-108.4°)
= 6.366604
Power Flow Analysis
8Q
3
:=: -IV(O)V y ICOS(O(O) - 0(0) - e )
cO, 3 I 32 , 2 32
= (1.0) (1.03) (5.27046) cos (--108.4()
= 1.7166724
?Q
3
Iv(OIV I (dO) e)
cO, :=: , I Y cos u 3 - U I - 31 +
.'
IV
(O)V I \:(0) 8 )
3 2 Y
32
cosu2 -u3 - 32
=c (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) cos (-108.4() - 1.7166724
= - 6.9667
IV2 Y32Isin(oiO) -8
32
)
139
= 2(1.0) (21.0819) sin (71.6°) + (1.05) (15.8114) sin (-108.4°) +
(1.03) (5.27046) sin (-108.4(1)
= 19.1
From eqn. (5.70)
r
-· 0.325751 [9.20563
-0.3 = -5.15
0.65 1.71667
- 5.15
20.9
- 6.9967
Following the method of triangulation and back substations
l
- 0.353861l I
--0.3 = -5.15
- 0.035386 + 1.71667
-0.55944
20.9 6.36660 t\b,
-6.9667 19.1
r
-0.353861 [I
- 0.482237 = 0
+0.710746 _0
-0.55944 1
18.02 5.40623 M,
- 6.006326 19.42012 L {\IV l
140
Finally.
Thus,
Operation and Control in Power Systems
r -0.35386]11 -0.55944
l
-0.0267613 =lO I 0.3
0.55 0 0 21.22202
= (0.55) /(21.22202) = 0.025917
= - 0.0267613 - (0.3) (0.025917)
= - 0.0345364 rad
'" - 1.98°
Ml =- 0.035286 - (-0.55944) (--0.034536) - (--0.18648) (0.025917)
== - 0.049874 rad
= - 2.8575°
At the end of the firs iteration the bus voltages are
VI = 1.05 LO
o
V 2 = 1.03 L2.85757°
V3 == 1.025917 L-1.9788°
The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are computed :
pil) = (1.03)(1.05)(3.95285)[cos(-2.8575) - 0(-108.4°)
+ (1.03) 2 (1.025917)(5.27046) cos[( -2.8575) - (-1.9788) - 108.4 °
-0.30009
= (1.03)(1 .05)(3.95285)[sin( -2.8575) - O( -108.4 0)
+ (1.03)2 (9.22331) sin[( -2.85757) - (-1.9788) - 108.4
0
)]
= 0.043853
Generation of reactive power at bus 2
= 0.2 + 0.043853 = 0.243856 p.ll. Mvar
= 24.3856 Mvar
This is within the specified limits.
The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are computed as
pjl) = (1.025917)(1.05)(l5.8117)cos[(-1.09788) - 0 -108.4 0)]
+ (l.025917)(l.03)(5.27046)cos[(-1.0988) - (-2.8575) -108.4]
+ (1.025917)\21.0819) cos(71.60)
=- -0.60407
Power Flow Analysis
== (1.025917)(1.05 )(15.8114) sin[( -1.977) - 108.4
0
)]
+ (1.025917)(1.03)(5.27046) sinl( -1.9788) - (-2.8575) - 108.4
0
)1
+ (21.0819)sin(71.6o)
= -0.224
The differences between scheduled powers and calculated powers are
= -0.3 - (-0.30009) = 0.00009
I) = -0.6 - (-0.60407) = 0.00407
;\Q\I) co -0.25 - (-0.2224) = -0.0276
141
Even though the first two differences are within the limits the last one, oil) is greater
than the specified limit 0.0 I. The next iteration is carried out in a similar manner. At the end of
the second iteration even also is found to be within the specified tolerance. The results are
tabulated in table E5.4(a) and E5.4(b)
Table E5.4 (a) Bus voltages
Iteration Bus I Bus 2 Bus 3
0 I.05LOo I 03LOo I.LOo
I I.05LOo I.03L-2.85757 1.025917 L-1.9788
2 I.05LO
o
1.03L-2.8517 1.024 76L -1. 94 7
Table E5.4 (b) Line Flows
Line P Power Flow
Q
.
1-2 02297 n.O 16533
2-1 - 022332 o ()O49313
1-3 O.683
C
)/) 0.224
3-1 - 0674565 -0.0195845
2-3 -0.074126 0.0554
3-2 007461 - 0.054
142 Operation and Control in Power Systems
E5.3 For the given sample power system find load flow solution using N-R polar
coordinates method, decoupled method and fast decoupled method.
5
3 4
(a) Power system
Bus Code Line impedance Zpq Line charging
1-2 0.02 +jO.24 j 0.02
2-3 004 + jO.02 j 0 02
3-5 0.15 + jO.04 j 0.025
3-4 0.02 +jO.06 j 0.01
4-5 0.02 +jO.04 i 0.01
5-1 0.08 +jO.02 j 0.2
(b) Line-data
Bus Code (Slack) Generation Load
I
11.724 - j24.27
2 -10 + j20
3 0+ jO
4 0 + jO
5 -1.724+ .14.31
I
2
3
4
5
Mw Mvar MW
0 0
()
50 25 15
0 0 45
0 0 40
0 0 50
.
(c) Generation and load data
2
-10 + j20
3
0+ jO
4
0+ jO
10962 - j24.768 -0.962 + j4.808 0 + jO
-0.962+j4.808 6783-.121.944 -5+jI5
O+jO -)1.115 15-j34.98
0+ jO -0 82·, .12.192 -10+ .120
(d) Bus admittance matrix
Fig. E 5.3
Mvar
0
10
20
15
25
5
-1.724+ j4.31
° +. jO
-0822 + j2.192
·-10 + j20
12.546 - j26.447
Power Flow Analysis
Solution:
The Residual or Mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp[2] = 0.04944
dp[3] =--0.041583
dp[4] = -0.067349
dp[5] = -0.047486
dQ[2] = ·-0.038605
dQ[3] = -0.046259
dQ[4] = -0.003703
dQ[5] = -0.058334
The New voltage vector after iteration I is :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 1.984591 F :- 0.008285
Bus no 3 E : 0.882096 F :- 0.142226
Bus no 4 E : 0.86991 F :- 0.153423
Bus no 5 E : 0.875810 F :- 0.142707
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 2 is
dp[2] = 0.002406
dp[3] = -0.001177
dp[4] = --0.004219
dp[5] = --0.000953
dQ[2] = -0.001087
dQ[3] = -0.002261
dQ[4] = --0.000502
dQ[5] = -0.002888
The New voltage vector after iteration 2 is :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984357 F :- 0.008219
Bus no 3 E : 0.880951 F :- 0.142953
Bus no 4 E : 0.868709 F :- 0.154322
Bus no 5 E : 0.874651 F :- 0.143439
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 3 is
143
144 Operation and Control in Power Systems
dp[2] = 0.000005
dp[3] = -0.000001
dp[4] = -0.000013
dp[5] = -0.000001
dQ[2] = -0.000002
dQ[3] = -0.000005
dQ[4] = -0.000003
dQ[5] = -0.000007
The final load flow solution (for allowable error.OOOt) :
bus no 1 Slack P = 1.089093 Q = 0.556063 E = 1.000000 F = 0.000000
bus no 2 pq P = 0.349995 Q = 0.150002 E = 0.984357
bus no 3 pq P = -0.449999 Q = -0.199995 E = 0.880951
bus no 4 pq P = -0.399987 Q = -0.150003 E = 0.868709
bus no 5 pq P = -0.500001 Q = -0.249993 E = 0.874651
Decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method)
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 0 is
dp[2] = 0.350000
dp[3] = -0.450000
dp[4] = -0.400000
dp[5] = -0.500000
dQ[2] = -0.190000
dQ[3] = -0.145000
dQ[4] = -0.130000
dQ[5] = -0.195000
The new voltage vector after iteration 0 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.997385 F :- 0.014700
Bus no 3 E: 0.947017 F:- 0.148655
Bus no 4 E : 0.941403 F :- 0.161282
Bus no 5 E: 0.943803 F:- 0.150753
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp [2] = 0.005323
F = -0.008219
F = -0.1429531
F = -0.154322
F = -0.143439
Power Flow Analysis
dp[3] = -0.008207
dp[4] = -0.004139
dp[5] =-0.019702
dQ[2] = -0.067713
dQ[3] = -0.112987
dQ[ 4] = -0.159696
dQ[5] = -0.210557
The new voltage vector after iteration 1 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.982082 F :- 0.013556
Bus no 3 E : 0.882750 F :- 0.143760
Bus no 4 E : 0.870666 F :- 0.154900
Bus no 5 E : 0.876161 F :- 0.143484
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:2 is
dp[2] = 0.149314
dp[3] = -0.017905
dp[4] = -0.002305
dp[5] = -0.006964
dQ[2] = -0.009525
dQ[3] = -0.009927
dQ[4] = -0.012938
dQ[5] = 0.007721
The new voltage vector after iteration 2 :
Bus no 1 E: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E: 0.981985 F:- 0.007091
Bus no 3 E : 0.880269 F :- 0.142767
Bus no 4 E: 0.868132 F:- 0.154172
Bus no 5 E : 0.874339 F :- 0.143109
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:3 is
dp[2] = 0.000138
dp[3] = 0.001304
dp[4] = 0.004522
145
146
dp[ 5] = -0.006315
dQ[2] = 0.066286
dQ[3] = 0.006182
dQ[ 4] = -0.001652
dQ[5] = -0.002233
Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new voltage vector after iteration 3 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984866 F :- 0.007075
Bus no 3 E : 0.881111 F: :- 0.142710
Bus no 4 E : 0.868848 F :- 0.154159
Bus no 5 E : 0.874862 F :- 0.143429
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:4 is
dp[2] = -0.031844
dp[3] = 0.002894
dp[4] = -O.M0570
til
dp[5] = 0.001807
dQ[2] = -0.000046
dQ[3] = 0.000463
dQ[ 4] = 0.002409
dQ[5] = -0.003361
The new voltage vector after iteration 4 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984866 F :- 0.008460
Bus no 3 E: 0.881121 F:- 0.142985
Bus no 4 E : 0.868849 F :- 0.1546330
Bus no 5 E : 0.874717 F :- 0.143484
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:5 is
dp[2] = 0.006789
dp[3] = -0.000528
dp[4] =-0.000217
dp[5] = -0.0000561
dQ[2J ~ . --0.000059
Power Flow Analysis
dQ[3 J = -0.000059
dQ[4] = -0.000635
dQ[5] = -0.000721
The new voltage vector after iteration 5 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984246 F :- 0.008169
Bus no 3 E : 0.880907 F :- 0.1.42947
Bus no 4 E : 0.868671 F :- 0.154323
Bus no 5 E : 0.874633 F :- 0.143431
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 6 is
dp[2] = 0.000056
dp[3] = 0.000010
dp[ 4] = 0.000305
dp[5] = -0.000320
dQ[2] = 0.003032
dQ[3] = -0.000186
dQ[4] = -0.000160
dQ[5] = -0.000267
The new voltage vector after iteration 6 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984379 F :- 0.008165
Bus no 3 E : 0.880954 F :- 0.142941
Bus no 4 E : 0.868710 F :- 0.154314
Bus no 5 E : 0.874655 F :- 0.143441
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:7 is
dp[2] = - 0.001466
dp[3] = 0.000 I 06
dp[4] = -0.000073
dp[5] = 0.000156
dQ[2] = 0.000033
dQ[3] = 0.000005
dQ[41 = 0 . O O O I 5 ~
147
148 Operation and Control in Power Systems
dQ[5] = -0.000166
The new voltage vector after iteration 7 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.954381 F :- 0.008230
Bus no 3 E : 0.880958 F :- 0.142957
Bus no 4 E : 0.868714 F :- 0.154325
Bus no 5 E : 0.874651 F:- 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 8 is
dp[2] = -0.000022
dp[3] = 0.00000 I
dp[4] = -0.000072
dp[5] = -0.000074
dQ[2] = -0.000656
dQ[3] = 0.000037
dQ[4] = --0.000048
dQ[5] = -0.000074
The new voltage vector after iteration 8 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F :- 0.008231
Bus no 3 E : 0.880947 F :- 0.142958
Bus no 4 E : 0.868706 F :- 0.154327
Bus no 5 E : 0.874647 F :- 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:9 is
dp[2] = 0.000318
dp[3] = -0.000022
dp[ 4] = 0.000023
dp[5] = -0.000041
dQ[2] = -0.000012
dQ[3] = -0.000000
dQr 4] = 0.000036
dQ[5] = -0.000038
The new voltage vector after iteration 9 :
Power Flow Analy.flis
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F :- 0.008217
Bus no 3 E : 0.880946 F :- 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868705 F :- 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F :- 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis
dp[2] = 0.000001
dp[3] = -0.000001
dp[4] = 0.000017
dp[S] = -0.000017
dQ[2] = 0.000143
dQ[3] = -0.000008
dQ[4] = 0.000014
dQ[5] = -0.000020
The new voltage vector after iteration 10 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984658 F :- 0.008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880949 F :- 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868707 F :- 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F :- 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: II is
dp[2] = --0.000069
dp[3] = 0.000005
dp[ 4] = -0.000006
dp[51 = 0.000011
dQ[2] = 0.000004
dQ[3] = -0.000000
dQ[4] = 0.000008
dQ[5] = -0.000009
The final load flow solution after 11 iterations
(for allowable arror.OOO I)
149
150 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The final load flow solution (for allowable error.OOOl) :
Bus no 1 Slack P = 1.089043 Q = 0.556088 E = 1.000000
Bus no 2 pq P = 0.350069 Q = 0.150002 E = 0.984658
Bus no 3 pq P = -0.450005 Q = -0.199995 E = 0.880949
Bus no 4 pq P = -0.399994 Q = -0.150003 E = 0.868707
Bus no 5 pq P = -0.500011 Q = -0.249991 E = 0.874648
Fast decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method)
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:O is
dp[2] = 0.350000
dp[3] = -0.450000
dpf4] ~ 0.400000
dp[5] = ···0.500000
dQ[21 = 0.190000
dQ[3] = -0.145000
dQ[4] = 0.130000
dQ[5] = -0.195000
The new voltage vector after iteration 0 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.997563 F :- 0.015222
Bus no 3 E: 0.947912 F:- 0.151220
Bus no 4 E : 0.942331 F :- 0.163946
Bus no 5 E : 0.944696F :- 0.153327
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp[2] = 0.004466
dp[3] = -0.000751
dp[ 41 =. 0.007299
dpr 5] ~ ·-0.012407
dQ[21 = 0.072548
dQ[3] == -0.118299
dQ[4] = 0.162227
dQr5] = -0.218309
The new voltage vector after iteration 1 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F . 0.000000
F = 0.000000
F = -0.008216
F = -0.142954
F = -0.154324
F = -0.143440
Power Flow Analysis
Bus no 2 E ; 0.981909 F ;- 0.013636
Bus no 3 E ; 0.882397 F ;- 0.143602
Bus no 4 E ; 0.869896 F ;- 0.154684
Bus no 5 E ; 0.875752 F ;- 0.1433 12
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 2 is
drl21 ~ O. I 5366 I
dp[3] ~ -0.020063
dp[4] = 0.005460
dpr5] = -0.009505
dQr2] = 0.011198
dQ[31 = ---0.014792
dQ[4] = -0.000732
dQ[5] = -0.002874
The new voltage vector after iteration 2 :
Bus no IE; 1.000000 F ; 0.000000
Bus no 2 E ; 0.982004 F ;- 0.007026
Bus no 3 E ; 0.8805 15 F ;- O. 142597
Bus no 4 E ; 0.868400 F ;- 0.153884
Bus no 5 E ; 0.874588 F ;- 0.143038
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 3 is
dp[2] = -0.000850
dp[3] = -0.002093
dp[4] = 0.000155
dp[5] =-0.003219
dQ[2] = 0.067612
dQ[3] = -0.007004
dQ[4] = -0.003236
dQ[5] = --0.004296
The new voltage vector after iteration 3 :
Bus no IE; 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984926 F :- 0.007086
Bus no 3 E : 0.881246 F :- O. I 42740
151
152 Operation and Control in Power Systems
Bus no 4 E : 0.869014 F :- 0.154193
Bus no 5 E : 0.874928 F :- 0.143458
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 4 is
dp[2] = -0.032384
dp[3] = 0.003011
dp[4] =-0.001336
dp[5] = -0.002671
dQ[2] = -0.000966
dQ[3] = -0.000430
dQ[41 = -0.000232
dQ[5] = -0.001698
The new voltage vector after iteration 4 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984862 F :- 0.008488
Bus no 3 E : 0.881119 F :- 0.143053
Bus no 4 E : 0.868847 F :- 0.154405
Bus no 5 E: 0.874717 F:- 0.143501
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 5 is
dp[2] = 0.000433
dp[3] = 0.000006
dp[ 4] = --0.000288
dp[5] = 0.000450
dQ[2] = -0.014315
dQ[3] = -0.000936
dQ[4] = -0.000909
dQ[5] = -O.OOJ 265
The new voltage vector after iteration 6 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984230 F :- 0.008463
Bus no 3 E : 0.881246 F :- 0.143008
Bus no 4 E : 0.869014 F :- 0.154357
Power Flow Analysis
Bus no 5 E : 0.874607 F :- 0.143433
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 6 is
dp[2] = 0.006981
dp[3] = -0.000528
dp[4] = 0.000384
dp[5] = -0.000792
dQ[2] = 0.000331
dQ[3] = 0.000039
dQ[4] = -0.000155
dQ[5] = 0.000247
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 7 is
dp[2] = -0.000144
dp[3] = -0.000050
dp[4] = 0.000080
dp[5] = -0.000068
dQ[2] = 0.003107
dQ[3] = -0.000162
dQ[4] = -0.000255
dQ[5] = -0.000375
The new voltage vector after iteration 7 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984386 F :- 0.008166
Bus no 3 E : 0.880963 F :- 0.142943
Bus no 4 E: 0.868718 F:- 0.154316
Bus no 5 E : 0.874656F :- 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 8 is
dp[2] = -0.001523
dp[3] = -0.000105
dp[4] = -0.000115
dp[5] = -0.000215
dQ[2] = 0.000098
153
154
dQ[3] = -0.000024
dQr·tl =-0.000037
dQ15] -0-0.000038
Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new voltage vector after iteration 8 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F: 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984380 F :- 0.008233
Bus no 3 E : 0.880957 F :- O. I 4296 I
Bus no 4 E : 0.8687 I 4 F :- O. I 54329
Bus no,) E : 0.874651 F :- 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 9 is
dp[2] = -0.000045
dp[3] = 0.000015
dp[ 4] = -0.000017
dp[5] = 0.000008
dQ[2] ~ 0.000679
dQl3] = 0.00003 I
dQ[4] = -0.000072
dQ[5] = -0.000 105
The new voltage vector after iteration 9 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984350 F :- 0.008230
Bus no 3 E : 0.880945 F :- 0.142958
Bus no 4 E : 0.868704 F :- O. I 54326
Bus no 5 E : 0.874646 F :- O. I 43440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis
dp[2] = 0.000334
dp[3] = -0.000022
dpl41 "" 0.000033
dp[5] =0.000056
dQI21 = 0.000028
dQI3 J= 0.000007
dQr 41 = --0.000007
Power Flow Analysis
dQ[5] = 0.000005
The new voltage vector after iteration 10 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F :- 0 .. 008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880946 F :- 0.142953
Bus no 4 E : 0.898705 F :- 0.154323
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F :- 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 11 is
dpP1 = --0.000013
dpl31 ~ -0.000004
dp[4] = 0.000003
dpr5] = -0.000000
dQr21 = 0.000149
dQ[31 = ·-0.000007
dQ[4] = 0.000020
dQ[5] = -0.000027
The new voltage vector after iteration 11 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E: 0.984358 F:- 0.008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880949 F :- 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868707 F :- 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F :- 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 12 is
dp[21 -c-0.000074
dp[ 31 = 0.000005
dp[4] = -0.000009
dp[5] = -0.000014
dQr21 = 0.000008
dQr31 : ~ -0.000002
dQf41 = -0.000001
dQr 5 J' --0.000000
155
..
156 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The load flow solution
Bus no I Slack P = 1.089040 Q = 0.556076 E = 1.000000 F = 0.000000
Bus no 2 pq P = 0.350074 Q = 0.150008 E = 0.984358 F = -0.008216
Bus no 3 pq P = -0.450005 Q ' ~ - O . 199995 E = 0.880949 F = -0.142954
Bus no 4 pq P = --0.399991 Q ~ -0.150001 E == 0.868707 F = -0.154324
Bus no 5 pq P = -0.500014 Q = -0.250000 E = 0.874648 F = -0.143440
E5.4 Obtain the load flow solution to the system given in example E5.1 lIsing Z-Bus. Use
Gauss - Seidel method. Take accuracy for convergence as 0.000 I.
Solution:
The bus impedance matrix is formed as indicated in section 5.15. The slack bus is
taken as the reference bus. In this example. as in example 5.1 bus I is chosen as the
slack bus.
(i) Add element 1-2. This is addition of a new bus to the reference bus
Z = (2)
BUS (2) [0.05 + jO.24 [
(ii) Add element 1-3. r his is also addition of a new bus to the reference bus
(2) (3)
(2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0 + jO.O
Zsus = (3) 0.0 + jO.O 0.02 + jO.06
(iii) Add element 2-3. This is the addition of a link between two existing buses 2
and 3.
Z2-IOOp = Zloop_2 = Z22 - Z23 = 0.08+jO.24
Z3_loop = Zloop_3 = Z32 - Z33 = -(0.02+jO.06)
Zloop-looP = Z22 + Z33 - 2 Z23 + Z23 23
= (0.08+jO.24)+(0.02+jO.06)(0.06 + .i0.18)
= 0.16 +j0.48
(2)
Zsus = (3)
C
The loop is now eliminated
(2)
0.08 + jO.024
0.0 + jO.O
0.08 + jO.24
. Z2-loop Zloop-2
Z22 = Z 22 - ---'--------'-
Zloop-loop
(3)
(0
0+ jO 0.08 + jO.24
0.02 + jO.06 - (0.02 + jO.06)
- (0.02 + jO.006) 0.16+jO.48
Power Flow Analysis
Similarly
= (0.08 + jO.24) _ (0.8 + jO.24)2
0.16 + j0.48
= 0.04 + jO.12
= z' = [Z?' _ Z2-loop ZIOOP-3]
_3 32 _.' Z
loop-loop
= (0.0 + jO.O) _ (0.8 + jO.24)( -0.02 - jO.06)
0.16+j0.48
= 0.0 1+ jO.03
= 0.0175 + jO.0526
The Z - Bus matrix is thus
Z _[0.04+
j
O.
12
1 0.01+jO.03 ]_
Bus - 0.0 I + jO.03 0.017 + jO.0525 -
[
0.1265L71.565° I 0.031623L71.565° 1
0.031623L71.565° 0.05534L71.S6SO
The voltages at bus 2 and 3 are assumed to be
via) = 1.03 + jO.O
viol = 1.0 + jO.O
Assuming that the reactive power injected into bys 2 is zero,
Q
2
= 0.0
The bus currents and are computed as
1(0) = -0;3+ jO.O =-0.29126- '0.0 = 0.29126L1800
2 1.03 _ jO.O J
= -0.6 + !0.25 = -0.6 _ jO.25 = 0.65LI57.38
0
. 1.0 + JO.O
Iteration I : The voltage at bus 2 is computed as
VI + Z22 + Z23 1(0)
1.05LOO + (0.1265L71.5650(0.29126L180o +
(0.031623L71.565° )(0.65L157.38°
1.02485 - jO.05045
1.02609L-2.8182
157
158 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new bus current is now calculated.
(I) II I I
1 I = V 2 I V,eh _ 1 !
- Z» l' I'VII)I I
-- 2 I
..J
= 1.02609L - 2.8182 x ( 1.03 _ I) = 0.0309084L _ 74.38320
0.1265L71.565° 1.02609
0(0) = Im[Vi
ll

= Im[I.02609L - 2.8182° JO.0309084L74.383°
=0.03
= + = 0.0 + 0.03 = 0.03
III) = -0.3- jO.3 = 0.29383LI82.891 8°
2 J.02609L _ 2.81820
Voltage at bus 3 is now calculated
VII) = V + Z 1\1) + Z 1
1
(0)
3 I 32 _ 3. 3
= 1.05LO.OO + (0.031623L71.5650) (0.29383LI82.8320) +
(0.05534':::71.565° )(0.65LI57.38° )
= (1.02389 - jO.036077) = 1.0245'::: - 2.018°
1(1) = 0.65LI57.38° = 0.634437 LI55.36°
3 1.0245L2.0 180
The voltages at the end of the first iteration are:
VI = 1.05 LOO
vii) = 1.02609L - 2.8182°
VP) = 1.0245L - 2.018°
The differences in voltages are
8 Vjl) = (1.02485 - jO.05045) - 0.03 + jO.O)
= -0.00515 - jO.05045
Vjl) = (1.02389 - jO.036077) - (1.0 + jO.O)
= (0.02389 - jO.036077)
Power Flow Analysis 159
Both the real and imaginary parts are greater than the specified limit 0.00 I.
Iteration 2 :
= VI +Z22Iil) +Z21
= 1.02 LOo + (0.1265L71.5650)(0.29383 L 182.892°) +
(0.031623L71.5650) (0.63447 L 155.36°)
= 1.02634 - jO.050465
= 1.02758 L-2.81495°
1.02758L-2.81495° i 1.03 _I]
1.1265L - 71.565° L 1.02758
= 0.01923L-74.38°
L'10i
'
) = Im[ vi
2
) r]
= [m(1.02758L - 2.81495)(0.0 1913L74.38°)
= 0.0186487
= oil) + L'10i
'
)
= 0.03 + 0.0 I 86487 = 0.0486487
-0.3 - jO.0486487
I - ----"----
2 - I .02758L2.81495°
== 0.295763LI86.393°
V f) = 1.05LOo + (0.31623L7 I .565° (O.295763LI 86.4 ° +
0.05534L71.565° )(0.634437 LI55.36° )
= 0.65LI57.38° =0.6343567LI55.434
0
- 1.02466LI.9459°
L'1 viI) = (1.02634 - jO.050465) - (1.02485 - jO.0504 I) = 0.00149 - jO.000015
L'1Vjl) = (1.024 - jO.034793) - (1.02389 - jO.036077) = 0.00011 + jO.OOI28
As the accuracy is still not enough, another iteration is required.
Iteration 3 :
= 1.05LO
o
+ (0.1265L71.5650)(0.295763LI86.4°) +
(0.031623L71.565° )(0.63487 LI 55.434 0)
= 1.0285187 - jO.051262
:c 1.0298L _ 2.853 °
160 Operation and Control in Power Systems
= J.0298L - 2.853° = 0.001581L74.418
0
- 0.1265L71.565° 1.0298
= 0.00154456
Qi
3
) = 0.0486487 + 0.001544 = 0.0502
1\3) = -0.3- jO.0502 =0.29537LI86.6470
- 0.0298L2.853°·
Vj31 = 1.05LO
o
+ (0.031623L71.5650) + (0.29537 LI86.6470) +
(0.05534L71.565° )(0.634357 L155.434
0
)
= 1.024152 - jO.034817 == 1.02474L -1.9471°
1(3) = - 0.65 - LI57.38° = 0.6343LI55.4330
3 J.02474LJ.9471 °
oil vi 2) = (1.0285187 - jO.051262) - (1.02634 - jO.050465)
= 0.0021787 - 0.000787
oilV12 I = (1.024152 - jO.034817) - (1.024 - jO.034793)
= 0.000152 - jO.00002
Iteration 4 "
= 1.02996L - 2.852°
= 0.0003159L - 74.417°
= 0.0000867
= 0.0505
= 0.29537 LI86.7°
vi
4
) = 1.02416 - JO.034816 = 1.02475L -1.947°
oil V?) = 0.000108 + jO.000016
oil Vj3) = 0.00058 + jO.OOOOOI
The final voltages are
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
V
2
= 1.02996L-2.852°
V3 = 1.02475L-1.947°
The line flows may be calculated further if required.
Power Flow Analysis 161
Problems
PS.I Obtain a load flow solution for the system shown in Fig. PS.l Llse
(i) GaLlss ~ Seidel method
(ii) N-R polar coordinates method
Bus code p-q Impedance Zpq Line charges Y pq/s
1 ~ 2 0.02 +jO 2 0.0
2 ~ 3 0.01 + jO.025 0.0
3 ~ 4 0.02 + jO.4 0.0
3 ~ 5 0.02 + 0.05 0.0
~ ~ 5 0.015 +jO 04 O.D
1-5 0015-t.lOO4 0.0
Values are given in p.Ll. on a base of IOOMva.
162 Power System Analysis
The scheduled powers are as follows
Bus Code (P) Generation Load
Mw Mvar MW Mvar
1 (slack bus) 0 0 0 0
2 80 35 25 15
3 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 45 15
5 0 0 55 20
Take voltage at bus I as I LOo p.u.
PS.2 Repeat problem P5.1 with line charging capacitance Y p/2 = jO.025 for each line
PS.3 Obtain the decoupled and fast decouple load flow solution for the system in P5.1 and
compare the results with the exact solution.
PS.4 For the 51 bus system shown in Fig. P5.!, the system data is given as follows in p.u.
Perform load flow analysis for the system
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
2-3 0.0287 0.0747 0.0322
3-4 0.0028 0.0036 0.0015
3-6 0.0614 0.1400 0.0558
3-7 00247 0.0560 0.0397
7-8 0.0098 0.0224 0.0091
8-9 00190 0.0431 0.0174
9-10 0.0182 0.0413 0.0167
10- 11 0.0205 0.0468 0.0190
11-12 0.0660 0.0150 0.0060
12 - 13 0.0455 0.0642 0.0058
13 - 14 01182 0.2360 0.0213
14 - 15 0.0214 0.2743 0.0267
15 - 16 0.1336 0.0525 0.0059
16-17 0.0580 0.3532 0.0367
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 163
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
17 - 18 0.1550 0.1532 0.0168
18 - 19 01550 0.3639 0.0350
19-20 0.1640 0.3815 0.0371
20 - 21 0.1136 0.3060 0.0300
20- 23 0.0781 0.2000 0.0210
23 - 24 0.1033 0.2606 0.0282
12 - 25 0.0866 0.2847 0.0283
25 - 26 0.0159 0.0508 00060
26 - 27 00872 0.2870 00296
27 - 28 0.0136 0.0436 0.0045
28 - 29 0.0136 0.0436 0.0045
29 - 30 0.0125 00400 0.0041
30 - 31 0.0136 00436 00045
27 - 31 00136 () 0436 0.0045
30 - 32 00533 () 1636 0.0712
32 - 33 0.0311 0.1000 00420
32 - 34 0.0471 o 1511 0.0650
30 - 51 0.0667 0.1765 0.0734
51 - 33 00230 0.0622 0.0256
35 - 50 0.0240 01326 0.0954
35 - 36 00266 01418 0.1146
39 - 49 0.0168 00899 0.0726
36 - 38 0.0252 0.1336 0.1078
38 - 1 00200 0.1107 00794
38 - 47 0.0202 0.1076 00869
47 - 43 0.0250 0.1336 0.1078
42 - 43 0.0298 0.1584 0.1281
40-41 0.0254 0.1400 0.1008
Comd .....
164 Power System Analysis
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
41 -- 43 0.0326 0.1807 0.1297
43 - 45 0.0236 0.1252 01011
43 - 44 0.0129 00715 0.0513
45 - 46 0.0054 0.0292 0.0236
44-1 0.0330 0.1818 0.1306
46-1 0.0343 0.2087 0.1686
1-49 0.0110 0.0597 0.1752
49 - 50 00071 0.0400 0.0272
37 - 38 0.0014 0.0077 0.0246
47 - 39 0.0203 0.1093 0.0879
48 -2 0.0426 0.1100 0.0460
3 - 35 00000 00500 0.0000
7 36 0.0000 () 0450 0.0000
t-
I1 - .17 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000
14 -- 47 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
16 - 39 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
18-40 0.0000 0.0400 0.0000
20 - 42 0.0000 .0.0800 0.0000
24-·B 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
27 - 45 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
26- 44 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000
30 - 46 0.0000 0.0450 0.0000
1-34 0.0000 0.0630 0.0000
!
21-2 0.0000 0.2500 0.0000
!
4 -- 5 0.0000 0.2085 0.0000
I
19-41 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000
Power Flow Analysis 165
Fig. P5.4 51 Bus Power System.
Bus P- Q TAP
3 -35 1.0450
7 - 36 1.0450
11 - 37 1.0500
14 - 47 1.0600
16 - 39 1.0600
18 - 40 1.0900
19-41 1.0750
20 - 42 1.0600
24 -43 1.0750
30-46 1.0750
1 -34 1.0875
21 -22 1.0600
5-4 1.0800
27 - 45 10600
26 - 44 1.0750
166 Power System Analysis
Bus Data - Voltage and Scheduled Powers
Bus no Voltage magnitude Voltage phase angle Real power Reactive power
(p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.)
1 10800 00000 0.0000 0.0000
2 ] 0000 00000 - 0.5000 - 0.2000
3 1.0000 00000 - 09000 -0.5000
4 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 1.0000 0.0000 -0.1190 0.0000
6 1.0000 0.0000 -0.1900 - 0.1000
7 1.0000 00000 - 0.3300 -0.1800.
8 10000 00000 - 0 4400 - 02400
9 10000 0.0000 - 0.2200 -0.1200
10 10000 0.0000 -0.2100 - 01200
II 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.3400 -- 0.0500
12 1.0000 00000 - 0.2400 - 0.1360
13 10000 0.0000 - 0.1900 - 0.1100
14 1.0000 00000 - 0.1900 - 0.0400
IS 1.0000 0.0000 0.2400 0.0000
16 10000 0.0000 - 0.5400 - 0.3000
17 10000 0.0000 - 0.4600 - 0.2100
18 10000 0.0000 - 0.3700 - 0.2200
19 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.3100 -0.0200
20 10000 0.0000 - 03400 - 0.1600
21 10000 00000 00000 0.0000
22 10000 0.0000 - 0 1700 - 0 0800
13 10000 0.0000 - 0.4200 - 0.2300
2 ~ 1.0000 00000 - 0.0800 - 0.0200
25 1.0000 0.0000 -0.1100 - 0.0600
26 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.2800 - 0.1400
27 1.0000 00000 - 0.7600 - 0.2500
28 I OOO()
00000 - 08000 - 0.3600
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 167
Bus no Voltage magnitude Voltage phase angle Real power Reactive power
(p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.)
29 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.2500 - 0.1300
30 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.4700 0.0000
31 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.4200 -0.1800
32 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.3000 - 0.1700
33 1.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000
34 1.0000 0.0000 - 05800 - 0.2600
35 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
36 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
37 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
38 I. 0000 0.0000 17000 0.0000
39 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
40 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
41 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
42 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
43 1.0000 00000 0.0000 0.0000
44 1.0000 0.0000 17500 0.0000
45 1.0000 0.0000 00000 0.0000
46 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
47 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
48 1.0000 00000 0.5500 0.0000
49 1.0000 0.0000 35000 00000
50 1.0000 0.0000 1.2000 o.oono
51 1.0000 0.0000 - 0.5000 - 0.3000
168 Power System Analysis
Bus No. Voltage at VeB Reactive power limit
15 1.0300 0.1800
30 1.0000 0.0400
33 1.0000 0.4800
38 1.0600 0.9000
44 10500 04500
48 10600 02000
49 1.0700 0.5600
50 1.0700 1.500
P 5.4 The data for a 13 machine, 71 bus, 94 line system is given. Obtain the load flow
solution.
Data :
No. of buses 71
No. of lines 94
Base power (MVA) 200
No. of machines 13
No. of shunt loads 23
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
I - - 0.0 00
2 00 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 506.0 150.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 100.0 32.0 00 00
7 0.0 00 12.8 8.3
8 300.0 125.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 185.0 130.0
10 0.0 0.0 80.0 50.0
II 0.0 0.0 155.0 96.0
12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Contd .....
Power Flow Analysis 169
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
13 0.0 0.0 100.0 62.0
14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
15 180.0 110.0 00 0.0
16 0.0 0.0 73.0 45.5
17 0.0 0.0 36.0 22.4
18 0.0 0.0 16.0 9.0
19 0.0 0.0 320 19.8
20 00 0.0 270 16.8
21 0.0 0.0 32.0 In
22 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
23 00 0.0 75.0 46.6
24 0.0 0.0 00 0.0
25 0.0 00 133.0 825
26 00 0.0 00 00
27 3000 75.0 0.0 00
28 0.0 0.0 30.0 20.0
29 260.0 70.0 0.0 0.0
30 0.0 0.0 120.0 0.0
31 0.0 0.0 160.0 74.5
32 0.0 0.0 0.0 994
33 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
34 0.0 0.0 112.0 69.5
35 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
36 0.0 0.0 50.0 32.0
37 00 0.0 1470 92.0
38 00 0.0 935 880
39 25.0 30.0 0.0 0.0
40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
41 0.0 0.0 225.0 123.0
42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
43 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Contd. ....
170 Power System Analysis
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
44 180.0 55.0 0.0 0.0
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
46 0.0 0.0 78.0 38.6
47 0.0 0.0 234.0 145.0
48 340.0 250.0 0.0 0.0
49 0.0 0.0 295.0 183.0
50 00 0.0 40.0 24.6
51 0.0 0.0 2270 142.0
52 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
53 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
54 0.0 0.0 \08.0 68.0
55 0.0 0.0 25.5 48.0
56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
57 00 00 556 35.6
58 0.0 0.0 420 27.0
59 0.0 0.0 57.0 27.4
60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
61 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
62 0.0 0.0 40.0 27.0
63 0.0 0.0 33.2 20.6
64 300.0 75.0 0.0 0.0
65 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
66 96.0 25.0 0.0 0.0
67 0.0 0.0 14.0 6.5
68 90.0 25.0 0.0 0.0
69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
70 0.0 0.0 11.4 7.0
71 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
Power Flow Analysis 171
LINE DATA
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
1 9 8 0.0000 0.0570 0.0000 1.05
2 9 7 0.3200 0.0780 0.0090 100
3 9 5 0.0660 0.1600 0.0047 1.00
4 9 10 0.0520 0.1270 0.0140 1.00
5 10 11 0.0660 0.1610 0.0180 1.00
6 7 10 0.2700 0.0700 0.0070 100
7 12 11 0.0000 0.0530 0.0000 0.95
8 II 13 0.0600 01480 0.0300 1.00
9 14 13 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
10 13 16 0.9700 0.2380 0.0270 1.00
11 17 15 0.0000 0.0920 0.0000 1.05
12 7 6 00000 0.2220 0.0000 1.05
13 7 4 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
14 4 3 0.0000 0.0330 0.0000 1.05
15 4 5 0.0000 0.1600 0.0000 1.00
16 4 12 0.0160 0.0790 0.0710 1.00
17 12 14 0.0160 0.0790 0.0710 1.00
18 17 16 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
19 2 4 0.0000 0.0620 0.0000 1.00
20 4 26 0.0190 0.0950 0.1930· 0.00
21 2 1 0.0000 0.0340 0.0000 1.05
22 31 26 0.0340 0.1670 01500 1.00
23 26 25 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
24 25 23 02400 0.5200 0.1300 1.00
25 22 23 00000 00800 0.0000 0.95
26 24 22 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
27 22 17 0.0480 0.2500 0.0505 1.00
28 2 24 00100 0.1020 0.3353 1.00
29 23 21 0.0366 0.1412 0.0140 1.00
30 21 20 0.7200 0.1860 0.0050 1.00
31 20 III 01460 0.3740 0.0100 1.00
Contd.
171 Power System Analysis
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
32 19 18 0.0590 0.1500 0.0040 1.00
33 18 16 0.0300 00755 0.0080 1.00
34 28 27 0.0000 0.0810 0.0000 1.05
35 30 29 0.0000 0.0610 0.0000 105
36 32 31 0.0000 0.0930 00000 0.95
37 31 30 0.0000 00800 0.0000 0.95
38 28 32 00051 0.0510 0.6706 1.00
39 3 33 0.0130 00640 0.0580 1.00
40 31 47 O.()110 0.0790 01770 1.00
41 2 32 0.0158 0.1570 0.5100 1.00
42 33 34 00000 0.0800 0.0000 095
43 35 33 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
44 35 24 0.0062 00612 0.2120 1.00
45 34 36 0.0790 0.2010 0.0220 1.00
46 36 37 0.1690 04310 0.0110 1.00
47 37 38 0.0840 01880 0.0210 1.00
48 40 39 00000 0.3800 0.0000 1.05
49 40 38 0.0890 0.2170 0.0250 1.00
50 38 41 0.1090 0.1960 0.2200 1.00
51 41 51 0.2350 0.6000 0.0160 1.00
52 42 41 0.0000 0.0530 0.0000 0.95
53 45 42 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
54 47 49 0.2100 0.1030 0.9200 1.00
55 49 48 0.0000 0.0460 0.0000 105
56 49 50 00170 00840 0.0760 100
57 49 42 0.0370 0.1950 00390 1.00
58 50 51 00000 0.0530 00000 0.95
59 52 50 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
60 50 55 0.0290 0.1520 0.0300 1.00
61 50 53 0.0100 0.0520 0.0390 1.00
62 53 54 0:0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
63 57 54 00220 0.0540 0.0060 1.00
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 173
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
64 55 56 0.0160 0.0850 0.0170 1.00
65 56 57 00000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
66 57 59 0.0280 0.0720 0.0070 1.00
67 59 58 0.0480 0.1240 0.0120 1.00
68 60 59 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
69 53 60 0.0360 0.1840 0.3700 1.00
70 45 44 0.0000 0.1200 0.0000 1.05
71 45 46 0.0370 0.0900 0.0100 1.00
72 46 41 0.0830 0.1540 0.0170 100
73 46 59 0.1070 0.1970 0.0210 1.00
74 60 61 0.0160 0.0830 0.0160 1.00
75 61 62 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
76 58 62 00420 01080 0.0020 1.00
77 62 63 0.0350 0.0890 0.0090 100
78 69 68 0.0000 0.2220 0.0000 1.05
79 69 61 0.0230 0.1160 0.1040 1.00
80 67 66 0.0000 0.1880 0.0000 1.05
81 65 64 00000 0.0630 0.0000 1.05
82 65 56 0.0280 0.1-l40 0.0290 1.00
83 65 61 0.0230 0.1140 0.0240 1.00
84 65 67 0.0240 0.0600 0.0950 1.00
85 67 63 0.0390 0.0990 0.0100 1.00
86 61 42 0.0230 0.2293 0.0695 1.00
87 57 67 0.0550 0.2910 00070 LOO
88 45 70 01840 OA680 00120 1.00
89 70 38 0.1650 0.4220 0.0110 1.00
90 33 71 0.0570 0.2960 0.0590 1.00
41 71 37 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
92 45 41 0.1530 0.3880 0.1000 1.00
-n 35 43 0.0131 01306 0.4293 1.00
~ -
9-l 52 52 0.0164 0.1632 0.5360 1.00
174 Power System Analysis
Shunt Load Data
S.No Bus No Shunt Load
1 2 000 - 0.4275
2 13 0.00 0.1500
3 20 0.00 0.0800
4 24 0.00 - 0.2700
5 28 0.00 - 0.3375
6 31 0.00 0.2000
7 32 0.00 - 0.8700
8 34 0.00 0.2250
9 35 0.00 - 0.3220
10 36 0.00 0.1000
11 37 0.00 0.3500
12 38 0.00 0.2000
13 41 0.00 0.2000
14 43 0.00 - 02170
15 46 0.00 0.1000
16 47 000 0.3000
17 50 0.00 0.1000
18 51 0.00 0.1750
19 52 0.00 -0.2700
20 54 0.00 0.1500
21 57 0.00 0.1000
22 59 0.00 0.0750
23 21 0.00 0.0500
Power Flow Analysis
Questions
5.1 Explain the importance of load flow studies.
5.2 Discuss breifly the bus classification.
5.3 What is the need for a slack bus or reference bus? Explain.
5.4 Explain Gauss-Seidel method of load flow solution.
175
5.5 Discuss the method ofNewton-Raphson method in general and explain its applicalibility
for power flow solution.
5.6 Explain the Polar-Coordinates method of Newton-Raphson load flow solution.
5.7 Give the Cartesian coordinates method or rectangular coordinates method of Newton-
Raphson load flow solution.
5.8 Give the flow chart for Q.No. 6.
5.9 Give the flow chart for Q.No. 7.
5.10 Explain sparsity and its application in power flow studies.
5.11 How are generator buses are P, V buses treated in load flow studies?
5.12 Give the algorithm for decoupled load flow studies.
5.13 Explain the fast decouped load flow method.
5.14 Compare the Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson method for power flow solution.
5.15 Compare the Newton-Raphson method, decoupled load flow method and fast
decouped load flow method.
6 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Electrical networks and machines are subject to various types of faults while in operation.
During the fault period, the current flowing is determined by the internal e.m.fs of the machines
in the network, and by the impedances of the network and machines. However, the impedances
of machines may change their values from those that exist immediately after the fault occurrence
to different values during the fault till the fault is cleared. The network impedance may also
change, if the fault is cleared by switching operations. It is, therefore, necessary to calculate
the short-circuit current at different instants when faults occur. For such fault analysis studies
and in general for power system analysis it is very convenient to use per unit system and
percentage values. In the following this system is explained.
6.1 Per Unit Quantities
The per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of the actual value in any units to the chosen base
quantify of the same dimensions expressed as a decimal.
Actual value in any units
Per unit quantity = ..
base or reference value In the same umts
In power systems the basic quantities of importance are voltage, current, impedance
and power. For all per unit calculations a base KVA or MVA and a base KV are to be chosen.
Once the base values or reference values are chosen. the other quantities can be ohtained as
follows:
Selecting the total or 3-phase KVA as base KVA, for a 3-phase system
Short Circuit Analysis
base KVA
Base current in amperes = h
,,3 [base KV (Iine-to-line)]
· . [base KV (line-to-line)2 x 1000]
Base Impedance In ohms = h[ ]
,,3 (base KV A)/3
B
. d . h (base KV (line-to-line)2
ase Impe ance In 0 ms =
base MVA
· d . h (base KV (line-to-line)2 x \000
Base Impe ance In 0 m = ------'------'----
base KVA
Hence,
where base KVA and base MVA are the total or three phase v.tllles.
If phase values are used
base KVA
Base current in amperes = -b-a-se-K-V-
base voltage
Base impedance in ohm = ----=-
base current
(base K V)2 x \000
base K V A per phase
· . (base KV)2
Base Impedance In ohm = b MVA h
ase per p ase
In all the above relations the power factor is assumed unity, so that
base power K W = base K VA
(actual impedance in ohm) x KVA
Per unit impedance = 2
(base K V) x 1000
Now,
Some times, it may be required to use the relation
( I
. d . h) (Per unit impedance in ohms) (base KV)2 x \000
actua Impe ance In 0 m = . . : . . . . . . . - - - ~ - - - - - . : . . . . . . . : . . - - - - - - ' ' - - - -
base KVA
177
Very often the values are in different base values. In order to convert the per unit
impedance from given base to another base, the following relation can be derived easily.
Per unit impedance on new base
(
new KVA base )(giVen KV base)2
Z -u = Z U
new p gIven p. given KV A base new KV base
178 Power System Analysis
6.2 Advantages of Per Unit System
1. While performing calculations, referring quantities from one side of the transformer
to the other side serious errors may be committed. This can be avoided by using per
unit system.
2. Voltages, currents and impedances expressed in per unit do not change when they
are referred from one side of transformer to the other side. This is a great advantage'.
3. Per unit impedances of electrical equipment of similar type usually lie within a narrow
range, when the equipment ratings are used as base values.
4. Transformer connections do not affect the per unit values.
5. Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of machines and transformers in per
unit or percent of name plate ratings.
6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits
In the analysis of symmetrical three-phase short circuits the following assumptions are
generally made.
1. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. The magnetizing current,
and core fusses are neglected. Resistances, shunt admittances are not considered.
Star-delta phase shifts are also neglected.
2. Transmission lines are represented by series reactances. Resistances and shunt
admittances are neglected.
3. Synchronous machines are represented by constant voltage sources behind
subtransient reactances. Armature resistances, saliency and saturation are neglected.
4. All non-rotating impedance loads are neglected.
5. Induction motors are represented just as synchronous machines with constant voltage
source behind a reactance. Smaller motor loads are generally neglected.
Per unit impedances of transformers : Consider a single-phase transformer with primary and
secondary voltages and currents denoted by V I' V 2 and I I' 12 respectively.
VI 12
we have, -=-
V
2
II
V
Base impedance for primary = _I
II
V
2
Base impedance for secondary = G
ZI II ZI
Per unit impedance referred to primary = (VI/II) VI
Short Circuit Analysis
[2 Z2
Per unit impedance referred to secondary = V-
2
Again, actual impedance referred to secondary = Z,
Per unit impedance referred to secondary
(
Yy2, )2
= Per unit impedance referred to primary
179
Thus, the per unit impedance referred remains the same for a transformer on either
side.
6.4 Reactance Diagrams
[n power system analysis it is necessary to draw an equivalent circuit for the system. This is
an impedance diagrams. However, in several studies, including short-circuit analysis it is
sufficient to consider only reactances neglecting resistances. Hence, we draw reactance
diagrams. For 3-phase balanced systems, it is simpler to represent the system by a single line
diagram without losing the identify of the 3-phase system. Thus, single line reactance diagrams
can be drawn for calculation.
This is illustrated by the system shown in Fig. 6.1 (a) & (b) and by its single line
reactance diagram .
.cY ei
Gene transformer Lines
(a) A power system
Fig. 6.1
6.5 Percentage Values
(b) Equivalent single-line reactance
diagram
The reactances of generators, transformers and reactors are generally expressed in percentage
values to permit quick short circuit calculation.
Percentage reactance is defined as :
[X
% X = -xIOO
y
180
where, I = full load current
V = phase voltage
X = reactance in ohms per phase
Power System Analysis
Short circuit current Isc in a circuit then can be expressed as,
_ V = V. I xlOO
Isc - X V. (%X)
I . 100
%X
Percentage ~ a c t a n c e can expressed in terms of KVA and KV as following
From equation
Alternatively
(%X) . V (%X)V
2
X = ----= -'--'----
1.1 00 1 00 . V . I
(%X) (KV)2 10
== -----'--'----
KVA
KVA
(%X) = X. 10 (KV)2
V V
(%X)-- . --xIOOO
1000 1000
V
100. -.I
1000
As has been stated already in short circuit analysis since the reactance X is generally
greater than three times the resistance, resistances are neglected.
But, in case percentage resistance and therefore, percentage impedance values are required
then, in a similar manner we can define
and
IR
% R = -x 100
V
IZ
%Z= -xIOO
V
with usual notation.
The percentage values of Rand Z also do not change with the side of the transformer or
either side of the transformer they remain constant. The ohmic values of R, X and Z change
from one side to the other side of the transformer.
when a fault occurs the potential falls to a value determined by the fault impedance.
Short circuit current is expressed in term of short circuit KVA based on the normal system
voltage at the point of fault.
6.6 Short Circuit KVA
It is defined as the product of normal system voltage and short circuit current at the point of
fault expressed in KVA.
Short Circuit Analysis
Let V = normal phase voltage in volts
1= fall load current in amperes at base KVA
% X = percentage reactance of the system expressed on base KVA.
The short circuit current,
100
JSc = I. %X
The three phase or total short circuit KVA
3.V Isc 3.V.I 100 3V I 100
1000 (%X) 1000 1000 %X
100
Therefore short circuit KVA = Base KVA x (%X)
181
In a power system or even in a single power station different equipment may have
different ratings. Calculation are required to be performed where different components or
units are rated differently. The percentage values specified on the name plates will be with
respect to their name plate ratings. Hence. it it necessary to select a common base KVA or MVA
and also a base KY. The following are some of the guide I ines for selection of base values.
1. Rating of the largest plant or unit for base MVA or KVA.
2. The total capacity ofa plant or system for base MVA or KVA.
3. Any arbitrary value.
(
Base KVA) .
(
%X) =. (% X at UOIt KVA)
on new base Unit K V A
Ifa transformer has 8% reactance on 50 KVA base, its value at 100 KVA base will be
(
100)
(%X)IOO KVA = 50 x 8 = 16%
Similarly the reactance values change with voltage base as per the relation
where X I = reactance at voltage V I
and X
2
= reactance at voltage V 2
For short circuit analysis, it is often convenient to draw the reactance diagrams
indicating the values in per unit.
182 Power System Analysis
6.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents
Knowledge of short circuit current values is necessary for the following reasons.
1. Fault currents which are several times larger than the normal operating currents
produce large electro magnetic forces and torques which may adversely affect the
stator end windings. The forces on the end windings depend on both the d.c. and
a.c. components of stator currents.
2. The electro dynamic forces on the stator end windings may result in displacement of
the coils against one another. This may result in loosening of the support or damage
to the insulation of the windings.
3. Following a short circuit, it is always recommended that the mechanical bracing of
the end windings to checked for any possible loosening.
4. The electrical and mechanical forces that develop due to a sudden three phase short
circuit are generally severe when the machine is operating under loaded condition.
S. As the fault is cleared with in 3 cycles generally the heating efforts are not considerable.
Short circuits may occur in power systems due to system over voltages caused by
lightning or switching surges or due to equipment insulation failure or even due to insulator
contamination. Some times even mechanical causes may create short circuits. Other well
known reasons include line-to-line, line-to-ground, or line-to-line faults on over head lines. The
resultant short circuit has to the interrupted within few cycles by the circuit breaker.
It is absolutely necessary to select a circuit breaker that is capable of operating
successfully when maximum fault current flows at the circuit voltage that prevails at that
instant. An insight can be gained when we consider an R-L circuit connected to an alternating
voltage source, the circuit being switched on through a switch.
6.8 Analysis ofR-L Circuit
Consider the circuit in the Fig. 6.2.
+
s
t = 0'·
R
L
Fig. 6.2
Let e = Emax Sin (rot + a) when the switch S is closed at t = 0+
di
e = Emax Sin (rot + a) = R + L dt
Short Circuit Analysis
a is determined by the magnitude of voltage when the circuit is closed.
The general solution is
where
and
E --
[
-Rt 1
i= max Sin (cot+a-8)-e L Sin (a-8)
IZI
IZI = ~ R
2
+ co
2
L2
coL
8 = Tan-I -
R
The current contains two components :
Emax
a.c. component = IZT Sin (cot + a - 8)
and
-Rt
Emax e L· e)
d.c. component = IZT Sm (a-
If the switch is closed when a - e = 1t or when a - 8 = 0
the d.c. component vanishes.
1t
the d.c. component is a maximum when a - 8 = ± '2
6.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator
183
If a three phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of a salient pole synchronous we obtain
typical oscillograms as shown in Fig. 6.3 for the short circuit currents the three phases.
Fig. 6.4 shows the alternating component of the short circuit current when the d.c. component
is eliminated. The fast changing sub-transient component and the slowly changing transient
components are shown at A and C. Figure 6.5 shows the electrical torque. The changing field
current is shown in Fig. 6.6.
From the oscillogram of a.c. component the quantities x;;, x ~ , xd and x ~ can be
determined.
If V is the line to neutral prefault voltage then the a.c. component.
ia c = ~ = I" , the r.m.s subtransient short circuit. Its duration is determined by Td' ' the
xl]
V
subtransient direct axis time constant. The value of ia c decreases to 7 when t > Td'
, d
with Td as the direct axis transient time constant when t > Td
V
184 Power System Analysis
The maximum d.c. off-set component that occurs in any phase at (l = 0 is
. k2 V -IITA
1 (t)-"L.-e
d,c, max xd
where T A is the armature time constant.
Fig. 6.3 Oscillograms of the armature currents after a short circuit.
F
J
: ~ ----- ------- --- -- ___ 0
- ----- B
i:: r-
~ -0
u 1 ~
61
t sec. ~
Fig. 6.4 Alternating component of the short circuit armature current
Short Circuit Analysis
o 0.10 020 030
---..... t
0.40 0.50
Fig. 6.5 Electrical torque on three-phase termlnaJ short circuit.
Field current after
short circuit
o ,-_+-_-_-_-_ ..... _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ .. .;..
t ----+
Fig. 6.6 Oscilogram of the field current after a short circuit.
6.10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current
185
Consider a 3-phase synchronous generator supplying a balanced 3-phase load. Let a three
phase fault occur at the load terminals. Before the fault occurs, a load current IL is flowing into
the load from the generator. Let the voltage at the fault be v f and the terminal voltage of the
generator be Vt' Under fault conditions, the generator reactance is xd'
The circuit in Fig. 6.7 indicates the simulation of fault at the load terminals by a parallel
switch S.
E; = V
t
+ j Xd' IL = VI' +(Xext + j xd)I
L
where E; is the subtransient internal voltage.
186 Power System Analysis
s
Fault
Fig. 6.7
For the transient state
E ~ = VI + j xd IL
= V
f
+ (Zext + j xd ) I L
E; or E ~ are used only when there is a prefault current I
L
. Otherwise E
g
• the steady
state voltage in series with the direct axis synchronous reactance is to be used for all calculations.
Eg remains the same for all IL values, and depends only on the field current. Every time, of
course, a new E; is required to be computed.
6.11 Reactors
Whenever faults occur in power system large currents flow. Especially, if the fault is a dead
short circuit at the terminals or bus bars t?normous currents flow damaging the equipment and
its components. To limit the flow of large currents under there circumstances current limiting
reactors are used. These reactors are large coils covered for high self-inductance.
They are also so located that the effect of the fault does not affect other parts of the
system and is thus localized. From time to time new generating units are added to an existing
system to augment the capacity. When this happens, the fault current level increases and it
may become necessary to change the switch gear. With proper use of reactors addition of
generating units does not necessitate changes in existing switch gear.
6.12 Construction of Reactors
These reactors are built with non magnetic core so that saturation of core with consequent
reduction in inductance and increased short circuit currents is avoided. Alternatively, it is
possible to use iron core with air-gaps included in the magnetic core so that saturation is avoided.
6.13 Classification of Reactors
(i) Generator reactors, (ii) Feeder reactors, (iii) Bus-bar reactors
Short Circuit Analysis 187
The above classification is based on the location ofthe reactors. Reactors may be connected in
series with the generator in series with each feeder or to the bus bars.
(i) Generator reactors
The reactors are located in series with each of the generators as shown in
Fig. 6.8 so that current flowing into a fault F from the generator is limited.
Generators
Bus
Bars
Fig. 6.8
Disadvantages
(a) In the event of a fault occuring on a feeder, the voltage at the remaining
healthy feeders also may loose synchronism requiring resynchronization later.
(b) There is a constant voltage drop in the reactors and also power loss, even
during normal operation. Since modern generators are designed to with stand
dead short circuit at their terminals, generator reactors are now-a-days not
used except for old units in operation.
(ii) Feeder reactors: In this method of protection each is equipped with a
series reactor as shown in Fig. 6.9.
In the event of a fault on any feeder the fault current drawn is restricted by the
reactor.
Generators

Reactors
Bars
JC'
Fig. 6.9
188
F
Power System Analysis
Disadvantages: I. Voltage drop and power loss still occurs in the reactor for a
feeder fault. However, the voltage drop occurs only in that particular feeder reactor.
2. Feeder reactors do not offer any protection for bus bar faults. Neverthless,
bus-bar faults occur very rarely.
As series reactors inhererbly create voltage drop, system voltage regulation will
be impaired. Hence they are to be used only in special case such as for short
feeders of large cross-section.
(iii) Bus bar reactors: In both the above methods, the reactors carry full load current
under normal operation. The consequent disadvantage of constant voltage drops
and power loss can be avoided by dividing the bus bars into sections and inter
connect the sections through protective reactors. There are two ways of doing
this.
(a) Ring system :
In this method each feeder is fed by one generator. Very little power flows
across the reactors during normal operation. Hence, the voltage drop and
power loss are negligible. If a fault occurs on any feeder, only the generator
to which the feeder is connected will feed the fault and o ~ h e r generators are
required to feed the fault through the reactor.
(b) Tie-bar system: This is an improvement over the ring system. This is shown
in Fig. 6.11. Current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in
series between sections.
F F
BVS
Bars
BVS
bar
Tie
bar
Generators
F2
Peeders
Fig. 6.10 Fig. 6.11
Another advantage is that additional generation may be connected to the
system without requiring changes in the existing reactors.
The only disadvantage is that this systems requires an additional bus-bar
system, the tie-bar.
Short Circuit Analysis 189
Worked Examples
E 6.1 Two generators rated at 10 MVA, 11 KV and 15 MVA, 11 KV respectively are
connected in parallel to a bus. The bus bars feed two motors rated 7.5 MVA and
10 MVA respectively. The rated voltage of the motors is 9 KV. The reactance of
each generator is 12% and that of each motor is 15% on their own ratings.
Assume 50 MVA, 10 KV base and draw the reactance diagram.
Solution:
The reactances of the generators and motors are calculated on 50 MVA, 10 KV base values.
Reactance of generator I = X
G1
= 12 . C ~ r . ( ~ ~ ) = 72.6%
(
11)2 (50)
Reactance of generator 2 = X
G2
= 12 10 . 10 = 48.4%
Reactance of motor I = X
M1
= 15 . ( I ~ r ( ~ . ~ ) = 81 %
Reactance of motor 2 = X
M2
= 15 (1
9
0 r ( ~ ~ J = 60.75%
The reactance diagram is drawn and shown in Fig. E.6.1.
Fig. E.6.1
E.6.2 A 100 MVA, 13.8 KV, 3-phase generator has a reactance of 20%. The generator is
connected to a 3-phase transformer T I rated 100 MVA 12.5 KV 1110 KV with 10%
reactance. The h.v. side of the transformer is connected to a transmission line of
reactance 100 ohm. The far end of the line is connected to a step down transformer
T 2' made of three single-phase transformers each rated 30 MVA, 60 KV / 10 KV
with 10% reactance the generator supplies two motors connected on the l.v. side
T2 as shown in Fig. E.6.2. The motors are rated at 25 MVA and 50 MVA both at
10 KV with 15% reactance. Draw the reactance diagram showing all the values in
per unit. Take generator rating as base.
190 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Base MVA = 100
Base KV = 13.8
110
Base KV for the line = 13.8 x 12.5 = 121.44
,J3 x66KV 114.31
Line-to-line voltage ratio ofT2 = 10KV :=----w-
121.44xl0 ,
Base voltage for motors = 114.31 = 10.62 KV
% X for generators = 20 % = 0.2 p.ll.
(
12.5J2 100
% X for transformer T) = 10 x 13.8 x 100 = 8.2%
% X for transformer T2 on ,J3 x 66 : 10 KV and 3 x 30 MVA base = 10%
% X for T2 on 100 MVA, and 121.44 KV: 10.62 KV is
% X T2 = 10 x C ~ . ~ 2 r x C ~ ~ J = 9.85 % = 0.0985 p.ll.
(
121.44J2
Base reactance for line = 100 = 147.47 ohms
100
Reactance of line· = 147.47 = 0.678 p.ll.
(
10 J2 (90J
Reactance of motor M) = lOx 10.62 25 = 31.92%
= 0.3192 p.ll.
(
10 J2 (90J
Reactance of motor M2 = 10 x 10.62 50 = 15.96%
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.2.
Fig. E.S.2
Short Circuit Analysis 191
E.6.3 Obtain the per unit representation for the three-phase power system shown in
Fig. E.6.3.
Generator 1 : 50 MVA,
Generator 2 : 25 MVA,
Generator 3 : 35 MVA.,
Transformer T 1 : 30 MV A,
Transformer T2 : 25 MVA,
Fig. E.6.3
10.5 KV; X = 1.8 ohm
6.6 KV; X = 1.2 ohm
6.6 KV; X = 0.6 ohm
11/66 KV, X = 15 ohm/phase
66/6.2 KV, as h.v. side X = 12 ohms
Transmission line : XL = 20 ohm/phase
Solution:
Let base MVA = 50
base KV = 66 (L- L)
Base voltage on transmission as line 1 p.u. (66 KV)
Base voltage for generator I : 11 KV
Base voltage for generators 2 and 3 : 6.1 KV
20x50
p.u. reactance of transmission line = 66
2
= 0.229 p.u.
'1'5 x50
p.ll. reactance of transformer T] = ~ = 0.172 p.u.
12x 50
p.ll. reactance of transformer T2 = 6T = 0.1377 p.u.
l.&x 50
p.u. reactance of generator 1 = (11)2 = 0.7438 p.u.
1.2 x 50
p.u. reactance of generator 2 = (6.2)2 = 1.56 p.u.
0.6x50
p.u. reactance of generator 3 = (6.2)2 = 0.78 p.u.
192 Power System Analysis
E 6.4 A single phase two winding transformer is rated 20 KVA, 480/120 V at 50 HZ. The
equivalent leakage impedance of the transformer referred to I.v. side is 0.0525
78.13° ohm using transformer ratings as base values, determine the per unit
leakage impedance referred to the h.v. side and t.v. side.
Solution
Let base KVA = 20
Base voltage on h.v. side = 480 V
Base voltage on l.v. side = 120 V
The leakage impedance on the l.v. s i d ~ of the transformer
= Z = V
base
2
12 VA base
(120)2
20,000 = 0.72 ohm
p.LI. leakage impedance referred to the l.v. of the transformer
0.0525 78.13°
= Zp u 2 = = 0.0729 78.13°
0.72
Equivalent impedance referred to h.v. side is
( ~ ~ ~ r [(0.0525 70.13°] = 0.84 78.13°
( 480)2
The base impedance on the h. v. side of the transformer is 20,000 = 11.52 ohm
p.LI. leakage impedance referred to h.v. side
0.84 78.13° = 0.0729 78.13° p. u.
11.52
E.6.5 A single phase transformer is rated at 110/440 V, 3 KVA. Its leakage reactance
measured on 110 V side is 0.05 ohm. Determine the leakage impedance referred
to 440 V side.
Solution:
(0.11)2 x 1000
Base impedance on 110 V side = 3 = 4.033 ohm
0.05
Per unit reactance on 110 V side = 4.033 = 0.01239 p.u.
(
440)2
Leakage reactance referred to 440 V side = (0.05) 110 = 0.8 ohm
. 0.8
Base impedance referred to 440 V side = 64.53 = 0.01239 p.u.
Short Circuit Analysis 193
E.6.6 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.6.4. Selecting 10,000 KVA and 110 KVas
base values, find the p.u. impedance ofthe 200 ohm load referred to 110 KV side
and 11 KV side.
II KVI 1I0KV IIOKV/55KV
200 ohm
XII =9% X
I2
1
Fig. E.6.4
Solution:
Base voltage at p = 11 KY
110
Base voltage at R = = 55 K Y
Base impedance at R =
55
2
x 1000
10,000
200 ohm
= 302.5 ohm
p.u. impedance at R = 302.5 ohm = 0.661 ohm
Base impedance at =
110
2
x 1000
10,000
= 1210 ohm
Load impedance referred to = 200 x 22 = 800 ohm
800
p.lI. impedance of load referred to = 1210 = 0.661
Similarly base impedance at P =
112 x 1000
10,000
= 121.1 ohm
Impedance of load referred to P = 200 x 22 x 0.12 = 8 ohm
8
p.lI. impedance of load at P = 12.1 = 0.661 ohm
194 Power System Analysis
E.6.7 Three transformers each rated 30 MVA at 38.1/3.81 KV are connected in
star-delta with a balanced load of three 0.5 ohm, star connected resistors. Selecting
a base of 900 MVA 66 KV for the h.v. side of the transformer find the base values
for the I. v. side.
Solution.
Fig. E.G.5
(base KY
L
_ d
2
(3.81)2
Base impedance on I. Y. side = = 0.1613 ohm
Base MYA 90
0.5
p.lI. load resistance on 1.Y. side = 0.1613 = 3.099 p.lI.
Base impedance on h.Y. side = (66)2 = 48.4 ohm
90
(
66 J2
Load resistance referred to h.Y. side = 0.5 x 3.81 = 150 ohm
150
p.lI. load resistance referred to h.Y. side = 48.4 = 3.099 p.lI.
The per unit load resistance remains the same.
E.6.8 Two generators are connected in parallel to the I.v. side of a 3-phase delta-star
transformer as shown in Fig. E.6.6. Generator 1 is rated 60,000 KVA, 11 KV.
Generator 2 is rated 30,000 KVA, 11 KV. Each generator has a subtransient
reactance of xd = 25%. The transformer is rated 90,000 KVA at 11 KV f.. / 66 KV
Y with a reactance of 10%. Before a fault occurred the voltage on the h.t. side of
the transformer is 63 KY. The transformer in unloaded and there is no circulating
current between the generators. Find the subtransient current in each generator
when a 3-phase short circuit occurrs on the h.t. side of the transformer.
Short Circuit Analysis
60,000 KVA
11 KV
"'-'1-----,
11 KV /66 KV
~ ~
Solution:
"'-' r----'
30,OOOKVA
11 KV
Fig. E.S.S
l1,/Y
Let the line voltage on the h.v. side be the base KV = 66 KV.
Let the base KVA = 90,000 KVA
tr 90,000
Generator 1 : xd = 0.25 x 60,000 = 0.375 p.u.
90,000
For generator 2 : xd = 30,000 = 0.75 p.u.
The internal voltage for generator I
0.63
Eg1 = 0.66 = 0.955 p.u.
The internal voltage for generator 2
0.63
Eg2 = 0.66 = 0.955 p.u.
195
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.7 when switch S is closed, the fault condition
is simulated. As there is no circulating current between the generators, the equivalent reactance
0.375 x 0.75
of the parallel circuit is 0.375 + 0.75 = 0.25 p.u.
j 0.10
s
Fig. E.S.7
196 Power System Analysis
Th b
· ,,0.955. 27285
e Sll traQslent current I = = J. p.lI.
(j0.25 + jO.1 0)
The voltage as the delta side of the transformer is (-j 2.7285) G 0.10) = 0.27205 p.u.
I;' = the subtransient current flowing into fault from generator
0.955 - 0.2785
I;' =
j 0.375
1.819 p.u.
0.955 - 0.27285
Similarly,
12 =
j 0.75
= -j 1.819 p.u.
The actual fault currents supplied in amperes are
1.819 x 90,000
II' = r;; = 8592.78 A
",3 x II
0.909 x 90,000
I; = J3 x II = 4294.37 A
E.6.9 R station with two generators feeds through transformers a transmission system
operating at 132 KV. The far end of the transmission system consisting of 200 km
long double circuit line is connected to load from bus B. If a 3-phase fault occurs
at bus B, determine the total fault current and fault current supplied by each
generator.
Select 75 MVA and I1 KVon LV side and 132 KVon h.v. side as base values.
111132 KV
75 MVA A
75MVA
B
200Km
10%
25MVA
~ 2 5 ~
0.189 ohm/phaselKm
10% 8%
111132 KV
Fig. E.S.S
Solution:
p. u. x of generator 1 = j 0.15 p. u.
Short Circuit Analysis
75
p.u. x of generator 2 = j = 0.10 25
= j 0.3 p.u.
p.u. x of transformer T, = j 0.1
75
p.u. x of transformer T2 = j 0.08 x 25 = j 0.24
j 0.180x200x75 .
p.u.xofeachline= 132xl32 =JO.1549
The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.9 (a), (b) & (c).
j 0.5 j 0.1
j 0.1549
jO.1549
(a)
j 0.7745
jO.17 + jO.07745 = j 0.2483
(b) (c)
Fig. E.6.9
Fig. E.6.9 (a), (b) & (c) can be reduced further into
Zeq = j 0.17 + j 0.07745 = j 0.248336
I LO
o
.
Total fault current = - J 4.0268 p. u.
j 0.248336
75 x 1000
Base current for 132 KY circuit = J3 x 132 = 328 A
197
198 Power System Analysis
Hence actual fault current = - j 4.0268 x 328 = 1321 A L -90
0
75 x 1000
Base current for 11 KV side of the transformer = {;;3 = 3936.6 A
",",xlI
Actual fault current supplied from 11 KV side = 3936.6 x 4.0248 ;:= 1585 J. 9 A L-90
0
1585139 L - 90° x j 0.54 .
Fault current supplied by generator I = j 0.54 + j 0.25 = -J 10835.476 A
15851.9xj 0.25
Fault current supplied by generator 2 = j 0.79 = 5016.424 A L-90o
E.6.10 A 33 KV line has a resistance of 4 ohm and reactance of 16 ohm respectively.
The line is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 6000 KVA step-
up transformer which has a reactance of 6%. The station has two generators
rated 10,000 KVA with 10% reactance and 5000 KVAwith 5% reactance. Calculate
the fault current antl short circuit KVA when a 3-phase fault occurs at the h.v.
terminals of the transformers and at the load end of the line.
Solution:
10,000 KVA
10%
rv}---..,
rv}-__ --l
5%
5,000 KVA
60,000 KVA
6 ~ ,
FI
Fig. E.S.10 (a)
33 KV
4 + j 16
Let 10,000 KVA be the base KVA
Reactance of generator 1 Xo 1 = 10%
5 x 10,000
Reactance of generator 2 X
02
= 5000 = 10%
6 x 10,000
Reactance of transformer X
T
= 6 000 = 10%
,
The line impedance is converted into percentage impedance
KVA. X 10,000x16
% X = ; % X = = 14.69%
10(KVf Lme IOx(33)2
Short Circuit Analysis
19000x 4
% R
Line
= ---::- = 3.672 %
10(33)2
199
(i) For a 3-phase fault at the h.y. side terminals of the transformer fault impedance
(
IOXI0)
= -- + 10= 15 %
10 + 10
Fig. 6.10 (b)
10,000 x 100
Short circuit KVA fed into the fault = 15 KYA
= 66666.67 KYA
= 66.67 MYA
For a fault at F2 the load end of the line the total reactance to the fault
= 15 + l4.69
= 29.69 %
Total resistance to fault = 3.672 %
Total impedance to fault = ~ 3 . 6 7 2 2 + 29.69
2
= 29.916 %
100
Short circuit KVA into fault = 29.916 x 10,000
= 33433.63 KYA
= 33.433 MYA
E.6.11 Figure E.6.11 (a) shows a power system where load at bus 5 is fed by generators
at bus 1 and bus 4. The generators are rated at 100 MVA; 11 KV with subtransient
reactance of 25%. The transformers are rated each at 100 MVA, 11/112 KVand
have a leakage reactance of 8%. The lines have an inductance of 1 mH 1 phase
1 km. Line L1 is 100 krri long while lines L2 and L
J
are each of 50 km in length.
Find the fault current and MVA for a 3-phase fault at bus S.
200 Power System Analysis
Fig. E.6.11 (a)
Solution:
Let base MVA = 100 MVA
Base voltage for l.v. side = II KVand
Base voltage for h. v. side = 112 KV
Base impedance for h.v. side of transformer
112x112
100 = 125.44 ohm
Base impedance for l.v. side of transformer
II x II
= 100 = l.21 ohm
Reactance of line Ll = 2 x P x 50 x 1 x 10-
3
x 100 = 31.4 ohm
3l.4
Per unit reactance of line Ll = 125.44 = 0.25 p.u.
271: x 50 x 1 x 10-
3
x 50
p.u. impedance of line L? = = 0.125 p.u.
- 125.44
p.u. impedance of line L3 = 0.125 p.u.
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. 6.11 (b).
c
Fig. E.6.11 (b)
Short Circuit Analysis 201
By performing conversion of delta into star at A, Band C, the star impedances are
j 0.25xj 0.125
Z\ = j 0.25+ j 0.125+ j 0.125 = j 0.0625
Z =
2
j 0.25 x j 0.125
j 0.5
= j 0.0625
j 0.125xj 0.125
and Z =
3
j 0.5
= j 0.03125
The following reactance diagram is obtained.
j 0.2 j 0.08 J 0.08
B
j 0.03125
Fig. E.6.11 (c)
This can be further reduced into Fig. E.6.ll (d).
Fig. E.6.11 (d)
i 0.0625
Finally this can be put first into Fig. E.6.11 (e) and later into Fig. E.6.l1 (t).
j 0.345
2
(e)
j O. 03125
Fig. E.6.11
j O. 20375
(f)
202 Power System Analysis
Fault MVA = 0.20375 = 4.90797 p.u.
= 100 MVA x 4.90797 = 490.797 MVA
1
Fault current = j 0.20375 = 4.90797 p.u.
100x 10
6
Base current = - 515 5 Amp
.J3 x I 12 x 10
3
- .
Fault current = 4.90797 x 515.5
= 2530 Amp
E.6.12 Two motors having transient reactances 0.3 p.u. and subtransient reactances
0.2 p. u. based on their own ratings of 6 MVA, 6.8 KV are supplied by a transformer
rated 15 MVA, 112 KY / 6.6 KV and its reactance is 0.18 p.u. A 3-phase short
circuit occurs at the terminals of one of the motors. Calculate (a) the subtransient
fault current (b) subtransient current in circuit breaker A (c) the momentary
circuit rating of the breaker and (d) if the circuit breaker has a breaking time
of 4 cycles calculate the current to be interrupted by the circuit breaker A.
~ 5 M V A
Infinite 112/KV/6.6 KV
bus X = 0.1 p.ll
Solution:
Let base MVA = 15
Base KV for Lv side = 6.6 KV
Base KV for h.v side = 112 KV
15
Fig. E.6.12 (a)
For each motor xd = 0.2 x (; = 0.5 p.u.
15
For each motor xd = 0.3 x (; = 0.75 p.u.
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.12 (b).
Short Circuit Analysis 203
Fig. E.6.12 (b)
Under fault condition the reactance diagram can be further simplified into Fig. E.6.12 (c).
.---_...F
j 0.18 J 0.18
,-----(1 LOIr----i
j 0.5
Fig. E.6.12 (c)
Impedance to fault = -1---1--1-
--+-+-
jO.18 jO.5 jO.S
1 LOo
j 0.5
Subtransient fault current = j 0.1047 = -j 9.55 p.u.
15 x 10
6
Base current = r;; 3 = 1312.19 A
,,3 x 6.6 x 10
Subtransient fault current = 1312.19 x (-j 9.55)
= 12531.99 Amps (lagging)
(b) Total fault current from the infinite bus.
-I LOo
jO.18 = -j 5.55 p.u.
204 Power System Analysis
1 LOo
Fault current from each motor == jO.5 == -j 2p.u.
Fault current into breaken A is sum of the two currents from the in infinite bus
and from motor 1
== -j 5.55 + (-j 2) == -j 7.55 p.u.
Total fault current into breaken == -j 7.55 x 1312.19
== 9907 Amps
(c) Manentary fault current taking into the d.c.
off-set component is approximately
1.6 x 9907 == 15851.25 A
(d) For the transient condition, that is, after 4 cycles the motor reactance changes to
0.3 p.u.
The reactance diagram for the transient state is shown in Fig. E.6.12 (d).
j 0.18
,..-----11 LOI------i
j 0.6
Fig. E.6.12 (d)
The fault impedance is -1---1---1- == j 0.1125 p.u.
--+-+-
jO.15 jO.6 jO.6
1 LOo
The fault current == jO.1125 = j 8.89 p.u.
Transient fault current = -j 8.89 x 1312.19
== 11665.37 A
If the d.c. offset current is to be considered it may be increased by a factor of
say 1.1.
So that the transient fault current == 11665.3 7 x 1.1
= 12831.9 Amp.
Short Circuit Analysis
E.6.13 Consider the power system shown in Fig. E.6.13 (a).
A C D B

II KV 11.0/IIOKV IIOKV/II KV
Delta/star Star/delta
Fig. E.6.13 (a)
100MVA
110 KVIlI KV
XlI =0.2
205
The synchronous generator is operating at its rated MVA at 0.95 lagging power factor
and at rated voltage. A 3-phase short circuit occurs at bus A calculate the per unit value of (i)
subtransient fault current (ii) subtransient generator and motor currents. Neglect prefault current.
Also compute (iii) the subtransient generator and motor currents including the effect of pre fault
currents.
(110)2
Base line impedance = -- = 121 ohm
100
20
Line reactance in per unit = ill = 0.1652 p.u.
The reactance diagram including the effect of the fault by switch S is shown in
Fig. E.6.13 (b).
j 0.2 j 0.2 j 0.08
j 0.1 j 0.1652 j 0.1
Fig. E.6.13 (b)
Looking into the network from the fault using Thevenin's theorem Zth = j X
th
=
(
0.15 x 0.565 )
j 0.15 + 0.565 = j 0.1185
206 Power System Analysis
(i) The subtransient fault current
1" _ 0.565 I" _ 0.565 x j8.4388 _.
lm - 0.565 + 0.15 f - 0.7125 - J 6.668
(ii) The motor subtransient current
I" - 0.15 I" _ 0.15 _.
m - 0.715 f - 0.715 x 8.4388 - J 1.770 p.u.
100MVA
(iii) Generator base current = .fj x l1KV = 5.248 KA
, 100
Generator prefault current = .fj x II [COS-I 0.95]
= 5.248 L-18°.19 KA
5.248 L - 18° .19 = 1 L -18°.19
Iload = 5.248
= (0.95 - j 0.311) p.u.
The subtransient generator and motor currents including the prefault currents are
I; = j 6.668 + 0.95 -j 0.311 = -j 6.981 + 0.95
= (0.95 -j 6.981) p.u. = 7.045 -82.250 p.u.
I ~ = ---:i 1.77 - 0.95 + jO.3ll = -0.95 -j 1.459
= 1.74 L-56.93°
E.6.14 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.6.14 (a). The percentage reactance of each
alternator is expressed on its own capacity determine the short circuit current
that will flow into a dead three phase short circuit at F.
10,000 KVA
40%
G
1
"-.J
15,000 KVA
60%
G
2
"-.J
11,000 V
- - - - ~ ~ - - - r - - - - ~ - - - - B V S
Bars
F
Fig. E.6.14 (a)
Short Circuit Analysis
Solution:
Let base KVA = 25,000 and base KV = 11
25,000
% X of generator 1 = x 40 = 100%
10,000
25,000
% X of generator 2 = 15,000 x 60 = 100%
, 25,000 10
3
Line current at 25,000 KVA and 11 KV = ~ x -3 = 1312.19 Amperes.
v3xll1O .
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.14 (b).
F
Fig. E.6.14 (b)
100x 100
The net percentage reactance upto the fault = 100 + 100 = 50%
IxlOO
Short circuit current = %X =
13 12. 1 9 x 100
50
= 2624.30 A
207
E.6.15 A-3-phase, 25 MVA, 11 KV alternator has internal reactance of 6%. Find the
external reactance per phase to be connected in series with the alternator so
that steady state short circuit current does not exceed six times the full load
current.
Solution:
25 x 10
6
Full load current = ~ 3 = 1312.9 A
v3xllx1O
11 x 10
3
Vphase = Jj
= 6351.039 volts.
Full-load current 1
Total % X = .. x 100 = - x 100
Short CIrCUIt current 6
= 16.67 %
208 Power System Analysis
External reactance needed = 16.67 - 6 = 10.67 %
Let X be the per phase e'xternal reactance required in ohms.
IX
% X = - x 100
Y
1312.19X.100
10.67 = -6-3-51-.0-3-9-3-
6351.0393 x 10.67
1312.19 x 100
X= = 0.516428 ohm
E.6.16 A 3-phase line operating at 11 KV and having a resistance of 1.5 ohm and
reactance of 6 ohm is connected to a generating station bus bars through a
5 MVA step-up transformer having reactance of 5%. The bus bars are supplied
by a 12 MVA generator having 25% reactance. Calculate the short circuit KVA
fed into a symmetric fault (i) at the load end of the transformer and (ii) at the
h. v. terminals of the transformer.
Solution:
A B

&-r.-l _II KV_+---lt
(1.5 + j 6) v.J,
12 MVA 5 MVA
25% 5%
Fig. E.6.15
Let the base KYA = KYA
%X of alternator as base KYA = 25%
12,000
%X of transformer as 12,000 KYA base = 5000 x 5 = 12%
,
12,000
%X of line = x 6 = 59.5%
10(11)2
12,000
%R of line = x 1.5 = 14.876 %
10(11)2
(i) %XTotal = 25 + 12 + 59.5 = 96.5%
%RTotal = 14.876%
%ZTotal = + {14.876)2 = 97.6398%
Short Circuit Analysis
12,000x 100
Short circuit KVA at the far end or load end F2 = 97.6398 = 12290
If the fault occurs on the h. v. side of the transformer at F 1
0/0 X upto fault F1 = % XG + % X
T
= 25 + 12
= 37 %
Short circuit KVA fed into the fault
12,000x 100
37
= 32432.43
209
E.6.17 A 3-phase generating station has two 15,000 KVA generators connected in parallel
each with 15% reactance and a third generator of 10,000 KVA with 20% reactance
is also added later in parallel with them. Load is taken as shown from the station
bus-bars through 6000 KVA, 6% reactance transformers. Determine the
maximum fault MVA which the circuit breakers have to interrupt on (i) t.v. side
and (ii) as h.v. side of the system for a symmetrical fault.
15,000 KYA
Fig. E.6.17 (a)
Solution'
15 x 15,000
% X of generator G 1 = 15,000 '" 15%
% X of generator G
2
= 15%
% X of generator G
3
=
% X of transformer T =
20 x 15000
10,000
6 x 15,000
6000
=30%
= 15%
6000 KYA
~ 6 %
(i) If fault occurs at F l' the reactance is shown in Fig. E.6.17 (b).
2111
15%
Fig. E.6.17 (b/
I
The total % C upto fault ~
J I I
-+-+--
15 15 30
=6%
15,000 x 100
Fault MVA = 6 = 250,000 KVA
= 250 MVA
Power System Analysis
(ij I I f the fault occurs at F 2' the reactance diagram wi II be as in Fig. E.6.17 (c) .

15%
Fig. E.6.17 (c)
The total %X upto fault 6% + 15.6 = 21 %
15,000x 100
Fault MVA = 21 x 100 = 71.43
E.6.18 There are two generators at bus bar A each rated at 12,000 KVA, 12% reactance
or another bus B, two more generators rated at 10,000 KVA with 10% reactance
are connected. The two bus bars are connected through a reactor rated at
5000 KVA with 10% reactance. If a dead short circuit occurs between all the
phases on bus bar B, what is the short circuit MVA fed into the fault?
Short Circuit Analysis
12,000 KVA 12.000 KVA 10,000 KVA 10.000 KVA
12% 'V 12% 'V 10% 'V 10% 'V
A - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~
5000 MVA
10%
Fig. E.S.18 (a)
F
Solution'
12%
Let 12,000 KVA be the base KVA
% X of generator G] = 12 %
% X of generator G
2
= 12 %
lOx 12000
% X of generator G
3
= 10,000 c-c 12%
% X of generator G
4
= 12%
% X of bus bar reactor =
lOx 12000
5,000
= 24%
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.18 (b).
12% 12%
-
F
(b)
Fig. E.S.18
30x6
% X up to fault = 30+6 = 50%
12,000x 100
Fault KVA = 6 = 600,000 KVA
= 600 MVA
30%
6%
(c)
21 1
F
212 Power System Analysis
E.6.19 A power plant has two generating units rated 3500 KVA and 5000 KVA with
percentage reactances 8% and 9% respectively. The circuit breakers have
breaking capacity of 175 MVA. It is planned to extend the system by connecting
it to the grid through a transformer rated at 7500 KVA and 7% reactance.
Calculate the reactance needed for a reactor to be connected in the bus-bar
section to prevent the circuit breaker from being over loaded if a short circuit
occurs on any outgoing feeder connected to it. The bus bar voltage is 3.3 KV.
3500 KVA 5000 KVA
A "'v
8%
9%
Rcactor
CB
Solution .
Let 7,500 KYA be the base KYA
8x 7500
Fig. E.S.19 (a)
O'n X of generator A = --- = 17.1428%
3500
% X of generator B =
9 x 7500
5000
= 13.5%
°:0 X of transformer = 7% (as its own base)
I he reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6. 19 (b).
13.5% 7%
x
F
(b)
Fig. E.S.19
~ 7 %
7.5524%
X+7%
(c)
Short Circuit Analysis
[
Note: ( I I + _1 ) = 7.5524]
17.142813.5
The short circuit KVA should not exceed 175 MVA
Total reactance to fault = ([ + ]
= (X + 7) (7.5524) % = (X + 7) (7.5524) %
X + 7'+ 7.5524 X + 14.5524
. . X(X + 14.5524)
Short CIrCUIt KVA = 7500 x 100 (X + 7)(7.5524)
This should not exceed 175 MVA
Solving
Again
7500x 100(X + 14.5524)
175 x 10
3
= --------
(X + 7)(7.5524)
X = 7.02%
KVA . (X) 7500 x (X)
% X = = __ -C:..---'--
10{KV)2 \0 x {3.3)2
7.02 x \0 x 3.3
2
X = = 0.102 ohm
7500
In each share of the bus bar a reactance of 0.1 02 ohm is required to be inserted.
213
E.6.20 The short circuit MVA at the bus bars for a power plant A is 1200 MVA and for
another plant B is 1000 MVA at 33 KV. If these two are to be interconnected by
a tie-line with reactance 1.2 ohm. Determine the possible short circuit MVA at
both the plants.
Solution:
Let base MVA = 100
base MVA
% X of plant I = short circuit MV A x 100
100
= 1200 x 100 = 8.33%
214 Power System Analysis
100
% X of plan 2 = 1000 x 100 = 10%
% X of interconnecting tie line on base MVA
100x 10
3
= 10x(3.3)2 x 1.2 = 11.019 %
For fault at bus bars for generator A
% X = +
= 5.9657 %
base M V A x 1 00
Short circuit MVA = ------
%X
100 x 100
5.96576 = 1676.23
For a fault at the bus bars for plant B
A-.--------r-- B
8.33%
10%
,------* Fa
11.019%
Fig. E.S.20
% X = = 6.59 %
100 x 100
Short circuit MVA = 6.59 = 1517.45
E.6.21 A power plant has three generating units each rated at 7500 KVA with 15%
reactance. The plant is protected by a tie-bar system. With reactances rated at
7500 MVA and 6%, determine the fault KVA when a short circuit occurs on one
of the sections of bus bars. If the reactors were not present what would be the
fault KVA.
Short Circuit Analysis 215
Solution:
The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.21 (a) which reduces to Fig. (b) & (c).
15%
15%
6%
7500
6%
7500 7500 7500
15%
7500
6%
'15%
~
(a)
7500
6%
F ~ - - - - - - - - - ' - - -
15%
F ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
(b) (c)
18%
15%
F ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - -
(e)
Fig. E.6.21
15%
16.5%
F
(d)
216 Power System Analysis
15x16.5
The total % X up to fault F = IS + 16.5 = 7.857 %
7500 x 100
The short circuit KVA = 7.857 = 95456.28 KVA = 95.46 MVA
Without reactors the reactance diagram will be as shown.
IS x 7.5
The total % X up to fault F = 15+7.5 = 5 %
Short circuit MVA =
7500x 100
5
= 150,000 KVA
= 150 MVA
Problems
P:6.1 There are two generating stations each which an estimated short circuit KVA of
500,000 KVA and 600,000 KVA. Power is generated at 11 KY. If these two stations
are interconnected through a reactor with a reactance of 0.4 ohm, what will be the
short circuit KVA at each station?
P.6.2 Two generators P and Q each of6000 KVA capacity and reactance 8.5% are connected
to a bus bar at A. A third generator R of capacity 12,000 KVA with 11 % reactance is
connected to another bus bar B. A reactor X of capacity 5000 KVA and 5% reactance
is connected between A and B. Calculate the short circuit KVA supplied by each
generator when a fault occurs (a) at A and (b) at B.
P.6.3 The bus bars in a generating station are divided into three section. Each section is
connected to a tie-bar by a similar reactor. Each section is supplied by a 25,000 KVA,
II KV. 50 Hz, three phase generator. Each generator has a short circuit reactance of
18%. When a short circuit occurs between the phases of one of the section
bus-bars, the voltage on the remaining section falls to 65% of the normal value.
Determine the reactance of each reactor in ohms.
Questions
6.1 Explain thr importance of per-unit system.
6.2 What do you understand by short-circuit KVA ? Explain.
6.3 Explain the construction and operation of protective reactors.
6.4 How are reactors classified? Explain t h ~ merits and demerits of different types of
system protection u s i n ~ reactors.
7 UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS
Three phase systems are accepted as the standard system for generation, transmission and
utilization of the bulk of electric power generated world over. The above holds good even
when some of the transmission lines are replaced by d-c links. When the three phase system
becomes unbalanced while in operation, analysis becomes difficult. Dr. c.L. Fortesque proposed
in 1918 at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers through a paper titled
"Method of Symmetrical Coordinates applied to the solution of polyphase Networks", a very
useful method for analyzing unbalanced 3-phase networks.
Faults of various types such as line-to-ground, line-to-line, three-phase short
circuits with different fault impedances etc create unbalances. Breaking down of line conductors
is also another source for unbalances in Power Systems Operation. The symmetrical
Coordinates proposed by Fortesque are known more commonly as symmetrical components
or sequence components.
An unbalanced system ofn phasors can be resolved into n systems of balanced phasors.
These subsystems of balanced phasors are called symmetrical components. With reference to
3-phase systems the following balanced set of three components are identified and defined.
(a) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120
0
in phase
and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors constitute positive
sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix I.
218 Power System Analysis
(b) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120
0
in phase,
and having a phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors constitute the
negative sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix 2.
(c) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude and alI in phase (with no mutual phase
displacement) constitute zero sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix
o. Denoting the phases as R, Y and B V R' V Y and VB are the unbalanced phase
voltages. These voltages are expressed in terms of the sequence V Ri'
V yl' VBI' V R2' V Y2' V B2 and V RO' V YO' V BO as folIows :-
VR=VRI+VR2+VRO ..... (7.1)
V
Y1
Vy=VYI + V
y2
+V;O
VB = V B I + V B2 + V 80
Positive Sequence Components
..... (7.2)
..... (7.3)
Negative Sequence Components
Zero Sequence Components
Fig. 7.1
7.1 The Operator "a"
In view of the phase displacement of 120°, an operator "a" is used to indicate the phase
displacement, just as j operator is used to denote 90
0
phase displacement.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
a = I.L120o = -0.5 + jO.866
a 2 = IL240 0 = -0.5 - jO.866
a
3
=IL360
o
=l+jO
so that I + a + a
2
= 0 + jO
The operator is represented graphically as follows:
a
-I, -a' ..... --------::-*--;:--------..... 1. a
3
Note that
Fig. 7.2
2"
J-
a = lL120
0
= I.e 3
4"
J-
a 2 = lL240 ° = I.e 3
6"
1-
a
3
= lL360
0
= I.e 3 = l.e.l
21t
-a
7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases
219
With the introduction of the operator "a" it is possible to redefine the relationship between
unbalanced phasors of voltages and currents in terms of the symmetrical components or
sequence components as they are known otherwise. We can write the sequence phasors with
the operator as foilows.
V
R1
= V
R1
V
R2
= V
R2
V
Ro
= V
Ro
2
V
Y1
= a V
R1
V
Y2
= aV
R2
V
yo
= V
RO
..... (7.4)
220 Power System Analysis
The voltage and current phasors for a 3-phase unbalanced system are then
represented by
Y
R
= Y
R1
+ Y
R2
+ Y
RO
}
Yy =a
2
Y
R1
+aY
R2
+ Y
RO
Y
B
= aY
R1
+ a
2
YR2 + Y
RO
..... (7.5)
IR = IRI +IR2 +IRO }
Iy = a 2IRI + aIR2 + I
RO
IB = aIRl + a 2IR2 + I
RO
..... (7.6)
The above equations can be put in matrix form considering zero sequence relation as the
first for convenience.
[V' [1
I HV" 1
Yy = 1 a
2
a Y
R1
Y
B
I a a
2
Y
R2
..... (7.7)
[lJ[:
IE"]
and
a
2
a IRI
a a 2 IR2
..... (7.8)
Eqs. (7.7) and (7.8) relate the sequence components to the phase components through
the transformation matrix.
. .... (7.9)
consider the inverse of the transformation matrix C
..... (7.10)
Then the sequence components can be obtained from the phase values as
..... (7.11 )
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 221
and ..... (7.12)
7.3 Power in Sequence Components
The total complex power flowing into a three - phase circuit through the lines R, Y, B is
s = P + jQ = VI •
= VRIR'+VyIy'+VzI/
Written in matrix notation
Also
From equation (7.14)
..... (7.13)
..... (7.14)
..... (7.15)
..... (7.16)
..... (7.17)
..... (7.18)
I]ll l]lIRO]'
a
2
I a a
2
IR1 ..... (7.19)
a I a 2 a 'R2
222 Power System Analysis
Note that C
t
C· = 3 U
..... (7.20)
Power in phase components is three times the power in sequence components.
The disadvantage with symmetrical components is that the transformation matrix
C is not power invariant or is not orthogonal or unitary.
7.4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance
It is more convenient to define "c" as a unitary matrix so that the transformation becomes
power invariant.
That is power in phase components = Power in sequence components. Defining a
transformation matrix T which is unitary, such that,

)
1
..... (7.21)
a-
a
[:
I HV
RO
j
a
2
a V
R1
..... (7.22)
VB .1 a a
2
V
R2
[:
I ] r
RO
j
and a
2
a IRI
..... (7.23)
a
a
2
IR2
so that
r' = [J3] [:
a

..... (7.24)
a
2
[VRO J [J3H

..... (7.25)
VR1 = 3 1
a
V
R2
1 a
2
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 223
and ..... (7.26)
s = P + jQ = V ,* ..... (7 .27)
= l' r::1' ..... (7.29)

a
1
, ..... (7.32)
VB V
R2
I a a
224 Power System Analysis
..... (7.35)
..... (7.36)
Thus with the unitary transformation matrix
.... (7.37)
we obtain power invariant transformation with sequence components.
7.5 Sequence Impedances
Electrical equipment or components offer impedance to flow of current when potential is
applied. The impedance offered to the flow of positive sequence currents is called "positive
sequence impedance ZI' The impedance offered to the flow of negative sequence currents is
called negative sequence impedance Z2' When zero sequence currents flow through components
of power system the impedance offered is called zero sequence impedance ZOo
7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load
Consider the circuit in the Fig. 7.3.
z r
m ~
~ l ,
Fig. 7.3
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 225
A three phase balanced load with self and mutual impedances Zs and Zm drawn currents
la' Ib and Ie as shown. Zn is the impedance in the neutral circuit which is grounded draws and
current in the circuit is In'
The line-to-ground voltages are given by
Va = Zs Ia + Zm Ib +- Zm 'e + Zn 'n }
Vb = Zm Ia + Zs Ib + Zm 'e + Zn 'n
Ve = Zm la + Zm Ib + Zs Ie + Zn 'n
Since, Ia + Ib + 'e = 'n
Eliminating 'n from eqn. (7.38)
[
Va] [Zs +Zn
Vb = Zm + Zn
Vc Zm + Zn Zm + Zn
Put in compact matrix notation
[Vabel = [Zabel [Iabe]
V = [A] V 0.1,2
abc a
and I = [A] ,0,1,2
abe a
Premultiplying eqn. (7.40) by [A]-I and using eqns. (7.41) and (7.42)
we obtain,
V
a
O,},2 = [A]-I [Zabel [A] I
a
O,I,2
Defining [Z]o,}) = [A-I] [Zabel [A]
~ 1[:
lr+
Z
,
Zm +Zn
Zm +z"f
a
2
Zm + Zn Zs + Zil Zm +ZIl I
a
a
2
1 Zm + Zn Zm +Zn Zs + Zn I
~ fez, +
3Z
r 2Z
m
)
0
z , ~ z J
Zs -Zm
0
If there is no mutual coupling
rz, + 3Z,
0
~ J
[ZO,},2] = ~ Zs
0
1
a-
a
..... (7.38)
..... (7.39)
..... (7.40)
..... (7.41)
..... (7.42)
..... (7.43)
..... (7.44)
;,]
..... (7.45)
..... (7.46)
From the above, it can be concluded that for a balanced load the three sequences are
indepedent, which means that currents of one sequence flowing will produce voltage drops of
the same phase sequence only.
226 Power System Analysis
7.7 Transmission Lines
Transmission lines are static components in a power system. Phase sequence has thus, no
effect on the impedance. The geometry of the lines is fixed whatever may be the phase sequence.
Hence, for transmission lines
ZI = Z2
we can proceed in the same way as for the balanced 3-phase load for 3-phase transmission
lines also
a
Va
Vb .-- b
Vc
,'" c
Z,
at
Zm(
b
l
zm( I
c
t
V I
Tb
la + Ib + Ie
~
0 0
Fig. 7.4
[Vabel = [V
abe
] - [V
abe
,] = [Zabel [Iabe]
[ZO,I,2] = [A-I] [Zabel [A]
o
Vi
c
Vi
d
..... (7.47)
..... (7.48)
..... (7.49)
..... (7.50)
..... (7.51)
The zero sequence currents are in phase and flow through the line conductors only if a
return conductor is provided. The zero sequence impedance is different from positive and
negative sequence impedances.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 227
7.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer
For analysis, the magnetizing branch is neglected and the transformer is represented by an
equivalent series leakage impedance.
Since, the transformer is a static device, phase sequence has no effect on the winding
reactances.
Hence
where Z, is the leakage impedance
If zero sequence currents flow then
Zo = ZI = Z2 '= Z,
In star-delta or delta-star transformers the positive sequence line voltage on one side
leads the corresponding line voltage on the other side by 30°. It can be proved that the phase
shift for the line voltages to be -30° for negative sequence voltages.
The zero sequence impedance and the equivalent circuit for zero sequence currents
depends upon the neutral point and its ground connection. The circuit connection for some of
the common transformer connection for zero sequence currents are indicated in Fig. 7.5.
a ~ ~ a l
a
roQO'
at
,?(
'n.
.g
a ~ ~ a l
a ~
_al
if
y

g
a ~ ~ a l
a ~
__ al
1
if
[>
g
a ~ ~ a l
a 0---
I l ~ a l
~ ~
Fig. 7.5 Zero sequence equivalent circuits.
228 Power System Analysis
7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine
The positive sequence reactance of a synchronous machine may be Xd or X
d
' or Xd"
depending upon the condition at which the reactance is calculated with positive sequence
voltages applied.
When negative sequence cements are impressed on the stator winding, the net flux
rotates at twice the synchronous speed relative to the rotor. The negative sequence reactance
is approximately given by
X
2
= Xd" ..... (7.52)
The zero sequence currents, when they flow, are identical and the spatial distribution of
the mmfs is sinusoidal. The resultant air gap flux due to zero sequence currents is zero. Thus,
the zero sequence reactance is approximately, the same as the leakage flux
Xo=X, ..... (7.53)
7.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines
Consider an unloaded synchronous generator shown in Fig. 7.6 with a neutral to ground
connection through an impedance Zn' Let a fault occur at its terminals which causes currents'
la' Ib and Ic to flow through its phass a, b, and c respectively. The generated phase voltages are
E
a
, Eb and Ec' Current In flows through the neutral impedance Zn'
~ I a
Fig. 7.6
7.10.1 Positive Sequence Network
Since the generator phase windings are identical by design and oonstruction the generated
voltages are perfectly balanced. They are equal in magnitude with a mutual phase shift of 120°.
Hence, the generated voltages are of positive sequence. Under these conditions a positive
sequence current flows in the generator that can be represented as in Fig. 7.7.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 229
Fig. 7.7
ZI is the positive sequence impedance of the machine and la' is the positive sequence
current in phase a. The positive sequence network can be represented for phase 'a' as shown
in Fig. 7.8.
Ref. bus
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ a
Fig. 7.8
V
a
\ = Ea - Ia\ . Z,
7.10.2 Negative Sequence Network
..... (7.54 )
Synchronous generator does not produce any nagative sequence voltages. If negative sequences
currents flow through the stator windings then the mmf produced will rotate at synchronous
speed but in a direction opposite to the rotation of the machine rotor. This causes the negative
sequence mmf to move past the direct and quadrature axes alternately. Then, the negative
sequence mmf sets up a varying armature reaction effect. Hence, the negative sequence reactance
is taken as the average of direct axis and quadrature axis subtransient reactances.
X
2
= (Xd" + X
q
")/2 ..... (7.55)
The negative sequence current paths and the negative sequene network are shown in
Fig. 7.9.
230 Power System Analysis
Reference bus
Z2
Iv.,
1'1
c
+
~ I a 2
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.9
..... (7.56)
7.10.3 Zero Sequence Network
Zero sequence currents flowing in the stator windings produce mmfs which are in time phase.
Sinusoidal space mmf produced by each of the three stator windings at any instant at a point
on the axis of the stator would be zero, when the rotor is not present. However, in the actual
machine leakage flux will contribute to zero sequence impedance. Consider the circuit in
Fig. 7.10 (a).
Fig. 7.10 (a)
Since laO = lbo = leO
The current flowing through Zn is 3 laO.
The zero sequence voltage drop
VaO = -3 laO Zn - laO ZgO
Zgo = zero sequence impedance per phase of the generator
Hence, Zo
1
= 3Z
n
+ Zgo
so that VaO = -laO Zo
1
..... (7.57)
..... (7.58)
..... (7.59)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 231
The zero sequence network is shown in Fig. 7.10 (b).
Reference bus
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - o a
Fig. 7.10 (b)
rhus, it is possible to represent the sequence networks for a power system differently
as different sequence currents flow as summarized in Fig. 7.11.
Positive
~ I a l
+
+
Sequence
tVal
Network
~ I a 2
Negative +
Sequence
t
Va
2
Network
Zero
~ I a o
+
Sequence
jVao
Network
Fig. 7.11
7.11 Unsymmetrical Faults
The unsymmetrical faults generally considered are
• Line to ground fault
• Line to line fault
• Line to line to ground fault
Single line to ground fault is the most common type of fault that occurs in practice.
Analysis for system voltages and calculation of fault current under the above conditions of
operation is discussded now.
232 Power System Analysis
7.12 Assumptions for System Representation
I. Power system operates under balanced steady state conditions before the fault occurs.
Therefore, the positive, negative and zero seq. networks are uncoupled before the
occurrence of the fault. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs they get interconnected
at the point of fault.
2. Prefault load current at the point of fault is generally neglected. Positive sequence
voltages of all the three phases are equal tothe prefault voltage V F' Prefault bus
voltage in the positive sequence network is V F'
3. Tranformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.
4. Transmission line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.
5. Synchronous machine armature resistance, saliency and saturation are neglected.
6. All non-rotating impedance loads are neglected.
7. Induction motors are either neglected or represented as synchronous machines.
It is conceptually easier to understand faults at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous
genrator and obtain results. The same can be extended to a power system and results obtained
for faults occurring at any point within the system.
7.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator
Single Line to Ground Fault:
Consider Fig. 7.12. Let a line to ground fault occur on phase a.


b

Fig. 7.12
We can write under the fault condition the following relations.
Va =0
Ib = 0
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
and
It is assumed that there is no fault impedance.
IF = la + Ib + Ie = Ia = 31al
I
Now I = - (l + al + an I )
al 3 abe
1
I = - (I + anI + a I )
a2 3 abe
1
lao = "3 (la + Ib + Ie)
Substitute eqn. (7.61) into eqns. (7.60)
Ib = Ie = 0
233
..... (7.61)
..... (7.62)
..... (7.63)
Hence the three sequence networks carry the same current and hence all can be connected
in series as shown in Fig. 7.13 satisfying the relation.
Fig. 7.13
..... (7.63a)
Since Va = 0
234
Hence,
Ea = Ial ZI + Ia2 Z2 + lao Zo + 3I
al
Zn
Ea = Ial [ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z
n
]
. 3.E
a
I = -;-----"------,-
a (ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z
n
)
The line voltages are now calculated.
Va=O
Vb = V + a
2
V + a V
ao al a2
= (-IHn Zo) + a
2
(Ea - Ia ZI) + a (-Ia Z2)
-u 1 2
= a
2
E - I (ZO + a
2
ZI + a Z ~ )
3 al -
Substituting the value of I
al
Since
Ea
V = a
2
E - ----"---
b a (ZI + Z2 + Zo )
V =V +a V +arV
c ao al 32
= (-lao Zo) + a (Ea - Ial ZI) + a
r
(-l
a2
Z2)
I = I = 1
al a2 ao
Power System Analysis
..... (7.64)
..... (7.65)
..... (7.66)
The phasor diagram for single line to ground fault is shown in Fig. 7.14.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 235
LJI.,X,
Li
l
.2
X2
Fig. 7.14
7.14 Line-to-Line Fault
Consider a line to line fault across phases band c as shown in Fig. 7.15.
r---------ova
~ I a
Fig. 7.15
From the Fig. 7.15 it is clear that
and
1==0 }
la ==-1
b c
V ==V
b c
..... (7.67)
236 Power System Analysis
Utilizing these relations
I 1
I = - (I + al + a
2
I ) = - (a
2
- a) I
a1 3 abc 3 b
1 1
I = - (I + a
2
I + a I ) = - (a
2
- a) I
a2 3 abc 3 b
1 1
I = - (I + I + I ) = - (0 + I - I ) = 0
ao 3
a
b c 3 b b
Since
Vb=Vc
a
2
V + a V + V = a V + a
2
V + V
a1 a2 ao a1 a2 ao
(a
2
- a) V = Cal - a) V
81 32
V
a1
=V
a2
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig. 7.16.
Fig. 7.16
From the diagram we obtain
Ea - Ia1 Z1 = - la2 Z2
= 'a Z2
1
Ea = Ia (Z1 + Z2)
1
E
I = . a
a1 Z1 +Z2
..... (7.68)
..... (7.69)
..... (770)
..... (7.71)
..... (7.72)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Also,
1 1
V = - (V + a V + a
Z
V ) = - [V + (a + a
Z
) V ]
al 3 abc 3 a b
1 1
V = - (V + aZV + a V) = - [V + (a
Z
+ a) V ]
az3 abc 3 a b
Since 1 + a + a
Z
= 0; a + a
Z
= -I
I
Hence V =V = - (V + V)
al az 3 a b
Again
Ia = lal + laZ = lal - lal = 0
I = a
Z
I + al = (a
Z
- a) I
b al az al
(a
z
- a)Ea
ZI +Z2
EaZ2 (a + a
2
) Ea (-Z2)
Zl +Z2 Zl + Z2
237
..... (7.73)
..... (7.74)
..... (7.75)
..... (7.76)
..... (7.77)
..... (7.78)
..... (7.79)
238 Power System Analysis
The phasor diagram for a double line fault is shown in Fig. 7.17.
Ea
Fig. 7.17
7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault
Consider line to line fault on phases band c also grounded as shown in Fig. 7.18.
1
=-v
3 a
a
0---------0 va
~ I a
b
Fig. 7.18
..... (7.80)
..... (7.81)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Further
Hence
But
and
1
V = - (V + a
2
V + a V )
a2 3 abc
1
=-V
3 a
In may be noted that
IF = Ib + I = a
2
I + a I + I + a I + a
2
I + a I
c al a2 ao al a2 ao
= (a + a
2
) I (a + a
2
) I + 2 I
aJ a2 ao
= - 1 - I + 21 = - I - 1 - 1 + 31
al a2 an al a2 ao ao
= - (I + 1 + 1 ) + 3 I = 0 + 3 1 = 31
al a2 an ao ao ao
The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. 7.19.
Fig. 7.19
239
..... (7.82)
..... (7.83)
..... (7.84 )
..... (7.85)
..... (7.86)
Power System Analysis
Similarly - lao Z ~ = - la2 Z2
If
Z2 -Ea
Z
2
1 =-1 --
an a2 Z ~ Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ]
V =V +V +V
a a] a2. aO
= Ea - la] £] - la2 Z2 - lao (ZO + 3Z
n
)
= E _ Ea (Z2 +Zo) Z + Ea
Z
O
Z
2 + Ea·
Z
2 (Zo +3Zn )
a ~ Z]Z2 ] ~ Z]Z2 ~ Z]Z2
E. [Z2Z0 + 3Z
2
Z
n
] + alE. [Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] - Z2Z] - ZoZ]]
~ Z ] Z 2 + aEaZOZ2
Ea [ ZOZ2 + a
2
Z
O
Z
2
+ aZ
O
z
2
+ 3Z
2
Z
n
]
V = --=----------------------=
b ~ Z ] Z 2
Ea [ ZOZ2 (I + a + a
2
) + 3Z
2
Z
n
] 3.E
a
.Z2Zn
Z]Z2 + Z2
Z
0 + ZOZ4 Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ]
Zn = 0; Vb = 0
..... (7.87)
..... (7.88)
..... (7.89)
..... (7.90)
..... (7.91 )
Unblllllnced Fllult Anlllysis 241
The phasor diagram for this fault is shown in Fig. 7.20.
Ea
Fig. 7.20
7.16 Single-Line to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance
If in (7.13) the fault is not a dead short circuit but has an impedance ZF then the fault in
represented in Fig. 7.21. Egn. (7.63a) willbe modified into


------ob

Fig. 7.21
..... (7.92)
242 . Power System Analysis
Substituting Y
a
= 0 and solving for la
3E
a
1 = ---------''---:----
a Z, + Z2 + Zo + 3 (Zn + Zd
..... (7.93)
7.17 Line-to-Line Fault with Fault Impedence
Consider the circuit in Fig. (7.22) when the fault across the phases band c has an impedence
ZF'
~ I a
Fig. 7.22
'a = 0
..... (7.94 )
and 'b = - 'e
Y
b
- Y
e
= ZF 'b
..... (7.95)
(Yo +aTY, +aY
2
)-(Y
O
+aY, +a
2
y
2
)
= ZF (10 + aTJI, + aJ
2
) ..... (7.96)
Substituting eqn. (7.95) and (7.96) in eqn.
(a
2
- a) Y I - (a
2
- a) Y 2 = ZF (a
2
- a) I I
i.e., ..... (7.97)
The sequence nehosh connection in this case will be as shown in Fig. (7.23).
,ZF
Fig. 7.23
Unbalanced Fllult Analysis
7.18 Double Line-to-Ground Fault with Fault Impedence
This can is Illustrated in Fig. 7.24.
Fig. 7.24
The representative equations are
la = 0
But,
and also,
So that
or
Vb = Ve
Vb = (Ib + Ie) (ZF + Zn)
10 + [I + [2 = 0
V 0 + a V I + a
2
V 2 = Va + a ~ V I + a V 1
(a
2
- a)V
I
= ( a ~ - a) V ~
VI = V
2
243
..... (7.98)
..... (7.99)
Further,
Since
(V 0 + a" V I + a V ~ ) = (10 + a
2
I I + a l ~ + 10 + aJ I + a
2
1
2
) ZF + Zn)
a
2
,1- a =-[
(V?- VI) = (Zn + ZF) [210 - II - [2)\
But since [0 = - II - [2
Vo - VI = (Zn + ZF) (
21
0 + 1
0
) = 3(ZF + Zn)'[O
..... (7.100)
Hence, the fault conditioris are given by
10 + II + 12 = 0
VI =V
2
and
Vo - VI = 3(ZF + Zn)' [0
Ea
-----=--- and so on as in case (7.15)
Z6 Z,
Z, + -1--- =-
Zo + Z2
..... (7.101 )
244 Power System Analysis
where
The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. 7.25.
V
2
10
Fig. 7.25
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 245
Worked Examples
E.7.1 Calculate the sequence components of the followinmg balanced line-to-network
voltages.
r
Van] [220 ~ j
V = Vbn = 220 /-120
0
KV
Ven 220 /+ 120
0
Solution:
I
= "3 [ 2 0 0 ~ + 200/-120
0
+ 220 /+ 120
0
]
=0
1
VI ="3 [Van+aVbn+a2Ven]
1
= "3 [220 &:. + 220 1-1200 + 120
0
) + 120 /(120
0
+ 240
0
)]
= 220lsEKV
1 ~ 2
V = - [V + a-V + a V ]
2 3 an bn en
I
= "3 [220 ~ + 220/-120
0
+ 240
0
+ 220 /120
0
+ 120
0
I
= "3 [220 + 220 120
0
+ 220 240
0
]
=0
Note: Balanced three phase voltages do not contain negative sequence components.
E.7.2 Prone that neutral current can flow only if zero-sequence currents are
present
Solution:
la = lal + la2 + laO
Ib = a21al + ala2 + lao
Ie = alai + a21a2 + laO
If zero-sequence currents are not present
then laO = 0
246 Power System Analysis
In that case
I + Ib + I = I + I + a
2
1 + aI + al I + a
2
1
a c al a2 al a2 a a2
= (I + al + a
2
1 ) + (J + a
2
1 + al )
a I a I a I a2 a2 a2
=0+0=0
The neutral cement In = IR = Iy + Is = O. Hence, neutral cements will flow only in case
of zero sequence components of currents exist in the network.
E.7.3 Given the negative sequence cements
1= [::1 = !iir l
Ie l100 /-120
0
J
Obtain their sequence components
Solution'
I
= '3 [100 lJE + 100/120
0
+ 100 /-120
0
= 0 A
1
I = - [I + aI + arl ]
I 3 abc
I
= '3 + 100/120
0
+ 120
0
+ 100 /-120
0
+ 240
0
]
-I
= - + 100/240
0
+ 100/120
0
]
3 >
=0 A
1 ,
1=- [I +a-I +aI]
2 3 abc
1
= '3 [100 + 100/120
0
+ 240
0
+ 100/-120
0
+ 240
0
]
I
= '3 [IOO&:,. + + 100/.Q:J
= 100A
Note: Balanced currents of any sequence, positive or negative do not contain currents
of the other sequences.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
E.7.4 Find the symmetrical components for the given three phase currents.
la= 1 0 ~
Solution
Ib = 101- 90°
Ie = 15/135°
1
1 ][10 l!t.j
a
2
10 /_90°
a 10 /135
0
10="3 [100°+ 10-90°+ 15135°]
I
= "3 [10 (l + jO.O) + 10 (0 - j 1.0) + 15 (- 0.707 + j 0.707)
1
= "3 [10 - jlO - 10.605 + j 10.605]
I I
= "3 [- 0.605 + j 0.605] = "3 [0.8555]/135
0
= 0.285/135
0
A
1
'I ="3 [ I O ~ + 10-/90
0
+ 120°+ 15/135
0
+240
0
]
1
= "3 [10 (I + jO.O) + 10130
0
+ 15/15
0
1
= 3 [10 + 10 (0.866 + j 0.5) + 15 (0.9659 + jO.2588]
1 I
== 3[33.1485 + j 8.849] == 3 [34.309298]/15
0
= 11.436/15
0
A
I
1
2
= 3 [ I ~ + 10/240°-90
0
+ 15/135
0
+ 120°]
1
= 3 [10 (l + jO) + 10 (-0.866 + jO.5) + 15 (- 0.2588 - j 0.9659)
1
= 3 [-2.542 - j 9.4808]
= 3.2744/105
0
A
247
248 Power System Analysis
E.7.S In a fault study problem the following currents are measured
IR = 0
Iy = 10 A
IB = - 10 A
Find the symmetrical components
Solution
1
IR = - [1 + a I + a
2
I ]
I 3 R y B
I 10
="3 [0-a(l0)+a
2
(-10)]= Jj A
1
IR2 = "3 [IR + a
2
Zy + a J
B
]
1 10
= "3 (a
2
.10 + a (-10) = - Jj
1
IRo = "3 (lR + ~ + I
B
)
1
= - (10-10)=0
3
E.7.6 Draw the zero sequence network for the system shown in Fig. (E.7.6).
Solution
~ h e zero sequence 'network is shown Fig. (E.7.6)
Zero sequence network for the given system
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 249
E.7.7 Draw the sequence networks for the system shown in Fig. (E. 7.7).
T . ~
LI
L2H-fHM
if
XLI
X
T1
X
L2
X X M
Y
T2
L / ~
if/L
Fig. E. 7.7
XLI
Refcrcncc
Positive sequence network
Negative sequence network
X
Mo
Zero sequence network
250 Power System Analysis
E.7.8 Consider the system shown in Fig. E. 7.8. Phjlse b is open due to conductor
break. Calculate the sequence currents and the neutral current.
Ia = 100i1EA
Ib = 100/120
0
A
IOOIit
----<0
Solution
I = [;: 1 = [1 lJr..1 A
Ie 100 [120°
J
'0 = "3 [JOOLQ:+ 0 + 100/120°]
1
= "3 [100 (l + jO) + 0 + 100 (- 0 . .5 + j 0.866)
100
= -3- [0.5 + j 0.866] - 33.31§Q° A
1
'1 = "3 + 0 + 100/1200 + 240
0
]
1 200
= "3 = -3- = 66.66 A
1
12 = "3 + 0 + 100/120
0
+ 120
0
]
I
="3 [100 [I + jO - 0.5 - j 0.866]
100
= 3 [- 0.5 - j 0.866] =
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Nuetral current In = 10 + II + 12
= 100&: + 0 +100/120
0
= 100 [I + jO - 0.5 + jO.866]
= 1001Q.Q° A
Also, In = 3 10 = 3 (33.33 (60
0
) = IOOIQ.Q° A
251
E.7.9 Calculate the subtransient fault current in each phase for a dead short circuit
on one phase to ground at bus 'q' for the system shown in Fig. E.7.9.
E=I!Jf --+-1 ..... Q
@> xl=xc=jO.ll cg

X2 = JO.17
Xo = jO.06
Xo = jO.33
p/6
XI =x2 = jO.IO xI =x2 =xo =10.10
All the reactances are given in p.u on the generator base.
Solution:
(a) Positive sequence network.
= jO.2
X2 = )0.22
Xo = )0.15
Yl
J 0.17
j 0.22
(b) Negative sequence network.
p q
J 0.1
j 0.33 j 0.1
j 0.06
j 0.15
(c) zero sequence network.
252 Power System Analysis
The three sequence networks are shown in Fig. (a,b and c). For a line-to-ground fault
an phase a, the sequence networks are connected as in Fig. E. 7.9 (d) at bus 'q'.
j 0.14029
lilt
Negative sequence
E.7.9 (d)
The equivalent positive sequence network reactance Xp is given form Fig. (a)
1 1 1
-=--+-
Xp 0.47 0.2
Xp = 0.14029
The equivalent negative sequence reactance Xn is given from Fig. (b)
1 1 1
x::- = 0.48 + 0.22 or Xn = 0.01508
The zero-sequence network impedence is j 0.15 the connection of the three sequence
networks is shown in Fig. E. 7.9(d).
10 = II = 12 = jO.14029+ jO.150857 + jO.15
JlsL .
j0.44147 = - J2.2668 p. u
E.7.10 In the system given in example (E.7.9) if a line to line fault occurs calculate the
sequence components of the fault current.
Solution:
The sequence network connection for a line-to-Iine fault is shown in Fig. (E.7.1O).
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 253
j 0.14029
1/sL
j 0.150857
From the figure
II!L:. ~
I = I = + --===---
J 2 jO.1409+ jO.150857 jO.291147
= - j 3.43469 p.u
E.7.11 If the line-to-line fault in example E.7.9 takes place involving ground with no
fault impedance determine the sequence componenets of the fault current and
the neutral fault current.
Solution
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig.
jO.14029
jO.15085
1 ~
I J = -jO-.1-4-02-9-+-=H=o:.1:50=8=57:):(j=0.=15:)
jO.150857 + jO.15
112: 1 ~
j 0.15
jO.14029+ jO.0752134 jO.2155034
= - j 4.64 p.u
12 = - j(4.64) (. jO.15 ) = - j2.31339 p.u
J0.300857
I = - '(4.64) (jO.150857) = - . 2.326608 .u
o J j 0.300857 J P
The neutral fault current = 3 jo = 3(- j2.326608) = - j6.9798 p.u
254 Power System Analysis
E.7.12 A dead earth fault occurs on one conductor of a 3-phase cable supplied by a
5000 KVA, three-phase generator with earthed neutral. The sequence impedences
of the altemator are given by
Z1 = (0.4 + j4) n; Z2 = (0.3 + jO.6) nand
Zo = (0 + j 0.45) n per phase
The sequence impedance of the line up to the point offault are (0.2 + jO.3) n, (0.2 +
j 0.3)W, (0.2 + j 0.3) nand (3 + j 1) n. Find the fault current and the sequence
components of the fault current. Aslo find the line-to-earth voltages on the infaulted
lines. The generator line voltage is 6.6 KY.
Solution
Total positive sequence impedance is Z1 = (0.4 + j 4) + (0.2 + j 0.3) = (0.6 + j 4.3) n.
Total negative sequence impedence to fault is Zo = (0.3 + j 0.6) + (0.2 + .iO.3)
= (0.5 + jO.9) n
Total zero-sequecne ill'pedence to fault is ZO = (0 + j 0.45) + ( 3 + j 1.0 ) -= (3 t
j 1.45) n Z1 + Z2 + Z3 = (0.6 + j 4.3) + (0.5 + j 0.9) + (3.0 + j 1.45)
= (4.1 + j 6.65) n
6.6x 1000
la1 = laO = Ia2 = .J3
= 487.77 -58°.344 A
= (255.98 - j 415.198) A
Ia = 3 x 487.77 1---580.344
= 1463.31 A [-58°.344
381O.62A
.
(4.1 + j6.65) :Z.8.1233
E.7:13 A 20 MVA, 6.6 KV star connected generator has positive, negative and zero
sequence reactances of 30%, 25% and 7% respectively. A reactor with 5%
reactance based on the rating of the generator is placed in the neutral to groud
connection. A line-to-line fault occurs at the terminals of the generator when it
is operating at rated voltage. Find the initial symmetrical line-to-ground r.m.s
fault current. Find also the line-to-line voltage.
Solution
Z1 = j 0.3; Z2 = j 0.25
Zo = j 0.07 + 3 x j 0.05 = j 0.22
I/sr. 1 .
Ia1 = Ta1 = j(O.3) + j(0.25) = jO.55 = -J1.818 p.u
20x 1000
= - j 1.818 x r;; = - j 3180 Amperes
",3 x 6.6
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
lao = 0 as there is no ground path
Va = Ea - la, Z, -l
a2
Z2
1 = - j 1.818 (j 0.0.3 -jO.25)
= 0.9091 x 3180 = 2890.9 V
Vb = a
2
E - (a
2
la, Z, + ala2 Z2)
= (-0.5 - j 0.866).1 + j,.fj (-j 1.818) G 0.3)
= (- jO.866 - 0.5 + j 0.94463)
== (- 0.5 + j 0.0786328) x 3180
== (- 1590 + j 250) == 1921.63
V c == Vb == 192 I .63 V
255
E.7.14 A balanced three phase load with an impedence of (6-j8) ohm per phase, connected
in star is having in parallel a delta connected capacitor bank with each phase
reactance of27 ohm. The star point is connected to ground through an impedence
of 0 + jS ohm. Calculate the sequence impedence of the load.
Solution
The load is shown in Fig. (E.7.14).
f--------l 1-------\ b
256
Converting the delta connected capacitor tank into star
CA/phase - 27 ohnm
1
Cy/phase = 3" 27 = a ohm
Power System Analysis
The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. E. 7.14(a)
60
+ J80
The negative sequence network is also the same as the positive sequence network
Z
ZI' Z2 = Zstar II 3" delta
(6+j8X-j9) = 72-j54
6+j8-j9 6-jl
= 14.7977 /27
0
.41 ohm
The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.
60
9 0 ~
6.082/9°.46
27
Jxn
T -j,=-j9"
~ J + jS"
0
r
Zo = Zstar + 3 2n = 6 + j8 -I- 3U5)
= (6 + j 23) ohm = 23.77 80°.53
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Problems
P 7.1 Determine the symmetrical components for the three phase currents
IR = 15 LO
o
, Iy = 15/230° and 18 = 15/130
0
A
257
P 7.2 The voltages at the terminals of a balanced load consisting of three 12 ohm
resistors connected in star are
V
RY
= 120 LO
o
V
V
YB
= 96.96 L-121.44° V
V
BR
= 108 L1300 V
Assuming that there is no connection to the neutral of the load determine the
symmetrical components of the line currents and also from them the line currents.
P 7.3 A 50 Hz turbo generator is rated at 500 MVA 25 KV. It is star connected and
solidly grounded. It is operating at rated voltaage and is on no-load. It!; reactances
are xd" = xl = x
2
= 0.17 and X
o
= 0.06 per unit. Find the sub-transient line current
for a single line 'to ground fault when it is disconnected from the system.
P 7.4 Find the subtransient line current for a line-to-line fault on two phases for the
generator in problem (7.3)
P 7.5 A 125 MVA, 22 KV turbo generator having xd" = Xl = x
2
= 22% and X
o
= 6% has
a current limiting reactor of 0.16 ohm in the neutral, while it is operating on no-
load at rated voltage a double line-to ground fault occurs on two phases. Find the
initial symmetrical r.m.s fault current to the ground.
Questions
7.1 What are symmetrical components? Explain.
7.2 What is the utility of symmetrical components.
7.3 Derive an expression for power in a 3-phase circuit in terms of symmetrical
components.
7.4 What are sequence impedances? Obtain expression for sequence impedances in a
balanced static 3-phase circuit.
7.5 What is the influence of transformer connections in single-phase transformers
connected for 3-phase operation.
7.6 Explain the sequence networks for an synchronous generator.
7.7 Derive an expression for the fault current for a single line-to ground fault as an
unloaded generator.
7.8 Derive an expression for the fault current for a double-line fault as an unioaded
generator.
258 Power System Analysis
7.9 Derive an expression for the fault current for a double-line-to ground fault as an
unloaded generator.
7.10 Draw the sequence network connections for single-line-to ground fault, double line
fault and double line to ground fault conditions.
7.11 Draw the phasor diagrams for
(i) Single-line-to ground fault
(ii) Double-line fault and
(iii) Double-line to ground fault
Conditions as on unloaded generator.
7.12 Explain the effect of prefault currents.
7.13 What is the effect of fault impedance? Explain.
8 POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
8.1 Elementary Concepts
Maintaining synchronism between the various elements of a power system has become an
important task in power system operation as systems expanded with increasing inter connection
of generating stations and load centres. The electromechanical dynamic behaviour of the prime
mover-generator-excitation systems, various types of motors and other types of loads with
widely varying dynamic characteristics can be analyzed through some what oversimplified
methods for understanding the processes involved. There are three modes of behaviour generally
identified for the power system under dynamic condition. They are
(a) Steady state stability
(b) Transient stability
(c) Dynamic stability
Stability is the ability of a dynamic system to remain in the same operating state even
after a disturbance that occurs in the system.
Stability when used with reference to a power system is that attribute of the system or
part of the system, which enables it to develop restoring forces between the elements thereof,
equal to or greater than the disturbing force so as to restore a state of equilibrium between the
elements.
260 Power System Analysis
A power system is said to be steady state stable for a specific steady state operating
condition, if it returns to the same state operating condition following a disturbance.
Such disturbances are generally small in nature.
A stability limit is the maximum power flow possible through some particular point in
the system, when the entire system or part of the system to which the stability limit refers is
operating with stability.
Larger disturbances may change the operating state significantly, but still into an acceptable
steady state. Such a state is called a transient state.
The third aspect of stability viz. Dynamic stability is generally associated with excitation
system response and supplementary control signals involving excitation system. This will be
dealt with later.
Instability refers to a conditions involving loss of 'synchronism' which in also the same
as 'falling out o'fthe step' with respect to the rest of the system.
8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept
Consider the synchronous generator-motor system shown in Fig. 8.1. The generator and
motor have reactances Xg and Xm respectively. They connected through a line of reactance
Xe' The various voltages are indicated.
Xe
Fig. 8.1
From the Fig. 8.1
E=E +J·xJ·
g m '
Eg -Em
1= .x where X = X + X + X
J gem
Power del ivered to motor by the generator is
P = Re [E J*]
Power System Stability 261
E 2 Eg Em
= -g- Cos 90° - Cos (90 + 0)
X X
..... (8.1 )
P is a maximum when 0 = 90°
Eg Em
P = --=---
max X
..... (8.2)
The graph of P versus 0 is called power angle curve and is shown in Fig. 8.2. The
system will be stable so long dP is positive. Theoretically, if the load power is increased in
do
very small increments from 0 = 0 to 0 = rr./2, the system will be stable. At 8 = rr./2. The steady
state stability limit will be reached.,p max is dependent on E
g
, Em and X. Thus, we obtain the
following possibilities for increasing the value of Pmax indicated in the next section.
Fig. 8.2
8.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit
1. Use of higher excitation voltages, thereby increasing the value of Eg.
2. Reducing the reactance between the generator and the motor. The reactance X = Xg
+ Xm + Xe is called the transfer reactance between the two machines and this has to
be brought do\\-n to the possible extent.
262 Power System Analysis
8.4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient
Eg Em
P = Sin 0
X
We have
The quantity
is called Synchronizing power coefficient or stiffness.
For stable operation dP, the synchronizing coefficient must be positive.
do
8.5 Transient Stability
..... (8.3)
Steady state stability studies often involve a single machine or the equivalent to a few machines
connected to an infinite bus. Undergoing small disturbances. The study includes the behaviour
of the machine under small incremental changes in operating conditions about an operating
point on small variation in parameters.
When the disturbances are relatively larger or faults occur on the system, the system
enters transient state. Transient stability of the system involves non-linear models. Transient
internal voltage E; and transient reactances X ~ are used in calculations.
The first swing of the machine (or machines) that occur in a shorter time generally does
not include the effect off excitation system and load-frequency control system. The first
swing transient stability is a simple study involving a time space not exceeding one second.
If the machine remains stable in the first second, it is presumed that it is transient stable for
that disturbances. However, where disturbances are larger and require study over a longer
period beyond one second, multiswong studies are performed taking into effect the excitation
and turbine-generator controls. The inclusion of any control system or supplementary control
depends upon the nature of the disturbances and the objective of the study.
8.6 Stability of a Single Machine Connected to Infinite Bus
Consider a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus. Initially the motor is supplying a
mechanical load P rno while operating at a power angle 0
0
, The speed is the synchronous speed
())s' Neglecting losses power in put is equal to the mechanical load supplied. If the load on the
motor is suddenly increased to PmI' this sudden load demand will be met by the motor by
giving up its stored kinetic energy and the motor, therefore, slows down. The torque angle 0
increases from 0
0
to 0
1
when the electrical power supplied equals the mechanical power
demand at b as shown in Fig. 8.3. Since, the motor is decelerating, the speed, however, is
Power System Stability 263
less than Ns at b. Hence, the torque 'angle ()' increases further to ()2 where the electrical power
P
e
is greater than P
ml
, but N = Ns at point c. At this point c further increase of () is arrested as
P e > P ml and N = Ns. The torque angle starts decreasing till °
1
is reached at b but due to the
fact that till point b is reached P
e
is still greater than Pm!' speed is more than N
s
. Hence, ()
decreases further till point a is reacted where N = Ns but P
ml
> P
e
• The cycle of oscillation
continues. But, due to the damping in the system that includes friction and losses, the rotor is
brought to the new operating point b with speed N = N
s
.
In Fig. 8.3 area 'abd' represents deceleration and area bce acceleration. The motor will
reach the stable operating point b only if the accelerating energy AI represented by bce equals
the decelerating energy A2 represented by area abd.
It
Fig. 8.3 Stability of synchronous motor connected to infinite bus.
8.7 The Swing Equation
The interconnection between electrical and mechanical side of the synchronous machine is
provided by the dynamic equation for the acceleration or deceleration ofthe combined-prime
mover (turbine) - synchronous machine roter. This is usually called swing equation.
The net torque acting on the rotor of a synchronous machine
where
WR
2
T=--a.
g
T = algebraic sum of all torques in Kg-m.
a = Mechanical angular acceleration
WR2 = Moment of Inertia in kg-m
2
..... (8.4 )
264 Power System Analysis
Electrical angle ..... (8.5)
Where 11 m is mechanical angle and P is the number of poles
The frequency
PN
f= 120
Where N is the rpm.
60f P
rpm 2
(
60f)
11e = -- 11m
rpm
..... (8.6)
..... (8.7)
The electrical angular position d in radians of the rotor with respect to a synchronously
rotating reference axis is be = 11 e - coot ..... (8.8)
Where Wo = rated synchronous speed in rad./sec
And t = time in seconds (Note: 8 + coat = 11 e)
The angular acceleration taking the second derivative of eqn. (8.8) is given by
From eqn. (8.7) differentiating twice
d 2 11 ( 60 f) d 2 11
_e=l- _m
dt
2
rpm dt 2
From eqn. (8.4)
T = WR 2 r rpm) d 2 11 e = WR 2 (rpm ') d 2 8
g ,60f dt
2
g 60f dt
2
..... (8.9)
Power System Stability
Let the base torque be defined as
torque in per unit
Kinetic energy K.E.
Where
Defining
I WR
2
2
= ---0)0
2 g
') rpm
COo = ... 1(--
60
H
kinetic energy at rated speed
baseKYA
_ ~ WR 2 (,",1( rpm)2 ___ _
-? g v ~ 60 base K Y A
KE atrated speed
265
..... (8.10)
..... (8.11 )
. .... (8.12)
..... (8.13 )
The torque acting on the rotor of a generator includes the mechanical input torque from
the prime mover, torque due to rotational losses [(i.e. friction, windage and core loss)], electrical
output torque and damping torques due to prime mover generator and power system.
The electrical and mechanical torques acting on the rotor of a motor are of opposite sign
and are a result of the electrical input and mechanical load. We may neglect the damping and
rotational losses, so that the accelerating torque.
T =T -T
a In e
Where Te is the air-gap electrical torque and Tin the mechanical shaft torque.
266 Power System Analysis
..... (8.14)
(i.e.,)
d 28 = 7tf (T _ T )
dt2 H In e
..... (8.15)
Torque in per unit is equal to power in per unit if speed deviations are neglected. Then
The eqn. (8.15) and (8.16) are called swing equations.
It may be noted, that, since 8 = S - mot
d8 dS
d"t=d"t-
mo
Since the rated synchronous speed in rad/sec is 27tf
dS d8
---+m
dt - dt ()
we may put the equation in another way.
1
Kinetic Energy = 2" 1m2 joules
..... (8.16)
The moment of inertia I may be expressed in louie - (Sec)2/(rad)2 since m is in rad/sec.
The stored energy of an electrical machine is more usually expressed in mega joules and angles
in degrees. Angular momentum M is thus described by mega joule - sec. per electrical degree
M = l.m
Where m is the synchronous speed of the machine and M is called inertia constant.
In practice m is not synchronous speed while the machine swings and hence M is not strictly
a constant.
The quantity H defined earlier as inertia constant has the units mega Joules.
stored energy in mega joules
H = - - - - - ~ - - - . : " - - - " - - - - -
machine rating in mega voltampers(G)
1 2 1
but stored energy = -1m = - MOl
2 2
..... (8.17)
Power System Stability
In electrical degrees (j) = 360f (= 2nD
1 I
GH = - M(360f) = - M2nf = Mnf
2 2
GH
M = nf mega joule - sec/elec degree
H
In the per unit systems M = nf
So that
d
2
0 = nf(p _P)
dt2 H In e
which may be written also as
This is another form of swing equation.
Further
So that
with usual notation.
EV
S
· s;:
p = - lllu
e X
8.8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation
267
..... (8.18)
..... (8.19)
..... (8.20)
..... (8.21 )
. .... (8.22)
..... (8.23)
Equal area criterion is applicable to single machine connected to infinite bus. It is not directly
applicable to multi machine system. However, the criterion helps in understanding the factors
that influence transient stability.
The swing equation connected to infinite bus is given by
H dro
--- =p -p =p
n f d t
2
mea
..... (8.24)
or ..... (8.25)
268 Power System Analysis
Also ..... (8.26)
Now as t increases to a maximum value 8max where d8 = 0, Multilying eqn (8. I I) on
dt
d8
both sides by 2 dt we obtain
2 d
2
8 db = Pa 2 db
dt
2
dt M dt
Integrating both sides
(
d8)2 = ~ fp d8
dt M a
db = ~ ~ r<' P d8
dt M 1<>0 a
1t
Fig. 8.4 Equal area criterion.
8
0
is the initial rotor angle from where the rotor starts swinging due to the disturbance.
d8
For Stability dt = °
Hence,
Power System Stability 269
i.e.,
The system is stable, if we could locate a point c on the power angle curve such that
areas Al and A2 are equal. Equal area criterion states that whenever, a disturbance occurs, the
acclerating and decelerating energies involved in swinging of the rotor of the synchronous
machine must equal so that a stable operating point (such as b) could be located.
But
i.e.,
But
Hence
A I ~ A2 = 0 means that,
P e = P max sin (5
Pm «51 - (50) + Pmax (cos (51 - cos (50)
I
P max (cos (51 - cos (52) + P ml «52 - (51) = 0
p ml [(52 - (50] = P max [COS (50 - COS (52)
P
ml
COS (50 - COS (52 = -P- [(52 - (50]
max
..... (8.27)
The above is a transcendental equation and hence cannot be solved using nonnal algebraic
methods.
8.9 Transient Stability Limit
Now consider that the change in Pm is larger than the change shown in Fig. 8.5. This is
illustrated in Fig. 8.5.
In the case AI> A
2
. That is, we fail to locate an area A2 that is equal to area AI. Then, as
stated the machine will loose its stability since the speed cannot be restored to N
s
.
Between these two cases of stable and unstable operating cases, there must be a limiting
case where A2 is just equal to AI as shown in Fig. 8.6. Any further increase in P ml will cause
270 Power System Analysis
A2 to be less than AI' P ml - P mO in Fig. 8.6 is the maximum load change that the machine can
sustain synchronism and is thus the transient stability limit.
180
Fig. 8.5 Unstable system (A
1
> A
2
) .
MW
a
pl----f
1t
Fig. 8.6 Transient stability limit.
8.10 Frequency of Oscillations
Consider a small change in the operating angle <>0 due to a transient disturbance by 60.
Corresponding to this we can write
0 = 0° + 60
and
where 6P
e
is the change in power and POe' the initial power at 0°
(P e + 6P e) = P max sin 0° + P max cos 0°) 60
Power System Stability
Also,
Hence,
Pm = P e
O
= P max sin 8°
(P m - Peo + ilP
e
)
= P
max
sin 8° - [P max sin 8° - [P max cos 8°) il8]
= (P max as 8°) il8
P
d is the synchronizing coefficient S.
The swing equation is
2H d
2

___ = P = P _ P 0
00 dt
2
a m e
Again,
Hence,
where So is the synchronizing coefficient at Peo.
Therefore,
271
which is a linear second-order differential equation. The solution depends upon the sign
of 8°. If 8° is positive, the equation represents simple harmonic motion.
The frequency of the undamped oscillation in
00 =)00 8°
m 2 H ..... (8.28)
The frequency f is given by
f = _I)oo8
0
2n 2 H
..... (8.29)
Transient and fault clearance time consider the electrical power system shown is
Fig. 8.7. If a 3-phase fault occurs near the generator bus on the radial line connected to it,
power transmitted over the line to the infinite bus will become zero instantaneously. The
mechanical input power Pm remains constant. Let the fault be cleared at 8 = 0\ . All the
mechanical input energy represented by area abc d = AI' will be utilized in accelerating the
rotor from 8
0
to 8\ . Fault clearance at 8\ angle or point c will shift the operating point from
c to e instantaneously on the P - 8 curve. At point f, an area A2 = d e f g is obtained which is
equal to A\ Fig. 8.8 .. The rotor comes back from f and finally settles down at 'a' where
Pm = P e' 8\ is called the clearing angle and the corresponding time t\ is called the critical
clearing time tc for the fault from the inception of it at 80'
272 Power System Analysis
Line
p
Inf. bus
Radial line
Fig. 8.7
8.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle
If, in the previous case, the clearing time is increased from tl to tc such that °
1
is 0e as shown
in Fig. 8.9, Where AI is just equal to A
2
, Then, any furter increase in the fault cleaing time tl
P
e
- - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ o
0
1
Fig. 8.8
beyond t
e
, would not be able to enclosed an area A2 equal to AI' This is shown in Fig. 8.10.
Beyond 0e' A2 starts decreasing. Fault clearance cannot be delayed beyond te' This limiting
fault clearance angle De is caIled critical clearing angle and the corresponding time to clear the
fault is called critical clearing time te'
P
e
e
~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~ ~ ~ 8
Fig. 8.9
Power System Stability 273
Fig. 8.10
-From Fig. 8.9-
8
max
= 1t - 8
0
Pm = P max sin 00
A
2
= (max(Pmaxsina-P
m
) deS
= P max (cos <\ - cos 0maJ - Pm (Omax - <\)
AI =A
2
gives
Pm
cos 8 = -- [( 1t - ° ) -° ] + cos (1t - 8 )
C P max o· 0 0
..... (8.30)
During the period of fault the swing equation is given by
d
r
8 1t f
- = - (P - P ). But since P = 0
d t
r
H me. e
274
During the fault period
dro 1t f
-=-P
d{ H m
1
dro dt £1tf
Integrating both sides --2- = -H Pm dt
dt
do 1tf
-=- P t
dt H m
and integrating once again
1tf
0=-Pt
2
+K
c 2H m
At t = 0; 0 = 0
0
, Hence K = 0
0
Hence
Hence the critical cleaning time tc =
Power System Analysis
... (8.3l )
sec. ..... (8.32)
8.12 Fault on a Double-Circit Line
Consider a single generator or generating station sup lying power to a load or an infinite ·bus
through a double circuit line as shown in Fig. 8.11.
,
v
Generator
Infinite
bus

Fig.8.11 Double-circuit line and fault.
EV 1 1 1
The eletrical power transmitted is given by P e = --:--, -- sin 0 where - = - + -
12 Xd + X12 X12 Xl X2
and xd is the transient reactance of the generator. Now, if a fault occurs on line 2 for example,
then the two on either side will open and disconnect the line 2. Since, XI > x
I2
(two lines in parallel), the P - 0 curve for one line in operation is given by
EV
Pel = sin 0
Xd + xI
Power System Stability 275
. win be below the P - 8 curve P as shwon in Fig. 8.12. The operating point shifts from a to b
on curve P e and the rotor to poin 0 where 8 = 8
1
, Since the rotor speed is not
synchronous, thk rotor decelerates till point d is reched at 8 = 8
2
so that area AI (= area a b c)
is equal to area A2 (= area c d e). The rotor will finally settle down at point c due to damping.
At point c
P = P
m el
Fig. 8.12
8.13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault
Consider the case where during the fault period some load power is supplied to the load or to
the infinite bus. If the P-8 curve during the fault is represented by curve 3 in Fig. 8. 13.
p
I
I
I outpu
:during fault
ClUVe 3
d
Fig. 8.13
276 Power System Analysis
Upon the occurrence of fault, the operating point moves from a to b on the during the
fault curve 3. When the fault is cleared at 0 = 0l' the operating point moves from b to c along
the curve P
e3
and then shifts to point e. If area d e f g e could equal area abc d (A2= AI) then
the system wUl be stable.
If the fault clearance is delayed till 8
1
= Oc as shown in Fig. 8.14 such that area abc d
(AI) is just equal to and e d f (A
2
) then
r8
C
(P
max
sino-Pm)do= r,max(pm:x sino-Pm) do
ko c
Pel before fault
P.2 after fault
Fig. 8.14 Critical clearing angle-power transmitted during fault.
It is clear from the Fig. 8.14 that 0max = 1t - 0
0
= 1t - sin-
I
~
P
max2
Integrating
(Pm' 0 + Pmax' COS 0) (: + (p
max
2 COSO-Pm·O) ,tu=O
Pm (Oc - oJ + P max 3 (cos 0c - cos 0
0
) + Pm (Omax - 0c)
+ P max2 (cos 0max - cos 0c) = 0
The angles are all in radians.
..... (8.33)
Power System Stability 277
8.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in Double-Circuit System
Consider a double circuit system as in section 8.12. If a fault occurs on one of the lines while
supplying a power of P mo; as in the previous case then an area A2 = AI will. be located and the
operating characteristic changes from pre-fault to during the fault. If the faulted line is removed
then power transfer will be again shifted to post-fault characteristic where line I only is in
operation. Subsequently, if the fault is cleared and line 2 is reclosed, the operation once again
shifts back to pre-fault characteristic and normalcy will be restored. For stable operation area
AI (= area abcd) should be equal to areaA
2
(= area defghk). The maximum angle the rotor
swings is 53' For stability °
2
should be lessthan om' The illustration in Fig. 8.15 assumes fault
clearance and instantaness recJosure.
p
Fig. 8.15 Fault clearance and reclosing.
8.15 Solution to Swing Equation Step-by-Step Method
Solution to swing equation gives the change in 5 with time. Uninhibited increase in the value of
5 will cause instability. Hence, it is desired to solve the swing equation to see that the value of
5 starts decreasing after an initial period of increase, so that at some later point in time, the
machine reaches the stable state. Gnerally 8, 5, 3 or 2 cycles are the times suggested for circuit
breaker interruption after the fault occurs. A variety of numerical step-by-step methods are
available for solution to swing equation. The plot of 5 versus t in seconds is called the swing
curve. The step-by-step method suggested here is suitable for hand calculation for a single
machine connected to system.
278 Power System Analysis
Since 8 is changing continuously, both the assumption are not true. When ~ t is made
very, small, the calculated values become more accurate.
Let the time intervals be ~ t
Consider, (n - 2), (n - I) and nth intervals. The accelerating power Pais computed at the
end of these intervals and plotted at circles in Fig. 8.16 (a).
(a)
Pa(n-2)
P
a
(n-2)
Pa (n)
P
a
n-2 n - l n
Assumed
(b)
Actual
OJ",, - '/,
OJ"n - 312
ffi,
(c)
. -}
• _ _ _ _ t./5n
}
t./5 - 1 • ___ ___ __ 0
n-2 n - l n
Fig. 8.16 Plotting swing curve.
Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz., (n - I), nand (n + I).
Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.
Likewise, w
r
' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at
the value calculated at the mid point. The angular speed therefore is assumed to change between
(n - 3/2) and (n - 1/2) ordinates
dO)
we know that ~ O ) = dt' ~ t
Power System Stability 279
Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz., (n - I), nand (n + I).
Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.
Likewise, w
r
' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at
the value calculated at the mid point. The angular ,speed therefore is assumed to change between
(n - 3/2) and (n - 1/2) ordinates
dro
we know that ilro = dt' ilt
Hence
_ d
2
8 ilt = 180f P ilt
ror(n-l)-ror(n-3/2)- dt 2 ' H a(n-l)'
..... (8.34)
Again change in 8
d8
il8 = dt . ilt
i.e., ..... (8.35)
for (n - I )th inteJl.Yal
and il8
n
= 8
n
- 8
n
_ 1 = ror (n _ 112) • ilt ..... (8.36)
From the two equations (8.16) and (8.15) we obtain
..... (8.37)
Thus, the plot of 8 with time increasing after a transient disturbance has occured or
fault takes place can be plotted as shown in Fig. 8.16 (c).
8.16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability
Transient stability is very much affected by the type of the fault. A three phase dead short
circuit is the most severe fault; the fault severity decreasing with two phase fault and single
line-to ground fault in that order.
If the fault is farther from the generator the severity will be less than in the case of a
fault occurring at the terminals of the generator.
Power transferred during fault also plays a major role. When, part of the power generated
is transferred to the load, the accelerating power is reduced to that extent. This can easily be
understood from the curves of Fig. 8.16.
280 Power System Analysis
Theoretically an increase in the value of inertia constant M reduces the angle through
which the rotor swings farther during a fault. However, this is not a practical proposition
since, increasing M means, increasing the dimensions of the machine, which is uneconomical.
The dimensions of the machine are determined by the output desired from the machine and
stability cannot be the criterion. Also, increasing' M may interfere with speed governing system.
Thus looking at the swing equations
M d 22
0
= P
a
= P _ P = P _ EV Sino
dt m e m X
l2
the possible methods that may improve the transient stability are:
(i) Increase of system voltages, and use of automatic voltage regulators.
(ii) Use of quick response excitation systems
(iii) Compensation for transfer reactance X
I2
so that P
e
increases and Pm - P
e
= PI
reduces.
(iv) Use of high speed circuit breakers which reduce the fault duration time and
hence the acclerating power.
When faults occur, the system voltage drops. Support to the system voltages by automatic
voltage controllers and fast acting excitation systems will improve the power transfer during
the fault and reduce the rotor swing.
Reduction in transfer reactance is possible only when parallel lines are used in place of
single line or by use of bundle conductors. Other theoretical methods such as reducing the
spacing between the conductors-and increasing the size of the conductors dre not practicable
and are uneconomical.
Quick opening of circuit breakers and single pole reclosing is helpful. Since majority of
the faults are faults selective single pole opening and reclosing will ensure transfer
of power during the fault and improve stability.
8.17 Dynamic Stability
Consider a synchronous machine with terminal voltage V
t
• The voltage due to excitation acting
along the quadrature axis is Eq and is the voltage along this axis. The direct axis rotor angle
with respect to a synchronously revolving axis is d. If a load change occurs and the field
current If is not changed then the various quantities mentioned change with the real power
delivered P as shown in Fig. 8.17 (a).
Power System Stability 281
1)
"'I
E'
q
VI
V
t
1)
p
Fig. 8.17 (a)
In case the field current If is changed such that the transient flux linkages along the
q-axis E ~ proportional to the field flux linkages is maintained constant the power transfer
could be increased by 30-60% greater than case (a) and the quantities for this case are plotted
in Fig. 8.17 (b).
Eq
:q I - - - - - - T - - - E ~
VI
1)
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ p
Fig. 8.17 (b)
If the field current If is changed alongwith P simultaneously so that V
t
is maintained
constant, then it is possible to increase power delivery by 50-80% more than case (a). This is
shown in Fig. 8.17 (c).
Eq
Eq 1 I::::::::::=----r-- E ~
EI
q
V
t
1)
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ p
Fig. 8.17 (c)
282 Power System
It can be concluded from the above, that excitation control has a great role to play in
power system stability and the speed with which this control is achieved is very important in
this context.
E.V
Note that Pm ax = X
and increase of E matters in increasing P max'
In Russia and other countries, control signals utilizing the derivatives of output current
and terminal voltage deviation have been used for controlling the voltage in addition to propostional
control signals. Such a situation is termed 'forced excitation' or 'forced field control'. Not only
the first derivatives of L'11 and L'1 Yare used, but also higher derivatives have been used for
voltage control on load changes.
There controller have not much control on the first swing stability, but have effect on
the operation subsequent swings.
This way of system control for satisfactory operation under changing load conditions
using excitation control comes under the purview of dynamci stability.
Power System Stabilizer
An voltage, regulator in the forward path of the exciter-generator system will introduce a
damping torque and under heavy load contions'this damping torque may become ndegative.
This is a situation where dynamic in stability may occur and casue concern. It is also observed
that the several time constants in the forward path of excitation control loop introduce large
phase lag at low frequencies just baoe the natural frequency of the excitation system.
To overcome there effects and toi improve the damping, compensating networks are
introduced to produce torque in phase with the speed.
Such a network is called "Power System Stabilizer" (PSS).
8.18 Node Elimination Methods
In all stability studies, buses which are excited by internal voltages of the machines only are
considered. Hence, load buses are eliminated. As an example consider the system shown in
Fig. 8.18.
&J X/l I C\
Infm;to b",
Fig. 8.18
Power System Stability 283
Fig. 8.18 (a)
The transfer reactance between the two buses (I) and (3) is given by
1 1 1
Where
--=-+-
X
/ll2
XII XIZ
If a fault occurs an all the phases on one of the two parallel lines, say, line 2, then the
reactance diagram will become as shown in Fig. 8.18(b).
Fig. 8.18 (b)
Since, no source is connected to bus (2), it can be eliminated. The three reactances
between buses (1), (2), (3) and (g) become a star network, which can be converted into a
delta network using the standard formulas. The network willbe modified into Fig. 8.18 (c).
<D Q)
Fig. 8.18 (c)
284 Power System Analysis
X:3 is the transfer reactance between buses (I) and (3).
Consider the same example with delta network reproduced as in Fig. 8.18 (d).
Q)
t----'
Fig. 8.18 (d)
For a three bus system, the nodal equations are
Since no source is connected to bus (2), it can be eliminated.
Le., 12 has to be mode equal to zero
y 21 V 1 + Y 22 V 2 + Y 23 V 3 = 0
Hence V
- Y21 V - Y
23
V
2-- Y 1 Y 3
22 22
This value of V 2 can be substituted in the other two equation of ( ) so that V 2 is
eliminated
Power System Stability 185
Worked Examples
E 8. t A 4-pole, 50 Hz, 11 KV turbo generator is rated 75 MW and 0.86 power factor
lagging. The machine rotor has a moment of intertia of 9000 Kg-m2. Find the
inertia constant in MJ / MVA and M constant or momentum in MJs/elec degree
Solution:
co = 211:f = 100 11: rad/sec
. . 1 2 1 2
Kmetlc energy = 2")eo = 2" x 9000 + (10011:)
= 443.682 x 10
6
J
= 443.682 MH
75
MYA rating of the machine = 0.86 = 87.2093
MJ 443.682
H = MY A = 87.2093 = 8.08755
GH 87.2093 x 5.08755
M = 180f = 180 x 50
= 0.0492979 MJS/O dc
E 8.2 Two generaton rated at 4-pole, 50 Hz, 50 Mw 0.85 p.f (lag) with moment of inertia
28,000 kg-m
1
.ad l-pole, 50Hz, 75 MW 0.82 p.f (lag) with moment of inertia
t 5,000 kg_m
1
are eoaRected by a transmission line. Find the inertia constant of
each machine and tile inertia constant of single equivalent machine connected to
infinite bus. Take 100 MVA base.
Solution:
For machine I
1
K.E = 2" x 28,000 x (10011:)2 = 1380.344 x 10
6
J
50
MVA = 0.85 = 58.8235
1380.344
HI = 58.8235 = 23.46586 MJ!MYA
58.8235 x 23.46586 1380.344
MI =
180 x 50 180x 50
= 0.15337 MJS/degree elect.
For the second machine
286 Power System Analysis
1 1
K.E = "2 x 15,000 "2 x (100 n)2 = 739,470,000 J
= 739.470 MJ
75
MVA = 0.82 = 91.4634
739.470
H2 = 91.4634 = 8.0848
91.4634 x 8.0848
M2 = 180 x 50 = 0.082163 MJS/oEIc
M1M2 0.082163xO.15337
M = --'---"--
Ml+M2 0.082163+0.15337
0.0126
0.235533 = 0.0535 MJS/Elec.degree
GH = 180 x 50 x M = 180 x 50 x 0.0535
= 481.5 MJ
on 100 MVA base, inertia constant.
481.5
H = 100 = 4.815 MJIMVA
E 8.3 A four pole synchronous generator rated no MVA 12.5 KV, 50 HZ has an inertia
constant of 5.5 MJIMVA
(i) Determine the stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed.
(ii) When the generator is supplying a load of 75 MW,the input is increased by
10 MW. Determine the rotor acceleration, neglecting losses.
(iii) If the rotor acceleration in (ii) is maintained for 8 cycles, find the change in the
torque angle and the rotor speed in rpm at the end of 8 cycles
Solution:
(i) Stored energy = GH = 110 x 5.5 = 605 MJ where G = Machine rating
(ii) P a = The acclerating power = 10 MW
d
2
0 GH d
2
0
10 MW = M dt2 = 180f dt2
Power System Stability 287
=10
180 x 50 dt
2
d
2
8 d
2
8 10
0.0672 dt
2
= 10 or dt2 = 0.0672 = 148.81
a = 148.81 elec degrees/sec
2
(iii) 8 cyles = 0.16 sec.
Change in
8= !..xI48.8Ix(0.16)2
2
Rotor speed at the end of 8 cycles
__ 120f .(1:) x t __ 120 x 50
P u 4 x 1.904768 x 0.16
= 457.144 r.p.m
E 8.4 Power is supplied by a generator to a motor over a transmission line as shown in
Fig. E8.4(a). To the motor bus a capacitor of 0.8 pu reactance per phase is connected
through a switch. Determine the steady state power limit with and without the
capacitor in the circuit.
___ X':':'hn::.::e_=_0_.2.:.P_'U __ Ip.u
x
l1
=O.lp.u l x
l2
=O.lp.u
Xd = 0.8p.u T'=
E = 1.2p.u
Xc = 0.5p.u
Fig. E.8.4 (a)
Steady state power limit without the capacitor
1.2 x 1 1.2
P = ::=- = 0.6 pu
ma,1 0.8 + 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.8 + 0.1 2.0
With the capacitor in the circuit, the following circuit is obtained.
0.8 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.8
Fig. E.8.4 (b)
288 Power System Analysis
Simplifying
jl.1 j 0.9
E = 1.2
- j 0.8
Fig. E.S.4 (c)
Converting the star to delta network, the transfer reactance between the two nodes X
12
.
Fig. E.S.4 (d)
(j1.1)(j0.9) + (j0.9)(-jO.8) + (-jO.8 x jl.1)
X\2 = -jO.8
-0.99 + 0.72 + 0.88 -0.99 + 1.6 jO.61
------= =--
- jO.8 - jO.8 0.8
= jO.7625 p.u
1.2x 1
Steady state power limit = 0.7625 = 1.5738 pu
E 8.5 A generator rated 75 MVA is' delivering 0.8 pu power to a motor through a
transmission line of reactance j 0.2 p.u. The terminal voltage of the generator is
1.0 p.u and that of the motor is also 1.0p.u. Determine the genera,tor e.m.f behind
transient reactance. Find also the maximum power that can be transferred.
Solution:
When the power transferred is 0,8 p.u
1.0 x 1.0 sin a 1
0.8 = (0.1 + 0.2) = 0.3 sin e
- Sin e = 0.8 x 0.3 = 0.24
Power System Stability
j 0.1
__ O_I·2 __ ffi,
J 0.1
Fig. E.8.5
Current supplied to motor
lL13.o8865 -lLOo
1=
jO.3
(0.9708 + jO.24) -I
jO.3
-0.0292 + jO.24
jO.3 = j 0.0973 + 0.8 = 0.8571/Tan-
1
0.1216
1 = 0.8571 /6.
0
934
Voltage behind transient reactance
= lLO
o
+ j 1.2 (0.8 + j 0.0973)
= 1 + j 0.96 - 0.11676
= 0.88324 +.i 0.96
= 1.0496 47°.8
EV 1.0496xl
P
max
= X = 1.2 = 0.8747 p.u
289
E 8.6 Determine the power angle characteristic for the system shown in Fig. E.8.6(a).
The generator is operating at a terminal voltage of 1.05 p.u and the infinite bus is
at 1.0 p.u. voltage. The generator is supplying 0.8 p.u power to the infinite bus.

j 0.4 pu bus
Fig. E.8.6 (a)
Solution:
The reactance diagram is drawn in Fig. E.8.6(b).
290 Power System Analysis
j 0.4 pu
Fig. E.8.6 (b)
jO.4
The transfer reactance between.V
I
and V is = j 0.1 + -2- = j 0.3 p.u
we have
V
t
V . ~ (1.05)(1.0) .
-x Sin u == 0.3 Sin 0 = 0.8
Solving for 0, sin 0 = 0.22857 and 0 = 13°.21
The terminal voltage is 1.05/13
0
.21 '
1.022216 + j 0.24
The current supplied by the generator to the infinite bus
1=
1.022216 + jO.24 - (1 + jO)
jO.3
(0.022216+ jO.24)
jO.3 • = 0.8 - j 0.074
= 1.08977/5.°28482 p.u
The transient internal voltage in the generator
EI = (0.8 - j 0.074) j 0.25 + 1.22216 + j 0.24
= j 0.2 + 0.0185 + 1.02216 + j 0.24
= 1 .040 + j 0.44
= 1.1299 /22°.932
The total transfer reactance between E
l
and V
. . jO.4.
= J 0.25 + J 0.1 + -2- = J 0.55 p.u
The power angle characteristic is given by
p = E I V sin 0 == (1.1299).(1.0) sin 0
e X jO.55
P e = 2.05436 sin 0
Power System Stability 291
E 8.7 Consider the system in E 8.1 showin in Fig. E.8.7. A three phase fault occurs at
point P as shown at the mid pOint on line 2. Determine the power angle
characteristic for the system with the fault persisting.
Lme!
Fig. E.8.7
Solution:
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.8.7(a).
i 0.4
Fig. E.S.7 (a)
Infinite
bus
The admittance diagram is shown in Fig. E.8.7(b).
- j 2.5
(D...---J
- j 5.0 - j 5.0
Fig. E.8.7 (b)
292 Power System Analysis
The buses are numbered and the bus admittance matrix is obtained.
(2)
CD
- j 1.85271
0.0
j 2.8271
0.0 j 2.85271
- j 7.5 j 2.5
j 2.5 - j 10.3571
Node 3 or bus 3 has no connection to any source directly, it can be eliminated.
Yl3
Y
31
Y II (modIfied) = Y II (old) - ~
(2.8527)(2.85271)
= - j 2.8571 - (-10.3571)
= - 2.07137
(2.85271)(2.5)
YI2 (modlfied)=0- (-10.3571) =0.6896
_ Y
32
Y
23
Y
22
(modlfied)-Y
22
(old) - -Y-
33
(2.5)(2.5)
= - 7.5 - (-10.3571) = - 6.896549
The modified bus admittance matrix between the two sources is
CD
(2)
CD
-2.07137 0.06896
(2)
0.6896 -6.89655
The transfer admittance between the two sources is 0.6896 and the transfer reactance
= 1.45
1.05 x 1
P
2
= 1.45 sin 8 p.u
or P
e
= 0.7241 sin 8 p.u
Power System Stability 293
E 8.8 For the system considered in E.8.6 if the H constant is given by 6 MJ/MVA obtain
the swing equation
Solution:
H d
2
0
The swing equation is -f -) = P - P
e
= P
a
, the acclerating power
7t dt- In
If 0 is in electrical radians
ISOx 50 P _
6 a - 1500 P
a
E 8.9 In E8.7 jf the 3-phase fault i,s cleared on line 2 by operating the circuit breakers
on both sides of the line, determine the post fault power angle characteristic.
Solution: The net transfer reactance between EI and Va with only line 1 operating is
j 0.25 + j 0.1 + j 0.4 = j 0.75 p.u
P =
e
(1.05)(1.0)
jO.75
Sin 0 = 1.4 Sin 0
E8.10 Determine the swing equation for the condition in E 8.9 when 0.8 p.u power is
delivered.
Given
Solution:
1
M = 1500
ISOf lS0x50
==
H 6
1 d
2
0
= 1500
1500 dt2' = O.S - 1.4 sin 0 is the swing equation
where 0 in electrical·degrees.
E8.11 Consider example E 8.6 with the swing equation
P
e
= 2.05 sin 0
If the machine is operating at 28° and is subjected to a small transient disturbance,
determine the frequency of oscillation and also its period.
Given H = 5.5 MJIMVA
P e = 2.05 sin 28° = 0.9624167
Solution:
dP
e
do = 2.05 cos 28° = 1.7659
294 Power System Analysis
The angular frequency of oscillation = con
CO = )COS
O
= 21tx50x1.7659
n 2H 2x5.5
= 7.099888 = 8 elec rad/sec.
I 4
f = - x 8 = - = 1.2739 Hz
n 21t 1t
1 1
Period of oscillation = T = fll = 1.2739 = T = 0.785 sec
E8.12 The power angle characteristic for a synchronous generator supplying infinite
bus is given by
P
e
= 1.25 sin 8
The H constant is 5 sec and initially it is delivering a load of 0.5 p.u. Determine the
critical angle.
Solution:
P
mo
0.5
-P- = I 25 = 0.4 = Sind 8
0
; 80 = 23°.578
max .
Cos 80 = 0.9165
80 in radians = 0.4113
280 = 0.8226
1t - 280 = 2.7287
Cos 8
e
= 1.09148 - 0.9165 = 0.17498
be = 79°.9215
E8.13 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.8.13.
Fig. E.8.13
Power System Stability 295
x ~ = 0.25 p.u
lEI = 1.25 p.u and IVI = 1.0 p.lI ; XI = X
2
= 0.4 p.u
Initially the system is operating stable while delivering a load of 1.25 p.lI. Determine the
stability of the system when one of the lines is switched off due to a fault.
Solution.
When both the lines are working
1.25 x I 1.25
Pe max = 0.25 + 0.2 = 0.45 = 2.778 p.u
When one line is switched off
At point C
pI = 1.25 x I = 1.25 =
emax 0.25 + 0.4 0.65 1.923 p.u
Pea = 2.778 Sin 8
0
= 1.25 p.u
Sin 8
0
= 0.45
8
0
= 26°.7437 = 0.4665 radinas
P ~ = 1.923 Sin 8
1
= 1.25
Sin 8
1
= 0.65
8
1
= 40°.5416
== 0.7072 radian
296 Power· System Analysis
0] 07072
A] = area abc = fO.
25
-1.923sino)do
00 04665
0.7072
= 1.25
I + 1.923 Cos 0
0.4665
= 0.300625 + (-0.255759) = 0.0450
Maximum area available = area c d f g c = A2 max
Om ax 1t-0 7072
A =
2 max
f (P:-P,)do= f (1.923Sino-1.25)do
0] 07072
139°.46
= -1.923 Cos 0 I
40°.5416
= 0.7599 - 1.25 x 1.7256
1.25 (2.4328 - 0.7072)
= 0.7599 - 2.157 = -1.3971 »A]
The system is stable
[Note: area A] is below P
2
= 1.25 line and
area A2 is above P 2 = 1.25 line; hence the negative sign]
ES.14 Determine the maximum value of the rotor swing in the example ES.13.
Solution:
Maximum value of the rotor swing is given by condition
AI =A
2
AI = 0.044866
02
A2 = f(-1.25 + 1.923 Sino}do
oj
= (-1.25 O
2
+ 1.25 x 0.7072) - 1.923 (Cos O
2
- 0.76)
i.e., = + 1.923 Cos O
2
+ 1.25 °
2
= 2.34548 - 0.0450
i.e., = 1.923 Cos O
2
+ 1.25 °
2
= 2.30048
By trial and error °
2
= 55°.5
Power System Stability 297
E8.15 The M constant for a power system is 3 x 10-4 S2/elec. degree
The prefault, during the fault and post fault power angle characteristics are given by
P = 2.45 Sin °
el
and
P = 0.8 Sin °
e2
P
e
= 2.00 Sin ° respectively
3
choosing a time interval of 0.05 second obtain the swing curve for a sustained fault on
the system. The prefault power transfer is 0.9 p.u.
SolutIOn:
P = 0.9 = 2.45 Sin °
el °
(
0.9 )
The initial power angle 0
o
= Sin-I 2.45
= 21.55°
At t = 0_ just before the occurrence of fault.
P max = 2.45
Sin 0
o
= Sin 21 °.55 = 0.3673
P
e
= P max Sin 0
o
= 0.3673 x 2.45 = 0.9
P
a
= 0
At t = 0+, just after the occurrence of fault
P max = 0.8; Sin °
0
= 0.6373 and hence
P
e
= 0.3673 x 0.8 = 0.2938
P
a
, the acclerating power = 0.9 - P
e
= 0.9 - 0.2938 = 0.606
Hence, the average acclerating powr at t = 0ave
0+0.606
2
= 0.303
I
( ~ t ) 2 P _ (0.05 x 0.05) _ _ x _ °
M a - 3 X 10-4 - 8.33 P
a
- 8.33 0.303 - 2 .524
~ o = 2°.524 and 0° = 21 °.55.
The calculations are tabulated upto t = 0.4 sec.
298 Power S.ystem 1nalysis
Table 8.1
S.No t (sec) P
max
Sin .s P = P =

M .s --

a
M
(p.u.)
P max Sin .s
0.9- p. p. = 8.33 x p.
I. 0- 2.45 0.3673 0.9 0 - - 2155°
0+
0.8 0.3673 0.2938 0.606
- -
21.55°
°ave
0.3673
-
0.303 2.524 2°.524 24°.075
2. 0.05 0.8 0.4079 0.3263 0.5737 4.7786 7°.3 24°.075
3. 0.10 0.8 0.5207 0.4166 0.4834 4.027 II °.327° 31.3766
4. 0.15 0.8 0.6782 0.5426 0.3574 2.977 14°.304 42°.7036
5. 0.20 0.8 08357 0.6709 0.2290 1.9081 16°.212 570.00
6. 0.25 0.8 0.9574 0.7659 0.1341 1.1170 170.329 73°.2121
7. 0.30 0.8 0.9999 0.7999 0.1000 08330 18°.1623 90.5411
8. 0.35 0.8 0.9472 0.7578 0.1422 1.1847 19°.347 108.70
9 0.40 0.8 0.7875 0.6300 0.2700 2.2500 21°.596 128.047
149°.097
Table of results for E8.1S.
From the table it can be seen that the angle 0 increases continuously indicating instability.
160 E (8.15)
140
\
'"
"
tb
120
'"
Curve I
0
<.0 100
1
80
60
40

20
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 • 0.5

Power System Stability 299
ES. t 6 If the fault in the previous example E.S. t 4 is cleared at the end of 2.5 cycles
determine the swing curve and examine the stability of the system.
Solution:
As before
(M2 )
P = 8 33 P
M a . a
2.5 cycles second
Time to clear the fault =
50 cycles
= 0.05 sec.
In this the calculations performed in the previous example E8. 14 hold good for Dave'
However, since the fault in cleared at 0.05 sec., there will two values for P one for
a1
P
e
= 0.8 sin 8 and another for P = 2.00 sin 8.
2 e3
At t = 0.5 - Gust before the fault is cleared)
P max = 0.5; Sin 8 = 0.4079, and
P
e
= P max Sind 8 = 0.3263, so that P
a
= 0.9 - P
e
= 0.57367
giving as before 8 = 24°.075
But, at t = 0.5+ Gust after the fault is cleared) P max becomes 2.0 p.u at the same 8 and
P
e
= P max Sin 8 = 0.8158. This gives a value for P
a
= 0.9 - 0.8158 = 0.0842. Then for
t = 0.05 are the average accelerating power at the instant of fault clearance becomes
and
P
a
ave =
0.57367 + 0.0842
2
= 0.8289
( ~ t ) 2
M . P
a
= 8.33 x 0.3289 = 2°.74
A8 = 5.264
8 = 5.264 + 24.075 = 29°.339
These calculated results and further calculated results are tabulated in Table 8.2.
300 Power System Analysis
Table 8.2
S.No t
Pm ••
Sin /) P = P =
(dt)2
d/) /)
• •
M
P
max
Sin /) 0.9 - p. p. = 8.33 x p.
I. 0- 2.45 0.3673 0.9 0
- -
21.55°
O ~ 0.8 03673 0.2938 0.606
-
- 21.55°
°ave
0.3673
-
0.303 2.524 2.524 24.075
2. 0.05 0.8 0.4079 0.3263 0.5737 - - -
-
0.05+ 2.0 0.4079 0.858 0.0842 - - -
O.O\ve
0.4079 - 0.3289 2.740 5.264 29.339
3. 0.10 2.0 0.49 0.98 -0.08 -0.6664 4.5976 33.9J67
4. 0.15 2.0 0.558 1.1165 -0.2165 -1.8038 2.7937 36.730
5. 0.20 2.0 0.598 1.1196 -0.296 -2.4664 0.3273 37.05
6. 0.25 2.0 0.6028 1.2056 -0.3056 -2.545 -2.2182 34°.83
7.
0.39 2.0 0.5711 1.1423 -0.2423 -2.018 -4.2366 30°.5933
Table of results for E8.15.
The fact that the increase of angle 8, started decreasing indicates stability of the system.
ES.17 A synchronous generator represented by a voltage source of 1.1 p.u in series with
a transient reactance of jO.1S p.u and an inertia constant H = 4 sec is connected
to an i n f i n i t ~ bus through a transmission line. The line has a series reactance of
j0.40 p.u while the infinite bus is represented by a voltage source of 1.0 p.u.
The generator is transmitting an active power of 1.0 p.u when a 3-phase fault occurs at
its terminals. Determine the critical clearing time and critical clearing angle. Plot the
swing curve for a sustained fault..
Solution:
Power System Stability _
8
e
= COS-I [(1t - 28
0
}sin 8
0
- COS 8
0
]
= COS-I [(ISOo - 2 x 30° )Sin 30° - Cos 30° ]
= = COS-I [l.S07]
= 79°.59
Critical clearing angle = 79°.59
Critical clearing time =
49.59 x 3.14
8 - 8 = 79° 59 -30° = 49 59° = rad
e 0 - - ISO
t =
e
= 0.S6507 rad
2 x 4 x 0.S6507
Ix3.14x50
= 0.2099 sec
Calculation for the swing curve
Let
_ (ISOf) 2
[\8
n
-8
n
_
l
+ H [\t Pa(n-I)
[\t = 0.05 sec
8
n
_
1
=30°
ISOf ISOx50
--=
H 4
= 2250
H I
M = ISOf = 2250 = 4.44 x 10-4
([\t)2 P = (0.05 x 0.05) P = 5.63 P
M a (4,44 x 10-
4
) a a
Accelerating power before the occurrence of the fault = P a- = 2 Sin 8
0
- 1.0 = 0
Accelerating power immediately after the occrrence of the fault
P
a
+ = 2 Sin 8
0
- 0 = I p.u
0+1
301
Average acclerating powr = -2- = 0.5 p.u. Change in the angle during 0.05 after
fault occurrence.
302
= 5.63 )( 0.5 = iO.81
8
1
= 30° + 2°.S1 = 32°.S1
The results are plotted in Fig. ES.17.
Power System Analysis
One-machine system swing curve. Fault cleared at Infs
1400
1200
"1' ....
1000 .... , ............ r············\"" ........ t············:···········
800
600
400
200
....... : ....... ,!' ....... : ...... .
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4
t, sec
Fig. E.8.17 (a)
One-machine system swing curve. Fault cleared at Infs

: : :
80 ....... ; ........... \ ......... ..;. .......... \ ............. ( ........ ! ......... ,. .......... : .......... '" ... .
70 ... . ... , ............ i .......... : ........... 1... ......... j ......... + ......... , ......... .i.. ........ ; ......... .
: : . : ; : : :
60 ... : .... ; ......... ; .......... ; ....... (·······t········
1
·········;····· .. ! ........... ; ........ .
50 ..... .
. : ...... ........... .. .
40 ....

0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
t, sec
Fig. E.8.17 (b)
The system is unstable.
Power Sy!tem Stability 303
E8.18 In example no. E8.17, if the fault is cleared in 100 msec, obtain the swing curve.
Solution:
The swing curve is obtained using MATLAB and plotted in Fig. E.S.IS.
One-machine system swing curve. Fault cleared at 0.1 s
70. .' . .
60' ... ; .... , .. : ........... .
: . :
50 .. : .. : ... : :.. ., ...... .
. ':' .• \"
40
30
..... , ..... , :., ........... \ ... ;'.:" .. :'.: .. " .. .
o .
__ __ __ __ __
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
t, sec
Fig. E8.18
The system is stable.
Problems
PS.I A 2 pole, 50 Hz, II KV synchronous generator with a rating of 120 Mw and 0.S7
lagging power factor has a moment of inertia of 12,000 kg-m
2
. Calculate the constants
HandM.
PS.2 A 4-pole synchronous generator supplies over a short line a load of 60 Mw to a load bus.
If the maximum steady stae capacity of the transmission line is 110 Mw, determine the
maximum sudden increase in the load that can be tolerated by the system without loosing
stability.
PS.3 The prefault power angle chracteristic for a generator infinite bus system is given by
P
e
= 1.62 Sin 0
I .
and the initial load supplied is I R.U. During the fault power angle characteristic is given by
.
P
e
= 0.9 Sin 0
2
Determine the critical clearing angle and the clearing time.
PS.4 Consider the system operating at 50 Hz.
G ----111--18
1 X = 0.25 p.ll 0
xd = 0.25p.u I LO
H=2.3 sec
If a 3-phase fault occurs across the generator terminals plot the swing curve.
Plot also the swing curve, if the fault is cleared in 0.05 sec.
304 Power System Analysis
Questions
8.1 Explain the terms
(a) Steady state stability (b) Transient stabiltiy (c) Dynamic stability
8.2 Discuss the various methods of improving steady state stability.
8.3 Discuss the various methods of improving transient stability.
8.4 Explain the term (i) critical clearing angle and (ii) critical clearing time
8.5 Derive an expression for the critical clearing angle for a power system consisting of
a single machine supplying to an infinite bus, for a sudden load increment.
8.6 A double circuit line feeds an infinite bus from a power statio'll. If a fault occurs on
one of the lines and the line is switched off, derive an expression for the critical
clearing angle.
8.7 Explain the equal area critrion.
8.8 What are the various applications of equal area criterion? Explain.
8.9 State and derive the swing equations
8.10 Discuss the method of solution for swing equation.
Ojective Questions
I 0 Base current in amperes is
BaseKVA
(a) .J3 Base KV(line to line)
BaseKVA
(b) BaseKV(lineto line)
BaseKVA
(c) , -------
3 Base KV (line to line)
20 Base impedance in ohms is
[Base Voltage in KV (line - to -line)]X 1000
(a)
baseKVA
[Base Voltage in KV (line - to -line)]2 X 1000
(b)
baseKVA
[Base Voltage in KV (line - to - line) J2 X 3
(c) baseKVA
30 Impedance in ohms is
(poUo impedance) [base KV (line - to -line)f
(a)
baseKVA xlOOO
(pouoimpedance)[baseKV (line - to -line»)2 x 1000
(b) .J3 base KVA
(poUo impedance) [base KV (line - to -line)]2 x I 000
(c)
baseKVA
306 Objective Questions
4. Per unit impedance on new KVA and KV base is
(a) ( p.u.impedanceon ] (giVen KVA base) ( new KV base )2
given KV A and KV base New KV A base given KV base
(b) ( p.u.impedanceon ](giVen KVA base) (giVen KV base)2
given KV A and KV base New KV A base new KV base
(
p.u.impedance on ) ( new KV A base) (giVen KV base)2
(c) given KVA andKV base given KVA base new KV base
5. Which of the following is false?
(a) An element of a graph is called an edge.
(b) Each line segment is called an element.
( c ) Each current source is replaced by a short circuit in a graph.
6. The rank of a graph is
(a) n (b) n-I (c) n+I
where n is the number of nodes in the graph.
7. In a graph if there are 4 nodes and 7 elements the number of links is
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5
8. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) n basic cutsets are linearly independent where n is the number of nodes.
(b) The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph.
(c) The removal of k branches does not reduce the rank of a graph provided that no
proper subset of this set reduces the rank of the graph by one when it is removed
from the graph.
9. The dimension of the bus incidence matrix is
(a) e x n (b) e x (n- I ) (c) e x e
10. If Ab and AI are the sub matrices of bus incidence matrix A containing branches and links
only and k is the branch path incidence matrix then []
(a) A b kt = U (b) kt = Ab (c) AI A
b
-
I
= kt
Objective Questions
11. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) There is a one-to-one correspondence between links and basic cut sets.
(b) A, A
b
-' = 8 where 8 is the basic cut set incidence matrix.
(c) 8, = A, kt where 8, is the basic cut set incidence matrix containing links only.
12. Identify the correct relation
(a) Y BUS = [st] [y] [B]
(b) Y'oop = [C
t
] [y] [C]
(c) Y BR = [B]l [y] [B]
13. Identify the current relations
(a) [Al] [y] [A] = Y'oop
(b) [Bl] [y] [8] = ZBR
(c) [Cl] [z] [C] = Z'oop
307
14. With the addition of a branch to a partial network with usual notation, the mutual
impedance is given by [ ]
Yab-XY (:ZXI - ZYI )
(a) Zbl = Zal + - ~ - ' - - - - - ' .
Yab-ab
Yab-xv (Zal - Zbl )
(b) Zbl = Zal + ---"----'-------'-
Yab-ab
Yab-XY (ZYI • Zal )
(c) Z bl = Z 81 + ---"--'-----'-
Y ab-ab
15. The self impedance Zbb of a branch ab added to an existing partial network is given
by [ ]
1 + Yab-XY (Zab - ZXY )
(a) Zbb = Zab + ---=....:.:::...-'------''-'-
Yab-ab
1 + Yab-XY (ZX8 - Zxy )
(b) Zbb = Zab + -----''-----
Y ab-ab
308 Objective Questions
16. If in q.no 18 there is no mutual coupling
(a) Zbb = Zab (b) Zbb = Zab + zab-ab (c) Zbb = zab-ab
17. If in q. no 18 there is no mutual coupling and if "a" is the reference node
(a) Zbb = zab-ab (b) Zbb = Zab (c) Zbb = Zab + zab-ab
18. Modified impedances are computed when the fictitious node introduced for the addition
of a link is eliminated. Then ZjJ (modified) [ ]
Z Z
(a) Z (before elimination) __ II _IJ
'I Zn
Z
(b) Z'I (before elimination) - zi-
,I IJ
(ZII - Zlj)
(c) Z'J (before elimination)-
19. Identify the correct relation
(a) a
2
= - 0.5 + j 0.866
20. Which of the following is correct
(a) VR=VRO+aVRI+a2VR2
(b) a = 1. eJ 47t! 3
(c) 1+a+a
2
=0+jO
(b) The sequence compoenets are related to the phase components through the
translonnation matrix C " l: :' a: j
21. For stationery bi lateral unbalanced network elements
() Z
RY ZYR dZ
RR
ZYY
a ab = ab an ab = ab
(b) Z
RY ZYR dZ
RR
ZYY
ab=-ab
an
ab= ab
(
c) ZRY"# ZYY
ab ab
Objective Questions 309
22. For balanced rotating 3-phase network elements
(
a) ZRY - ZYR
ab - ab
(
b) ZRY ot= ZYR
ab ab
(c) The admittances are symmetric
23. A balanced three phase element with balanced excitation can be considered as a single
phase element [ ]
(a) true
(b) false
(c) some times it is true
24. For a stationary 3-phase network element ab, zero sequence impedance is given
by [ ]
25. For a 3-phase stationary network element the positive impedance is given by [
(b) Z ~ ) - 2 Z ~ ~
26. For a 3-phase stationary network element the negative sequence impedance is given
by [ ]
27. The inertia constant H is of the order of
(a) H = 4 (b) H = 8 (c) H = I
28. When a synchronous machine is working with 1.1 p.lI excitation and is connected to an
infinite bus of voltage 1.0 p.u. delivering power at a load angle ono
o
the power delivered
with x d = 0.8 p.u. and x q = 0.6 p.u. [ ]
(a) P = 0.675 (b) P = 0.6875 (c) P = 1.375
Neglect reluctance power
29. Unit inertia constant H is defined as
(a) Ws / Pr (b) Pr / ws (c) Ws Pr / rad
310
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
Objt:;ctive Questions
At a slack-bus the quantities specified are
(a) P and Q (b)
P and IVI
(c) IVI and 8 Cd) P and 8
At a load bus the quantities specified are
(a) P and IVI (b) Q and IVI (c) PandQ (d) IVI and 8
At a Generator bus the quantities specified are [
(a) IVI and 8 (b)Q and IVI (c) Pand Q (d) P and IVI
In load flow studies, the state variables are [
(a) P andQ (b) IVI and 8
(c) P and IVI (d) P and 8
Which one of the following is not correct?
n
(a) P - jQ =V' ~ Y V
, ., 'j=J ') J
(b) V, = IV,I (Cos 8, + j Sin 8)
11 N N
(c) Real power loss = ~ P, = ~
P
g
,
- ~
P
d
,
,=1 ,=1 ,=1
(Total generation) - (Total load)
N
(d) Q= ~
IY'I Vi VII COS (8, - 8) - 8,) ,
.1=1
Which of the following is true?
(a) Gauss-Seidel method is a direct solution method for power flow
(b) All iterative methods ensure convergence
(c) A generator bus is also called a swing bus
(d) If the reactive generation exceeds the limit then the P, IVI bus will become a P,
Q bus
36. The number of iteration required for an n-bus system in Gauss-Seidel method are
approximately [ ]
(a) n (b) n
2
(c) 3 (d)
n(n + \)
2
37. The number of iteration required for an n-bus system in Newton-Raphson method are
approximately [ ]
(a) n (b) n
2
(c) 3 (d)
n(n + 1)
2
Objective Questions 311
38. With usual notation which of the following is true for a decoupled model
(a) L\P = [H] L\8
(c) L\P = [M] L\IVI
(b)
(d)
L\Q = [L] L\8
L\IVI
L\P = [M] IVT
39. The speed of fast decoupled load flow method when compared to Newton-Raphson
method is [ ]
(a) Veru slow
(b) almost the same
(c) double the N-R method speed per iteration
(d) Five times the N-R method speed per iteration
40. Which of the following is true?
(a)
Bore KVA (%X)
Short circuit KVA = 100
100
(b) I
short
ClfCUI! = I
full
load x (%X)
v
( c ) %Z = - x 100
IZ
41. Which of the following is not true
42.
43.
(a) In a feeder reactor protection, there is no protection for bus-bar fautls.
(b) In a tie-bar system current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors
in series.
(c) In ring system of reactor connection the voltage drop and power loss are
considerable.
The operator 'a' is given by
(a) EI1200
(b)
C-11200
(c)
EI600
( d)
E -J600
(a
2
- a) is given by
jJ3 -j J3
I
1
(a) (b) (c)
jjj
(d)
- jJ3
44. Phase voltages E
a
, Eb and Ec are related to symmetrical components Yo, V 1 and V 2; then
which of the following is true? [ ]
1
(a) V =-(E +aE +a
2
E) (b) VaO=Ea+Eb+Ec
a2 3 abc
(c)
1
V = - (E + a
2
E + aE )
al 3 abc
(d)
312 Objective Questions
45. For the solution of 3-phase star connected unbalanced load problem which method is
more suitable [ ]
(a) Symmetrical components (b) Direct analysis
(c) Thevenin's theorem (d) Mil1man's theorem
46. If lSI' Is2 and Iso are star cQnnected network sequence current components and I
dl
, Id2
and Ido are delta connected network sequence currents for the same unbalnced network,
then [ ]
(a)
(c) I = 0
sO
47. In case of star-delta connected transformers
(b)
(d)
Is2 = j .J3 Id2
1
I = - 1
sl j.J3 dl
(a) There is only a phase shift of 90° between the sequence components on
either side
(b) There is only a change in the magnitude
(c) There is change both in phase and magnitude
(d) There is no change
48. The positive sequence impedance component of three unequal impedances Za' Zb and ZC
IS [ ]
1
(a) "3 (Za + aZ
b
+ a
2
Z
c
)
1
(b) "3 CZ
a
+ a
2
Zb + a Zc)
(c) (Za + aZ
b
+ a
2
Z
c
) Cd) (Za + a
2
Zb + aZ
e
)
49. For a single line-to-ground fault, the terminal conditions are
(a) Va = 0; Ib = Ie = 0 (b) Ib = -Ie; Vb = Vc
(c)
Vb + Vc
V= '1=1=0
a 2' b e
50. For a double line fault on phase band c
(a)
3E
a
I = ----=---
a ZI + Z2 + Zo
Cd)
Objective Questions 313
51. For an ungrounded neutral, in case of a double-line to ground fault on phases b
and c [ ]
(i)
Eo
I =
al Z\ +Z\ '
(a) (i) only is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) are both correct
(b) (ii) only is correct
(d) both (i) and (ii) are false
52. A 15MVA, 6.9 KV generator, star connected has positive, negative and zero
sequence reactances of 50%, 50% and 10% respectively. A line-to-line fault occurs
at the terminals of the generator operating on no-load. What is the positive sequence
component of the fault current in per unit. []
(a) - j p.u (b) - 2j p.u. (c) - 0.5 j p.u. (d) 0.5 j p.u.
53. What is the negative sequence component of fault current in Q.No. (11)
(a) (- j 0.5 - 0.866) (b) G 0.5 - j 0.866)
(c) +jp.u (d) G 0.5 + 0.866)
54. In Q.No. (52) if the fault is a line-to-ground fault on phase a then, the positive
sequence component of the fault current in p.u. is '[]
(a) + j 0.9 p.u (b) - j 0.9 p.u. (c) + j \.0 p.u. (d) - j 0.866 p.u.
55. The most common type of fault to occur is []
(a) Symmetrical 3-phase fault (b) Single line-to-ground fault
(c) Double line fault (d) Double line-to-ground fault
56. The zero sequence network for the transformer connection delta-star with star
point earthed is given by [ ]
- - - ~ - - -
(a) (b)
--0
(c) (d)
314 Objective Questions
57. The negative sequence reactance of a synchronous machine is given by
(a) j ( x ~ ; x ~ 1
(c) j ( x ~ ~ x; 1
(b) j ( x; ; x; 1
(d) j ( x ; ~ x ; l
58. A star connected synchoronous machine with neutral point grounded through a
reactance xn and winding zero sequence reactance Xo experiences a single line-to
ground fault through an impedance xf" The total zero sequence impedance is
[ ]
(a) xo+ xn + x
f
(b) x
O
+3x
n
+x
f
(c) Xo + 3x
n
+ 3x
f
(d) 3 (XO+xn+x
f
)
59. In case of a turbo generator the positvie sequence reactnce
(a) Under subtransient state is more than transient state but less than steady
state synchronous reactnace
(b) Under subtransient state is less than transient state and morethan
synchronous reactance
(c) The transient state reactance is more than subtransient state reactance but
less than synchronous reactance
(d) The transient state reactane is less than subtransient state, but more than
synchronous reactance.
60. A synchronous machine having E = 1.2 p.u is supplying power to an infinite bus
with voltage 1.0 p.u. If the transfer reactace is 0.6 p.u, the steady stae power
limit is
(a) 0.6 p.u (b) 1.0 p.u (c) 2 p.u
61. A synchronous generator is feeding as infinite bus through a transmission line. If
the middle of the line a shunt reactor gets connected, the steadystate stability
limit will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered
62. A synchronous generator is supplying power to an infinite bus through a
transmission line. If a shunt capacitor is added near the middle of the line, the
steady state stabil ity limit will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered
Objective Questions 315
63. If the shunt capacitor in q.no. (3) is shifted to the infinite bus, the stability limit
will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unchanged
64. Which of the following is correct
(a) In steady state stability excitation response is important
(b) In transient stability studies, excitation response is important
(c) Dynamic stability is independent of excitation system response
65. Coefficient of stiffness is defines as
E.V ~
(a) -Cosu
X
EV
S
· ~
(b) - mu
X
(c)
EV
X
66. For a step load disturbance, the frequency of oscillations is given by
1 (08
0
(a)f= ---
2n .fiH
67. Critical clearing angle for a step load change is
(c) f= _1 ~ ( O 8 0
2n 2H
68. If power is transmitted during the fault period on a double-line circuit with fault
as one of the lines the critical clearing angle 8
c
is given by [ ]
316 Objective Questions
69. In step by step method of solution to swing equation
(a) = on_I - 0n_2 =
(b) = On - On _ 1 = ffir (n _ I) .
(c) = 0n_l- 0n-2 = ffi
r
(n-2)
Objective Questions 317
Answers to Objective Questions
1. (a)
26. (b) 51. (c)
2. (b)
27. (b) 52. (a)
3. (c)
28. (b) 53. (a)
4. (c)
29. (c) 54. (b)
5. (c)
30. (c) 55. (b)
6. (b)
31. (c) 56. (c)
7. (b)
32. (d)
57. (b)
8. (b)
33. (b) 58. (c)
9. (b)
34. (d) 59. (c)
10. (a)
35. (d) 60. (c)
11. (c)
36. (a) 61. (b)
12. (c)
37. (c) 62. (a)
13. (c)
38. (a) 63. (c)
14. (a) 39. (d)
64. (a)
IS. (b)
40. (b) 65. (a)
16. (b)
41. (c) 66. (c)
17. (a)
42. (a) 67. (b)
18. (a)
43. (b) 68. (a)
19. (c)
44. (d) 69. (a)
20. (b)
45. (d)
21. (c)
46. (c)
22. (c)
47. (c)
23. (c)
48. (a)
24. (c)
49. (a)
25. (a)
50. (c)
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INDEX
B
Base current in amperes 177
Base impedence in ohms J 77
Basic cut-set incidence matrix 20
Basic cut-set 10
Basic Loop incidence matrix 21
Basic loops 9
Branch path incidence matrix 19
Bus bar reactors 188
Bus incidence matrix 18
Co-tree 8
Convrgence J 24
c
Critical clearing angle 272
Critical clearing time tc 272
Cut set 9
D
Oecoupled methods 119
Double line to ground fault 238
Dynamic stability 259
Dynamic stability 280
E
Edge 6
Element node incidence matrix 18
Equal area criterion 267
F
Fast decoupled methods 120
Feeder reactors 187
Frequency of oscillations 270
320
G
Gauss-seidel iterative method 105
Generator reactors 187
Generator bus I 0 I
Graph 6
J
Jacobian 110
L
Line-to-line fault 235
Load bus 101
Load flow 100
N
Negative sequence components
Negative sequence network 229
Newton-raphson method 109
Node 6
Nonsingular 115
0
Optimal ordering 118
Operator "a" 218
p
Partial network 53
Path 7
Per unit impedence 177
Per unit quantities 176
Percentage values 179
Polar coordinates Method 112
Positive 2 I 7
218
Power System Analysis
Positive sequence components 217
Power flow 100
Positive sequence network 228
Primitive network 4
R
Rank of a graph 7
Reactance diagrams 179
Reactors I 86
Rectangular coordinates method 110
s
Sequence components 2 I 7
Sequence impedance of transformer 227
Sequence impedances 224
Sequence networks of
Synchronous machines 228
Sequence reactances of
Synchronous machine 228
Short circuit KVA 180
Single line to ground fault 232
Singular transformation 24
Slack bus 101
Sparsity 115
Stability 259
Steady state stability 259
Step-by-step method 277
Subgraph 7
Swing equation 263
Symmetric 115
Symmetrical components 217
Synchronizing power coefficient 262
a
Index
T
Transient stability 259
Transient stability limit 269
Tree 8
Triangular decomposition 116
u
Uniatary transformation 222
Unsymmetrical faults 231
v
Vertex 6
Voltage controlled bus 101
z
Zero sequence components 218
Zero sequence Network 230
321

Power System Analysis

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Power System Analysis

Prof. P.S.R. Murthy
B.Sc. (Engg.) (Hons.) ME.,
Dr. - ING (Berlin), F.I.E. (India) Life Member - ISTE (Formerly Principal O.U. College of Engineering & Dean, Faculty of Engineering, O.U. Hyderabad) Principal, Sree Datha Institute of Engineering and Science, Sheriguda, Ibrahim Patnam, Hyderabad (AP).

BSP BS Publications
4-4-309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad - 500095 A.P. Phone: 040-23445688

Copyright © 2007, by Publisher All rights reserved

No part of this book or parts thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any language or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers.

Published by :

SSP BS Publications
4-4-309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad - 500 095 A. P. Phone: 040-23445688 e-mail: contactus@bspublications.net www.bspublications.net

Printed at:

AdithyaArt Printers Hyderabad.

ISBN: 978-81-7800-161-6

Preface
Power System analysis is a pre-requisite course for electrical power engineering students. In Chapter I. introductory concepts about a Power system, network models, faults and analysis;the primitive network and stability are presented. Chapter 2 deals with the graph theory that is relevant to various incidence matrices required for network modelling are explained. Chapter 3 explains the various incidence matrices and network matrices. Chapter 4 discusses, step-by-step method of building of network matrices. Chapter 5 deals with power flow studies. Both Gauss-Seidel method and Newton-Raphson methods are explained. In Newton-Raphson method both the Cartesion coordinates method and polar coordinates methods are discussed. In chapter 6 short circuit analysis is explained Per unit quantity and percentage values are defined. Analysis for symmetrical faults is discussed. The utility of reactors for bus bar and generator protection is also explained. Unbalanced fault analysis is presented in chapter 7. Use of symmetrical components and network connections are explained. Chapter 8 deals with the power system stability problem. Steady state stability. transient stability and dynamic stability are discussed.
It is earnestly hoped that this book will meet the requirements of students in the subject power system analysis.

- Author

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My thanks also go to Mr. Narasimha Rao. my well wisher for taking great pains in transferring script material and proof material between my residence and the press with a great smiley face. Nikhil Shah. Proprietor of BS Publications for his constant encouragement to me to write and complete this book on 'Power System Analysis'.L. I thank Mrs.Y. M. day and night over the last few months.Acknowledgment My sincere thanks go to Mr. Swarupa for MATLAB assistance. -Author .

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..............................................................................................2 1................................... 5 2 Graph Theory 2................................. 8 Cut-Set ...4 1.............................................................................. 9 Basic Loops ..1 2................................................................. II IS 16 ..................................................................................................................5 2.........5 The Electrical Power System ............................ I 1.... .............................................................................................................. 3 The Primitive Network ................. ' ............................2 2........ I Network Models .... (ix) 1 Introduction I..............................................................................................................................................................................Contents Preface ........................................... Questions ............................... 10 vVorked Examples Prohlems ...................... 9 Basic Cut-Sets . 6 Tree and Co-Tree ............................................3 2.............................3 1................6 Introduction ......................... 4 Power System Stability ............................................ 6 Definitions .... 3 Faults and Analysis ................. (vii) Acknowledgment..............................................................................4 2..................

.......... Worked Examples..................................... Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices ....2 The Polar Coordinates Method ................... ..................4 5........................................... 18 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 28 29 33 51 52 4 Building of Network Matrices 4.........................................................................7 5......................... Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices ............................... Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix ............... " .................. 99 The Power Flow Equations ............. ..........2 5.......................6 5.........................8 5...... Branch .........(xii) Content~ 3 Incidence Matrices 3..........................................7 3. 53 Addition ofa Branch ..8 3.......................Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution ............... : .............. 96 Questions... 70 Problems .............................. ......... .................... .................................. 104 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method .. 110 5.................................. ............................1 5........................................ : ................................1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method ...................................................... ....................... ................ .... Network Matrices .......... 60 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance ........... Questions .................................................. Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection ............... ...............................Path Incidence Matrix K ......................................................................................... . Problems ............................ 105 Gauss ..........9................... 109 5.............................3 4...............6 3....................... Network Performance Equations ......................1 4............5 3............. ................................. 66 Worked Examples.................................................................................................. Basic Cut-Set Incidence Matrix ....................3 3..... ......... Basic Loop Incidence Matrix ....................4 Partial Network ........9 Necessity for Power Flow Studies .............. ... .............................................2 3..2 4........................................3 5........................... 98 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System .......................9 3......................... 55 Addition ofa Link .................................... 101 Bus Admittance Formation .....10 3............ 102 System Model for Load Flow Studies .............. 97 5 Power Flow Studies 5.... 112 .....4 3.....5 5............... 106 Newton-Raphson Method ........ '" .................9................1 3..................... 99 Classification of Buses ......................................... .......11 Element Node Incidence Matrix ......................................... Bus Incidence Matrix ....

..................... .... 181 Percentage Values ............................. ........................................................................................ 184 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator ...... 216 Questions.....2 6.......... 178 Reactance Diagrams ........... 2 I 6 ........................................................................... 187 Worked Examples................................... ......... ...........................13 5..... 182 Importance of Short Circuit Currents ..............1 5....1 6................................. 124 126 .....................10 5...................... ........ 116 Optimal Ordering ........................... 183 Analysis ofR-L Circuit ............ .................................. ............. ......... .................15............. ..............15................Seidel Method Using Z-bus for Load Flow Solution ............ Problems ............................ ............................................................................. ......................................... ......15. 175 Convergence Characteristics ................................... ... .................................................14 5.............5 6......... .......... 189 ..............................15.......................7 6.........................11 5...........13 Per Unit Quantities ............... 121 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus ... 118 Decoupled Methods ....................................4 6. 124 Worked Examples ......... Problems Questions .................................. 122 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus ................................. 123 Gauss .................... 176 Advantages of Per Unit System .....................................10 6.... ....... .......................... .................................................. 115 Triangular Decompostion ....................................................................... 186 Construction of Reactors .8 6..................................................... 121 5..........2 5......... 120 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus .....4 5............15 (xiii) Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices . 161 .... 119 Fast Decoupled Methods .....................................3 5............ .....16 Bus Impedance Formation .........................................................12 5...12 6....... 185 Reactors ............... .....................................6 6.............. 185 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current .3 6.................9 6.............................11 6................. ............ 6 Short Circuit Analysis 6............................................. .... 122 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System .......15...........Contents 5......5 5. .............................. 186 Classification of Reactors ........ 181 Short Circuit KVA ..... .............................. 178 Three Phase Short Circuits .....

.......................................... 230 Unsymmetrical Faults ................12 7..........................................11 7................................................. ..... ... 267 ............8 Elementary Concepts ........(xiv) Contents 7 Unbalanced Fault Analysis 7.....2 7.................... 221 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance ........1 8.............3 8...............9 7............... 229 Zero Sequence Network ..............2 7........................................................................... 257 Questions ........................................3 7.........5 8..............................3 7...... 262 Stability ofa Single Machine Connected to lnfinite Bus ................... ................ 259 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept ................. 262 Transient Stability .............. ............................ ........................................15 7... 228 Negative Sequence Network .. I 7.......................... 242 Double Line-to-Ground Fault with Fault Impedence .. 232 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator ........................................................................18 Positive Sequence Network .................10 The Operator "'a'" ...... ......... .....................................4 7........................ 261 Synchronizing Power Coefficient .....................................8 7............................ 224 Transmission Lines ................................................. 228 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines .............................6 7................. 238 Single-Line to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance ............................... .........16 7............ .2 8...... 257 8 Power System Stability 8...........1 7. 226 Sequence Impedances of Transformer ............13 7................ 260 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit ...... 262 The Swing Equation .......................................................... 231 Assumptions for System Representation ........ 218 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases ................................14 7.................................................... 263 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation ..................................................17 7..............7 8.........10................................. 243 Worked Examples...6 8.. .................... 232 Llne-to-Line Fault ...........................................10......................................7 7.......4 8...... 219 Power in Sequence Components .... 228 7........... ......5 7.......... 222 Sequence Impedances .............. 241 Line-to-Line Fault with Fault Impedence ........................................................ ....... 235 Double Line to Ground Fault ..................10...................................................................................... 227 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine .................. 245 Problems ............................................ 224 Balanced Star Connected Load ... ........... .......................................................

................. 270 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle ............. ..........9 8...........................................................Contents 8.... 304 Objective Questions ............ 275 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in Double-Circuit System ..........13 8........ 272 Fault on a Double-Circuit Line .................. 319 ......................... ....... ............ .....................................11 8............................................. .................17 8...... 274 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault ................ 317 Index . .......................................18 (xv) Transient Stability Limit .. .. .................... ......... ..................... . ................................ 279 Dynamic Stability ....................... 305 Answers to Objective Questions .15 8................................ ...............16 8.................................. 277 Solution to Swing Equation Step-by-Step Method .... ...... 280 Node Elimination Methods .................. ............................12 8................................................................ 303 Questions............................ 282 Worked Examples .............14 8................ 277 Factors Affecting Transient Stability ............................. ....... 269 Frequency of Oscillations .......................... ............................... ........ .10 8.............................. 285 Problems .............................................................. ........................................

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circuit breakers etc.1 The Electrical Power System The electrical power system is a complex network consisting of generators. loads. Since then. 1. transformers. Power system analysis is the subject in the branch of electrical power engineering which deals with the determination of voltages at various buses and the currents that flow in the transmission lines operating at different voltage levels. The modern power system has features unique to it self. the solution of which requires extensive application of mathematical methods from various branches. The power demand is more than doubling every decade. Planning. The inter connection of the various generating stations to load centers through EHV and UHV transmission lines necessitated analytical methods for analysing various situations that arise in operation and control of the system. transmission lines. It is the largest man made system in existence and is the most complex system. Thomas Alva Edison was the first to conceive an electric power station and operate it in Newyork in 1882.1 INTRODUCTION Power is an essential pre-requisite for the progress of any country. power generation originally confined to steam engines expanded using (steam turbines) hydro electric turbines. nuclear reactors and others. buses. For the analysis of a power system in operation . operation and control of interconnected power system poses a variety of challenging problems.

The analysis of the system for small load variations. it is possible to conceive a quasistatic state during which period the loads could be considered constant.2 Power System Analysis a suitable model is needed.2. derivative and integral controllers or optimal controllers using Kalman's feed back coefficients.1 Generators Sending end Transformer Transmission Lines Receiving end transformer Load Fig.>----+-+ Loads Sending end step up transformer Generators Receiving end step-down transformer Fig. 1. 1. For studying the steady state performance a number of matrix models are needed.. This model basically depends upon the type of problem on hand. In this state power flow equations are non-linear due to the presence of product terms of variables and trigonometric terms. 1. Newton-Raphson method is the most commonly used mathematical technique. This period could be 15 to 30 minutes. 1. Transmission Line .2 can be reduced to Fig.1. However.3 upto the load terminals neglecting the shunt capacitances of the transmission line and magnetizing reactances of the transformers. differential equations. The equivalent circuit for the power system can be represented as in Fig. differential equations describing energy balance over a few half-cycles of time period are required. The solution techniques involves numerical (iterative) methods for solving non-linear algebraic equations. transfer function and state variable models are better suited to implement proportional. Consider the power System shown in Fig. For transient stability studies involving sudden changes in load or circuit condition due to faults.2 . 1. For study of fault currents the equivalent circuit in Fig.. transfer functions etc. 1. Accordingly it may be algebraic equations. The power system is never in steady state as the loads keep changing continuously. wherein speed or frequency and voltage control may be required to maintain the standard values.

For small variations. I-phase motors. It may be noted that unbalanced transmission line configuration is balanced in operation by transposition. Such a model can be obtained using transfer function concept and control can be achieved through classical or modern control theory. 1. Also. Network solutions can be carried out using Ohm's law and Kirchoff's laws. The ultimate objective of power system control is to maintain continuous supply of power with acceptable quality. This requires modeling of speed governor. Quality is defined in terms of voltage and frequency. rectifiers. balancing the electrical characteristics. A systematic procedure is needed to build a model that can be constantly up-graded with increasing interconnections. it is required to develop both Z-bus and V-bus models for the network.3 While the reactances of transformers and lines which are static do not change under varying conditions of operation. The control of a turbo generator set to suit to the varying load requirement requires a model.Introduction 3 TransmIssIon Lines Tran.former Fig.).i i =Y. To build such a model. graph theory and incidence matrices will be quite convenient. Under balanced operation. a linearized model is convenient to study. all the three-phase voltages are equal in magnitude and displaced from each other mutually by 120 0 (elec. Either or e= Z. welding transformers etc. heaters. the machine reactances may change and assume different values fot different situations. This interconnected network configuration expands continuously. composite loads containing 3-phase motors. . 1.3 Faults and Analysis Study of the network performance under fault conditions requires analysis of a generally balanced network as an unbalanced network. lighting loads.. may have very different models depending upon the composition of its constituents. turbo generator and power system itself as all these constitute the components of a feedback loop for control. 1. e model can be used for steady state network solution. Thus. d-c motors.2 Network Models Electrical power network consists of large number of transmission lines interconnected in a fashion that is dictated by the development of load centers.

4 Power System Analysis Under fault conditions. • a 8 eab • Zab ~ v·1 iab • Fig. Network solution under these conditions can be obtained by using transformed variables through different component systems involving the concept of power invariance. eab is the source voltage in series with the network element a . In this course all these aspects will be dealt with in modeling so that at an advanced level.4) represents the impedance form. From the Fig. +' lab . Fig (1.) even if the transmission and distribution networks are balanced. The situation changes into a case of unbalanced excitation.( 1.5 .5) .4 The Primitive Network Network components are represented either by their impedance parameters or admittance parameters.4) we have the relation Vab + eab = zab iab . 1.. Vab is the voltage across the network element a-b.b zab is the self impedance of network element a-b. +- .4 I • • b Vb a and b are the terminals of a network element a-b.lab (]) Yab Va • r • a ~ lab . analyzing and developing of suitable control strategies could be easily understood using these models wherever necessary. 1. ( 1. Va and Vb are voltages at a and b. A primitive network is a set of unconnected elements. the three-phase voltages may not be equal in magnitude and the phase angles too may differ widely from 1200 (elec.1) In the admittance form the network element may be represented as in Fig.. Every power system element can be described by a primitive network. (1.lab Vab=Va-Vb ~ • • b r Vb Fig... the variables are currents and voltages. 1. jab is the current through the network element a-b.

due to a variety of changes.5) the matrices [z] or [y] contain the self impedances or self admittances denoted by zab. ab or Yab.2) The series voltage in the impedance form and the parallel source current in the admittance form are related by the equation. Ifthere is no mutual coupling. -Lb=Yabeab .3) A set of unconnected elements that are depicted in Fig.( 1. (1.4) or (1.5) In eqs... cd where ab and cd are two different elements having mutual coupling. when there is no mutual coupling. At a first level... cd or Yab. study of these topics is very important for electrical power engineering students.... the various alternators in the system remain in synchronous with each other.5 Power System Stability Power system stability is a word used in connection with alternating current power systems denoting a condition where in. (1. connected to infinite bus gives an insight into the stability problem.Introduction Yab is the self admittance of the network element a-b jab is the source current in paraliel with the network element a-b From Fig..ab' The off-diagonal elements may in a similar way contain the mutual impedances or mutual admittances denoted by zab.4) or in the form i+ j =[y]y .5) we have the relation iab + jab = Yab Vab 5 .. (1....( 1. occuring in the system continuously some where or other may create blackouts. ( 1. Study of this aspect is very important... such as.. The performance equations for the primitive networks may be either in the form ~+y=[z1i .5) constitute a primitive network. While in general [y] matrix can be obtained by inverting the [z] matrix. sudden load loss or increment.{lA) and (1. then the matrices [z] and [y] are diagonal matrices. faults on lines. elements of [y] matrix are obtained by taking reciprocals of the elements of [z] matrix. 1. circuit opening and reswitching etc.. . short circuits at different locations.. as otherwise. Study of simple power systems with single machine or a group of machines represented by a single machine.

However. physical.2 Definitions Elemellt of a Graph: Each network element is replaced by a line segment or an arc while constructing a graph for a network. The advent of high speed digital computers has made it possible to use graph theory advantageously for larger network analysis. social and biological sciences. Node or Vertex: The terminal of an element is called a node or a vertex. . It may be mentioned that Kirchoff was the first to develop theory of trees for applications to electrical network.2 2. 2. T.1 GRAPH THEORY Introduction Graph theory has many applications in several fields such as engineering. for smaller networks node or mesh analysis is more convenient than the use of graph theory. Degree: The number of edges connected to a vertex or node is called its degree.dge: An element of a graph is called an edge. linguistics etc. In Electrical Engineering Graph Theory is used to predict the behaviour of the network in analysis. Each line segment or arc is cailed an element. In this chapter a brief account of graphs theory is given that is relevant to power transmission networks and their analysis. Any physical situation that involves discrete objects with interrelationships can be represented by a graph. Each potential source is replaced by a short circuit. Each current source is replaced by an open circuit.

2. 2.1 (a) Planar Graph (b) Non-Planar Graph. Rank: The rank of a graph is n . Sub Graph: Any subset of elements of the graph is called a subgraph A subgraph is said to be proper if it consists of strictly less than all the elements and nodes of the graph. 2.Graph Theory 7 Graph: An element is said to be incident on a node. if it can be drawn without-out cross over of edges. a graph is said to be connected if there exists at least one path between every pair of nodes. 2. The oriented connected graph is shown in Fig.2(a). Otherwise it is called non-planar (Fig. The network can thus be represented by an interconnection of elements. Fig. Closed Path or Loop: The set of elements traversed starting from one node and returning to the same node form a closed path or loop. Nodes can be incident to one or more elements.I where n is the number of nodes in the graph. Planar Graph : A graph is said to be planar. 2. Path: A path is defined as a subgraph of connected elements SLlch that not more than two elements are connected to anyone node.2(a) shows the single line diagram of a simple power network consisting of generating stations. If there is a path between every pair of nodes then the graph is said to be connected. r-------. J). 2.3 (a) (b) Fig. The actual interconnections of the elements gives a graph.3 for the same system.2(b) shows the positive sequence network of the system in Fig.2 (a) Power system single-line diagram (b) Positive sequence network diagram . transmission lines and loads. (a) (b) Fig. 2. if the node is a terminal of the element. Alternatively. Oriented Graph: An oriented graph is a graph with direction marked for each element Fig.

1 ) If e is the total number of elements then the number of links I of a connected graph with hranches b is given by I==e-·h .. 2. 2. not necessarily connected called co-tree.. the rank of a tree is n-I and is equal to the rank of the graph.... containing no loops... 5 . 2. The branches of a tree are called twigs.3 are indicated in Fig.('4 e = number of elements = 6 b=n-I=4-1=3 I =e-n+I=6-4+1=3 / / @ Fig. . The number of nodes and the number of branches in a tree are related by b = n-I .3 Tree and Co-Tree Tree: A tree is an oriented connected subgraph of an oriented connected graph containing all the nodes of the graph. (2.. For a connected graph and subgraph: I.3 Oriented connected graph. 2.4(b). There is a co-tree for every tree.. from eq... /.._-.Power System Analysis ~ CD.. (2.1).tree of the graph for the system shown in Fig.. (2. but..---+-. 2. every tree has two terminal nodes and 4... 2.. 2.. (2.3. There exists only one path between any pair of nodes on a tree ') every connected graph has at least one tree 3. Co-tree is the complement of tree...4(a) and Fig..----3 ". The remaining branches of the graph are called links or chords. A tree has (n-I) branches where n is the number of nodes of graph G.3) A tree and the corresponding co .. it can be written that l=e-n+1 .---1~---Q) 4 5 Fig.4 (a) Tree for the system in Fig. Co-tree: The links form a subgraph..- n = number of nodes = 4 / 2 .~ ~ CD -.2) Hence..

_ I --e _e ..5 Basic loops for the tree in Fig. Consider the graph in Fig.4(a). Fig.. It is also true that the removal of K branches reduces the rank of G by one.Graph Theory 5 9 CD---+-. 2..-: @ Fig. 2. such that the removal of all K branches divides the graph into two parts. 2... 2. As an example to the tree in Fig._ ---e 3 (b) .4 (b) Co-tree for the system in Fig. GL 5 ---.. I I . 2. - CD ~=--+---~@ .4(a). . 2... which is a closed path.2) or (2. Loops which contain only one link are called independent loops or hasic loops. 2. . .3).5 shows the basic loops for the tree in Fig.. Fig. provided no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of G by one when it is removed from G. It can be observed that the number of basic loops is equal to the number of links given by equation (2.6 . 2.6(a).--3 (e) Fig..-+-..4(a) if the link 6 is added.. 2. 2._ (a) --e {.3. 2.5 Cut-Set A Cut set is a minimal set of branches K of a connected graph G.. a loop containing the elements 1-2-6 is obtained.4 Basic Loops 1\ loop is obtained whenever a link is added to a tree.

2.10 Power System Analysis The rank of the graph = (no. 4. It separates nodes of the graphs into two graphs. removal of which cuts the graph into two parts. 2. 4 and 3 are removed the graph is divided into two sub graphs as shown in Fig.7 Cut-set for the tree in Fig.@ ~ @ 3 :. If branches 1 and 3 are removed two sub graphs are obtained as in Fig. All the links which go from one part of this disconnected tree to the other. Also. Now consider the tree in Fig. then these independent cut-sets are called basic cutsets. Each basic cut-set contains at least one branch with respect to which the tree is defined which is not contained in the other basic cut-set.. For this reason. 3) set is a sub-set of (I.7. 3 may also be a cut-set. In order to understand basic cut-sets select a tree.4(a).. Each group is in one of the two sub graphs. 2.4(a). Cut-set A contains the branch 1 and links 5 and 6 and is oriented in the same way as branch J. Thus 1 and 3 may be a cut-set. 2. The orientation of the basic cut-set is chosen as to coincide with that of the branch of the tree defining the cut-set. 6 and 5 is oriented as branch 2 and the cutsets are shown in Fig.1) = 4 . 8 5 .6(c) Branches I. In both the above cases the rank both of the sub graphs is 1 + 1 = 2. If the twig is removed the tree is separated into two parts. Consider a twig bk of the tree. 4. It can be noted that (I.6 BasiC Cut-Sets If each cut-set contains only one branch. The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph.:---- Fig..6(b).I = 3. 3) set. 2. 2. . Consider node (1) and branch or twig 1. of nodes n . 2.-"If'-- 1~~~4---. together with the twig bk constitutes a cut-set called basic cut-set. In a similar way C cut-set cuts the branch 3 and links 4 and 5 and is oriented in the same direction as branch 3.. if branches 1. the n -I basic cut-sets of a tree are linearly independent. Finally cut-set B cutting branch 2 and also links 4.

2. draw the graph and mark a tree.® 6 3 CD ------~~------~------~-------- ® 2 @ Fig. How many trees will this graph have? Mark the basic cutsets and basic loops. 5 6 3 Fig. E.Graph Theory 11 Worked Examples 2. ._------------_.2. but no closed path is called a tree. E.1 For the network shown in figure below.2.2 Number of nodes n = 5 Number of elements e = 6 The graph can be redrawn as. QDe-__________~5.1 Solution: Assume that bus (1) is the reference bus 4 Fig.3 Tree : A connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph. E.

E. of branches = 4. ~- D ./ ./.D.2. 8 Fig. are shown in figure.S The number of basic cutsets = no. 0 \ ).2.B.. (Take 1-2-3-4 as tree 1)../ ..2./ .6 . ®___----4----~-~ c <D-------~-------+-------------~~ A~~@ Fig. E./"-.C...4 Number of branches n-1 = 5-1 = 4 Number of links = e-b = 6-4 = 2 (Note: Number of links = Number of co-trees)..2 Show the basic loops and basic cutsets for the graph shown below and verify any relations that exist between them./ \ \ \ <D~--~--~~---~--------e @ 2 ® Fig.. .3 6 .12 5 Power System Analysis ®--------~-----.. E. the cutsets A.. 2./.

... draw the tree and the corresponding co-tree.7 Tree and Co-tree for the graph. 2.3 For the graph given in figure below.Graph Theory Solution: . Branches..2.2. Fig. E.S Basic cut sets A. 13 ~----~~ ' .9 Oriented connected graph. Choose a tree of your choice and hence write the cut-set schedule. B. E. Fig.2. loops that contain only one link are called basic loops. If a link is added to the tree a loop is formed. D.~--o-_+_--<:)@ Fig. b=n-1 =5-1=4 I =e-b =8-4=4 The four loops are shown in Fig.--o----. C. CD o---. .. The number of basic cuts (4) = number of branches b(4). E.

E. a tree and its co-tree..12 ..--O-+--~ @ Fig.11 Solution: <D Q .2.2.7.3.3.--O----.10 Basic cut sets A.2 2. E.4 2.. E. B.14 Solution: Power System Analysis Fig.4 For the power systems shown in figure draw the graph. The f-cut set schedule (fundamental or basic) A: B: c: D: 1.5 3.. D.2.. Fig.6 6. C.-.

E.2.2 Draw the graph for the circuit shown. P. P.2.4.1 Draw the graph for the network shown.2.Graph Theory 15 CD ® Fig. Fig. Draw a tree and co-tree for the graph. Fig. Problems P 2.2 .13 Tree and Co-tree 2.1 P 2.

4 2. basic cut-sets and the number of branches.5 . (i) Graph (ii) Node (iii) Rank of a graph (iv) Path 2.3 Draw the graph for the network shown. Power System Analysis Fig. Define the following terms with suitable example: (i) Tree (ii) Branches (iii) Links (iv) Co-Tree (v) Basic loop Write down the relations between the number of nodes. basic loops and open loops. Define the following terms. Questions 2. P.2 2.1 Explain the following terms: (i) Basic loops (ii) Cut set (iii) Basic cut sets Explain the relationship between the basic loops and links.16 P 2.3 Mark basic cutsets.3 2. number of links and number of elements.2. number of branches.

(a) Element-node incidence matrix (b) Bus incidence matrix (c) Branch path incidence matrix (d) Basic cut-set incidence matrix (e) Basic loop incidence matrix Of these. Incidence Matrices The following incidence matrices are of interest in power network analysis. These various incidence matrices are basically derived from the connectivity or incidence of an element to a node. using singular or non singular transformation.3 INCIDENCE MATRICES There are several incidence matrices that are important in developing the various networks matrices such as bus impedance matrix. branch admittance matrix etc. path.. the bus incidence matrices is the most important one : . cutset or loop.

6 . A is less 3. 2. [n fact any node of the connected graph can be selected as the reference node. ~ 1 2 4 (0) (I) -I (2) (3) 1 1 1 -I A 3 1 -I 1 4 5 6 -I -1 1 -1 Fig..3).1 ) It can be inferred that the columns of A are linearly independent. It is seen from the elements of the matrix that g~O u pg 3 = 0.. . The rank of than n the number of nodes in the graph. It is denoted by A .18 Power System Analysis 3. This is shown in Fig. 2. the dimension of this matrix is ex (n . 3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix Element node incidence matrix A shows the incidence of elements to nodes in the connected graph.. 3.1 the bus-incidence matrix for the system in Fig. 2.1. (3.3 as a reference node. 3.. (2. .2(a) is obtained. p = I. 2. The matrix obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference node in the element node incidence matrix A is called bus incidence matrix A... 3. Thus.. 2. The element-node incidence matrix will have the dimension exn where 'e' is the number of elements and n is the number of nodes in the graph.1 Element-node incidence-matrix for the graph of Fig..3 is shown in Fig.2 Bus Incidence Matrix The network in Fig. The incidence or connectivity is indicated by the operator as follows: a pq = 1 if the plh element is incident to and directed away from the g the node. Deleting the column corresponding to node (0) from Fig. a pq = 0 if the plh element is not incident to the glh node.1 = b.. n .2. where b is the number of branches in the graph.I) and the rank will therefore be. a pq = -I if the plh element is incident to and directed towards the g the node.2(b) contains a reference reflected in Fig. The element node incidence matrix for the graph of Fig.

3. =0 For the system in Fig.Path Incidence Matrix K Branch path incidence matrix. -I -' +1 -I 1 4 5 6 -1 -1 +1 -1 Fig. as the name itself suggests. 3. I correspond to links. 2. 3.. If the rows are arranged in the order of a specific tree. Kpq Kpq = -1 If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the If the pth branch is not in the path from the qth bus to reference. Node (0) is assumed as reference.1) and AI of dimension I" (n .3 Partitioning of matrix A.3) for the matrix in (Fig. . the branch-path incidence matrix K is shown in Fig. 3.I). opposite direction.4. shows the incidence of branches to paths in a tree.3 Branch . 3.3). 3.Incidence Matrices 19 ~ 1 (I ) -I (2) (3) A= 2 . the matrix A can be partitioned into two submatrices Ab of the dimension bx (n -.4(a).2 Bus Incidence Matrix for graph in (2. This is shown in ~ A= 1 2 3 (1) (2) (3) ~ 1 (1 ) (2) (3) -1 -1 1 -1 1 -I -I A= I 2 3 4 5 Ab 4 5 6 AI -1 6 Fig. The rows of A" correspond to branches and the rows of A (Fig. The elements of this matrix are indicated by the operators as follows: Kpq = I If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the same direction.2).

the paths and buses can be related by All Kl c~.. r3 rq (he cc 0 if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth hasic cut-set... 3.5 BaSIC Cut-set incidence matrix for the graph in 3... if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the qth basic cut-set...~·Q) "- ~ • C BaSIC Cut-sets B A C CV 3 / 1 2 I 1 1 -\ I B= / .. 2.. For the graph in Fig. .. U where LJ is a unit matrix.6).. 3. The basic cut~set incidence matrix has the dimensiol1 e x b... Kl = Ab I . 3. the partitioned matrix is shown in (Fig.... 5 .1 ~ / ~ 1 2 3 (I) (2) (3) Path 3 / / -1 -1 0 ~ /~ ~ -1 -1 ® --tree ...... 3""" CD ..4 Basic Cut-Set Incidence Matrix ['his matriA depicts the connectivity of elements to basic cut-sets of the connected graph. _-4 __ / I-illt---+_f-X-".. ..- P:h path1~..20 ".3(a) basic clit-set incidence matriA B is obtained a~ in Fig.4 Branch-Path Incidence Matrix for network While the branch path incidence matrix relates branches to paths. The elements of the matrix are indicated by the operator as follows: 0"Ci ~rq .3 gives the connectivity between branches and buses.. It is possible to partition the basic cut-set incidence matrix B into two submatrices UB and lJ I cOl:responding to branches and Iinks respectively.. Thus.5(a) drawn and shown..2) Hence 3.--6 Power System Analysis '" /'''' /' .. 3... For the example on hand..- cotree Fig.(4 3 4 \ 1 -\ 5 I 6 -I Fig.. the sub matrix Ab of Fig.. . ~. (3.... if the pth element is not incident to the qth basic cut-set.

5) 0 0 -\ -\ -\ 0 -\ --1 0 0 -\ 0 \ -\ \ \ \ \ \ 0 0 --I \ \ 0 0 Fig.:: c ....3 ) . (3.c: 0 QJ C B= co «l "- Ub 3 4 \ -\ 5 \ -\ 6 -\ \ 0 . (3. . (3.:. 3.6). There is a one-to-one correspondence between branches and basic cut-sets.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix In section 2.. 3. --' <Jl BI Fig.. 1 3. 3.sion are shown..2) Kt Substituting this result in equation (3.7 basic loops for the sample system under discu<.Incidence Matrices 21 Basic Cut-sets B C \ \ \ \ ~ \ 2 Basic Cut-sets <Jl A .I However from equation (3. I rq if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth basic loop..\) BI=AIK t This is illustrated in Fig.... (3.3 basic loops are defined and in Fig.4) A b. The incidence of the elemenb is indicated by the operator as follows: Y .6 Illustration of equation AI Kt =8 .5 The identity matrix U b shows the one-to-one correspondence between branches and basic cut-sets.. It may be recalled that the incidence of links to buses is shown by submatrix AI and the !Ilcidence of branches to buses by A b . Since the incidence of I inks to buses is given by BlAb = AI Therefore BI = AI Ab -I = .. Basic Loop incidence matrix C shows the incidence of the elements of the connected graph to the basic loops.. 0 - ...

transmission lines. . 3. Cb 5 6 ~ :J '" c:: UI Fig.. B.7 Basic loops (D.<:: u <lJ Basic loops '" CO c:: c::I . 7. capacitor banks etc.6 Network Performance Equations The power system network consists of components such as generators. F) and open loops (A. x The basic loop incidence matrix has the dimension e Fig. transformers.. E. 3. 3..9. The unit matrix V. C). Fig.3. It is possible to partition the basic loop incidence matrix as in Fig.. 3. circuit breakers. if the pth element is not incident to the qth loop.. 3.8.8 Basic loop incidence matrix for Fig. I and the matrix is shown in ~ c= 1 2 3 4 D E F -I -1 -I 1 1 1 1 0 I -1 5 6 1 Fig. which are all connected together to perform specific function.9 Partitioning of basic loop incidence matrix. Some are in series and some are in shunt connection. ~ c= 1 2 3 4 Basic loops -1 -1 I 1 -1 1 I I I I I~ . 3. shown the one-to-one correspondence of links to basic loops.22 Ypq = Power System Analysis -1 Ypq = 0 if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the qth basic loop.

. (3. each node is also a bus. Then (1) (1) [ZBUS] = (2) rZ11 Z21 Z31 (2) z12 Z22 Z32 (3) The impedance elements on the principal diagonal are called driving point impedances of the buses and the off-diagonal elements are called transfer impedances of the buses.... following Ohm's law will be V ==[ZBUS] IBus where. Bus impedance matrix The elements of bus impedance matrix are open circuit driving point and transfer impedances.10) where f BR Vector of currents through branches.. Vector of impressed bus currents. network analysis is performed either by nodal or by loop method. (3.. (3.8) In a similar way. Consider a 3-bus or 3-node system. . (3. By definition . in the bus frame of reference the performance of the power network is described by (n-1) independent nodal equations. - . (3.. then b independent branch equation of the form - V BR == [ZBR ].6) V BUS = T BUS = [ZBUS] = Vector of bus voltages measured with respect to a reference bus.. In case of power system... we can obtain the performance equations in the branch frame of reference....7) where [YBUS ] == bus admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point and transfer admittances.. If b is the number of branches.9) . In the admittance frame of reference ... Thus.. generally..IBR describe network performance. In the admittance form ..Incidence Matrices 23 Whatever may be their actual configuration. In the impedance form the performance equation. where n is the total number of nodes..

7 Network Matrices It is indicated in Chapter ..VLOOP - .1 that network solution can be carried out using Ohm's Law and KirchoWs Law.11 ) . (3.. [ZBR] = Branch impedance matrix whose elements are open circuit driving point and transfer impedances of the branches of the network. in the loop frame of reference. the bus impedance or bus admittance are used.... the performance equation can be described by I independent loop equations where I is the number of links or basic loops. I LOOP and in the admittance form I LOOP = [YLOOP]. Thus it is necessary to derive equations that relate these various models. In network analysis students of electrical engineering are familiar with nodal analysis and mesh analysis using Kirchoff's laws.12) where. e can be used depending upon the situation or the type of problem encountered. (3.. i or the admittance model i =Y. Network matrices can be formed hy two methods: Viz. The impedance model given by e =Z.24 V BR Power System Analysis Vector of voltages across the branches. V LOOP = Vector of basic loop voltages - It O()p Vector of hasic loop currents [ZLOOp J = Loop impedance matrix Loop admittance matrix [ Y LOOP] = 3.. In the impedance from V lOOP -= rZ LOClP 1. In most of the power network solutions. [Y BR] = Branch admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point and transfer admittances of the branches of the network.. Like wise. (a) Singular transformation and (b) Direct method .

.. (3.. IBus = [AI]] Substituting eqs....1) to bus quantities of the network using bus incidence matrix. the algebraic sum of currents at any node or bus must be zero.14) and (3.Network Matrices 25 Singular Transformations The network matrices that are used commonly in power system analysis that can be obtained by singular transformation are : (i) (ii) Bus admittance matrix Bus impedance matrix Branch admittance matrix Branch impedance matrix Loop impedance matrix Loop admittance matrix (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3.18) . i+ j =[y]u Pre multiplying by [N].... (3. (3. wherein. [AI] i thus is a vector. Following Kirchoff's current law. (3. each element is the algebraic sum of the currents that terminate at any of the buses.15) into (3. the transpose of the bus incidence matrix [A I] - i + [A I] ] = A I [y] u ... (3.. Hence..15) I BUS = [A I ] [y] U ..13) Matrix A shows the connections of elements to buses.5).. (3.. Consider eqn...8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix The bus admittance matrix Y BUS can be obtained by determining the relation between the variables and parameters of the primitive network described in section (2... power in the network is given by [IBus']IYBus = PBUS Power in the primitive network is given by .. (3..16) In the bus frame.17) .. Hence [AI] i = 0 ..13) . (1.14) Again [AI] J term indicates the algebraic sum of source currents at each of the buses and must equal the vector of impressed bus currents.

The variables and parameters of primitive network are related to the variables and parameters of the branch admittance network. (3... for transformation of variables to be invariant..24) [y BUS] V BUS [N] [y] [A] ... (3..21) into (3..e.28) [8]1 [y] ~ .. (3.21) G*) t [A].. is used. (3...20) However.19) Conjugate transpose of eqn. (3..9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices In order to obtain the branch admittance matrix Y BR' the basic cut-set incidence matrix [8].. (3.25) [Y BUS] = .. (ZBUS) can be determined from the relation....22) into (3..26) Once [Y BUS] is evaluated from the above transformation. For the primitive network - i + j = [y]u Prerpultiplying by Bt [B]l i + [8]t j == . Therefore [I BUS ]V BUS = [j ]u - • - -* - . 3... that the bus frame of referee corresponds to the given primitive network in performance.19) ..... (3...23) [N] [y] [A] V BUS ...... ZBUS =Y 0s = {[At][y][A] s }-l ... VBUS = (j')tu i. (3. as A is real matrix A = A * [IBus']1 = (j")t[A] Substituting (3. (3.27) 3. Power consumed in both the circuits is the same. (3.16) IBUS From eqn... Substituting eqn....29) . (3.. That is to say.7 I BUS Hence == == .15) gives [I BUS • r = [j' r A' . (3......26 Power System Analysis Power must be invariant.. (3 :22) .

) \) = [B]V BR = .. (3. Thus each element of the vector [Bt] i represents the algebraic sum of the currents entering a sub network which must be zero by Kirchoff's law.40) [Z]BR = ...34) ..e..VBR = j \) conjugate transpose of eqn.. (3...Network Matrices It is clear that the matrix [B] shows the incidence of elements to basic cut-sets.30) [Bt] j is a vector in which each element is the algebraic sum of the source currents of the elements incident to the basic cut-set and represents the total source current in parallel with a branch.38) [Y BR] = [B]l [y] [B] .. (3.. (3....36) Substituting eqs. t _ _. = IBR .31 ) ..35) into (3. (3.38) comparing (3.35) .. .. 27 Each element of the vector [Bt] i is the algebraic sum of the currents through the elements that are connected to a basic cut-set.. The branch impedance matrix. the branch voltages and currents are related by - ... _.. (3..... [Bt] j therefore..32) IBR = [B]t[y][B]V BR However. (3.... (3.. (3..3\) gives previous eqn..VBR ..37) and (3.37) lBR =[YBR]... Hence.33) r t [B] • = I BR"t.. (3. (i..[V] B~ = {[B t ][y][B]} -1 . is given by [Z]BR = [Y BR]-I ....32) (j)'t [B]*VBR = (f)t u As [B] is a real matrix [B]* Hence.32) IBR = [Bt][y]u For power invariance. the basic cut-set matrix [B] is a singular matrix the transformation [Y BR] is a singular transformation of [y]. (3.. ..t_ IBR . Substituting this in the [B] .. (3. then. Every cut-set divides the network into two connected sub networks. (3.. (3.39) Since.

. (3....28 Power System Analysis 3..47) V LOOP = [C t ] [z][C]lLOoP - . the algebraic sum of the voltages around a loop is zero...45) Therefore...46) . (3..11) is V LOOP = [Z LOOP ]1 LOOP . [CI] \) yields the algebraic sum of the voltages around each basic loop. (3.... as [C] is a real matrix [C] = [CO] Hence.... . (3.45) & (3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices The loop impedance matrix is designated by [ZLooP]' The basic loop incidence matrix [C] is used to obtain [ZLoOp] in terms of the elements of the primitive network. Hence. (3.. The performance equation of the primitive network is \) + e = [Z] i Premultiplying by [CI] .. so that... .44) for all values of e . [CI] ~ = O. i = [C]ILOOP . (3. (3...41) .47) From eqns. for the loop frame of reference the performance equation from eqn. By Kirchoff's voltage law...49) .42) As the matrix [C] shows the incidence of elements to basic loops.......48) However. (3... i = [Co] I lLOoP However... (3. Substituting VLOOP from eqn.. Also [CI] e gives the algebraic sum of source voltages around each basic loop.43)..43) (ILOOP*)I [CI]e=[i*]'e . (3. (3. (3.43) From power invariance condition for both the loop and primitive networks . (3.

(3. (3. GI Load <II . if there are no mutual impedances between elements..49) equation 29 [ZLOOP] == [ct] [z] [C] of [z]. . The generator is represented by a voltage source in series with the impedance. by direct inspection of the network.y of Singular Transformations [ztl == [y] [AI] [y] [A] == [Y BUS].10 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig..48) & (3. Consider the three bus power system as shown in Fig.50) [C] being a singular matrix the transformation eqn.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection Bus admittance matrix can be obtained for any network..Network Matrices comparing (3. below... (3. The three transmission lines are replaced by their "1t equivalents".50) is a singular transformation [Y LOOP] == [Z-I LOOP ] == {[C]I [z] [C]}-I .. [Y BR]-I == [ZBR] [CI] [Z] [C] == [ZLOOP]. The loop admittance matrix is obtained from .51) Summar.. 3. [Y BUS]-I == [ZBUS] [BI] [y] [B] == [Y BR].. l [ZLOOPt == [Y LOOP] 3. This is explained by taking an example. Fig..

.V3 ) y 9 .V2) Y 7 .52) 12 = 15 + 19 .V2) Y 7 + (V] . 3..11 The equivalent circuit is further simplified as in the following figure combining the shunt admittance wherever feasible.30 Power System Analysis Fig. 3.. (3.. The Kirchofrs nodal current equations are written as follows: At Node I : I] = 17 + Is + 14 I] = (V] ..V3) Y8 + V] Y4 At Node 2 : .(V I .53) . VI II CD Is '7 Z7 17 19 Z9 VI @ 12 ® Zs 16 Z6 Z3 V3 13 '4 Z4 15 Z5 Fig.12 The three nodes are at voltage V I' V2 and V3 respectively above the ground.. (3.17 = V2 Y5 + (V 2 ..

57) It may be recognized that the diagonal terms in the admittance matrix at each of the nodes are the sum of the admittances of the branches incident to the node. (3.. The offdiagonal elements are denoted by Y I2 =-Y7 Y13 =-Yg Y 21= -Y7 .V3 (Yg+ Y9+ Y6) The last of the above equations may be rewritten as -13 = -VI Yg .55(a)) .56) = (V 1 .55(b)) .. Thus. (3.V3 Yg I2=-VI Y7+V2(YS+Y7+Y9)-V3 Y9 I3 = VI Yg + V2 Y9....58) Y 23 =-YS Y 31 =-Yg Y 32 = -Y9 .59) using double suffix denoting the nodes across which the admittances exist.... (3.diagonal terms are the negative of these admittances branch .. Thus the relation in eqn... (3.Network Matrices At Node 3 : 13 = 31 Ig + 19 .diagonal elements.. (3..... (3.. The matrix can be written easily by direct inspection of the network...55(c)) ... 3. The diagonal elements are denoted by YII = Y4 + Y7 + Yg } Y22 = Y5 + Y7 + Y9 and Y33 = Y6 + Yg + Y9 They are called self admittances of the nodes or driving point admittances.16 ......54) .V2 Y9+ V3 (Y 6 + Yg+ Y9) Thus we get the matrix relationship from the above .91 can be rewritten as . the diagonal element is the negative sum of the off .. (3.V3) Yg + (V 2 ... They are called mutual admittances or transfer admittances..V2 Y7 . (3. The off ...V3) Y9 .V3 Y6 Re arranging the terms the equations will become II = VI (Y4 + Y7 + Yg) .wise incident on the node.

...32 Power System Analysis . the general expression for the source current towards the node i is given by Ii = I n YI) vJ .....62) j=l . (3. (3. if there are n independent buses. Thus. i '* j ..61) In power systems each node is called a bus.. (3..60) ...

2 The basic loops are shown in the following figure. the basic cutsets are marked. ® 5 @ 3 6 2 Fig.l.1 For the network shown in figure form the bus incidence matrix. E.l . A. E.Network Matrices 33 Worked Examples E 3.1 Solution: For the tree and co-tree chosen for the graph shown below.---~o_---~--~~ 2 Fig.l.l._-----4-----o@ / / 4 J( / / / / / ffio----. 5 @O--------_. Bus (l) is taken as reference. ®o-------~------__o@ B~- __ I I t / ffio-----l~--__<"r_---~---o® ~ Fig. E. branch path incidence matrix K and loop incidence matrix C.

E.3. = Y -= GO Wl ~ 1 2 5 6 3 4 (2) (3) (4) (5) -1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~s B branches L links Buses -1 1 0 1 1 0 -1 Ab -1 1 0 .S (ii) Branch path incidence matrix (K) : @o----------0111:---------1J@ 5 I . E 3.6 Branches and the paths.: = ~ -1 -1 Al 1 0 Fig.4 A== = .------I I I 61 I I I I I I ~ ~ 2 +-------® +-------------Fig.34 (i) Power System Analysis Bus incidence matrix Number of buses == number of nodes ~ 1 2 (2) (3) (4) (5) -1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A== 3 -1 1 0 0 0 -1 -1 1 0 4 1 0 0 5 6 -1 -1 Fig..:.3. E. .. .

3.7 Branches and the paths. jO. including the generator buses.Network Matrices 35 ~ 1 K= 2 5 6 (2) (3) (4) (5) -1 -1 -1 0 1 -1 -1 Fig.9 .4 j 0.2 Form the YBUS by using singular transformation for the network shown in Fig.3. E 3.8 Branches and the paths. E.25 j 0. (iii) Basic loop incidence matrix C : ~ 1 C= 2 3 4 A B 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 r~ 1 C= 2 5 A B 1 6 3 4 5 6 1 -1 1 -1 1 0 1 -1 0 1 1 1 1 -1 1 0 Fig. E 3.4 jO.25 Fig. E.

3.3. E.12 .3. E.10 The oriented graph is shown in Fig.36 Power System Analysis Solution: The given network is represented in admittance form Fig. below @:- a. CDC>--------il-----o@ f b c o------4f-------o@ e d Fig.11 b c ---@ The above graph can be converted into the following form for convenience f e Fig. E.

e\bl a b 2 3 0 4 0 -1 +1 0 0 A=C d e f b\el -1 0 0 -1 +1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 +1 0 -1 -1 0 0 +1 a b c 0 d 0 e 0 f N=2 3 [_~1 1 0 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -~11 f 0 0 0 0 0 (1) -1 1 4 The bus admittance matrix -1 YBUS = [A]I [y] [A] a b 0 c 0 0 d 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 (2) 0 0 (3) 0 -1 (4) 0 0 0 0 a Y a b 0 [y] [A] = c 0 d 0 e 0 f Yb 0 0 0 Yc 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 Yd 0 Y e 0 1 0 -I 0 0 0 0 Yf 0 .Network Matrices the element node incidence matrix is given by e\n a b A = c d e f 1\ 37 I 0 2 0 0 3 0 4 0 0 +1 -1 0 +1 0 0 -I -1 +1 0 +1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 +1 0 -1 0 +1 0 -1 0 Bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference bus.

5 -13 4 4 -6.5 2. E.3.5 4 [ 2~5 2. Y BUS = 0 2. E.13 .S.3.5 [y][A] = 0 0 4 5 -4 0 0 2.5 -4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 -2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 -10 whence.5 0 E 3.38 Power System Analysis 5 -2.5 -4 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 1 -1 0 -1 (4) 0 0 ~Il 0 0 4 5 -4 0 0 4 -2.5 YBUS = [A]l [y] [A] = (2) 0 (3) 0 (lr a b 0 c 0 d e 0 f 2 -2.5 0 0 0 2. Fig.3 Find the YBUS using singular transformation for the system shown in Fig.

..Network Matrices Solution: The graph may be redrawn for convenient as follows 7 39 Graph Fig.. E.. E.14 A tree and a co-tree are identified as shown below.-CO-tree Fig...3.3. _ _ _ _Tree ..1S 1\ The element mode incidence matrix A is given by (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -1 1 -I 2 3 1\ 1 0 0 0 0 0 -I -1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 A= 4 5 -1 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 0 0 1 8 9 0 1 0 ..

40 Power System Analysis The bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the first column taking (0) node as reference. 1 (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 Ab -1 = Al 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 4 A= 5 6 7 8 9 [ 1 [~J = l U I 0 0 0 -1 0 0 YIO 0 Y20 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y 40 0 0 0 0 Y34 0 0 0 0 0 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 YI2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 0 0 0 Given [y] == 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 [Y Bus] == AI [y] A 0 Y20 YIO 0 0 0 0 Y40 0 0 0 0 Y34 0 0 0 0 0 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 [y][A] == 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 .

4 Derive an expression for 5 ZIOOP for the oriented grapb shown below Fig.3.Y23 -Y24 (y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23 + Y 34 ) -Y34 ~y~ 1 .Network Matrices 0 Y20 41 YIO 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y40 -Y34 0 0 0 0 0 YI2 0 0 0 -Y23 -Y12 -Y24 0 Y34 Y23 0 0 Y24 0 0 Y\3 0 -Y\3 0 0 0 Y20 YIO 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y 40 -Y34 0 (1) [At] [y] [A] = (2) (3) (4) [~ 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 -1 6 0 -1 1 7 1 -1 8 0 -1 0 9 0 0 0 0 Y12 0 0 0 .Y34 (y 40 + Y 34 + Y 24 ) E 3.) (Y20 -Y12 -y13 ..16 .Y23 -Y12 .Y23 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24) .Y13 +y. E.Y24 0 Y34 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r'] 0 0 Y24 0 0 Y\3 0 -Y13 0 0 0 Y BUS = flY"~ +y" -Y12 .

.--+.-•• Basic loops .17 1\ The augmented loop incidence matrix C is obtained as shown from the Fig. e 1 I 2 A 1 B C D E F 1 1 G 1 1 0 1 1 1\ C 3 I 1 1 0 0 1 0 -1 4 5 0 1 [*..Open loops Fig... E.42 Solution: Consider the tree and co-tree identified in the Fig...3.l 6 7 1 The basic loop incidence matrix e 1 I E F 1 1 G 1 1 0 1 1 2 C= 3 6 4 0 0 1 0 -1 0 1 [~b] 5 7 1 ZIOOp = [Ct] [Z] [C] = [CUUI][~~: ~~lll [~:] [Zloop]= C~[Zbb]cb + [Zbb]cb +CaZbl]+[Zn] . shown Power System Analysis .

l - (3) 1 (3) [ .08) and half line charging admittance of jO.6 Consider the linear graph shown below which represents a 4 bus transmission system with all the shunt admittance lumped together.l jOA E 3.Network Matrices 43 Note: It is not necessary to form the augmented loop incidence matrix for this problem only loop incidence matrix suffices].l 1 -+1 jO. E.j12.5 jO.3. E 3. Compute the YBUS by singular transformation. Compute the YBUS also by inspection. The impedance marked are in p.5 For the system shown in figure obtain YBUS by inspection method.l 1 1 = (2)[_ j12 (3) jl0 + jl0 ] .18 (2) YBUS 1 1 (2) . Each line has a series impedance of (0.5 jO.u.+ _ jO.02 + j 0.02.3. Solution: (2) j 0.jO.4 (1) (3) Fig. Take bus (l)as reference. E. 3 <D~-----~"'--------1/#@ Fig.19 .

94 .94 .75 0 0 0 0 2.08 2.94 .02 + jO.94.jl1.jl1.75 [y]= 0 0 0 0 0 .94 .44 Solution: Power System Analysis The half -line charging admittances are all connected to ground.75 0 0 0 0 0 2. Taking this ground as reference and eliminating it. The bus incidence matrix is given by (0) 1 A= (1) (2) (3) 1 -1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 -1 -1 2 3 0 1 -1 0 0 0 a 4 5 0 0 -I incidence matrix is given by. YI 0 [y]= 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y3 0 0 0 Y4 0 0 Ys The admittance of all the branches are the same i.7. the transport of the bus 1 0 0 2 0 3 4 5 0 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 2 -I 1 1 0 -I 0 0 0 -I -I -I The primitive admittance matrix [ y ] is shown below.jl1.75 0 0 2.jl1.5 0 0 0 0 2.e =-=---Z 0.jll.

75 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO .j 11.75 8.j11.94 .94 .2.94 + jl1.75 I Solution by inspection including line charging admittances: Yoo = Y01 + Y03 + Yo ~ + Yo 3/2 Yoo = [2.75 0+ jO -2.75 0+ jO .2.j11.2.94 + j11.94 + j11.94 + j11.94 .2.j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO .75 .j11.j35.75 .75 .75 2.j23.88 .94.j11.75 0+ jO 2.Network Matrices [y] [A] = 2.75 .jl1.2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO .75 0+ jO 2.88.5 .94.94 .2.75 .94 + j11.75 5.2.2.j11.jI 1.j23.294 + jl1.jll.j 23.75 -294+ j11.94 + j11.2.75] Yoo = [5.94 .75 0+ jO .75 0 0 0 0 0 2.94+jll. 75 0 0 • 0 45 1 0 -I 0 1 0 0 0 -I -I 0 1 1 -I 1 0 -I 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 2.2.5 -2.94 .75 0 0 0 0 0 2.82 .jI1.02 + 2.2.46] Yoo = Y22 = 5.94 .75 2.2.75 0 0 0 0 0 2.94 + j11.2.j11.94 + j11.94 .75 + jO.94 .75 .75 2.94 + j11.75 5.94 .j35.j23.7 .j 11.94.75 2.75 2.75 0+ jO .94+ j11.02 + jO.25 .j11.94 + j11.2.82 .75 2.94 .jl1.75 Y BUS = [N] [y] [A] [~I 0 0 1 0 1 -1 0 0 0 -1 -1 j} 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 2.94 .jl1.94 + j11.88.94 + jl1.75 .75 0+ jO .94 + jl1.75 8.2.75 0 0 0 0 0 2.94 + jl1.94 .46 Yl1 = YIO + Y12 + Y13 + YIO/2 + Y12/2 + Y13/2 Y33 = [Y30 + Y31 + Y32 + Y30/2 + Y31/2 + Y32/2] .jI 1.94.94 + j11.2.88 .

l. Generators are connected at buses 1 and 3 reactances of which are jO.94 + jl1.1 Fig. The transmission lines are connected between buses 1-2.94+ jl1.94 + jl1.75 -2.25 @ jO.19 5.46 Power System Analysis Yll = Y33 = 3 (2.j 35.2.75 -2.2.75 -2. Solution: jO.94 + jl1. 1-4.75 .94+jll.4 and j 0.75 8.j23.j 35.7 A power system consists of 4 buses. E 3.82 . jO.75 Y2b = Y32 = (-Y23) = (-2.5 j 0.j35.2 and jO.20 Taking bus (1) as reference the graph is drawn as shown in Fig.25 + j 0.j35.75) Y31 = Y\3 = (-Y\3) = (-2.94 .94+ jl1.82 . .94 + j 11.l respectively.75 0 -2.94 + jll.75) + 3 00.94+ jll.75 0 . E.j23.75 8.4 ® "-""'" j 0.02) = 8.94 + j 11.88 .82 .75 5.94 + jl1. Find the bus admittance matrix (i) by direct inspection (ii) using bus incidence matrix and admittance matrix.19] the off diagonal elements are = YIO = -YOI = -2.46 .j 11. 2-3 and 3-4 and have reactances jO.75) YOI -2.2.25.2 jO.006 YII = Y33 = [8.75 .94 + j 11.1 j 0.94 + j 11.2. jO.2.l9 .94+ jl1.75 YI2 = Y21 = (-Yo2) = 0 Y03 = Y30 = (-Y03) = -2.5.82 .46 I The slight changes in the imaginary part of the diagnal elements are due to the line charging capacitances which are not neglected here.88 .1 respectively.

I I This reduces to (1) (2) (3) 0 (4) I 2 3 4 .5 j2.j12..0 ..jI2.S JIO + j2 JIO .1 0 --- (2) I (3) 0 -jO..S I I --jO.2S I 1 1 --+-jO. E.jI2.5 0 YBUS = (3) (4) j2.S .S 0 j2.1 jO.4 3 ® 4 47 CD Fig.2S 0 I jO.5 I I 1 jO.4 jO...21 Only the network reactances are considered.4 jO.0 j4.0 0 j4.4 1 1 I -.0 .jI2 Deleting the reference bus (1) (2) (2) (3) (4) 0 . Generator reactances are not considered.-+jO.S I -jO.j6.----~-~. By direct inspection: (1) I 2 3 4 --+jO.5 JIO jlO .1 -jO.S j2.S .S 0 (4) I --+jO..------:-:--:--j 0.Network Matrices @ .2S jO.4 jO.3.j6.j6.0 0 j2.2S jO.

j125 jIO jl0 o 1 0 .48 By singular transformation The primitive impedance matrix Power System Analysis 1 1 2 0 0 0 jO..4 The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by taking the reciprocals of z elements since there are no matrices. 3 4 1 2 j2 3 j4 1 -1 0 0 .5 j2.5 3 0 0 0 4 [z]= 2 3 4 IT II jO.5 .j2.5 i21 -~1O 0 0 NyA= [-I ~ 0 0 -1 0 ~} j4 0 0 0 jl0 j2 .j120 .j6. A= I 1 -1 0 i4 .j2.j.5 The bus incidence matrix is from the graph (2) (3) (4) 0 A=2 3 4 0 -1 +1 -1 0 0 -1 +1 0 0 j2.5 0 .5 j2.jl0 = [.5 j2.5 jl0 0 and y.

952 1 J ® @ CD ® Fig.2 j 0.23 .831 -0.2 49 4 5 j 0.952 2.5 CD 1---__. E. -~ ~jO'1 Q) Fig. E.Network Matrices E 3.66 0 0 2 0 -0.22 Solution: Solution is obtained using singular transformation The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by inverting the primitive impedance as 4 2 3 5 10 0 0 0 0 0 6.381 I 0 0 0 0 0 2.3.3.66 0 0 0 [y]= 1 0 0 6.8 For the system shown in figure for m YBUS' j 0.

66 0 0 2 0 -0.381 0 0 2.50 Power System Analysis From the graph shown in figure the element-node incidence matrix is given by e \ node 0 -1 0 1 0 +1 2 A= 3 4 5 0 0 0 +1 -1 0 2 +1 -1 3 0 0 0 +1 +1 -1 0 -I Taking bus zero as reference and eliminating its column the bus incidence matrix A is given by (I) 0 (2) +1 -1 -1 0 -1 (3) 0 0 0 +1 +1 2 A= 3 4 +1 +1 -1 0 5 0 0 0 IO 0 0 6.858 19.66 -6.66 0 10 0 -6.831 .42 -1.66J -6.32 0 -6.66 0 0 1.952 0 0 0 The bus admittance matrix YBUS is obtained from YBUS =Ny A 0 1 • 1 -1 0 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 1 1 -1 ~r:1 +1 -I +1 -I -I 0 +1 0 0 +1 ~} 13.66 .66 6.952 2.42 = -2.42 1.66 0 6.518 -2.51 -6.66 0 0 0 [YJ= 1 0 0 6.66 -6. -0.8580 r 9.42 -1.

CD @ j 0. P.2 • j 0.25 j 0.5 j 0.1 Determine ZLOOP for the following network using basic loop incidence matrix.5 "" / @ jO.Network Matrices 51 Problems P 3.l.2 Compute the bus admittance matrix for the power shown in figure by (i) direct inspection method and (ii) by using singular transformation.5 Fig.3.1 "" ® P 3. P.5 / i 0.2 . j 0.3 Fig.4 j 0.

3 3. Derive the expression for the loop impedance matrix ZLOOP using singular trar. Derive the expression for bus admittance matrix Y BUS in terms of primitive admittance matrix and bus incidence matrix.6 3.sformation in terms of primitive impedance matrix Z and the basic loop incidence matrix C. Show that ZLOOP = 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.52 Questions 3.1 3.5 Power System Analysis Derive the bus admittance matrix by singular transformation Prove that ZBUS = Kt ZBR K Explain how do you form YBUS by direct inspection with a suitable example.2 3.9 Ct [z] C Show that YBR = Bt [y] B where [y] is the primitive admittance matrix and B is the basic cut set matrix Prove that ZBR = AB ZBUS ABT with usual notation Prove that YBR = K YBUS Kt with usual notation .

This could be a very laborious and time consuming process for large systems involving hundreds of nodes.1 Partial Network In order to huild the network element hy element. The basic equation that governs the performance of a network is V BUS = rZBlJ<i - 1. B. Such an algorithm would be very convenient for various manipulations that may be needed while the system is in operation such as addition of lines. this element having two terminals connected to tWll nodes .4 BUILDING OF NETWORK MATRICES Introduction In Chapter 4 methods for obtaining the various network matrices are presented. A. These methods basically depend upon incidence matrices. It is possible to build the Z bus by using an algorithm where in systematically element by element is considered for addition and build the complete network directly from the element parameters. K and B. removal of lines and change in parameters.1 BIIS 4. a partial network is considered. Thus. Further. At the beginning to stal1 with. C. the procedure for obtaining Y or Z matrices in any frame of reference requires matrix transformations involving inversions and multiplications. the building up of the network and its ZS\ IS or Y sus model a single element I is considered. C for singular and non-singular transformation respectively.

.. a link is connected across the terminals (1) and (2) parallel to element I. 4. BUS ADDITION OF A BRANCH CD @ @ ® @ @ PARTIAL NETWORK Fig..2 . The branch is connected in series with the existing node either (1) or (2) giving rise to a third node (3). Thus. On the contrary.. This is shown in (Fig. @ 2 (a) Branch 2 CD (b) Branch and Link @ Fig. as element by element is added to an existing network. then it may be either a branch or a link. The terminals of the already existing network will be called (x) and (y). 4.1). the network already in existence is called the partial network. Thus if node (1) is the reference then the element will have its own self impedance as ZBUS. 4. We shall use the notation (a) and (b) for the nodes of the element added either as a branch or as a link.. 4. The element I with nodes (1) and (2) is called the partial network that is already existing before the branch or link 2 is connected to the element. When we connect any other element 2 to this element 1.1 In this case no new bus is formed. in step that follows a branch or a link is added.54 Power System Analysis say (1) and (2) will have one of the terminals as reference or ground. PARTIAL NETWORK ® Branch @6 Ref.-. Thus generalizing the process consider m buses or nodes already contained in the partial network in which (x) and (y) are any buses (Fig. CD e .... to which.2).

Building of Network Matrices
Recalling Eqn. (4.1)

55

V BUS = [ZBUS ]1 BUS
in the partial network (m x 1) dimension.
[ZBUS]

will be of[m

x

m] dimension while

VBUS

and

IBUS

will be of

The voltage and currents are indicated in (Fig. 4.3)
PARTIAL NETWORK

I
II

I

12
(

t

I

t

I
~
mlO

6 6

) Ref. BUS

V2~·~----------------------~ VI~·~---------------------------J

Fig. 4.3 Partial Network.

The performance equation (4.1) for the partial network is represented in the matrix form as under.
VI V2 ZII ZI2 ... Zlm Z21 Z22··· Z 2m II 12

..... (4.1 )

Vm

Zml Zm2 ... Zmm

1m

4.2

Addition of a Branch

Consider an element a-b added to the node (a) existing in the partial network. An additional node (b) is created as in (Fig. 4.4)

l
(

PARTIAL NETWORK

I

I
()

CD

@

6

®

Branch added

®

@

) Ref. BUS

@

Fig. 4.4 Addition of a Branch.

56
The performance equation will be

Power System Analysis

..... (4.2)

_______ -- ___

Zml Zm2 ... Zma ... ____ L __ _ 2mb -- Zmm Zbl Zb2 ... Zba ... Zbm : Zbb

The iast row and the last column in the Z-matrix are due to the added node b Zbi = Zib········ ...... where i = 1,2, ............... m for all passive bilateral elements. The added branch element a-b may have mutual coupling with any of the elements of the partial network.

Calculation of Mutual Impedances
It is required to find the self and mutual impedance elements of the last row and last column of eq. (4.2). For this purpose a known current, say I = 1 p.u. is injected into bus K and the voltage is measured as shown in (Fig. 4.5) at all other buses. We obtain the relations.
PARTIAL NETWORK

®
iab

®

Ref. BUS

~

Branch added

~

:~

!

b~

:

Fig. 4.5 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Mutual Impedances).

VI = ZIk1k

V2 =

Z2k 1k

..... (4.3)

Building of Network Matrices
Since Ik is selected as 1 p.u. and all other bus currents are zero. Zbk can be known setting Ik=l.O, from the measured value of Vb'

57

..... (4.3a)

We have that
..... (4.4)

Also,

ab = [ ~ xy 1 [Yab-ab Y"y-ab
I

Yab-xy [e ab Yxy-xy exy

1 1

..... (4.5)

Yab-ab = self admittance of added branch a-b .-Y ab-xy = mutual admittance between added branch ab and the elements x-y of partial network

Y = transpose of Yab-xy xy-ab
Y"y-xy = primitive admittance of the partial network iab = current in element a-b eab = voltage across the element a-b It is clear from the (Fig. 4.5) that iab = 0 ..... (4.6) But, eab is not zero, since it may be mutually coupled to some elements in the partial network. Also, exy=Vx-V y where Vx and Vy are the voltages at the buses x and Y in the partial network. The current in a-b iab = Yab-ab eab + ..... (4.7)

Y ~ xy = 0 ab-xy

..... (4.8)

58
From equation (4.6) Yab-ab eab + Yab-xy xy - Yab-xy e xy Yab-ab substituting equation (4.7)
- Yab-xyCV x - V y)

Power System Analysis

e

=

0
..... (4.9)

Yab-ab From equation (4.4) Yab-x/ V x - V y) Vb = Va + -----"----Yab-ab

..... (4.10)

-

..... (4.11)

Using equation (4.3) a general expression for the mutual impedance Zbl between the added branch and other elements becomes Yab-xy (Zxi - ZYI ) Zbi = Zai + ----'----Yab-ab i = I,2, ....... ,m; i i: b Calculation of self impedance of added branch Zab' In order to calculate the self impedance Zbb once again unit current Ib = 1 p.u. will be injected into bus b and the voltages at all the buses will be measured. Since all other currents are zero.

..... (4.12)

VI = ZIb1b
V2 =
Z2b 1b

..... (4.13)
Vm = 2mb1b

Vq = Zbb1b

Building of Network Matrices
PARTIAL NETWORK

59

@

CD

6 ®

I

©

Fig.4.6 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Self Impedance).

The voltage across the elements of the partial network are given by equation (4.7). The currents are given by equation (4.5) Also, iab=-Ib =-1
-

..... (4.14)
-

From equation (4.8) iab = Yab-abeab + Yab-xy exy = -1 But Therefore
-

exy = Vx - Vy

-1 = Yab-ab eab + Yeb-xy (Vx - Vy)

Hence

..... (4.15)

Note:
= (Zxb - Zyb) Ib = (Zxb - Zyb) substituting from equation (4.16) into (4.15) -[I+Yab-xy(Zxb -ZYb)] Yab-ab From equation (4.4) Vb = Va - eab Therefore Vb=Va+ ll+Yab-xy(Zxb -ZYb)J Yab-ab ..... (4.16)

..... (4.16a)

Yab _ ab is the self admittance of branch added a-b also
-

Yab-xv is the mutual admitt",nce vector between a-b and x-yo

60
Vb=Zbblb' Va = Zab Ib' Ib = 1 p.u.
-

Power System Analysis

and Hence,

1+ Y ab-xy (Zxb - Zyb)

Zbb = Zab +
Yab-ab

..... ( 4.17)

Special Cases,'
If there is no mutual coupling from equation (4.12) with And since Z

ab - ab

=--

1 Y ab-ab

Yab-xy

=0

IZb, = Zall;
From equation (4.17)

i

=

1,2, ................ , m; i

-=1=

b

IZbb = Zab + Zab-abl
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference bus equation (4.12) further reduces to with From eqn. (4.17) and

Zal = 0
Z bl = 0

i=I,2, ................. ,m;i-=l=b

Zab = 0 Zbb = Zab - abo

4.3

Addition of a Link

PARTIAL NETWORK

®u--~---(

CD

®

Ref. BUS

@

~~~~--------------~I V, ..____________________I
~

Vb~

V2~-------------------------.

Vl~-----------------------~

Fig. 4.7 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Mutual Impedance).

Building of Network Matrices
Consider the partial network shown in (Fig. 4.7) Consider a link connected between a and b as shown.

61

The procedure for building up ZBUS for the addition of a branch is already developed. Now, the same method will be used to develop an algorithm for the addition of a link. Consider a fictitious node I between a and b. Imagine an voltage source VI in series with it between I and b as shown in figure (4.6). Voltage VI is such that the current through the link ab (ie) iah = 0 eab = voltage across the link a-b VI = source voltage across I-b = elb Thus we may consider that a branch a-I is added at the node (a) since the current through the link is made zero by introducing a source voltage VI. Now consider the performance equation
E BUS = [ZBUS] . !sus
-

..... (4.18)

once again the partial network with the link added
2

VI V2 VI Va Vm
VI

ZlI 2 Z21 Zil a Za1

Z12 Z22 ZI2 Za2

Zli Z2i Zii ZI2

a ... Zla Z2a Zia Zaa

m I Zlm II ZII Z2m : Z21 Zun II Zil I I Zam
I I I I I I I I I

II

12

==

II ..... (4.19) la 1m II

Zal

---

I I m Zml Zm2 Zml Zma Zmm : Zml --------------------------------T--I Z/1 Z/2 ... Z/i ... Z/a ... Z/m : Z"

Also, the last row and the last column in Z-matrix are due to the added fictitious node I. VI=VI-V b
..... (4.20)

Calculation of Mutual Impedances
The element Zh' in general, can be determined by injecting a current at the ith bus and measuring the voltage at the node i with respect to bus b. Since all other bus currents are zero we obtain from the above consideration. VI and
=

Zh Ii; k
Z" II

=

1, 2, ........................ m

..... (4.21) ..... (4.22)

VI =

62

Power System Analysis
Letting II = 1.0 p.u. Zh can be seen as v I which is the same as vI But v/=Va-Vb-eal
..... (4.23)
It is already stated that the current through the added link iab = 0

Treating a-I as a branch, current in this element in terms of primitive admittances and the voltages across the elements ial = Yaf- al • eal + Ya/-xy . exy Where Yaf-XY are the mutual admittances of any element x-y in the partial network with respect to al and exy is the voltage across the element x-y in the partial network. But iaf = iab = 0 Hence, equation (4.23) gives
..... (4.24) ..... (4.24)

Note that and

Yal-af = Yab-ab Yaf-xy = Yab-xy eaf = [- Yab-xy Yab-ab

..... (4.26)
..... ( 4.27)

Therefore

'~Xy 1

..... (4.28)

v, = va - Vb +

Yab-xyexy Yab-ab

(i.e.)

since

II = 1.0 p.u. i = 1, ............... , m

i

"#

I

Also,

exy=vx-v y

..... ( 4.29)

Thus, using equation 4.20 and putting II = 1.0 p.u.

Building of Network Matrices

63

..... (4.30)

i = 1,2, ............... , m i-::l=l
In this way, all the mutual impedance in the last row and last column of equation (4.19) can be calculated.

Computation of Self impedance
Now, the value of ZII' the self impedance in equation (4.30) remains to be computed. For this purpose, as in the case of a branch, a unit current is injected at bus I and the voltage with respect to bus b is measured at bus I. Since all other bus currents are zero.

PARTIAL NETWORK

®U----<it--"--{

Ref. BUS @

Fig. 4.8 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Self Impedance).
Vk=Zk' I,;
and But k = 1,2 ............... , m ..... (4.31) ..... (4.32)
=

v, = Z,, I,
I, = 1 p.u.
-ial

..... (4.33)

The current ia, in terms of the primitive admittances and voltages across the elements ..... (4.34) =-1 Again, as YaI-xy = Yab-xy and ..... (4.35)

..... (4.36)
-

Then, from eqn. (4.34) -1

=

Ya'-a' eat + Yab-xyexy

-

..0 p. ...64 eal Power System Analysis .Zbl + Yab-ab Case (i) : no mutual impedance If there is no mutual coupling between the added link and the other elements in the partial network Yab-xy are all zero --=zab-ab Yab-ab Hence we obtain Z/i 1 . 2..... (4.. (4. It is required now to eliminate the node \.I1. m .38) Z" = Zal ..... For this...ZXI ZYI' I I - = ....... (4.40) i~I ... (4.Zbl.ZYI ) . (4.43) Thus all the elements introduced in the performance equation of the network with the link added and node I created are determined.39) = Zai ..37) = ZXI ...42) .. (4.19) VI' which does not exist in reality .(1 + Yab-xy exy ) Yab-ab Substituting exy =V-Vy x ....u) 1 + Yab-xy (ZXI . Z/i = -Zbl Also Z " = -Zbl + zab-ab } . i = 1.... (4..... (4.. we short circuit the series voltage source From eqn.41) Case (ii) : no mutual impedance and a is reference node If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference node Zal= 0..ZYI (since II = 1....

... In a similar manner.iI..48) Consider the removal of an element from a network..4 7) This is the performance equation for the partial network including the link a-b incorporated. (4.... (4..45) Solving for II from equation (4. j = = 1..lBUS + Z"I.45) I _ ... (4. if the impedance of the element is changed... From equation (4.46) Substituting in equation (4. V. then the modified impedance matrix obtained by adding a link in parallel with the element such that the equivalent impedance of the two elements is the desired value... = Z'j..... ..j(befOre addition of link . ...ZI' Z.ZI...47) we obtain ZBUS (modified) = [ZBus(befOreaddition oflink) . m 0 (since the source is short circuited) .lBUS ZI/ .Z'J.Building of Network Matrices - 65 . whose impedance is equal to the negative of the impedance to be removed.Z'j Z" Removal of Elements or Changes in Element 1 .44) .44) V BUS = [ZBUS ]IBUS + Z... .. The modified impedance can be obtained by adding in parallel with the element a link. (4......j] Z" and for any element Z'j(mod ified) = [Z..2.. ( 4...

. the above are applicable only when there is no mutual coupling between the element to be moved or changed with any element or elements of partial network. 4.49) ..66 Power System Analysis @ PARTIAL OR FULL NETWORK Zxy -ZXy PARTIAL OR FULL NETWORK 6) @ NETWORK NETWORK x Zxy Z"xy 6) Fig.4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance Changes in the configuration of the network elements introduce changes in the bus currents of the original network.. ( 4. In order to study the effect of removal of an element or changes in the impedance of the element can be studied by considering these changes in the bus currents..9 Removal or Change in Impedance of an Element. Zxy Y changed to ZI XY 1 I 1 -=--+I Z xy ZXY il Zxy However. 4. The basic bus voltage relation is with changes in the bus currents denoted by the vector performance relation will become ~IBus - the modified voltage .

.0 M< Ik ---I~~ irs = 0 [k n = 1.u) at the bus j and measure the voltage at bus i. k:. 4.... .Building of Network Matrices 67 V BUS is the new bus voltage vector.10)..... ® 0~. 2 ... The usual method is to inject a known current (say 1 p.0 Fig..--~1~----------~~--.... With the index k introduced. n.t: j] Then v/ =IZlk (Ik +AI k=1 k) i = I.....-..50) ®ee----il I .. Consider an element p-q in the network.2.... It is desired now to calculate the impedances Z:j of the modified impedance matrix [ Z I BUS ] . Let the element be coupled to another element in the network r-s..10 Inject a current of 1 p. equation may be understood from (Fig.. . ..... ( 4... n.u.. 4...... If now the element p-q is removed from the network or its impedance is changed then the changes in the bus currents can be represented by .. at any jlh bus Ij = 1......

.ZiqLl ipq + Z. Y matrix is shown.. IfY2 element is removed.. (4.q)Llipq + (Zir -ZJLl irs . .k=r LlIk =-Llirs.r Lli rs .pq. n . .50(a)) V.' = Zij + (ZiCl - Z. ~ are used as the subscripts for the elements of both p-q and r-s then V. Consider as an example.11(b).~=! ) ..11 (a). the yl matrix is shown in Fig. @ (1) I _ (I) Y ...j Llipq . @ (1) (2) (3) Y2 (1) y = (2) (3) 0 [Yf Y22 Y32 Y: Y33 j Y...... 2.~ )LliCl~ i = 1. 4.. 3 .. the sytem in Fig 4. (4.(2) (2) (3) 0 Y22 0 [Yf @ (b) (3) ~1 Fig. (1)1--_----.p -Z... (4.. (4. Y...k=s From equation Lllk_=Lli.. 4..68 Power System Analysis Lllk --Lllpq....51) If n...sLli rs = Z'J + (Z..Z....k-q LlIk =Llirs.53) Where [Ysm] and [Ysm]-l are the square sub matrices of the original and modified primitive admittance matrices.' = Z lje1 + Z . .11 .52) From the performance equation of the primitive network.

(4.54) substituting from eqn. the multiplying factor ...P 1 ~ -I . ..u.13= [F]-I[~Ysm] substituting equation (4. the rows and column of the sub matrices Ysm and Ysm l correspond to the network elements p-q and r-s (Fig....52) for -I vyand v8 Vy8 =ZYJ -Z8J +([Zyo.~ and y8.56) for ~io.. We know that ... (4..[Y~m ] giving the changes in the admittance matrix .Z8J The above equation gives the bus voltage vi at the bus i as a result of injecting I p.p Where U is unit matrix Designating and the term (~y sm ) = [y sm ] .. (5.58) by F. .ZOJ] = The process is to be repeated for each j 1.. 2..10) The subscripts of the elements of (Iy sm I-Iylsm I ) are a.61 ) V! = Zij + (Zlo.60) in equation (4. ( 4... ....56) Solving eqn.. The ij the element of modified bus impedance matrix is then. 1 current at bus j and the approximate current changes.ZiP) [F ]-1 [~y sm] [Zy..52) .(4.... n to obtain all element of ZIBUS ' .. 4.ZiP )[F]-1 [~y sm] [ZYJ . ( 4..]-[Zyo.59) [Zyj -Z8J] .55) for V~8 into eqn..60) ~io. Ysm and Ysm l are given: Ysm = [~:~ ~::] and Y'sm [Y~2 ~] = Thus.]-[Z&x]+[Zyp])~lo.... (4.55) Substituting from eqn.... (4. ZI'J =ZiJ + (Zlo. ( 4...(4. (4.53) .Building of Network Matrices 69 Then.. ..

4.4 p. E.u line Fig.70 Power System Analysis Worked Examples E.1 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance 0. Solution: Consider the system with one line Bus 1 Bus2 0.4 -~ -1QU 1 n~O_.u_.4 p.---_2n° _ ! O.u _ 0.1 p. Another line of impedance 0.lp.4. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I introduced.u.u 2 Fig.2p. Z zl = (2) (I) . Obtain by building algorithm method the impedance of the two-circuit system.4. is connected in parallel with it making it a doubl-circuit line with mutual impedance of 0.1 Taking bus (1) as reference the ZBUS is obtained as (2) (1) (1) (2) 0 0 0 0.u.2 Now consider the addition of the second line in parallel with it The addition of the second line is equivalent to addition of a link. E.4..2 p.

4 + (-1.x=l b = 2.2(1) 1.zl2 zll = 0.Zbl + ---=----'-Yab-ab Yab-Xy=[Zab-XyJ 1 [(_O~~I =Z -00~1) .4 .6125 Now.(-0.35 Z" =ZaJ - a bl + = II + Yab-XY (~XI . 1 -(008 00)=1-2(1) [2.IJl a=l.4286 5.7143 1 1.4 .35) + ~-'----'-'----'----'-" [1 + (-1. + -bl Yab-xy (~XI Y ab-ab ~YI ) Z21 = ZI2 = 0 .35) = 0.2) 5.4286)(0 .2 71 O.35] (I) -0.7143 = -0.ZYI) Zii = Zal . eliminating the fictions bus 1 ~2 (modified) = Z~2 = Z22 _ Z21 .0.4286)(0 .2(2) 0. -.6125 (2) (I) Zaugmented = (2) [0.35)] Yab-ab 5.0.(-0. I 1-2(2) -1.35)(-0.Building of Network Matrices 1-2(1) 1-2(2) Z = 1.2 = 0.4 -0.1 0.2 0.~YI)J =0 .4286] .(-0.2(2) Z h ai -7.35 0.35 + 0.6125 ZBUS = (2) I2 I (2) . Y = 2 Yab-xy (ZXI .857 -1.0.7143 = 0.2625 0.4 ab-xy 1-2(1) [ 0.

3 0.2(2) 1.72 Power System Analysis E.9208 1.2(2) 1-3 r t J 1.0.) ~i=zal+ The primitive impedance matrix Zab-xy is given by Zab-xy = 1. The new line by virtue of its proximity to the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0. 4.2 0.2(2) 1-3 r -1.u.4.4634 5.4146 .u.05 o [Yab-XY ] = [Zab-XY 1.impedance of 0. E.3 p.1 0.4878 .3 Nowa=landb=3 Also a is the reference bus - Yab-ab - Yab-xy (ZXI .4 0.7317 0.2(1) = 2.1 0.1 is further extended by the addition of a transmission line from bus (1).05 p.2439 1.4634 -04878] 0.051 0 0.2(1) 1.3 1.2(1) 1. Solution : Consider the extended system 2 Fig.3 0.2(1) 1.2(2) -1.Zy.2 The double circuit line in the problem E 4. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm. and a self .2439 3.

2439)] [0 . a = 1 0 + [(-0.3 The system E4.u Fig.2 + -----Y-13--1-3-=--=-----== = 3.:.4 3 /= 4 0.Building of Network Matrices Setting b 73 = 3.0.4146 (2) (3) 0.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .4146 l Z13 ][-0.24.014286 1 + [YI-31-2(1)YI-31-2(2) ][ 1 + .29388 3.4.01428 0.2] 0 .0.29388 ZBUS = (2) (3) E 4.01428] [ 0.0 bta.4146 Z33 = -Z23] -Z23 [ " J 1.3 p.3 p.04828 = 0.:--= = 0 + ----------='------=Yl-3-13 3.4146 Z22] Z22 [y 1-31-2(I)Y 1-31-2(2)] [Z12 -z12 = 0.2 0.u .in tile Z BUS Solution: 2 0.0.4878 0.4878)(0.3 1 0.0034844 = 0.4 .)9 z13 -0.2 0.014286 Z 32 = Z 12 3. E.014286 ZI3 + ---------'=--. i = 2.

Node) 0 == 0. .. i = 1..01428 0.01428 0.. This is the case of the addition of a branch. E.. 2 and 3 respectively we can compute.29288 j 0.3 (3) = 0.59288 (4) (2) 0.59288 E.. 2.29288 0.29288 0.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply.4.29288 + 0. m i :.u Solution: 2 I 3 5 4 Fig. 4..: b Zbb = zab + zab-ab = z31 setting i = 1.1 p. Obtain the ZBUS..29288 == == Z33 z31 Z42 = z32 = Z41 z4i == + Z44_44 (2) (3) (4) ZBUS = l = 0.01428 0..4 The system in E 4... a=3 b=4 There is no mutual coupling.1428 0.74 Power System Analysis Consider the system shown above with the line 4 added to the previous system. The self impedance of element 5 is 0. Bus (3) is not the reference bus.5 . Z41 = z41 = 0 (ref.2 0.1428 0.

18572 .. Z.29288 = .Z44 = 0. 0.5786 Now it remains to eliminate the fictitious node I.5786) = 0.86432 Z33 (modIfied) • z31 zl3 = Z33 = .18572) .86432 -.50313 .2 _ (0.59288 = -0.zbl with with i= 2 i= 3 = zZI z31 Z41 Z = zZ2 = ~3 - + zab-ab Z42 = zi2 = 0.18572 + 0.18572)(-0.01428 0.2 .01428 .Z41 + 0.59288 - (-0.01428 0.86432 .27852 = z24 . 5786 = zll (augmented) + zal - a bl + zab-ab = Z21.0 .16 0.l3 z_ (modified) = Z 23 = 0.0.(0.29288 18572 .01428 0.01428 .01428 + 0.29288 0.01428 0.29288 0.zbl zil = zal .27852) 0.86432 = 0.i = zal .27582 .2 0.27582)(-0.1 = 0.- zn = 0.0. Hence initially a fictitious node I is created.18572 z43 setting i 4 = ZI4 = zl3 = 0.0.0 .01428 + 0..01428 - (0.59288 (I) (2) (3) (4) (I) [0.18572)(0.86432 = 0.0897507 = 0.ZII = 0.27852) 0.1243261 = 0.59288 - 0.0.. z?2 - ·fi ( mo d 1 Ie d) = Zz2 _ Z21 ZI2 - zn Z21 ZI3 Z Ii .1386 0.1428 .18572)(-0.Building of Network Matrices 75 The ring system is shown in figure now let a = 2 and b = 4 addition of the line 5 is addition of a link to the existing system.5786 + 0.059467 = 0.0.0741267 Zz4 (modified) = Z?I ZI4 z33 .01428 = 0. However.0.27852 1 0.86432 (2) (3) (4) 0. there is no mutual impedance bus (2) is not a reference node.0.1 = 0.5786 0.0.

0.106431 (4) 1386 0.59288 .50313 0.76 Z34 Power System Analysis (modified) = z43 (modified) = 0.2055 0.5 Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding element by element.16 = (3) 0.0741267 (4) 0.(-0.106431 44 z 44 _ Z41 Zl4 Z II = 0.25 I (2) .106431 0.38733 = 0.1 p.59288 .29288 - 0.4.0741267 0. 0.1386 (3) 0.6 Step-l Taking bus (1) as reference bus ZBUS = (2) Ij0.86432 The ZBUS for the entire ring system is obtained as ZBUS (2) (2) [0.u @ @ Fig.57861) = 0.25 p.27852)(-0. E.186449 = 0.5786)(-0.2055 1 E 4.5786) 0.86432 = 0.2928 z (modified) = (-0.u t 0. Take bus (2) as reference bus Solution: j 0.

b = (3) j 0.1739 J J J .jO.25) .zYI) zbl = zal - - + Yab-ab The primitive impedance matrix.l .j2.25 j 0.869(0 .5 • [ .946 _ j2.869(0 .869] .25 + J·0.j2.JO.l] jO.= Hence Z3-2 = J·0.25 Z32 Z23 Z33 Yab-xy (ZXI .Building of Network Matrices 77 Step-2 Ass line joining buses (2) and (3).7 (2) (3) Z BUS = (2) (3) - jO.2S . This is addition of a branch with mutuals. jO.347 [ jO.349 + '0.5 = '0.5 @ Fig. E.349 + 1 + 0.j0.1739 = J·0.jO.349) = '0.349 Z33 JO.869 jO. a = (2).1739 z(pnmitive) = 1 Yab-xy = [z]pnmlllve.4.j4.25 + =. jO.099 = J·0.

349 Step-3 : Add the live joining (l) and (3) buses. A fictitious bus I is created. E. This is addition of a link to the existing system with out mutual impedance.349 + zl3-13 zl3 = -z33 = zn = -Z31 = = +j 0.349 .25 jO.9464 = -Z32 = -j 0.4.946 Power System Analysis z BUS = (2) (3) jO.25 j 0.349 jO.9464 The factious node (I) is now eliminated.349 jO.5 Unk oddod / ® Fig.l96 = (3) (I) .jO.9464 j1.78 (2) (3) j0. j 0.946 .25 j0.9464 + j 0.25 j 1.jO.349 jO.jO.8 Zli = -Zbl zn = -z bi Z12 + zab--ab -j 0.25 j 0.349 .196 The augmented impedance matrix (2) (2) ZEUS (3) (4) jO.jO. Z 2_ ry (modified) = Z ry 2_ _ z21 Z12 Z 11 .

'09464)2 J. j1.2 p.196 Hence Z = 0.1976 BUS - _[iO.1481 jl.196 Z? ~ (modified) = z u (modified) = z .25 _ (.0728 iO.u 4 0. E. 0.6 Using the building algorithm construct Choose 4 as reference BUS. _ Z21 zp ~ Z II = '0.lI 0.349)( .9 Solution: Step-l Start with element (1) which is a branch a = 4 to b = 1.jO.Building of Network Matrices = 79 jO.1 p.Z II Z31 zl3 = j 0.5 p.j0.3 p. 4. @ for the system shown below.94645 - (.u 0.l976J l zBUS E.j0.0728 jO..3 p. The elements of the bus impedance matrix for the partial network containing the single branch are . = 0.u 1 2 @ Fig.4.l96 (modIfied) .9464) J j1.349)( -jO.349) = 0.lI 3 0.072834 z33 = z33 .349 _ (.1481 i O.

3 Since node 4 chosen as reference. E.4.11 (1) (2) Z12 Z22 Z = BUS (I) (2) 0. This adds a new BUS.80 0.5 p.3 0.3 0.5 = 0. E. This adds a new bus.10 Taking bus (4) as reference bus (4) (1) zBUS - (4) rrffij0 (1) 0 0.(1) ~. ® Fig.3 Power System Analysis Fig. The BUS impedance matrix.3 Z21 Z12 z22 = Z21 = Zll = 0.3 + 0.--@ Branch Added Step-2 Add element (2) which is a branch a = 1 to b = 2.8 (I) (2) Z Step-3 0.4. The elements of the first row and column are zero and need not be written thus (1) ZBUS = (1) ~ ---.3 .u Ref.3 (2) 0.8 BUS - Add element (3) which is a branch a = 2 to b = 3. 2 0.3 = Z12 + z1212 = 0. .

E.3 0.u 81 3 0. I 4 0.3 p.3 p.2 (1) (2) (3) Hence.3 0.12 (1) (2) (3) (1) ZBUS = (2) 0.1_ _ _--1-_.u 2 0.2 p.0 (1) = (2) (3) OJ 0.3 0.0 Step-4 Add element (4) which is a link a = 4. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be.3 z\3 OJ 0.3 ..8 0.8 OJ 0...5 p.5 p..4.2 p.8 Z33 = ~3 + Z2323 = 0.4.-_ CD Fig.1.Building of Network Matrices @---r-0.8 + 0.8 1..8 Z23 Z31 Z23 Z33 (3) 0. b=3.u 3 I 0.13 I .3 0.u I Fig.u Ref.u 2 0. ® _ . ZBUS ZI3 = ~1 = Z21 = = 1.u 0.3 z32 = z23 = ~2 = 0. E.

3 0. 1.3 -0.3 0.3 = 1.3 1 _ 1 _ _ (Z31)(Z12) _ Z23 .zI3 Zll 1 _ _ (Z21 )(Z12) _ Z22 . .3)(-0.8 -1.Z32 Zll .0 -1.3 -0.. 1.0 1.3) .8 1.8 (l) ZIf = zlI .0 -0.Z22 Zll 0 3 _ (-0.0 30769 .8) -01153 . 1.82 (1) Power System Analysis (2) (3) (l) 0.3 0 8 _ (-0.3 The augmented matrix is (1) (1) (2) 0.0 06923 .8 -1.8)(-0.3 0.z31 = -0.0) .0)(-0. .8 0. 1.3 0..(-1.0 Z/3 z\I Z2/ Z3/ zli 0.8) .3 0.8 (3) (l) 0.0 230769 .Zll Zll 0 3 _ (-0.3)(-1. .8) ..8 0.3 Z/1 0.3 1.z12 . 1.3 (2) (3) (l) To eliminate the [Ih row and column 1 _ _ (Zll XZn) _ Zll .3 0.3 (-0.3 0.3 -0.3 0.Z32 .z12 .3 08.3 1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll)(Z21) -03Z21 .018461 .3)(-0. Zll 1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll )(ZI3) _ Z31 .8 -0. ..zI3 .0 Zzl = zlI z12 ...8 Z/2 (1) (2) (3) 0.z32 = z31 = Z \3 - Z 33 = = -z31 + Z4343 = -{-I) + 0.

18461 0. mutually coupled with element (4).z12 +.18461 0.3 0.06923 83 and.Building of Network Matrices (1) 0.06923 0. thus.30769 0.230769 =(2) (3) Step-5 Add element (5) which is a link a = 3 to b = 1..4.14 (1) (2) (3) (1) 0.- .230769 0. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be 4 0.18461 (3) 0.30769 0.06923 0.1153 0.1153 0...18461 z12 (3) 0.1153 0.3 2 Fig. (1) ZBUS (2) 0. E.06923 Zll (2) 0.1153 0.230769 z13 (I) Zu Z21 Z31 Zll (I) zll =z/l =Z31 -Zll +----Y3131 Y3123(Z22 -Z32) Y3131 Y3123(Z21 -Z31) zl2 = Z21 = Z32 .230769· 0.

2(2) [ZXYXY] = 2 .8571 .8571 0 (-1.428)(0.18461 .1846 2.428 0 0 2.1153 0.18461 0.8571 _ 8 ) 1 + (-1.186 0.30769 .1846) .2(2) 2 -3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5) 3.33 0 0 0 0 0 0..06923 (1) .8075 0.3 0 0 0.1153 + (-1.8571 .0.3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5) 1.230769 .1846 . 4 -1(1) 1.230769 + = -0. (1) (1) (2) (3) (I) zlI- (2) (3) 0.8571 zll = Z12 =.0.1 0.4 4-1(1) [ZXYXY t I = [y XYXy] = 2 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0.428)(0.2(2) 2 -3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5) 0 0 0.3(3) 4-3(4) 3 -1(5) 4 -1(1) 1.06923 = = z21 0.0.0.00779 .0.18461) = 000779 2.714 0 0 0 3.06923 0.18456 0.0.230769 0.18461 .1 0 0.0 8075 0 . Z31 = zI3 = 0.0.0.00779 0.18461 0.00779 0.0.18456 0.428 5.33 0 0 0 -1.428)(0.06923) 2.84 Power System Analysis Invert the primitive impedance matrix of the partial network to obtain the primitive admittance matrix.2(2) 4 -1(1) 1.2 0 0 0 0 -1.3 0 0 0.06923 + (-1.230769) = 0. 1 46-(-0.1845 + 2.1153 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.230769 .428)(0.1153 0.30769 0.18456 z12 0.

..Z2\ .Z3\ -.z\3 - \ - \ - - (ZlI)(Z\3) _ ZII 0 06923 _ (-0.(-0.8075 = 0.18283 0.230769.18858 0.30752 0.3 I CD Fig.Building of Network Matrices To Eliminate [lh row and column: 85 Z~\ = ZII _ (ZlI)(Z\1) ZII = 0.30752 0.011142 .2 I 0.18456) = 0. .00779)(0.5 2 I ® 0.1846) 0.18456)(0.4.18283 0.18456)(0.18283 (1) and ZBUS (1) (2) (3) 0.4.1846) .1S .18461 _ (0.18857 0.8075 Z~3 = Z33 - (Z31 )(Z13) z\\ = 0.230769 _ (-0.11708 0.1846)(0.18858 = (2) (3) E 4.1S.00779)(0.(-0.Z\2 z\\ (Z21 )(Z\2) z\l = 0. E.11142 0.\ .8075 - z\3 .11142 0. E._ (ZlI)(Z\2) _ Z12 .3 3 0.8075 \ .(Z21 )(Z3\) zlI = 0.7 Given the network shown in Fig.8075 Z~2 = Z~3 = Z23 .18456)(-0.00779) = 0.011708 .00779) . 0.8075 01153. 0.18858 0.30769 _ (-0.11708 0.1846) = 0. @ @ I 4 0.

06923 .230769 If the line 4 is removed determine the Z BUS for the changed network.0623 0.30769 0.06923 0.230769) + (-0.3 0.86 Its ZBUS Power System Analysis is as follows.30769 0.0623 0.230769 z/3 Fig.06923 = -0.5 2 -OJ 0.18461 0.3 This amount to addition of a link.1153 0.1153 0.3 1 ® I (1) (1) 0.230769 z/1 = -Z31 + z4343 = (-0. ® 3 0.3) = --0.16 <D (/) zlI Z21 Z31 Zsus = (2) (3) (l) 0. E.06923 ZII OJ I (2) 0.1153 (3) 0. (1) laus = (2) (3) 0.1153 0. Solution: Add an element parallel to the element 4 having an impedance equal to impedance of element 4 with negative sign.18461 0.4.230769 0.18461 ~I Z31 = = z12 zl3 -Z32 = -z33 = -0.230769 0.18461 Z/2 zl/ where ZII = zlI = = -z31 = -0.2 5 4 @ ~ 0. 1 1 --=--+ lnew ladded 1 lexisting 1 1 =--+-=0 0.18461 0.

230769) = 1.18461 -0.230769 -0.06923 Z\ 33 =Z 33 _ (Z31 )(Z\3) Z\\ = (0.30769 0.06923 Z~l = Z:3 = z13 Z~2 (Z21 )(Z31) = (0.8 .8 (3) 0.18461 (3) 0.230769) = 0.18461 -0.230769 0.230769)(-0.230769 -0.18461) = 0.18461)(-0.1153 0.3 0.0623 (I) -0.230769 -0.06923) .8 0.(-0.18461 0.0.8 1.06923 (2) 0.0 .3 0.06923 (2) (3) (I) 0.3 z" = (0.8 - = Z22 .3 0.2307669) = 0.(0.230769) _ (-0.3 0.18461)(-0.06923 -0.06923 The modified Zaus is (1) ZBUS = (2) (3) (1) (2) 0.18461.3 0.06923 Eliminating the fictitious node I Z~2 = Z~3 = Z23 - (Z21 )(ZI3) = z" 0.0 _ 0.Building of Network Matrices The augmented zBUS 87 is then (1) ZBUS = (1) 0.(Z21 )(Z12) z\\ 0.30769) _ (-0.1153 0.

24 ® Fig. Consider element 1 (between bus (I) and (2)) (2) ZBUS = (2) I 0.88 E 4. E.17 Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm. Solution: Bus (1) is chosen as reference.08 + jO.02 + jO.O (3) .4.4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E. A new bus (3) is created. (2) ZBUS (3) 0.O 0.0 + jO.24 0.18 This is addition of a branch. There is no mutual impedance.08 + jO.08 + jO.17. E.06 = (2) 0.24 Fig.0 + jO.24 I Step-I Add element 2 ( which is between bus (1) and (3)) 0.08 + jO. Power System Analysis 0.4.

Building of Network Matrices
Step-2 add element 3 which is between buses (2) and (3)

89

0.08 + jO.24

@
Fig. E.4.19

A link is a~ded. Fictitious node I is introduced. (2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0+ jO.O
(3) 0.0+ jO.O

ZBUS

(2) = (3) (I)

(I) 0.08+ jO.24 - (0.02 + jO.06) 0.16+ jO.48

0.02 + jO.06

0.08+ jO.24 - (0.02 + jO.006)

eliminating the fictitious node I
-l2
7_

(modified)

=

7_

-l2

_

Z21 Zl2
Z
II

= (0.08 + jO.24) _
~3

(0.08 + jO.24)2 0.49+ j0.48

= 0.04 + jO.l2

(modified) = ~2 (modified)
_
ZZ3

= [

ZZI ZIJ] -_0 •0 + }'00 + (0.8 + jO.24 )(0.02 + jO.06) .
zl/

0.16+ j0.48

= 0.01 + jO.03

Z33 (modified) = 0.0175 + j 0.0526 The
zBUS

matrix is thus (2) (3) = (2) [0.04 + jO.12 0.01 + jO.03 ] 0.01 + jO.03 0.0175 + jO.0526 (3)

ZBUS

90

Power System Analysis E 4.9 Given the system of E4.4. An element with an impedance of 0.2 p.u. and mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. with element 5. Obtained the modified bus impedance method using the method for computations of ZBUS for changes in the network.

Solution:

2

I

0.2 0.3

t
I

0.1 0.1

3

~

0.4

5

I 10.2 I I I I
~16
0.05

0.3 4

I I I I

Fig. E.4.20

Element added is a link a = 2 ; b = 4. A fictitious node is I is created.

(2) (3) (4) (/)

(2) 0.16
0.0741267 0.1386
Z/2

(3) 0.0741267
0.50313 0.106437

(4) 0.1386
0.106431 0.2055

I
Z21

Z31
Z41 Zll

Z/3

Z,4

and

1+ Yab-xy (ZXI - Zyt) Z" = Zal - Zbl + ----..::...----..::...Yab-ab

The primitive impedance matrix is

Building of Network Matrices

91

1 - 2(1) 1.2(2) 1 - 3 3 - 4 2.4(1) 2.4(2) 0.4 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 1- 2(2) 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 0.05 0.2

[z]=

1- 3

3-4
2 - 4(1)

2 - 4(2)

The added element 6 is coupled to only one element (i.e.) element 5. It is sufficient to invert the sub matrix for the coupled element.

Z ab-'Y

2-4(1) 2-4(2) = 2 - 4(\) 0.1 0.05 2 - 4(2) 0.05 0.2 \ 1.4285 - 2.857] = [ _ 2.857 5.7 \ 43

YalHY

= 0.16 -0.1386 + (-2.857)(0 -16 - 0.1386) = 0.01070 5.7143 Z =Z
31 13

=0.741267-0.10643+ (-2.857)(0.741-0.10643) =-0.1614 5.7143

= O. \ 386 - 0.2055 + (-2.857)(0.1386 - 0.2055) = -0.03345 5.7143 Z
1/

=

0.0107 _ (-0.03345) + 1+ (-2.857)(0.0107 - (-0.03345) = 0.19707 5.7143

The augmented matrix is then

92

Power System Analysis

(2) (3) (4)

[° 1600
0

(2)

(3) 0.0741 0.5031 0.1064 -0.01614

(4) 0.1386 0.1064 0.2055 -0.03345

(I)
-0.01614 0.19707

0.0741

00107]
0

0.1386 0.0107

-0.0.3345

(I)

Z22 (modified)

= 0.16 -

(0.0107)2 0.19707

= 0.1594

Z23 (modified) = Z32 (modified)

=

0.0741

0.01070x(-O.01614) 0.19707

= 0 7497
.

Z24 (modified) = Z42 (modified)
= 0.1386 _ 0.01070 x (-0.03345) = 0.1404

0.19707

Z33 (modified) = 0.50313 _ (-0.01614)2 0.19707 Z43 (modified) = Z34 (modified)

= 0.5018

= 0.106431 - (-0.03345)(-0.01614) = 0.10369

0.19707 (-0.0334)2 0.19707

Z44 (modified) Hence the
ZBUS

= 0.2055 -

= 0.1998

is obtained by

(2) ZBUS= (3) (4)
[

(2) 0.1594
0.07497 0.1404

(3) 0.07497
0.5018 0.10369

(4)
0.1404] 0.10369 0.1998

Building of Network Matrices
E 4.10

93

Consider the problem E.4.9. If the element 6 is now removed obtain the
ZBUS'

Solution:
2

I
1

0.2 0.3

!
1 0.3 4

0.1 0.1

10 .2 1
5

3

~

0.4

1 1 1
0.05

16 1 1 1

I
Fig. E.4.21

where a = 2; ~ = 4 and y = 2; 8 = 4

i = 1,2, ............. ,n

the original primitive admittance matrix

2-4(1) 2-4(2)

[y sm] = 2 -

4(1) 2-4(2)

[!!.~3~~J_-=3:8_5}]
-2.857: 5.7143
I

The modified primitive admittance matrix

1-2(1) 1-2(2) [Ysm] 1= 1-2(1) 1- 2(2)

[+ OIl i 0] =[1~ --O·--r----O
°°

~l
=~Ysm

{ [ ][ sm ] 1}= [11.4285 - 2.857] = [10 0] = [1.4285 - 2.857] Ysm Y -2.857 5.7143 -2.857 5.7143

94
Computing term by term

Power System Analysis

0. ZyCl - Zoo - Zyf3 - ZIIf3 = [(2) 0. (2) [ 0.1594 0.1594
(2) (2)

~~94 i~~4]1

ZlIa =Z24 =Z42 =(4) [0.1404 0.1404] (4) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)

Zya =(2) [0.1404 0.1404]
(2) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)

ZIIf3 = (4) [0.1998 0.1998] (4) 0.1998 0.1998 0.1594 0.1594]_ [0.1404 0.1404] 0.1404 0.1404

Zya - Zoo - Zyf3 + ZIIf3 = [ 0.1594 0.1594
_ [0.1404 0.1404]+[0.1998 0.1998] 0.1404 0.1404 0.1998 0.1998 = [0.0784 0.0784] 0.0784 0.0784
[L\y 8m UZya - ZlIa - Zyf3 - ZIIf3 J
= [1.4285

- 2.857

- 2.857] [0.0784 0.784] [- 0.1120 - 0.1120] 5.7143 0.0784 0.0784 - 0.2240 0.2240

F = U - fly sm (Zra - ZOIl - Zrj3 + Zoj3)

=[ 0

1 0] [-0.1120 -0.1120] 1 - 0.2240 0.2240

= _0.224

[1.112

0.112] 0.7760

[F]-l
[F]-IL\

=[0.87387 0.25225

-0.12612] 1.25225 -2.8571]=[ 1.6086 5.7143 -3.2173 -3.2173] 6.435

Ysm

=[0.87387 0.25225

-0.12612][ 1.4285 1.25225 -2.8571

0.Building of Network Matrices The elements of modified ZBUS are then given by 95 Z~j For i = = Zij + tztU .0.03146 = 0.0.019] [ -3.00058026 = 0.07497+[0.1594 _ 0.5018 + 0. j 3 Z~3 =0.13858 Z~3 = 0.019 = 0.03146] = 0.03146 .03146] 6.1.03146 4 .07491 + [.503392 [ .0611] 0. j = .03146] 6.2173] [ [ -3.0190.1594 + r lO.0.2173] [.0.074040 .0611] Let i == 3.435 0.1594 + Let i = [.1404D 1.2173] [.[Z" z"l [M]' jAy~) ) ( [~::H~::]l = 0.019 = = 0.1404 0.5018 + [0. ~ Z" + ([Z" z"l.0594 Zi4 = 0.0.0611] [ Let i = 0.435 -0.03146] [ -3.435 -0.0506 For i == 3.15998 = 0.2173 6.1594 + [0.3.6086 -3.j = 3 = 0. j = 2 z\.1404 0.019][1.030560.Zi~ )[F]-1 [fiy sm ][Zyt .0.03056 0.1594 + 0.16 2.1404 - 0.03146 = 0.1404) I = 0.00096075 = 0.15940.5018 + [. j = 4 -0.10 1228] .03146 2.0.6086 .0.1594 0.6086 .0.1594].6086 -3.07497 .2173 1.03056 0.ZOt ] 2.3.[0.2173 6.019 0.2173][0.0.0.435 0.001592 = 0.03146] = 0.019] -3.2173 .0594] [ -0.001814 = 0.1404 + [.019] [ 0.

103691 + [0.0.101228 J [ .07404 0. 0.1998+[0.0594J [ 6.205476 [ -0.0.5 p.0594 Hence the ZBUS with the element 6 removed will be (2) (3) 0.6 p.15998 0.05060 .u.0594 =0.435 -3.0.106696 0.2173 .14 Form the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in Fig.003006 = 0.0.u.0594] =0.96 Power System Analysis -0.(3) (I) .19113J .0594 -0.u.1 CD 3 2 Fig. P 4.106696 0.13858 0.0594] Z~4 = 0.(2) Self Impedance 0. 2 3 .09556 -0.0594] Z~4 =0.(3) (I) .4 p. 0.074040 (4) 0. P 4.106696 Similarly for I == j = 1.1 the line data is given below.3.20576 (4) Problems P 4.6086 . Element Numbers I Bus Code (2) .1998+[-0.503392 0.2173] [.13858 (2) ZBUS = (3) 0.0594 = 0.103691 + 0.0.

how will the ZBUS matrix change? P 4. In the problem P 4.11 .3 Questions 4.5 p. Derive an expression for adding a branch element between two buses in the ZBUS building algorithm.6 4.1 p.2 4. Describe the procedure for modifications ofZ BUS when a line with mutual impedance is added or removed.Building of Network Matrices P 4.step how you will obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added to a bus in the existing network. Derive the necessary expressions for the building up of Z BUS when (i) new element is added.10 4.u. Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step by step how you will obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added between two buses of the existing network.Derive an expression for adding a link to a network with mutual inductance.1 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step . Develop the equation for modifying the elements of a bus impedance matrix when it is coupled to other elements in the network.8 4. Assume mutual coupling between the added element and the elements in the partial network.u.by . What are the advantages of Z BUS building algorithm? Describe the Procedure for modification of Z BUS when a line is added or removed which has no mutual impedance.5 4. 4. 4. Write short notes on Removal ofa link in Z BUS with no mutual coupling between the element deleted and the other elements in the network. adding the element not creating a new bus.3 4.7 .2 97 0 btam 1he m odilied ZBUS if a line 4 is added parallel to line I across the busses (2) and (3) with a self impedance of 0.2 ifthe added line element 4 has a mutual impedance with respect to line element 1 of 0. Explain the modifications necessary in the Z BUS when a mutually coupled element is removed or its impedance is changed.9 4.4 4. (ii) new element is added between two existing buses.

active and reactive power etc. 5. Power flow studies are undertaken for various reasons. The line flows 2.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies I. The effect of change in configuration and incorporating new circuits on system loading 4.5 POWER FLOW STUDIES Power flow studies are performed to determine voltages. The effect of temporary loss of transmission capacity and (or) generation on system loading and accompanied effects. Power flow or load flow solution is essential for continuous evaluation of the performance of the power systems so that suitable control measures can be taken in case of necessity. The effect of in-phase and quadrative boost voltages on system loading 6. Possible improvements to an existing system by change of conductor sizes and system voltages. 5. System loss minimization 8. Economic system operation 7. some of which are the following: . In practice it will be required to carry out numerous power flow solutions under a variety of conditions. The bus voltages and system voltage profile 3. at various points in the network for different operating conditions subject to the constraints on generator capacities and specified net interchange between operating systems and several other restraints. Transformer tap setting for economic operation 9.

A large number of algorithms are developed for digital power flow solutions.. The generators are just supply sources operating at a much higher frequency than 50 Hz to limit the size ofthe components.. but powers are known at almost all the buses. (5. Network equations can be solved in a variety of ways in a systematic manner.. The loads are represented by constant impedances. The bus admittance matrix is invariably utilized in power flow solutions 5. . currents and powers. 3. (5. The methods basically distinguish between themselves in the rate of convergence. There are the following: 5. The most popular method is node voitage method..2) [G] + j [B] . networks were simulated on network analyzers for load flow solutions. The loads are gerally represented by constant power.. These analyzers are of analogue type. scaled down miniature models of power systems with resistances. autotransformers. storage requirement and time of computation.. the resulting mathematical equations become non-linear and are required to be solved by interactive methods. loads and generators.. as in a power system since the nodal currents are not known.. transformers. There should the adequate real power generation to supply the power demand at various load buses and also the losses 2.3 The Power Flow Equations ~ VI Consider an n-bus system the bus voltages are given by LO l .. Vn The bus admittance matrix [Y] = LOn .1 ) V= .. Meters are provided on the panel board for measuring voltages.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System 1. since the system is generally balanced.... When systems had not grown to the present size... When nodal or bus admittances are used complex linear algebraic simultaneous equations will be obtained in terms of nodal or bus currents.. The bus voltage magnitUdes are maintained at values very close to the rated values. transformers and transmission lines are not over loaded at any point of time or the load curve. reactances.. The power flow solution in obtained directly from measurements for any system simulated on the analyzer. However. operation and control as well as for contingency analysis. capacitances. Generators...Power Flow Studies 99 For the purpose of power flow studies a single phase representation of the power network is used. Load flow studies are required as has been already explained for power system planning. With the advent of the modern digital computers possessing large storage and high speed the mode of power flow studies have changed from analog to digital simulation.

.... (5.8 1k ) n .. Y matrix interactive methods are based on solution to power flow equations using their current mismatch at a bus given by . angles at all load buses are the quantities to be determined. (5..(\ .~ . (5......L Ylk Vk bl The complex power into the system at bus i S=P+J'O=VI* 1 I ! 1 I n L -0.3) ...~ Y... (5.. (5..I) and the variables 0 1 IVII and Ld l . The specified or scheduled values at all buses are the independent variables..81k ) = 0 . I..8) 0 = k=1 IV I V..7) .....10) k *' slack bus Constitutes the power flow or load flow solution. . n Excluding the slack bus..~ Y..i\ . I IV I Vk YI~! Cos «\ -..8 1k ) -= 0 . (5.. -8.5 ) II . They are called state variables or dependent variables.. ( 5. 1 I. the above power flow equations are 2 (n .glk j blh -j YI = IVII L8 1= iV21(Cos 81+ j sin ( 1 ) VI: = IVkl L-i\ = !Vki (Cos The current injected into the network at bus 'i' II = .4 ) c\ + j sin 8k ) YII VI n T YIC Vc + ... ~ n -.. k=1 IV I V.) I~ I~ Equating the real and imaginary parts 11 .) L -8.. (5.. (5... + Yin Vn ~ where n is the number of buses .. Simultaneous solution to the 2 (n ...I Sin(8 I .I) equations p 01 .2 .. -8.6) PI and where are PI" = k:1 IV I Vk Ylkl Cos (8 1-. j= 1...lexp(8 I .9) k ct slack bus n OGI - 0 01 - k~l IV I Vk Ylkl Sin (8 1- c\ .100 Power System Analysis where )'1~-'iYlk:~ -".11 ) .. The voltage magnitudes and the phase...

are the power losses in the transmission network..1. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied b: changing the prime mover input. They compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage control. and OI. or more usually fI. and Qo are the total real and reactive generations. V. Q bus.12) At the end of the interactive solution to power flow equation.. also called a PV-bus the reactive power Q g and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed. A load bus is al~o called a p. In other words. 5.14) . (b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus: A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can be controlled.1. Quite often. fl. the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real power generated by the machine. remains unknown before the analysis of the network. we get the power balance relations Pg-Pd - PL'~O . But. The voltage magnitude on the other hand... The values ofP g' 0 g' Pd and 0 d are either known or estimated. This in turn changes the machine rotor axis position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference bus. Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not known in advance. should become negligibly small so that they can be neglected. PI. (c) . these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its phase angle at the bus... In a power balance equation Pd and Qd are treated as negative quantities since generated powers Pg and Qg are assumed positive. Pd and Qd are the total real ancf reactive power demands and Pland OI. YII .4 Classification of Buses (a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is called a load bus..". i~ mainly... At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus. It is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too. the reactive power is calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor.Power Flow Studies or using the voltage form ~V=-I 101 fl. (5.15) Qg-Qd-QI =0 where P<... The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast or metered and measured from instruments. (5. For this . Thus at a generator bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified. (5. Since the load demands Pd and Q d are known values at this bus.llIck htl. influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. At this bus real and reactive load demand Pd and Qd are drawn from the supply..\' In a network as power tlow~ from the generators to loads through transmission lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when included.

bus or voltage controlled bus) Load bus Specified variables Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Magnitudes of bus voltages and real powers (limit on reactive powers) Real and reactive powers Computed variables Real and reactive powers Voltage phase angle and reat. = Slack bus IV d.102 Power System Analysis purpose. one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or 'swing bus'. 5.bus Generator bus (PV . 81 0° specified P l' Q1 to be determined at the end of the solution Generator bus P 2' IV 2i spcified O2. Further. 0 3 specified IV 31. . The voltage magnitude is specified at this bus.1 Bus Slack.5 Bus Admittance Formation Consider the transmission system shown in Fig. Table 5. 83 Load bus P3. Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this bus.1 Bus classification is summarized in Table 5. the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at this bus. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured with respect to voltage at this bus. 5. Fig. 82 to be known P3' Q3' IV 31. 5. 5.1. Magnitude and phase angle of bus voltages 5. The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig.2 Three bus transmission system.83 are not known Fig.:tive power.1.1. At this bus the generation Pg and Q g are not specified. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as reference bus.

15) V 3 Y30 + (V 3 .16) Y II :YlO+YI2+Y13} Y 22 .....V2) Y32 In matrix from .Y0 1 1 X Y30 + Y13 + Y23 Y12 Y22 Y32 where ..19) Y 1k =-Ylk If the network elements have mutual admittance (impedance).Y 31 .V2) Y\2 + (V 1 . the elements of the bus admittance matrix can be written down merely by inspection of the network as diagonal terms 11 YII off and diagonal terms = Ylo + LYlk k... the above formulae will not apply. . (5..Y23 . 2 and 3 are denoted by z 12' z 22 and z31 respectively..18) Y23 =Y 32 =-Y23 are the mutual admittances forming the off-diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix. (5.Y20 + YI2 + Y23 .V3) Y\3 } 12 .. linear graph theory with singular transformations may be used.Y13 Y20 + Y12 + Y23 .Y12 ..-y 13 .. The corresponding line admittances are Y\2' Y22 and Y31 The total capacitive susceptances at the buses are represented by YIO' Y20 and Y30' Applying Kirchoff's current law at each bus II : VI Y\0 + (V 1 . (5.VI) Y 31 + (V 3 .17) Y33 = Y30 + Y\3 + Y23 are the self admittances forming the diagonal terms and Y 12 : Y 21 : -Y12} y 13 . (5.\ b'l .V2 Y20 + (V 2 ...VI) Y 21 + (V 2 ..Power Flow Studies 103 The line impedances joining buses 1. For a systematic formation of the y-bus. For an n-bus system.V 3) Y23 13 = ...... (5.

22) and (5.QLi = 1m [Vi I"J The bus current is given by IBUS = YBUS' VBUS Hence.k k . V.25) Using the indices G and L for generation and load... .27) k=l k"l Further.klexpj(D I -D k -elk) ...30) and Q.. i =F.. (5.... S I .23) .31) i = 1. (5. + LYikV k Vj k=l k"l ..+jQj=L lV..22) .......23) from an n-bus system " P ....... (5. (5. ~Y V 1 ... (5..L. n II = I : '=YiIV.104 Power System Analysis 5. = L IVi k=l n Vk Y. (5.... from eqn.20) Bus admittance. k=l Vk Y.~ V: k=l n .24) .jQ. II . (5...LY... PI = PGI .. k=1 n Vk YjkICOS(Oj -Ok -elk) .29) so that P. (5. .k Isin (OJ -Ok -elk) .p I +' Q I .6 System Model for Load Flow Studies The variable and parameters associated with bus i and a neighboring bus k are represented in the usual notation as follows: ..26) and from eqn..... (5. n..slack bus . 2. (5...iQ.. Pi + jQj = V.PLI = Re [Vi I*J QI = QGi . Ylk Complex power........26) 1 V = _ _ [PI ...V I I" I J = I Y ik I exp j e Ik = I Y ik I (Cos qlk + j sin elk) ..28) In the polar form n P. ' y. (5. = L lV..21) . (5. (5. (5.

usually convergence is obtained. I . Finally. . [n difficult cases.27) are on the average only three.33) The convergence of the iterative methods depends on the diagonal dominance of the bus admittance matri\. Instead of using eqn (5. V-matrix interactivt! methods are based on solution to power flow relations using their current mismatch at a bus given by n ~ I1 = I 1 -.. whcn the initial solution or starting point is very close to the actual solution convergence is gcncrally ontained. the number of iterations required are of the order of n and total computing time varies approximately as n2 . The salient features of the V-matrix iterative methods are that the elements in the summation tenm in cqn. 8 P. For problems that can be solved by both Z-matrix and V-matrix methods. it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant row and column of Y. are usually large.."Y V. the former are rarely competitive with the V-matrix methods.Power Flow Studies 105 The power flow eqns.. For a large.. The self·admittances of the buses. (5.26) or (5. -~ --YII . Consider the equations: 2x + 3y 3\..7 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method Gauss-Seidel iterative method is very simple in concept but may not yield convagence to the required solution. (5. one can select the impedance matrix and rewrite the equation a~ v= Y -I I ~ 7. I. (5. It can easily be verified that the Z-matrix is not sparse.. The sparsity of the V-matrix and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. EHV lines.. The choice of slack bus can affect convergence considerably. The following example illustrator the method. relative to the mutual admittances and thus..~I. even for well-developed power systems. the powers at the slack bus may be "computed from which the losses and all other line flows can be ascertained.. .32) or using the voltage from ~ V.30) and (5. well conditioned system of n-buses.34 ) The Z-matrix method is not usually very sensitive to the choice of the slack bus. series and shunt compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in the V-matrix. 5. at each bus i forthe load flow solution. += 22 5 and y = 4 4y = 31 == The free solution to thc above equations is .25). . Junctions of very high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits long. and Q..31) are nonlinear and it is required to solve 2(n-l) such equations involving i V. (5... L " .. (5. However.

5 Y = 3.. 5. However.. ~y ~ 0_1 L......8 which is nearer to the true value of 5 we obtain from the given equations 22 ..35).. y = 3.74 Y = 3.8.. yields convergence in most of the cases with appriate accleration factors chosen.94 y = 3.-l ~ y v:(m) k "i J lI .13. Successively the bus voltage equation of the (m + 1)th iteration may then be written as V(m+l) I = _I Y [p . in case of power flow studies. ..29 Iteration 3 : x = 6. The convergence of the method depending upon the starting values for the iterative solution...74 Y = 3..06 y = 3.and x = --3-3 Iteration 1 : Let x = 4.44 x = 5..06 y = 3.2.29 Iteration 4 : x = 5. .2x 34 -4y Y = . i :f= slack bus are solved simultaneously for an improved solution. The voltage at the slack bus is specified and remains fixed at that value.LI.2 Iteration 2 x = 6. (5..8 Gauss .- jQ.. 2. n.106 Power System Analysis If an interactive solution using Gauss-Seidel method is required then let u. (5.44 Iteration 6 : x = 5.Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution In this method.'~ k~.'~ v:(m+l) _ k L. assume a starting value for x = 4.2. (5. _ V(m)* ~y "~I L.66 The iteractive solution slowly converges to the true solution. Y = 3. as the bus voltages are not very far from the rated values and as all load flow studies are performed with per unit values assuming a flat voltage profile at all load buses of (I + jO) p.. all newly-computed values of bus voltages are substituted in eqn. x = 6.36) .5 x = 5.....'~ ~"I V k ...84 x = 5.84 Y = 3. v = J_ P. The (n-I) bus voltage relations. In many cases the conveyence may not be ohtained at all. voltages at all buses except at the slack bus are assumed. -'y " r V* .37 Y = 3.96 x = 5.jQ..37 Iteration 5 : x = 5.2 x = 6. In order to accelerate the convergence. y = 4.13 with y = 4.35) I = 1.

Using these reactive powers 0: 1111 and voltages Vir'I~L I a new estimate V: r<1+11 is calculated. (5.. different acceleration factors may be used for real and imaginary parts of the voltage. The rate of convergence of the process can be increased by using acceleration factors to the solution obtained after each iteration.... Letting Y i = v. (5. Even though a complex value of ex is suggested in literature. so that the reactive bus power required to establish the scheduled bus .39) Where v. (5... + jv..43) I(ncw) IV I I scheduled sin 8(111) I These values are used to calculate the reactive power O~m)... (5.40) must be satisfied.42) .. The flowchart for computing the solution of load tlow using gauss-seidel method is given in Fig.40). v. and v. The estimates 0 f voltage components.38) Alternatively.. I v l (lIl) and V"(I11) I ( new) = IV I = I scheduled cos8(m) I .. (5. Treatment of a PV .ists as suggested in literature over a range of operating conditions... (m) a f ter m iterations must be adjusted to satisfy eqn. A fixed acceleration factor ex (I ::.3.. are the real and imaginary components ofY i the relationship . . . 5.. ex ::...41) Assuming that the phase angles of the estimated and scheduled voltages are equal..bus The method of handling a PV-bus requires rectangular coordinate representation for the voltages.. then the adjusted estimates of V'(II1) and V"(JII) are . L\ i-ex y*y I 11 Y _ L\S~ ..Power Flow Studies 107 The method converges slowly because of the loose mathematical coupling between the buses. it is quite often found that a near-optimal choice of ex e>.. .. The Phase angle of the estimated bus voltage is 8(m) = tan -I _V_I_ I "(m)] '(m) [ v.. (5. 2) is normally used for each voltage change. (5. (5.. .IITI) and v...37) The use of the acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of VJ" For a given system.. it is more convenient to operate with real values given by . vo Itage can be computed.

the bus is treated as a PQ bus or load bus.J !.!.I Y v(m"l) _ i k= Y.=. 5. If the calculated value of the reactive power is beyond limits. the limits on the reactive sourCt! must be taken into consideration. Then its value is fixed at the limit that is violated and it is no longer possible to hold the desired magnitude of the bus voltage. .. k Yes m=m+ I Yes Calculate line flows and slack bus PO\\ er Fig.Seidel iterative method for load flow solution using V-8us.J vim) J Ik k I.3 Flowchart for Gauss . No VIm) I =_I_[<P -jQ..108 Power System Analysis While computing the reactive powers.~I+I Y VIm)] II.

This method possesses quadratic convergence and thus converges very rapidly when the solution point is close.... .. . (5. n .. fl (Xl' X2 ' .. 2.. Newton . 2.Power Flow Studies 109 5... while the second method uses the polar coordinate formulation...x (0») n X (0) I L\X is the column vector of correction terms L\ x" and J is the Jacobian matrix for the function f given by the first order partial derivatives evaluated at obtained as X.. which define a tangent hyperplane to the function fl (x) at the given iteration point (x:O)) are obtained as L\Y= JL\X . ... XIO) n + oXn )_ A. ....... (5.. ... •• .. . Consider the set of nonlinear equations..47) The square Jacobian matrix J is defined by J II.44) with initial estimates for \ XI .. The matrix J is highly sparse and is particularly suited to the load flow application and sparsity .46) where L\ Y is a column vector determined by YI - f I (XI(0) . the corrected set of equations are (0) ( XI + 0AX I. - YI . . (5. (5.45) where L\ \ are the corrections to = (i = I....Raphson method is particularly suited to the load flow problem. ..O) + L\xl .programmed ordered triangulation and back substitution methods result in quick and efficient convergence to the load flow solution. =-- Ofl Cx k .9 Newton-Raphson Method The generated Newton-Raphson method is an interactive algorithm for solving a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations in an equal number of unknowns. There are two methods of solution for the load flow using Newton . .Raphson method. (5. Then using Taylor's series and neglecting the higher order terms. .... . (0) • x 2 .IJ = The corrected solution is x.. n) A set of linear equations..X (0) + oX A 2 XI 2 . .. The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables. Xn) = YI' i = I...48) The above method of obtaining a converging solution for a set of nonlinear equations can be used for solving the load flow problem. (0) xn (0) which are not far from the actual solution. It may be mentioned that since the final voltage solutions are not much different from the nominal values.....

.) = ((v: + jv:')t (G.51 ) 0.~ .110 Power System Analysis 5. (5. (5. (5. . The elements of the Jacobian are obtained by differentiating Eqns. leaving the slack bus at the nth bus where the voltage is specified. n -1). =0- Y .jB..~ I l ~PII-I oPII _ 1 av'l oPlI _ 1 av:'_1 oPn _ 1 oPII _ 1 av::_ 1 av:: 00 1 ~v II-I ~Ol 00 1 OQn-1 av II-I 00.53) can be solved for the unknowns ~v: and ~< (i = I. (5.52).54) where H.. 00. The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of ...k = G..k + j B.-1 av'l av'.33) may be written compactly as .k (P. . 2.. (5. ~v " n-I -' Matrix equation (5.9..j V'~ k=1 ) .. + jO... Equation (2. v. 0<_1 Ov~ I I r . .51) and (5. . av ll _ 1 Uv'.v~)1 V~ . N.49) Where and v .52) These are the two power relations at each bus and the lineanzed equations of the form (5.k v~)] ....k Xv~ ..50) Expanding the right side of the above equation and separating out the real and imaginary parts... 0011-1 00 112 av II-I oon-I av "II-I " ... (5. = f[v:(G" ~=I v~ -G'k v~)-V:'(G'k v~ +G.. (5..... . + j 0.46) are written as oPI oPI oPI ~PI r Av. = P. + jv. M and L are the sub-matrices of the Jacobian.-1 av II-I " av'...1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method The power entering the bus i is given by S.53) ~v'.. ~QII-I av'.

. .63) .....59) . (5. (5. -..61 ) 0V k (lQ. the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of L are given by -.62) It can be noticed that L. (5.. B.Power Flow Studies H matrix are given by 111 Cv. (5. ..: =-B"v.H..k = M..k V k+ B"v k oV k k=! oP ..' k oP = G 'k V k + B .k V k . 1 = v. Treatment of Generator Buses At all generator buses other than the swing bus...B .. (5.... ' k *..k = .k V aQ " av k ' - .55) . (5. GV..56) The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofN are: . At the ith generator bus 1 V. the voltage magnitudes are specified in addition to the real powers.+2G"v k +B"v.-' = -G .60) Finally.. (5..58) k"'.- 2 '0 "7 .. " v.k This property of symmetry of the elements reduces computer time and storage..k and N.k v..i *...i .k .B V k ) . (5...~ "v.+2>G. k *.i .k v.. The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of sub-matrix M are obtained as... "n ( " .k " . = G " ') B ' .57) --.. (5.+ v. ..-' = G .k v aQ ' ' " . ) ... i k =! k "" (G .k v'~ ...

V... (5.46) then takes the form I~P] l~O .....31) with respect to 8 and IV: as before. I 1~V. V. (5.. Vk y"lcos(o. (5. ( 5..60) 5. (5. (5...[H Nl[ i\M1 M L 1V I .31)..8.46) then takes the form [~~l = [: ~l[ ~ ~~ I] 2P.60) and the real and reactive pO\vers at bus i are indicated in eqn.70) . (1(1 ~..i*k (lok .-ok.). =IV. = t k=! n k~! lV.8. (5. The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of H matrix are .30) and (5. (5.30) and (5.. M and L are determined by differentiating eqns. 2 _ c(I~J) ?V.. = L lV..68) .kl sin (o.i\V.9.' and V.. . " .8.66) The Jocobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V. " ~v. . (5. the variable ~O. Reproducing them here once again for convenience. Eqn. Power System Analysis will have to be replaced by ~IVJ But. (5. -0. N. in this case...64) This is the only modification required to be introduced in eqn.. P.. Eqn.." in this case.+ .. . (5.Ok . V.) ...65) and 0. V.' and V.. at all the generator nodes. 11) ?v. (5.69) The Jacobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V..k Isin (0.....2 The Polar Coordinates Method The equation for the complex power at node i in the polar form is given in eqn. (5..67) The otT-diagonal and diagonal elements of tile sub-matrices H.) .112 Then.

.77) . the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of L matrix are (l~~~ I = lV.i*k (.Power Flow Studies 113 The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of the sub-matrices H. (5.31) with respect to 8 and IVI as before. (5. "'p = I 11 .8 k K=! The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofN matrix are I ~..70) will be in the form r"~~I [ ~P] IH N] IN = ~Q LM L ... cUk YIk Isin (~ 1 ...76) Finally. (5. (5. Tlw off-diagonal and diagonal elements of H matrix are (lP ~~ I = IVI V. M and L are determined by differentiating eqns...klCos(8 1 -8 k -8 Ik ) .72) ~ = IV 8: Vk I I Y.M and ~ IVI / IVI instead equation (5. N..78) [t is seen from the elements of the Jacobian in this case that the symmetry that existed in the rectangular coordinates case is no longer present now. (5... (5.71 ) IVI Vk Ylklcos(8 1 -i\ -8 Ik )... (5..75) . -8 k -8....79) [n this case it will be seen that Hlk = Llk and ..... ° - Uk ~ - 8)'I Ik' *k ......74) k"l The off-diagonal and diagonal elements ofM matrix are ~il k =-'-IVI Vk Y.. (5...30) and (5. (5. (5..81k ) .73) .. Ylk Isin (81 - i\ .k Isin (8...k) ... By selecting the variable as ...

VkV.(m) Yes Calculate Ime llows and power at slack bus Solve the equation: Calculate the changes in variables 1 V I(m+ 1)= 1 V I(m) + i\V I(m) 8(m+ 1)= 8(111) + ~81(m) m=m+l Fig. thus again saving computer time and storage. .4. 5.(I11) = It VY.k sin(o. -Ok -e.4 Flow chart for Newton . The number of elements to be calculated for an n-dimensional Jacobian matrix are only n + n2/2 instead of n2 .. 5.Ok - e.114 Power System Analysis or.(scheduled)-O.=1 .k) ~p(m) = PI (scheduled) _ I p(m) .(111) = f V. ~O~m) =O. . cos(i" . in other words. p.Raphson method (Polar coordinates) for load flow . the symmetry is restored.k ) 0. The flow chart for computer solution is given in Fig. solution. V.

.. 2.. both matrices are nonsingular and symmetric. Round off errors are very much reduced.. the computing time for one Newton Raphson iteration is roughly equivalent to seven Gauss . In general.. 3. k .83) and L = 01 o~ II ':1~V ')2 ciVil Iv 'I:::: 21 V 112 I I . ..81) and Then elements of L are given by . (5. Direct solutions using triangularization techniques can be obtained much faster unless the independent vector is extremely sparse. The rectangular formulation is marginally faster than the polar version because there are no time consuming trigonometric functions.. --"-1-1 -O. The exploitation of network sparsity requires sophisticated programming techniques.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices For many power networks.. Their storage requirements are small. For typical. 5...84) Newtons method converges in 2 to 5 iterations from a flat start ([V} = 1...80) The elements of M are given by . where as the impedance matrix is full.82) Llk .... large size systems.. and their admittance matrices are relatively sparse. Most transmission networks exhibit irregularity in their connection arrangements.. each non-zero off diagonal element corresponds to a network branch connecting the pair of buses indicated by the row and column of the element. the reactive power equations are replaced at the ith generator bus by 1VI I " = '2 "2 VI +VI . (5. so that larger systems can be solved. Such sparse systems possess the following advantages: 1..ck C Vk .0 p. However. (5. (5. (5.Power Flow Studies 115 Treatment of Generator Nodes For a PV-bus.u and 0 = 0) independent of system size. Previously stored solution can be used as starting values fONapid convergence.c~vJ )1 V 1-" .Seidel iterations.. . it is observed that the rectangular coordinates method is less reliable than the polar version..I. III the admittance matrix. the admittance matrix is relatively sparse. Iteration time can be saved by using the same triangulated Jacobian matrix for two or more iterations.

. II) . sparse systems. matrix A is augmented by b as shown Iall I an a 22 a n2 aln a 2n ann bl bo bn l::: The elements of the first row in the augmented matrix are divided by all as indicated by the following step with superscripts denoting the stage of the computation.3' . Generally...89) .2 a 21 ..84) by the triangular decomposition method..87) .. ...11 Triangular Decompostion Matrix inversion is a very inefficient process for computing direct solutions. (5.. the decomposition is accomplished by elements below the main diagonal in successive columns...I....85) . . To solve eqn. Triangular decomposition of the matrix for solution by Gussian elimination is more suited for load flow solutions.86) In the next stage a 21 is eliminated from the second row using the relations ..:'lall'. (5. n ..88) a 2J - (2) _ ( I ] (I) . (5.. a21-a.. Elimination by successive rows is more advantageous from computer programming point of view.... .116 Power System Analysis 5...n ... .........84) where A is a nonsingular ma~rix. (5..... (5. _ ai~1 a 2J '..(I) _... especjally for large. b is a known vector containing at least one non-zero element and x is a column vector of unknowns... (5..I. (5. Consider the system of equations Ax=b .

... (5..96) n-I (n-I) -an-I xn _ X I l - . (5... ... (5.94) a3 (3) _ -lTl1 f 1 a 13 a 3J .97) ... (5.Power Flow Studies The resulting matrix then becomes 1 117 o a lll using the relations all} ann ~:::I b ll J ...J-4. (5... (5...\1 (1)·_ . (5..95) The elements to the left of the diagonal in the third row are eliminated and further the diagonal element in the third row is made unity....J.. (5.98) = b ll ) I - "all)x I ~ 1J 1=1+1 For matri" inversion of an nth order matrix...n ..91 ) . the augmented matrix will he obtained as a(l) III b(l) I a (2 ) 2n b~2) o x = b(ll) n n bIll) 11 By back substitution... ....... (5....4.. xll ....90) l b(3) = b 3 - a 31 b(1) I . (5... the solution is obtained as .93) .84).. .... After n steps of computation for the nth order system of eqn.n ...... the number of arithmetical operations required is n3 while for the triangular decomposition it is approximately ( ~~) . .....92) (2) b3 - b(l) 1 (l)b(2)' -an -' ..b(Il-I) 11 ..

12 Optimal Ordering When the A matrix in eqn... (5. This can be achieved by suitably ordering the equations.84) is sparse.100) I 4 0 0 0 By ordering the nodes as in Fig..99) 0 0 4 x 0 0 x After triangular decomposition the matrix will be reduced to the form 123 4 I x y x 2 0 300 x x x =y .. (5. 5. it is necessary to see that the accumulation of non. 5. Consider the network system having five nodes as shown in Fig. 5.5 A Five Bus system.. The y-bus matrix of the network will have entries as follows 234 x x y x 2 3 x x x 0 0 =y x ..101) 310 0 4I x x x x y x .5..6 the bus admittance matrix will be of the form 1 2 ~ I x 0 0 x 210 x 0 x =Y I 4 .... (5.118 Power System Analysis 5.. 2 3 @ 4 Fig.. (5.zero elements in the upper triangle is minimized. which is referred to as optimal ordering.

2. However.102) the non-zero off diagonal entries are reduced from 6 to 3 by suitably numbering the nodes. comparing the matrices in eqn.. Number the rows so that at each s. Thus. Tinney and Walker have suggested three methods for optimal ordering. is simple and fast. If the number of iterations is large. scheme 2. Number the rows so that at each step of elimination. off-diagonal elements before elimination. may prove to be advantageous.102) 300 4 0 0 0 Thus.. The coupling between real power and bus voltage magnitude and between reactive power and bus voltage . 5. rows with less number of off diagonal elements are numbered first and the rows with large number last. This requires simulation of every feasible alternative at each step. As a result of triangular decomposition. 5. scheme 3.Power Flow Studies 119 3 4 Fig. (5. for power flow solutions. 3. I. Scheme I.13 Decoupled Methods All power systems exhibit in the steady state a strong interdependence between active powers and bus voltage angles and between reactiye power and voltage magnitude. This method required simulation of the elimination process to take into account the changes in the non-zero connections affected at each step. the V-matrix will be reduced to 123 4 210 I~ lOx =Y I x .. (5. Number the rows according to the number of non-zero.. the next row to be eliminated is the one that will introduce fewest new non-zero elements.6 Renumbered five bus system. has proved to be advantageous even with its additional computing time.tep of elimination the next row to be eliminated is the one having fewest non-zero terms.100) and (5.

. The elements of the sub-matrices Hand L (eqn. fast load flow solutions are required. The computation per iteration is 10 to 20% less than for the original Newton method.. 5.-D k -8. Vk Y. But.108) Assuming that ... decoupling can be obtained .107) With f1 IVI / IVI formulation on the right hand side.k) .cos O. However.zJV... (5..k) I sin (0.e.k) .k Vk Y. 12 i V. = Vk Y.k Hkk=..B .120 Power System Analysis phase angle are both relatively weak.kl sin {o. I f1 I VI/I V I . --Ok Vk 8 .. (5.Ok = O.79) by neglecting Nand M sub matrices as a first step.105) where = I V.k -I V.k = I (V.k sin(D. eI YII I sin e..k cos O.. (5.106) .. LKK = 2 jV. . The decoupled Newton method saves by a factor of four on the storage for the J . for very high accuracy the method requires more iterations because overall quadratic convergence is lost.k Cos e.14 Fast DecoupJed Methods For security monitoring and outage-contingency evaluation studies. (5. (5..~]V...k ) ...Ok .. Recalling equitation (5.k sin e.. This weak coupling is utilized in the development of the so called decoupled methods.79)) are given by H. Lkk = 2 V. . -Ok -8 ik ) .k Isin{o. the overall saving is 35 to 50% of storage when compared to the original Newton method.k .. A method developed for such an application is described in this section. .k) I sin O..103) .klsin{o.k . YII sin 8 11 + L Vk Y.104) The decoupled method converges as reliability as the original Newton method from which it is derived. Vk I [G.k) = I (V.k Cos e. Vk Y.k] 0.. (5..matrix and its triangulation.e.k I sin e..k) + I V.so that I f1P I = I HI· IMI and I f1Q I = I L I . (5..2 YIII sin 9 11 + LIV.Ok . Y.

(5...110) ..15.. The method converges very reliably in two to five iterations with fairly good accuracy even for large systems. 5.112) .15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus 5. A line may be added to a reference point or bus. Gik sin 81k B'k Q I ::. The speed per iteration is roughly five times that of the original Newton method. at the beginning of the study since they contain network admittances only. B 11 ly21 1 H kk -I y21 B II l' 1 .... A good.Power Flow Studies Sin 8 1k and =:= 121 0 ::.. (5.1 Bus Impedance Formation Any power network can be formed using the following possible methods of construction.11 I) =1 y I B" I V I ~ ~~ I IVI IL1QI = B"[L11 V I] IV! . (5.. (5.'V"I BIk i" Rewriting eqns..113) Matrices R' and B" represent constant approximations to the slopes of the tangent hyper planes of the functions L1P / iVI and L1Q / IVi respectively.. approximate solution is obtained after the 1SI or 2nd iteration.103) and (5. Th~y are very close to the Jacobian sub matrices Hand L evaluated at system no-load. (5.. I.... Shunt reactances and off-nominal in-phase transformer taps which affect the Mvar 110ws are to be omitted from [B '] and for the same reason phase shifting elements are to be omitted from [Bit].... (5...109) L kk =IV"IB 11 I l' LIk -. Both l B '1 and [B It] are real and spars e and need be triangularised only once. .104) lL1pl = [IVI B' I V] L18 IL1QI or lL1pl = B' [L18] .

.9 Addition of a radial line and new bus.0 .. . .1 System :>-+------<1 J~ l Fig.. A bus may be added to any existing bus in the system other than the reference bus through a new line. Zlk Zkl 7- k : ....Bus. System (cl i Zhne rk (a) (b) Lllle added to reference bus Lme added to any bus other than reference line Line added Joining two existing buses Fig.7. The above three modes are illustrated in Fig.. be same as that would be produced if the current were injected instead at bus i as shown.114) The driving point impedance of the new bus is given by Zkk = Zlllle .3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus Injection of unit current into the system through the new bus k produces voltages at all other buses of the system as shown in Fig.122 Power System Analysis 2. 5..15. These voltages would of course. 5...9. i If unit current is injected into bus k no voltage will be produced at other buses of the systems. 5.. 5.. ...15.8 Addition of the line to reference line 5. 5. (5.. (5.. System :----+----1 J~ l Z i= I 0 . 5. Z i = 1.1 Fig.7 Building of Z . and 3..2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus = = 0.115) . k 0--+-<>----0 New bus System Zhne B. A line may be added joining two existing buses in the system forming a loop...

4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System Since both the buses are existing buses in the system the dimension of the bus impedance matrix will not increase in this case. (5. 5. However..15. (5.118) The dimension of Z matrix is increased due to the introduction of a new axis due to the Zioop ... . The off diagonal elements of the new row and column are the same as the elements of the row and column of bus i of the existing system.116) The dimension of the existing Z .1 O(b). 5.k + ZI111e . 123 therefore.Bus matrix is increased by one..Z2k + Zkk ..Power Flow Studies Therefore.Zlk + Z Illle) for the circulation of unit current The loop impedance is = ZII + 7: kk -.2Z . (5..10 (a) Addition of a loop (b) Equivalent representation The 5ystems in Fig.e System i = 1. the addition of the loop introduces a new axis which can be subsequently eliminated by Kron's reduction method.1 O( a) can be represented alternatively as in Fig.0 (ZI1 .. The link between i and k requires a loop voltage V 100p = 1..117) loop 1 and The new loop axis can be eliminated now. 5. Consider the matrix . SystCI11 :l d~ r ~kZI".0 ~--------~ (a) Fig..... 5.

119) VI where YI is the total shunt admittance at the bus i and Y II from bus i to ground.. J 18) all the additional elements introduced by the loop can be eliminated.I y (n I). k~1 k~1 1--1 n . The difference between the newly computed voltage and the previous voltage at the bus is multiplied by an appropriate acceleration factor.. In general I < a < 2 and a typical value for a = 1.5. . '=Z bu. .5 or 1.121) k"S b... at hus i is multiplied by a factor a. (5..6 the use of acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of bus voltage YI' For a given system.120) Where Y R is the (n -.iQ I -v y' -I V I .. I bus ~y R . ~Ik k L. Using these voltages.I) x ! dimensional reference voltage vector containing in each clement the slack bus voltage. The method is illustrated in example E.16 Convergence Characteristics The numher of iterations required for convergence to solution depends considerably on the correction to voltage at each bus.2.S Then i = 1.. 1= PI . n S = slack bus 5. it is found that acceleration can be obtained to convergence rate.. (5. It may he noted that since the slack bus is the reference bus. the dimension of the Zhu..25) or (5...bus method. (5. If the correction DY. is the shunt current flowing A new bus voltage estimate is obtained for an n-bus system from the relation . The voltages are updated from iteration to iteration using the relation ym+1 = y I fm + "Z I III +1 + "Z Ik I k ) S L.26).. (5. 5..Seidel Method Using Z-bus for Load Flow Solution An initial bus voltage vector is assumed as in the case ofY . y bu.. . The value ofa that generally improves the convergence is greater than are. ( 5... (5.5 Gauss . is (n. the bus currents are calculated using eqn.... J 18) using eqn.4.124 It can be proved easily that Power System Analysis .15... Then multiplier a is called acceleration factor. Same suggested different a values for real and imaginary parts of the bus voltages.. it is quite often found that a near optimal choice of a exists as suggested in literature over a range of operating condition complex value is also suggested for a...

Power Flow Analysis ]25 The convergence of iterative methods depends upon the diagonal dominance of the bus admittance matrix. The salient features ofY-bus matrix iterative mf"thods are that the element in the summation term in equation ( ) or ( ) are on the average 2 or 3 only even for well developed power systems. The self adm ittances of the buses (diagonal terms) are usually large relative to the mutual admittances (off-diagonal terms). The sparsity of the Y-matrix and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. Junctions of high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits. The choice of swing bus may also affect convergence considerably. the Newton-Raphson method gives convergence in 3 to 4 iterations. Being a gradient method solution is obtained must taster than any iterative method. series and shunt. Compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in Y bus matrix. For this reason convergence is obtained for power flow solution methods. In contrast. In ditlicult cases it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant row and column ofY-bus. long EHV lines. For large well conditioned system of n huses the numher of iterations req uired are of the order n and the total computing time varies approximately as n~. No acceleration factors are needed to the used. .

l.05 +jO.:l Bus voltage Vi 1. The system parameters are given in Table ES. Loads and Voltages Bus No i I 2 .02 +jO.2.126 Operation and Control in Power Systems \Vorked Examples E 5.25 .1 A three bus power system is shown in Fig.1 Impedance and Line charging Admittances Bus Code i-k Impedance (p.l and the load and generation data in Table ES.03 +jO.03p..j3. 0 25 Solution: The line admittance are obtained as )'12 = 1.u.OIR 0 U Table E 5. Taking bus 1 as slack bus obtain the load flow solution using Gauss . The maximum and minimum reactive power limits of the generation at bus 2 are 35 and 0 Mvar respectively.00 5.Seidel iterative method using Y Bu~ E 5.u.06+jO.00 .75 1.667 -. ES.1 A three bus power system Table E 5. 0 1-2 O.O 1..u) y..06 O.O ----- Generation MW Load MW I 1 Mvar -- Mvar 0 20 0 20 0 50 (j) .OS ~jO 24 1-3 2-3 0.OO Y23 -~ = Y13 .I.jIS. The voltage at bus 2 is maintained at l.j5.2 Scheduled Generation. Line charging Admittance (p.) Z.

00 b:d ±[(e. The initial voltages are therefore Vir!) = 1.2 = 0.25 2. !V2 !sch coso 2 = (1.75)] + (0)[(1)( -1.03.O viol Vf') == 1.25 .)-(C~(new)~~Glk -e~B2k)] = k1.0) = 0.0 r6.Seidel Iterative Method using YBl!S The voltage at hus 3 is assumed as 1 + jO.03)(1.05)(-1.0 J + j15.>'2 Substituting the values Q~O) J+ 0(1.03 + jO.73 + j15. 27.03 V23Ch sin oi U ) = (1.j1B.0 II Gauss .0)] .6667) .Power Flow Analysis 127 The bus admittance matrix is formed using the procedure indicated in section 2.75 + j5.jB. which is a P.j20.(1)( -5)] = 0.O Base MVA = 100 Iteration 1 : It is required to calculate the reactive power O2 at bus 2.)2 B.(1.0 + j3.07725 Mvar generated at bus 2 Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar 0.0l + •j5.75 .6667) + (0)(-5.1 as YBlis = -1.0) = 1.u.6667 + j3.75 .6667 6.05)(-3.25) .25) + 0.05 + jO.25 -5.1.9167 -1.V or voltage controlled bus e~(neW) = e~( new) co.0 -j1.725 Mvar .O = 1.75 -1.03[(0)( -1.75 + (of 8.75) -1.0 -5.(neW)e~G2k +e~B2.00 + jO.03[(0)(-1.03)(0.27725 p.6667 .07725 + 0.(-3.

0. The accelerated voltages is obtained lIsing v~ = 1.j8.O) + (-1.j20 = 1.4(1.0.03 .0. The voltage at bus i is Operation and Control in Power Systems y(m+l) I = ~[PIY-(InjQI _ L.01583L .01481.128 This is within the limits specified.75)(l..?7725 _ (-1.01915 -1.0351381 .01481 v.0454874 = 1.0 + 1.O)] [_ 1.3 .02093 . = l 0.jO.25 + j3.4(-0.0.2.0196673L -1.jO.826° An acceleration factor of 1.03) = 1.0) = -0.0454874 Yi ) (accelerated) = 1.jO.75) .032491 = 1.0 Vii) = 1.6667 + j5.9167 ..05 + jO. YIk VIm)] ~ k ~ y k )* II I k~1 k=I+1 (2.6667 -.01915.4 is used for both real and imaginary parts.-. YIk y(m+l) _ L.032491 .0)(1 + jO.56648° The voltage at hus 3 is given by 6.03 + 1.

jO.0454874 Vjl) = 1.1 IO) =1.56648°) = 1. ll) [L1V 'l I = [v1J .75) +( -0.[.02897)[( --n..56648 ) .' 2 -1.3.1.05( -\.)11 [V2J .01481.029302 v'~ = 0 + 1.05 + jO.0491933 129 Vjl) = 1.56648° [vJII 1.(1.0:--0. 75)J .001.0 =1.jO..046122 [V 2ne.029302 V.046122)" (8.0) = -0.029302 .03=-0.03048L .2.75)1 + .-0.0152 v 2J [L1v "IO) = [" ll) ..03cos(-2.02093 . _I I' °- J I) -= 1. Iteration 2 : The reactive power Q 2 at bus 2 is calculated as before to give 8(11 2 = tan-I hE = tan-I [=-0.11 .jO.(-0.01481 = 1.6667) co (1.(1.0 + 1.25) .0) = 1.0454874 V2J v 2 1 [tW "lUI = [.4( -0.0351384 .jO.029302.0454874-0.02897)[(0)(-\.0=-0.75) +.Power Flow Analysis The accelerated value of V~II obtained lIsing v'.V2sch ·sm8 (II .0491933)( -1.25) + (0)( .73624 0 The voltages at the end of the first iteration are VI = 1.02897)' (8.0~~9302)( -5)] -0.0454874J = -2.(1.001 is taken for convergence 0 .J V3J J [AVJIII =[AV~JII_[L1V~t =-0.4(1.0491933 --0.0491933 The magnitudes of all the voltage changes are greater than 0.02837 [v~t =IV2schl·cos8~1) .03sm(-2.0491933 Check for convergence: An accuracy of 0.O V~I) = 1.[.0461 22)[1.02897 .049933 = 1..["2 Ill) =-0.029302--1.046122 Q~I) = (1.01481-1.0=0.05)( -3. = 1.0202933 .

023216 .97067Mvar This is within the specified limits.02827 + jO.6667 + j5.(-1.03194278 The voltages at the end of the second iteration are 1. the same as before vii) ~he = 1.4(1.jO.jO.25 + j3.j8.( .0226 .023216 v~ =.0.029302 + jO.05 + jO.1.0491933)+1.0368715 The accelerated value of Vi 2 ) obtained from v~ = 1.0202933 + 0.029302.023216 . therefore.jO.029302 .(-1.05 + jO) .2 VI = 1. = 17.0226 .046 I 22 + 1.75)(I.0611087) vi2 )' = 1.jO.0491933)] = 1.46122 Vjl) = 1.O . (\ .029302 + 1.3 + jO.0.02897 + 1.029302) = 1.4(\ .02 .02897) = 1.05 + jO.4( -0.02486 .05 + jO.1.0611)] = 1.25 ] 6.0.-0.6667 .0202933 ] 2.O 0.5 + jI5)(1.02 v~ =(-0.0568268 The accelerated value of V?) is obtained from " v~ = 1.6 + jO.4(-0.0)· (1.jO.(-0.jO.O) .75 1.0491933 New voltage at bus 2 is obtained as VO) 2 _ - 1 [ .u.jO.jO.130 Mvar to be generated at bus 2 = Operation and Control in Power Systems Net Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar = = .046122 .0611 087 The new voltage at bus 3 is calculated as V(l)- J - I [ -6.1797067 p. The voltages are.0491933) = -0.046122 = -0.(--1.0368715)+ (0.j20 1.9 I 67 .03194278 vf) VI = = 1.02897 .6667 + j5) .0491933 -.02486 .0568268) -.

684006 + jO.242396) Table E5. the slack bus power obtained by adding the flows in the lines terminating at the slack bus.jO.jO..\· 131 vi 2) = 1.02 .195845 0.228975 Power Flow Q 0.1 (a) Table ES.OOS9178 Similarly.03 +jO 1.. .0611087 I 033·l76 -.049193 I 02 .225183 0.0.22518 .0.02030 I .003508 I 0124428 .jO.0.jO.)Y.0554 ·0.1(b) Line Flows Line 1-2 2-1 1-3 3-1 2-3 3-2 P + 0.074129 007461 .0338074 1.0 1.Power Flow Analysi.0274·~8 I 2 3 ·1 .V.228975 + jO.225 (0.I (b).05 +jO 1.05 + jO 1..0.224 -0.0059178 0.1 2 = -·0.05 +.0 04813X3 I 0227564 .05 + jO 1.0 + jO 1.iO 05 101 17 Line flow from hus 1 to bus 2 S'2 .02412 -jO.674565 .0 lOS + iO I 05 + .017396 0.)Yt2 Line flow from bus 2 to bus 1 = 0.04548 1.054 .0.jO. The results are tahulated in Table E5. is PI + jQI = 0.912981 + jO.05 +jO 1.00341309 I 0281748 .034802 5 6 7 I.iO I 05 ' .0.00539141 1'()29892 .0611087 Vfl = 1.029302 . .I (a) Bus Voltage Iteration 0 8us I 8us 2 8us 3 1.023216-.03194278 The procedure is repeated till convergence is obtained at the end of the sixth iteration.05062 1.(V. the other line flows can be computed and are tabulated in Table ES.' V.023216.0 051 J2l) 1027726.jO. 0284 78 -.017396 S2' = v (v.68396 .017396 = -t 0.V.01481 -jO.228975 + jO.0363943 1.OJ 19428 I.

u --1. E 5. 5 E 5. 1 1 05 +jO 0 Load MWp. Mvarp.57000 1.2 --0.u.33000 3.600 1750 0.) 14 1-5 2-3 24 2-(.05 ------1.4 ------0.Seidel method.u Mvar p.02 (specitied) 2 3 . perform load flow by Gauss .560 1500 0625 E-I /::-2 E-l E-I E-I E-l 4-5 Scheduled generation and bus voltages: Bus Code P Assumed bus voltage Generation MWp.~ ----- :\ 6 ------- ------- ------- 0.000 I.05 0.8 0.2 A six bus power system.2. (b) .u.845 3.4. Solve the problem also using Newton-Raphson polar coordinate method. The following is the data: Line impedance (p.u.7 (a) Taking bus .I as slack bus and using an accelerating factor of 1.2 Consider the bus system shown in Fig.2 1.19999 I.132 Operation and Control in Power Systems E 5. Take precision index as 0. Real 0.05 0.D3 0. 73000 30()()OO 1 94000 E-I E-2 E-2 E-2 L-2 f:-2 Imaginary 0.

y.035970 -4.410254 133 P-Q 1-1 1-4 1-5 2-2 2-3 2-5 2-6 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-4 4-5 5-1 5-2 5-4 5 _.J..011091 -5.529948 -9029870 ·-5.J 1()257 -6.V IO )' I II .529948 18.516310 -·5 486446 -9.) Real 14.529404 -5. y(O).029870 7.282051 Imaginary -32 57515 8 13342 24.282051 -1.0 II 091 -5035970 -1.486446 10.Power Flow Analysis Solution: The bus admittance matrix is obtained as : Bus Code Admittance (p.05 + jO..6 All the bus voltages.529494 16.59579() ··1.016390 -4.329113 -1."I. are assumed to be I + jO except the specified voltage at bus I which is kept fixed at 1.IO )'1! _h .i V (I) ~ CO" .(0).-.. Y2'V. 5 6-2 6.u.24106 5.44174 -28.V.. V I.282051 1.33705() 6..441740 163014()0 14593900 -55. The voltage equations for the fist Gause-Seidel iteration are: V(I) '" 2 _1_1 y I 1'2 -.593900 2.301400 6410257 5.- I Y [p~'--jQ-1 --.529404 8 133420 -22727320 14.iQ (0)' 2 2 l_ V 2 .Y 2.011091 1.

134 Operation and Control in Power Systems y!l) ) =_I_[P5y-jQ Y 55 (0)' 5 5 _y 51 YI _y 51 y(l) 2 _Y_ )4 y(l)] 4 Substituting the values.(-I .jO.529948 + jl 4.28. ·55.30 14 )(1 + jO) l J .7+jOO.(-5.jO.282051 + j16.jO .jO.44174) x (1.028669 .05] J I .1.46 .j O.133342) x (1.329113 J l-jO 1 .03597 + jI6.992808 .0 I 6786 + jO.4+ jO.529404)x (I + jO) -(-5.410257JX[-0.016786 + jO.33705) x [.jO .5939)(1 + jO) = 0.jO _. (.6.0557924) = I .2 .24100)X[I.(I .282051 -.8 + jO.05 7.5939)(0.05 + jO.(-4.52424) x [1. the equation for solution are y~I)=( - -.22.3885233 y(l) 4 =( 10.016786 + jO.4 I 0257) x (1.(-5.05 + jO) .O~.O 1879179 j y(I)=( 1.005] 1.0.0557924 y(l) :1 =( I 1.0658069) = 1.l I 18.0669962 The results of these iterations is given in Table 5.) .486 2 + j8.02] J 11 6 . I .529404) x (1.992808 .02987 + j24.jO.0557929) .30 14)(1.2.0658069 y!l) ) = ( _____.089511 + j0.011091 + j5.01639 _ J .529948 + jl 4.5.59579 J 1.0 I 1091 + j5.016786 + jO.(-4.3014)(1 + jO) = 1.jO.989904 .3 (a) .0 I 109 I _ .282051 .(-1.0557924) = 0.03597 + jl 6.j6.72732)X[-I.(-9.

0978431 1.2963 715 1.041203 + jO.0971998 1.04504223 1.10.1004646546 1..013044 -.019331 -j004501488 1.0044 13647 1.jO.097164 1.1° 04498312 1013943 -.016877 -jO 00558081 1.040914 + jO.004463 713 0989901 -.013552 .04511174 1.014418 .033711 +jO.jO 0352727 1.02763564 103515 + jO.093791 I 04212 + .0963405 1.00524855 1.02669-jO.041933 +.016927 -jO 00543323 IOI6967-jO.0669962 1.05306 + jO.101896 1040005+jO.004495542 I 03374 +jO.097002 1.61576 _.0013965 -jO.030042 + jO.0577213 1.296598 1.1000770664 I 017353 .0·-l2189 + jO.027151 +.02571 + jO.004504417 I 033845 .089511 + jO 3885233 1.jO 045610 I 1-014148 --jO 04487629 1.2973287 1.0 1879179 1..033749 + jO.O 177322 1034181 +jO.10 0064356n 1014416-jO.01403-.3050814 1.10. jO 04258692 1.02935 +.013881 .00498989 1.041036 + jO.013687 .03381 + jO.01821-jOOO1752973 1016182 -.0192121 I 014571-jO 02625271 I 02209 +.00258192 1..0557924 1.033756 +.10.10.3(a) It.2994083 1.004558826 1.033761 + jO 00447096 1.992808 .33985 + jO.029642 + .029739 + jO.10.102901358 1.00053283 9 10 II 12 13 14 .jO.jO 0048398 1016743 -jO.O I +-.jO..004439559 1.040509 + jO.10.10.1O 18735 I 043568 + jO 089733 1.2962084 0.2323309 I 054321 + jO 3276035 I 02297 + .033319 + jO. jO 00430454 I 033845 + jO.047155 +..1004506212 1.05()0558 1.Table ES.10.O I +jO 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 1\ 1.014855 + .031063 + jO.035391 + jO 00526437 0.041414+j0097518 1.0060342 IOI7089-jO.0 I +-jO 0 I +jO.029518 + jO 2960784 1.10.021136 .041075 +-.003697056 10.016789 + jO.0972818 1.016997 -.0971451 1.OO4454002 1.028816 + jO 294465 1.01319787 1.10.0971777 1.041 104 + .10.102973287 1.jO 0658069 1.012207 .0453101 1.10.No Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Bus 6 0 1+ jO.10.041127 +-jO.

Raphson polar coordinates method The bus admittance matrix is written in polar form as 19.4) -+.001928 I 2 3 4 5 6 I OS () 045629 1071334 1.3(b).4°1 5.) Phase angle (0) 0 5.4 Note that 9.6° Ysus = 3.95285) cos (108°.543515 2.05058 -2.473992 -3.05) (3.27046L .136 Operation and Control in Power Systems In the polar form.6) +(1.4° [ 15.22331) cos (-108°.8 22 )+ 7 (1.3326 16.2233IL-71.8114L .6 0 3.4 0 ° The initial bus voltages are VI = 1.u.108.95285L-I08.27046) cos (--108°.0)(5. Table E5.95285L-108.6° 5.03)2 (9.0819L-71.8114L -108.03)2 (9.7642L-71.0LOo The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are calculated as follows : P2 = IV1 VI Y 11 Icos(oiO) - 01 - 8 21 )+ [vi Yn[ cos(.(1.016981 (b) Newton .03)(1.4) ~ 0.05 LOO = 1.02575 . all the voltages at the end of the 14th iteration are given in Table E5.4° 15.014964 I 033765 1.27046L -108.3(b) Bus Voltage magnitude (p.03) (1.4° 21.03LOO viol viOl = 1.22331) cos (71°.4) + (1.108.

8 21 )+ IV 2 V3 Y23 I sin (8iol = Iv} y 1 8 sin(22 22 )+ -8~OI-823) (1. The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are calculated in a similar way.4°) + (1. P3 = IVj01VIY31Icos(8~Ol -8 1 -8 31 )+!Vj01V 2 Y32 ! cos(8~Ol -8 2 -8 32 )+ IVjO)2 Y33Icos(-833) (1.03) (5.07725 0.0891) sin (71.0)2 (21..9) = -0.4°) = Generation of p.07725 + (1.3) = -0.2 + 0.0) (1.0.6°) = - = 0.3 0 3 = IVjO)VIY31Isin(8~Ol -8 1 -8 31 )+lvjO)V2 Y32Isin(8~O) -8 2 -9 32 )+ IVJ0 12 Y31 Isin(.27046) sin (108.27725 = 27.65 It may be noted that has not been computed since bus 2 is voltage controlled bus.0) (5.8114) sin (-108.0) (1.22331) sin (71.4°) + (1.6 -.8 33 ) (1. since !~piO) I.05 (15.32575 ~p~O) = -0.27046) sin (-108.95285) sin (-108°.Power Flow Analysis 137 .(-0.03) (5.4°) + (1.25 .725 Mvar This is within the limits specitied.0)2 (21. u Mvar at bus 2 = = 0.03) (1.0) (1.(-0.03) (1.8114) cos (-108.3 . I~piol 1and !~o~O) I . O2 = IV 2VI Y21 ISin(8~Ol .02575 = -0.27046) cos (-108.3 ~02 ~oiO) = -0.6°) =- 0.03)2 (9.0) 1.6°) 0.4°) = + (1.9 The difference between scheduled and calculated powers are ~piO' = -0.05) (15.81 .0819) cos (71.05) (3.4) + (1.

V(O) y" ISin{8~0) .27046) cos (-108.0) (5.03) (1.7166724 = - CU3 cP} =IV(O)V I Y31 ISin(8(O) -o~O) -8)) "I:: 3 3 _ L = (0.9 IV 2 Y32Icos(ojO) -oiO) -8 32 ) = 2(1.05) (15.4()) ~ -5.05) (15.' = (1.O) (5.4°) .15 I:: oP.4°) 1.15 ap ((O) (0) 28 =-v 2 VI Y21 SIn\8 2 -8 1 -8 21 ) + 2 I I.6°) + (1.95285) sin (108. Iteration I : Elements of the Jacobian are calculated as follows. 8.0 I.4°) = 9. {I:: (0) 31 3 dO) -u2 - 8 32 ) = - (1.4°) + (1. oP 2 = Iv.366604 .2056266 ~=V2Y23COS\02 Ou.05) (3.27046) sin (-108..0) (21.4°) + (1. -8 23 ) (1.03) (5.0) (1. the next iteration is computed. 2 IV2 VjO)Y23lsin(8~0) _0~0) -8 23 ) = - (1.138 Operation and Control in Power Systems are greater than the specified limit of 0.4°) = 6.8114) cos (-108.27046) sin (-108.8114) sin (-108.27046) cos (108.03) (5.03) (5. .8(0) - -) -' ~ - .03) (!.15 = 20. J =0 CP 2 I I ((O) (0) -8. c8.03) (1.0) (1.27046) sin (-I 08.5. (dO) 00 = IV(O)V1 y )1 ISIn\u) 3 3 -UI - 8) + IV(O)V 2 Y32 ISIn\U3 .4°) = - 5.0819) cos (71.) -.

9667 -0.4(1) = 19.4() 1.0) (1.710746 _0 19.18648'lr~0.65 1.5.1. 5.6.0819) sin (71.03) (5.I -0.3 = -5.4() .0.71667 -0.0) (21.1 t\b.0.20563 -0.482237 = 0 [I -0.1~ Icos (dO) .70) -· r 0.' :=: Iv(OIVI Y.27046) cos (--108.05) (15.55944 20.186481l~021 6.7166724 ?Q 3 cO.8114) cos (-108. u3 (O)V I (~«(l) IV3 2 Y32 cosu2 - U ~I - e) + 31 -u3 \:(0) - 8 32 ) =c (1.9667 IV2 Y32Isin(oiO) -O~()) -8 32 ) = 2(1.15 0.8114) sin (-108.7166724 = .40623 M.6°) + (1.02 . 0(0) - 2 e ) 32 = = (1.035386 + 1.71667 .55944 18.42012 L{\IV l .9 -6.353861 .05) (15.27046) sin (-108. ~IV.Power Flow Analysis 139 8Q 3 cO.03) (5.0. (5.353861l I --0.1 From eqn.9967 Following the method of triangulation and back substations . 1 r+0.3 = -5.36660 19.4°) + (1. .15 l .9 .6. :=: -IV(O)V y ICOS(O(O) 3 I 32 .0) (1.325751 [9.6.15 20.006326 -0.

03)(1 . Mvar This is within the specified limits.3) (0. = (0.9788° The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are computed : pil) = (1.(-0.034536) .025917)(1.95285)[cos(-2.0988) .025917 = .18648]r~82j~ 0.O( -108.55944 I 0 0 -0.049874 rad = - 2.108.(0.55) /(21.(-1.(-2.025917 L-1.98° Ml =- == .1.043853 24.55944) (--0.95285)[sin( -2.ll.025917)\21.0(-108.05)(l5.043853 Generation of reactive power at bus 2 = = 0.22202) = 0.0267613 =lO 0.8575) . l ~83 r -0.8117)cos[(-1.55 ~IV31 -0.4 0 )] = 0.8575° At the end of the firs iteration the bus voltages are VI = 1.05 LO o V 2 = 1.4] + (1.22202 ~83 ~IV31 Thus.140 Operation and Control in Power Systems Finally.243856 p.09788) .0 -108.3 21.025917) '" .0.85757° V3 == 1.18648) (0.4°) + (1.4 ° -0.03)(5.35386]11 0.03) 2 (1.9788) .(-1.8575) .-0.108.03)2 (9.27046) cos[( -2.025917) = - 0.85757) .0267613 .3856 Mvar = 0.9788) .03)(1.0345364 rad 0.4 0)] + (l.60) =.4 0) + (1.05)(3.27046)cos[(-1.8575) .05)(3.(--0. The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are computed as pjl) = (1.8575) -108.035286 .2 + 0.025917)(l.60407 .025917)(5.30009 Q~I) = (1.22331) sin[( -2.0819) cos(71.03 L2.0.

oil) is greater than the specified limit 0.3 = -0.025917)(1.074126 007461 Power Flow .0 I.4 0 )] + (1.025917 L-1.025917)~ (21.0195845 0.Power Flow Analysis 141 Q~I) == (1.0.0674565 -0.683 C )/) .\Q\I) = -0.108.85757 1.(-0.03L-2.4 (a) Bus voltages Iteration 0 I 2 Bus I I.224 The differences between scheduled powers and calculated powers are ~pil) ~P~ I) .024 76L -1.00407 -0. Q n.025917)(1.30009) = 0.05 )(15.05LO o Bus 2 I 03LOo I.6o) = -0.2224) = -0.00009 (-0.108.(-2.0819)sin(71. The results are tabulated in table E5.8575) .05LOo I.05LOo I.8517 Bus 3 I.977) .4 0 )1 + (1.LOo 1.022332 O.25 .03L-2.4 (b) Line Flows Line 1-2 2-1 1-3 3-1 2-3 3-2 P 02297 .27046) sinl( -1.0276 Even though the first two differences are within the limits the last one.4(b) Table E5.6 co (-0.224 -0.4(a) and E5. At the end of the second iteration even l~03 also is found to be within the specified tolerance.8114) sin[( -1.9788) .054 . 94 7 Table E5.9788 1. The next iteration is carried out in a similar manner.60407) = 0.03)(5.O 16533 o ()O49313 0.0554 .

15 + jO.115 -0 82·.j24.02 j 0 02 j 0. decoupled method and fast decoupled method.31 +.31 10962 .944 -)1.04 0.724+ . jO -0822 + j2.98 -10+ .120 5 -1.02 +jO.962 + j4. E 5.724 . 5 3 4 (a) Power system Bus Code 1-2 2-3 3-5 3-4 4-5 5-1 Line impedance Zpq 0. .02 Line charging j 0.06 0.27 2 3 4 5 -10 + j20 0+ jO 0 + jO -1.962+j4.808 6783-.142 Operation and Control in Power Systems E5.447 (d) Bus admittance matrix Fig.04 0.3 .192 4 0+ jO 0 + jO -5+jI5 15-j34.02 +jO. 2 -10 + j20 0 (c) Generation and load data I 3 0+ jO -0.12.j24.j26.546 .192 11.724+ j4.02 0.01 i 0.24 004 + jO.768 -0.14.08 +jO.121.025 j 0.2 (b) Line-data Bus Code (Slack) I Generation Mw Mvar 0 50 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 MW () Load Mvar 0 10 20 15 25 2 3 4 5 15 45 40 50 .01 j 0.808 O+jO 0+ jO ° ·-10 + j20 12.02 +jO.3 For the given sample power system find load flow solution using N-R polar coordinates method.

0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.004219 dp[5] = --0.143439 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 3 is 143 .0.046259 dQ[4] = -0.0.000502 dQ[5] = -0.0.875810 F :.000953 dQ[2] = -0.003703 dQ[5] = -0.142226 Bus no 4 E : 0.001087 dQ[3] = -0.0.000000 F : 0.880951 F :.0.874651 F :.001177 dp[4] = --0.0.153423 Bus no 5 E : 0.008219 Bus no 3 E : 0.04944 dp[3] =--0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 1.142953 Bus no 4 E : 0.154322 Bus no 5 E : 0.984357 F :.038605 dQ[3] = -0.0.868709 F :.067349 dp[5] = -0.047486 dQ[2] = ·-0.041583 dp[4] = -0.984591 F :.002261 dQ[4] = --0.882096 F :.002888 The New voltage vector after iteration 2 is : Bus no IE: 1.142707 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 2 is dp[2] = 0.86991 F :.Power Flow Analysis Solution: The Residual or Mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp[2] = 0.000000 F : 0.002406 dp[3] = -0.058334 The New voltage vector after iteration I is : Bus no 1 E : 1.008285 Bus no 3 E : 0.

150003 E = 0.249993 E = 0.450000 -0.350000 dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = = -0.199995 E = 0.941403 F :.0.874651 -0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.154322 F = -0.143439 Decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method) The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 0 is dp[2] = 0.000001 -0.148655 Bus no 4 E : 0.0.400000 -0.089093 bus no 2 pq P = 0.0.000002 -0.000000 F : 0.997385 F :.150753 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp [2] = 0.500001 Q = -0.984357 F = 0.000005 -0.190000 -0.000001 -0.449999 bus no 4 pq P = -0.000003 -0.0.000013 = = = = = The final load flow solution (for allowable error.005323 .000007 Q = 0.008219 F = -0.000000 E = 0.1429531 F = dp[4] = -0.OOOt) : bus no 1 Slack P = 1.150002 E = 1.014700 Bus no 3 E: 0.556063 Q = 0.399987 bus no 5 pq P = -0.000000 F = -0.145000 -0.000005 -0.130000 -0.144 dp[2] dp[3] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = Operation and Control in Power Systems 0.161282 Bus no 5 E: 0.500000 -0.943803 F:.880951 Q = -0.195000 = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 0 : Bus no IE: 1.868709 Q = -0.349995 bus no 3 pq P = -0.947017 F:.

007091 Bus no 3 E : 0.Power Flow Analysis dp[3] = -0.882750 F :.870666 F :.004522 .143484 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:2 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] = = 145 0.981985 F:.880269 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E: 0.0.143760 Bus no 4 E : 0.0.982082 F :.000138 dp[3] = 0.143109 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:3 is dp[2] = 0.009927 -0.000000 F : 0.067713 dQ[3] = -0.007721 The new voltage vector after iteration 2 : Bus no 1 E: 1.006964 = = = dQ[5] = 0.000000 F : 0.868132 F:.154172 Bus no 5 E : 0.012938 = dp[5] = -0.0.002305 -0.149314 -0.009525 -0.017905 -0.876161 F :.874339 F :.210557 The new voltage vector after iteration 1 : Bus no 1 E : 1.001304 dp[4] = 0.013556 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.0.142767 Bus no 4 E: 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.004139 dp[5] =-0.008207 dp[4] = -0.159696 dQ[5] = -0.0.0.0.112987 dQ[ 4] = -0.019702 dQ[2] = -0.154900 Bus no 5 E : 0.

0000561 --0.142985 Bus no 4 E : 0.143429 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:4 is dp[2] = -0.031844 dp[3] = 0.008460 Bus no 3 E: 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000046 dQ[3] = 0.001807 dQ[2] = -0.142710 Bus no 4 E : 0.002894 dp[4] = -O.000463 dQ[ 4] = 0.0.984866 F :.0.002233 The new voltage vector after iteration 3 : Bus no IE: 1. -0.003361 The new voltage vector after iteration 4 : Bus no IE: 1.0.002409 dQ[5] = -0.M0570 til dp[5] = 0.006182 dQ[ 4] = -0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.868848 F :.006315 0.0.881121 F:.0.143484 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:5 is dp[2] = 0.006789 dp[3] = -0.000528 dp[4] =-0.154159 Bus no 5 E : 0.066286 = dQ[3] = 0.000059 .0.868849 F :.984866 F :.874717 F :.881111 F: :.000217 dp[5] dQ[2J = ~.001652 dQ[5] = -0.0.874862 F :.146 Operation and Control in Power Systems dp[ 5] dQ[2] = -0.000000 F : 0.1546330 Bus no 5 E : 0.000000 F : 0.007075 Bus no 3 E : 0.

Power Flow Analysis dQ[3 J = -0.000059 dQ[4] = -0.000 I 06 -0.0.984379 F :.142941 Bus no 4 E : 0.000000 F : 0.000160 = The new voltage vector after iteration 6 : Bus no 1 E : 1.0.154314 Bus no 5 E : 0.154323 Bus no 5 E : 0.874655 F :.000073 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000635 dQ[5] = 147 -0.880907 F :.0.008169 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.984246 F :.000000 F : 0.0.0.874633 F :.000305 dp[5] = -0.OOOI5~ dQ[41 = .0.008165 Bus no 3 E : 0.000010 0.000033 0.000320 dQ[2] = 0.000156 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.1.868671 F :.000056 0.143441 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:7 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = = = = = 0.000721 The new voltage vector after iteration 5 : Bus no 1 E : 1.003032 dQ[3] dQ[5] = -0.000186 -0.42947 Bus no 4 E : 0.001466 0.880954 F :.000005 0.0.143431 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 6 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[ 4] = = = 0.000267 dQ[4] = -0.868710 F :.

148 dQ[5] = Operation and Control in Power Systems -0.000022 dp[ 4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQr 4] dQ[5] = = = = 0.154327 Bus no 5 E : 0.954381 F :.868714 F :.0.142957 Bus no 4 E : 0.874651 F:.0.154325 Bus no 5 E : 0.880958 F :.000000 F : 0.00000 I -0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000022 dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = = = 0.000072 -0.000318 dp[3] = -0.000000 0.0.000038 = = The new voltage vector after iteration 9 : .868706 F :.0.000037 = dQ[4] = --0.000656 0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:9 is dp[2] = 0.008231 Bus no 3 E : 0.008230 Bus no 3 E : 0.000036 -0.000048 dQ[5] = -0.984352 F :.0.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 8 is dp[2] = -0.880947 F :.874647 F :.000074 The new voltage vector after iteration 8 : Bus no 1 E : 1.142958 Bus no 4 E : 0.000000 F : 0.000041 -0.000166 The new voltage vector after iteration 7 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000074 -0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.0.000023 -0.000012 -0.0.

0.000020 The new voltage vector after iteration 10 : Bus no 1 E : 1.880949 F :.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis dp[2] = 149 0.000000 F : 0.880946 F :.000143 -0.000017 dp[S] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = -0.000000 dQ[4] = 0.0.000008 = dQ[4] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.Power Flow Analy.0.OOO I) .0.984658 F :.000009 The final load flow solution after 11 iterations (for allowable arror.868705 F :.154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.0.000014 dQ[5] = -0.008217 Bus no 3 E : 0.flis Bus no 1 E : 1.0.142954 Bus no 4 E : 0.000005 dp[ 4] = -0.142954 Bus no 4 E : 0.984352 F :.868707 F :.000004 dQ[3] = -0.0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000069 0.154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.000001 dp[3] = -0.000008 dQ[5] = -0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: II is dp[2] dp[3] = = --0.000001 dp[4] = 0.874648 F :.008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.874648 F :.000000 F : 0.000017 0.000011 dQ[2] = 0.000006 dp[51 = 0.

072548 0.000000 F : 0.000000 F .150002 Q = E = 1.162227 -0.399994 Bus no 5 pq P = -0.984658 E = 0.007299 ·-0.868707 E = 0.450005 Bus no 4 pq P = -0.0.145000 dQ[4] = 0.400000 ···0.004466 0.151220 Bus no 4 E : 0.163946 Bus no 5 E : 0.015222 Bus no 3 E: 0.874648 F = 0.153327 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp[2] dp[ 41 dpr 5] dQ[21 dQ[4] dQr5] = 0.150003 Q = -0.350000 -0.012407 0.997563 F :.218309 dp[3] = -0.150 Operation and Control in Power Systems The final load flow solution (for allowable error.500011 Q = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.556088 Bus no 2 pq P = 0.0.190000 = dQ[3] = -0.OOOl) : Bus no 1 Slack P = 1.142954 Q = -0.199995 -0.000751 =.154324 F = -0. ~ = dQ[3] == -0.880949 E = 0.0.947912 F:.195000 The new voltage vector after iteration 0 : Bus no 1 E : 1.944696F :.450000 0. 0.942331 F :.350069 Bus no 3 pq P = -0.000000 E = 0.089043 Q = 0.500000 0.0.130000 dQ[5] = -0.008216 F = -0.000000 F = -0.249991 F = -0.143440 Fast decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method) The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:O is dp[2] dp[3] dpf4] dp[5] dQ[21 = = ~ = 0.118299 = = The new voltage vector after iteration 1 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 .

0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0..0.004296 The new voltage vector after iteration 3 : Bus no IE.0.003219 dQ[2] = 0.007086 Bus no 3 E : 0. 0.011198 ---0.154684 Bus no 5 E .. 0. 0.000732 dQ[5] = -0.0.869896 F .982004 F .153884 Bus no 5 E . 0.002874 The new voltage vector after iteration 2 : Bus no IE.0.000000 F : 0.007026 Bus no 3 E .000155 dp[5] =-0.984926 F :.1433 12 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 2 is drl21 dp[3] ~ ~ 151 O.981909 F ..0. 1..Power Flow Analysis Bus no 2 E .874588 F .009505 dQr2] dQ[31 = = 0.013636 Bus no 3 E .002093 dp[4] = 0. 0.868400 F .000000 Bus no 2 E .020063 dp[4] = 0.O.8805 15 F . 0.. I 5366 I -0. 1..000850 dp[3] = -0.000000 F . 0.143038 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 3 is dp[2] = -0. 0.875752 F ..0.067612 dQ[3] = -0.881246 F :.003236 dQ[5] = --0. 142597 Bus no 4 E .005460 dpr5] = -0.O. I42740 . 0.014792 dQ[4] = -0.143602 Bus no 4 E ..882397 F .007004 dQ[4] = -0.

000450 -0.0.OOJ 265 = = = = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 6 : Bus no IE: 1.869014 F :.154193 Bus no 5 E : 0.0.000430 -0.000288 0.152 Operation and Control in Power Systems Bus no 4 E : 0.0.874717 F:.874928 F :.032384 dp[3] = 0.0.984230 F :.143053 Bus no 4 E : 0.0.000966 dQ[3] dQ[41 = = -0.000936 -0.984862 F :.000006 --0.143008 Bus no 4 E : 0.881119 F :.000909 -O.869014 F :.000000 F : 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.003011 dp[4] =-0.001336 dp[5] = -0.143501 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 5 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[ 4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = 0.002671 dQ[2] = -0.868847 F :.881246 F :.0.000433 0.154405 Bus no 5 E: 0.154357 .000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.000232 dQ[5] = -0.0.008463 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.008488 Bus no 3 E : 0.001698 The new voltage vector after iteration 4 : Bus no 1 E : 1.143458 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 4 is dp[2] = -0.000000 F : 0.014315 -0.

006981 -0.0.868718 F:.000105 -0.874607 F :.000068 0.001523 -0.008166 Bus no 3 E : 0.Power Flow Analysis Bus no 5 E : 0.000098 = = = = .000247 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 7 is dp[2] = -0.0.000039 -0.000000 F : 0.880963 F :.003107 -0.0.000384 -0.874656F :.000115 -0.000050 dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = 0.000162 -0.000792 0.154316 Bus no 5 E : 0.0.984386 F :.0.000080 -0.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 8 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] = -0.000331 0.000155 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000144 dp[3] = -0.142943 Bus no 4 E: 0.000255 -0.143433 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 6 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = = = = = = 153 0.000375 = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 7 : Bus no IE: 1.000215 0.000528 0.

00003 I dQ[4] = -0.0.000022 dpl41 "" 0.O.O.874646 F :. I 43440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis dp[2] = 0.000007 dQr 41 = --0.984350 F :. I 4296 I Bus no 4 E : 0.000007 .000024 dQr·tl =-0.142958 Bus no 4 E : 0.880945 F :.000033 dp[5] =0.000000 F : 0.0.000679 dQl3] = 0.000038 The new voltage vector after iteration 8 : Bus no IE: 1.874651 F :.000028 dQI3 J= 0.000045 dp[3] = 0.000015 dp[ 4] = -0.868704 F :.000008 dQ[2] ~ 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.008233 Bus no 3 E : 0.) E : 0.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 9 is dp[2] = -0.O.154 dQ[3] = Operation and Control in Power Systems -0.008230 Bus no 3 E : 0. I 54326 Bus no 5 E : 0.0.O.0.8687 I 4 F :.000072 dQ[5] = -0.000056 dQI21 = 0.000017 dp[5] = 0.880957 F :.984380 F :.000000 F: 0. I 54329 Bus no.000037 dQ15] -0-0.000 105 The new voltage vector after iteration 9 : Bus no IE: 1.000334 dp[3] = -0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.

000014 0.000008 -0.000009 -0. 008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.898705 F :.0.000005 The new voltage vector after iteration 10 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000074 dp[ 31 = 0.000000 .0.880946 F :.142953 Bus no 4 E : 0.0 .142954 Bus no 4 E : 0. -0.154323 Bus no 5 E : 0.984358 F:.000000 F : 0.874648 F :.000002 :~ dQf41 = -0.008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.000013 -0.000001 dQr 5 J' --0.0.000003 ~ = dpr5] = -0.000000 F : 0.000020 dQ[5] = -0.000027 The new voltage vector after iteration 11 : Bus no 1 E : 1.Power Flow Analysis dQ[5] = 155 0.000149 dQ[31 = ·-0.0.880949 F :.000004 0.000000 dQr21 = 0.0.0..143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 12 is dp[21 -c-0.000005 dp[4] dp[5] dQr21 dQr31 = = = .000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.874648 F :..984352 F :.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 11 is dpP1 dpl31 dp[4] = --0.0.154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.000007 dQ[4] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E: 0.868707 F :.

006) Zsus = (3) C The loop is now eliminated Z22 = Z 22 .06) + Z33 .143440 Obtain the load flow solution to the system given in example E5.08+jO.000 I. This is the addition of a link between two existing buses 2 and 3.150001 -0.156 The load flow solution Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus E5.24)+(0.24 Z33 = -(0.O 0. r his is also addition of a new bus to the reference bus (2) (3) (2) 0.868707 E = 0.984358 E = 0.000000 E = 0.880949 E == 0.08 + jO.16 +j0.399991 pq P = -0.0 + jO. . (i) Add element 1-2.2 Z23 + Z23 23 = (0. = Zloop_2 = Z22 Z3_loop = Zloop_3 = Z32 Z2-IOOp Zloop-looP = Z22 Z23 = 0. Use Gauss .48 = (2) (2) (3) (0 0.02 + jO.06 .000000 F = -0. The bus impedance matrix is formed as indicated in section 5.089040 pq P = 0.Seidel method.06 + . In this example.08 + jO.08+jO.06) 0.24 0+ jO 0.02 + jO.i0.08 + jO.154324 F = -0.(0.24 . Take accuracy for convergence as 0.4 Operation and Control in Power Systems no I no 2 no 3 no 4 no 5 Slack P = 1.0 + jO.18) 0.008216 F = -0.(0.874648 F = 0.250000 = E = 1.48 0.06)(0.350074 pq P = -0.05 + jO.024 0.02+jO. ~ 0.450005 pq P = --0.02+jO.556076 Q Q Q Q = '~-O. as in example 5.24 0.---'--------'- Z2-loop Zloop-2 Zloop-loop .1 bus I is chosen as the slack bus.O 0.16+jO. The slack bus is taken as the reference bus.142954 F = -0.O 0.02 + jO.1 lIsing Z-Bus.150008 199995 -0.0 + jO.15.06 Zsus (iii) = (3) Add element 2-3.02 + jO. This is addition of a new bus to the reference bus Z BUS Solution: = (2) (2) [0.24 [ (ii) Add element 1-3.500014 Q = 0.08 + jO.

24)2 0.6 _ jO.16 + j0.0 + jO.25 = 0.04+ j O.Power Flow Analysis 157 = (0.05045 1.29126.02 .0 The bus currents I~O) and I~O) are computed as 1(0) = -0.565° )(0.65L157.565° I 0.29126L1800 2 1.65LI57.0 + JO.48 = 0.1265L71.08 + jO.04 + jO.02485 .0 + jO.05LOO + (0.29126L180o + (0.8 + jO.0175 + jO.0526 The Z .8 + jO.O =-0.16+j0.0 1+ jO.38° 1. Q 2 = 0.05534L71.48 = 0. = -0.O) _ (0.6 + !0.03 ]_ 0.1265L71.031623L71.jO.8182 .02609L-2. 12 1 0.S6SO 1 The voltages at bus 2 and 3 are assumed to be via) = 1.25 = -0.O J I~O) .38 0 1.Bus matrix is thus Z Bus _[0.jO.01+jO.017 + jO.565° [ 0.031623L71.0 = 0.5650(0.0525 0.03 + jO.' Z loop-loop = (0.24) _ (0.24)( -0.03 Similarly Z~3 = 0.0 I + jO.03 _ jO.03 0.12 z~ _3 = z'32 = [Z?' _ Z2-loop ZIOOP-3] _.'0.O Iteration I : The voltage at bus 2 is computed as V~I) VI + Z22 I~G) + Z23 1(0) 1.3+ jO.O viol = 1.031623L71.O Assuming that the reactive power injected into bys 2 is zero.06) 0.565° 0.

158 Operation and Control in Power Systems The new bus current I~O) is now calculated.38° ) = (1.891 8° 2 J.0245'::: .OO + (0.jO.65LI57.018° 1(1) = 0.2.jO.03 III) = -0.2.02389 .1265L71.eh I _ 1I! l' Z» -- I'VII)I 2 .2.02609L .8320) + (0.jO.81820 Voltage at bus 3 is now calculated VII) = V I + Z 32 1\1) + Z 3.02609L .02485 .J I I = 1.0309084L74.3 = 0.036077) = 1.02389 .565° )(0.02609L .03 + jO. ~ 1~IJ I = V2 - (I) II I V.0 + jO.565° = x ( 1.634437 LI55.383° =0.036077) .05045) .05045 ~ Vjl) = (1.38320 0(0) Im[Vi ll ~liO)*] = Im[I.03 O~I) = O~O) + ~O~O) = 0.38° = 0.00515 .29383LI82.jO.03 _ 1.0 180 3 The voltages at the end of the first iteration are: VI = 1.36° 1..(1.036077) .29383LI82.05LO.3.65LI57.0309084L _ 74.02609 I) = 0.018° The differences in voltages are 8 Vjl) = (1.8182° JO.O) = (0.05534':::71.5650) (0.jO.0245L .05 LOO vii) = 1.031623L71.8182 0.02389 .0245L2.jO.O) = -0.03 = 0.2.1 1(0) 3 _ 3 = 1.02609L _ 2.0 + 0.0.2.8182° VP) = 1.

0486487 ----"---- I C~) 2 - -0.01923L-74.81495° == 0.jO.02634 . 159 Iteration 2 : V~2) = VI = +Z22Iil) + +Z21 [~I) 1.5650)(0.0285187 .05LOo + (0.295763LI86.2. another iteration is required.29383 L 182.jO.6343567LI55.5650)(0.81495)(0.00011 + jO.393° Vf) = 1.Power Flow Analysis Both the real and imaginary parts are greater than the specified limit 0.0298L _ 2.1265L71.02758 L-2.03 _I] L1.050465 1.024 .5650) (0.OOI28 As the accuracy is still not enough.36° ) I~2) - = 0.4°) + (0.(1.565° )(0.63487 LI 55.00149 .03 + 0.434 0 L'1 viI) L'1Vjl) Iteration 3 : (1.05534L71.565° )(0.71.565° (O.31623L7 I .4 ° + 0.38° L'10i' ) = Im[ vi 2 ) (L'1I~1) r] = [m(1.9459° = =0.jO.(1.0486487 I .jO.02758L2.jO.00 I.0504 I) = 0.0186487 O~2) = = oil) + L'10i' ) 0.jO.3 .1265L .565° = i 1.295763LI86.0 I 86487 = 0.02466LI.295763LI 86.853 ° .051262 1.02 LOo (0.02389 .jO.02758L .02485 .031623L71.38° 1.02758L-2.050465) .02634 . V~3) = 1.1265L71.81495° ~[I_)I)_~ 1.63447 L 155.36°) = = 1.05LO o + (0.034793) .031623L71.38°) = 0.634437 LI55.65LI57.892°) + (0.000015 = (1.434 0) = :c 1.02758 0.jO.81495° 1.036077) = 0.0 1913L74.

0502 1\3) = - -0.034817) .05 + jO.LI57.2.05LO o + (0.947° The line flows may be calculated further if required.634357 L155.jO.853°· Vj31 = 1.6343LI55.024 .7° vi 4 ) = 1.0505 1~4) = 0.0.000016 oil Vj3) = 0.O V 2 = 1.050465) = 0.6470) + (0.jO.65 .jO.02634 .024152 .051262) .38° = 0.9471 2) ° oil vi = (1.(1.0003159L .565° [~-1] = 0.00058 + jO.0298L2.417° oilQ~3) = 0.434 0 ) = 1.jO.00002 Iteration 4 " V~4) = 1.160 Operation and Control in Power Systems 1~2) = J.00154456 Qi3) = 0.jO.02474L -1.02475L-1.3.000152 .02416 - JO.29537LI86.418 0 1.0021787 .947° oil V?) = 0.852° oilI~3) = 0.0486487 + 0.0. .000787 oilV12 I = (1.853° 0.9471° 1(3) 3 = .565° )(0.1265L71.4330 J.02996L-2.0285187 .034817 == 1.0000867 Q~4) = 0.024152 .034816 = 1.jO.5650) + (0.001581L74.000108 + jO.0298 oilQ~2) = 0.0298L - 2.29537 LI86.(1.jO.02474LJ.02475L -1.034793) = 0.0502 =0.29537 LI86.02996L .74.001544 = 0.6470 0.OOOOOI The final voltages are VI = 1.031623L71.05534L71.852° V3 = 1.

l Llse (i) (ii) GaLlss ~ Seidel method N-R polar coordinates method Bus code p-q 1~2 2~3 3~4 Impedance Zpq Line charges Y pq/s 0.Power Flow Analysis 161 Problems PS.02 +jO 2 0. on a base of IOOMva. .0 3~5 ~~5 1-5 Values are given in p.I Obtain a load flow solution for the system shown in Fig.4 0.025 0.02 + jO.Ll.0 O.D 0.02 + 0. PS.lOO4 0.015 +jO 04 0015-t.05 0.01 + jO.0 0.0 0.0 0.

.0267 0.0167 0.1 and compare the results with the exact solution.0558 0.2 Repeat problem P5. P5.1336 0.0525 0. PS.0058 0.0059 0.!.0060 0.0560 0.0322 0.0614 00247 0.0287 0.u.0580 Reactance 0.0660 0.0190 0.0098 00190 0..0028 0.0150 0.0182 0.0642 0.14 14 . the system data is given as follows in p.0455 01182 0.3 Obtain the decoupled and fast decouple load flow solution for the system in P5. .0747 0.2360 0.0205 0.0397 0.4 For the 51 bus system shown in Fig.3532 Capacitance 0. .0413 0.0468 0.11 11-12 12 .0213 0.2743 0.u.1400 0.0214 0.0036 0.162 The scheduled powers are as follows Bus Code (P) Generation Mw 1 (slack bus) 2 3 4 5 0 80 0 0 0 Mvar 0 35 0 0 0 Power System Analysis Load MW 0 25 0 45 55 Mvar 0 15 0 15 20 Take voltage at bus I as I LOo p.0015 0.16 16-17 Resistance 0.0174 0.1 with line charging capacitance Y p/2 = jO.15 15 .13 13 .0091 0..0431 0. Perform load flow analysis for the system Line data 2-3 3-4 3-6 3-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10.0367 Contd.0224 0. PS.025 for each line PS.

51 51 .38 38 .29 29 .3060 0.0159 00872 0.0282 0.0371 0.0250 0.1146 0.0168 0.0734 0.43 40-41 Resistance 0.19 19-20 20 .0622 01326 01418 00899 0.0136 00136 00533 0.0125 0.0210 0.30 30 .0436 0.2606 0.0256 0.0781 0.47 47 .27 27 .33 35 .1400 Comd.1336 0.0136 0.0667 00230 0.31 27 .34 30 .49 36 .0045 0.1078 0.1033 0.2870 0.1136 0.2000 0.28 28 .2847 0.1532 0.24 12 .21 20.0350 0.0436 00400 00436 () 0436 () 1636 0.0471 0.0650 0.1008 163 o 1511 0.31 30 .3639 0.0508 0.Power Flow Analysis Line data 17 .0136 0.25 25 .1336 0.0045 0.23 23 .1765 0.0712 00420 0..50 35 .26 26 .0254 Reactance 0.3815 0.33 32 .1584 0.0283 00060 00296 0.0954 0.0298 0.0726 0.1107 0.43 42 ..0300 0..0168 0.18 18 .1078 00794 00869 0.32 32 .0202 0.0041 00045 0.0240 00266 0.1 38 . .1281 0.0252 00200 0.1000 Capacitance 0.1076 0..1640 0.0311 0.0866 0.0045 0.1550 01550 0.36 39 .

1818 0.1297 01011 0.0900 0.39 48 -2 3 .42 24-·B 27 .0000 0.50 37 .38 47 .2085 0.0000 0.0014 0.35 0.0000 0.0000 0.44 30 .2087 0.0900 0.1306 0.0000 0.0000 0.0343 0.0292 0.1252 00715 0.1752 0.1100 00500 () 0450 0.0077 0.46 44-1 46-1 1-49 49 .0513 0.0000 0.0500 0.47 16 .0110 00071 0..0426 00000 0.0597 0.0000 0.0000 0.0272 0.0330 0.43 43 .1093 0.0000 0.0400 0.0000 0.44 45 .0460 0.0246 0.0800 0.0129 0.0900 0.5 19-41 I ! .39 18-40 20 .0000 0.46 1-34 ! 21-2 4 -.0000 0.45 43 .0000 0.0000 0.0236 0.45 26.0236 0.0000 0.1807 0.0000 0.0203 0.0450 0.17 14 -.0000 0.0054 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1686 0.0900 0.2500 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000 0.0000 0.0.0879 0.0400 .0000 0.0630 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 7 36 t- I1 .0000 0.0326 0.0000 0.164 Power System Analysis Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance 41 -.

0800 10600 1.0600 1.0750 1.0750 1.42 24 -43 30-46 1 -34 21 -22 5-4 27 .0750 .0900 1.0500 1.0450 1.40 19-41 20 .37 14 .0750 1.36 11 .0600 1. P5.45 26 .0875 1.39 18 . Bus P.4 51 Bus Power System.47 16 .0450 1.Power Flow Analysis 165 Fig.Q 3 -35 7 .44 TAP 1.0600 1.0600 1.

0.0.0.0000 10000 1.0.01200 -.0000 00000 00000 0.5000 .0.0000 . .0000 I OOO() 00000 00000 00000 0.2000 -0.0.2500 .0000 0.0.0 4400 .0000 1.0000 00000 0.0.0000 1..0000 00000 00000 0.0800 -0.0000 10000 10000 10000 1.1100 .1100 .0.2800 .0000 .1400 .1900 .0.1800.02400 -0.2200 -0.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 10800 ] 0000 1.4600 .0.3700 .0 0800 .1360 .3300 .0.0.0000 0.7600 .3400 .2300 .0.03400 00000 .0.0000 .0000 00000 0.0.0.1200 .) Reactive power (p. .2100 .0000 0.u.3000 .0.0.0.0.0000 1.u.0200 .0000 0.0000 1.1900 .0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 -0.) Voltage phase angle Real power (p.0.0200 .0000 0.0600 .0.Voltage and Scheduled Powers Bus no Voltage magnitude (p.3100 .2400 .0000 1.1900 0.0 1700 .0000 10000 10000 10000 1.3600 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 2~ 25 26 27 28 Contd.1190 -0.0000 1.0000 1.0.0000 0.0400 0.5000 0.1000 -0..0.0000 00000 0.0000 .0000 0.166 Power System Analysis Bus Data .0000 00000 0. .0000 0.0.2400 .u.5400 ..0.2100 .0.0.0000 10000 10000 10000 10000 1.0.09000 0.08000 0.1600 0.2200 -0.0000 0.0500 .0000 .4200 .0.

3000 0.0000 o.) 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 1.1800 .) Voltage phase angle Real power (p.0.0.0000 00000 I.0000 0.0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1700 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 17000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 -0.0000 1.u.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.2600 0.oono .0.3000 .0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0.0000 0.0000 0. 0000 1.0000 0.0000 .0000 0.0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2500 .0000 0.0000 0.0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.4200 .0.2000 .0000 1.0000 0.5000 .0000 1.05800 0.u.0000 17500 00000 0.) Reactive power (p.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 00000 0.0000 0.0000 00000 0.1300 0.0000 0.0.0000 0.4700 .0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.u.5500 35000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.Power Flow Analysis 167 Bus no Voltage magnitude (p.0000 0.5000 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.

of shunt loads 71 94 200 13 23 BUS NO I GENERATION LOAD POWER 00 506.8 0.0 0.0 0..0 130.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. of buses No..0 0.0 150.0 00 8.0 0.0 0.0400 0. Obtain the load flow solution.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 300.0 0.5600 1.0000 1.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0..0600 10500 10600 1.0 80.0 50.0 00 125.4 The data for a 13 machine.168 Power System Analysis Bus No.4800 0.0 32.0 0.3 0. . of machines No.1800 0.500 P 5.0700 0.0000 1. of lines Base power (MVA) No.0 0. Voltage at VeB Reactive power limit 15 30 33 38 44 48 49 50 1.0700 1.0 0.0 185..0300 1.9000 04500 02000 0.0 0.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 Contd.0 0.0 0. Data : No.0 96.0 00 12. 94 line system is given.0 00 0.0 155. 71 bus.

0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 92.0 Contd.5 22.0 00 3000 0.0 75.0 0. .0 0..0 0.5 00 32.0 0.0 0.0 70.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 00 00 25.0 880 0.0 320 270 32.0 160.8 16.0 110.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 POWER 62.0 LOAD 100.0 0.0 0..0 36.0 0.0 0.0 120.0 0.0 74.0 0.0 19.0 0.0 0. .0 0.0 0.0 260.0 00 73.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 123.0 16.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.8 In 00 46.0 00 133.5 994 00 69.0 0.0 0.0 825 00 00 20.0 0.0 0.0 45.0 0.0 0.0 0..0 0.0 0.0 0.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.Power Flow Analysis 169 BUS NO 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 GENERATION 0.0 0.0 112.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 9.0 1470 935 0.0 00 0.0 225.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 180.0 0.0 0.

0 2270 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 340.0 295.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75.0 0.0 14.0 40.0 0.0 78.2 0.0 33.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 25.0 00 0.0 96.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 27.0 24.0 183.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.0 00 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 \08.0 7.0 0.0 48.6 27.0 11.6 142.0 250.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 38.0 556 420 57.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.0 0.0 55.4 0.0 0.170 Power System Analysis BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 180.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 300.0 0.6 145.0 25.0 234.0 35.0 90.0 0.0 0.0 0.

1860 0.95 1.0000 00000 0.1600 0.3353 0.0530 01480 0.2700 0.0790 0.1600 0.7200 01460 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 100 0.0050 0.1670 0.95 1.0000 0.0340 0.0570 0.0000 01500 0.0520 0.0000 0.00 1.0800 0.00 0.0190 0.0366 0. .0920 0.0000 0.0000 0.0140 0.1412 0.0000 0.0710 0.00 0.00 0.05 1.Power Flow Analysis LINE DATA Line No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 171 From Bus 9 9 9 9 10 7 12 II To Bus 8 7 5 10 Line impedance 0.00 1.95 1.0800 0.1270 0.00 0.0000 0.0270 0.0000 0.5200 00800 0.00 1.0000 0.1610 0.0000 0.1930· 0.0480 00100 0.0000 0.0950 0.95 1.0000 0.05 1.0800 0.0160 0.05 1.05 1.2500 0.0840 0.00 1.00 1.0000 0.0710 0.0047 0.0000 0.1300 0.00 1.0660 0.0070 0.0780 0.2220 0.0505 0.00 11 10 11 13 13 16 15 6 4 3 5 12 14 16 4 26 1 26 25 23 23 22 17 24 21 20 III 14 13 17 7 7 4 4 4 12 17 2 4 2 31 26 25 22 24 22 2 23 21 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Contd.00 1.0160 0.0790 0.0000 02400 00000 0.0100 Turns Ratio 1.0090 0.3200 0.0660 0.00 1.0000 0.00 1.9700 0.0000 0.0000 0.95 0.0000 0.2380 0.0300 0.00 1.3740 112 Y charge 0.0000 0.0700 0.0140 0.05 100 1.0000 0.0800 0.0620 0.00 1.1020 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 1.0180 0.0330 0.00 1.0340 0.0600 0.

00 1.00 105 100 1.05 1.0000 0.1690 0.0000 0.95 0.0160 0.0760 00390 00000 0.0220 0.1030 0.()110 0.00 1.0370 00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0840 00000 0.0000 0.0520 0.0530 0.0000 0.95 0.1090 0.0540 0.00 40 41 47 32 34 33 24 36 37 38 39 38 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 51 41 42 49 48 50 42 51 50 55 53 54 54 42 45 47 49 49 49 50 52 50 50 53 57 Contd.5100 0.00 1.05 105 0.0000 0.0300 0.0610 0.0460 00840 0.0110 0.0000 0.95 0.9200 0.00 095 0.95 1.00 0.0158 00000 0.0250 0.0930 00800 0.95 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1500 00755 0.3800 0.2200 0. .00 0.00 1..0590 0.6706 0.0580 01770 0.95 1.0000 0.0300 0.0000 0.1570 0..00 1.00 1.1960 0.0100 0:0000 00220 0.0510 00640 0.2100 0.1950 0.2170 0.0840 00612 0.0080 0.0040 0.0790 0.0000 0.0290 0.1520 0.0390 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.0800 0. .0210 0.0000 0.95 1.0060 1.0530 0.6000 0.00 1.0130 O.0000 00051 0.0000 0..0000 00170 0.0810 0.0890 0.2010 04310 01880 0.00 1.0840 0.0790 0.0800 0.00 1.95 1.0840 0.0000 00000 0.0062 0.171 Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance Power System Analysis 112 Y charge Turns Ratio 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 19 18 28 30 32 31 28 3 31 2 33 35 35 34 36 37 40 40 38 41 18 16 27 29 31 30 32 33 0.00 1.2120 0.2350 0.

0800 0.00 1.0000 0.0830 0.00 1.0230 0.1040 0.0360 0.00 1.0000 00000 0.0630 0.0110 0.0070 0.00 1.00 100 1.00 1.0160 0.0950 0.0370 0.0160 00000 0.0170 0.1070 0.0720 0.0390 0.1650 0.0900 0.0290 0.4293 0.0090 0.0570 0.0850 0.0480 0.0550 01840 0.0170 0.1540 0.00 1.1840 0.0240 0.0800 0.1880 0.00 1.00 1.1530 0.0000 0.95 1.0000 0.1-l40 0.0230 0.95 1.2960 0.0100 0.00 92 ~- -n 9-l .0230 0.0830 0.0000 0.05 1.5360 1.00 1.1000 0.0000 0.0695 00070 00120 0.0600 0.0280 0.2293 0.2220 0.0210 0.4220 0.0160 0.1970 0.00 1.0000 0.0350 0.0131 0.0000 00420 0.00 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 41 LOO 1.1140 0.00 0.05 1.00 1.00 1.1160 0.0164 0.0000 0.00 100 1.0280 0.0890 0.0000 0.0000 0.Power Flow Analysis 173 Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 55 56 57 59 60 53 45 45 46 46 60 61 58 62 69 69 67 65 65 65 65 67 61 57 45 70 33 71 45 35 52 56 57 59 58 59 60 44 46 41 59 61 62 62 63 68 61 66 64 56 61 67 63 42 67 70 38 71 37 41 43 52 0.0800 0.05 1.2910 OA680 0.0000 0.00 1.1200 0.00 1.0240 0.0120 0.0020 0.05 1.00 1.00 0.1240 0.0990 0.0000 0.1632 0.3700 0.00 1.0800 01080 0.0000 0.3880 01306 0.0590 0.0100 0.

00 0.1500 0.0800 .2250 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1000 0.2000 .00 0.1750 -0.00 0.4275 0.00 0.1500 0.00 0.3500 0.2000 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Load .2700 .3220 0.0.0.00 0.2700 0.1000 0.1000 0.0500 22 23 .2000 0.0.02170 0.3000 0.0.174 Power System Analysis Shunt Load Data S.0750 0.8700 0.00 000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0.00 0.00 0.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Bus No 2 13 20 24 28 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 41 43 46 47 50 51 52 54 57 59 21 Shunt 000 0.1000 0.3375 0.

5. decoupled load flow method and fast decouped load flow method. 5. 5.7 Give the Cartesian coordinates method or rectangular coordinates method of NewtonRaphson load flow solution. 5. 5.6 Explain the Polar-Coordinates method of Newton-Raphson load flow solution. 5. 7.1 Explain the importance of load flow studies. 5.11 How are generator buses are P.13 Explain the fast decouped load flow method. 5. 5. 5.14 Compare the Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson method for power flow solution. .No.12 Give the algorithm for decoupled load flow studies.10 Explain sparsity and its application in power flow studies.8 Give the flow chart for Q. 5.4 Explain Gauss-Seidel method of load flow solution.3 What is the need for a slack bus or reference bus? Explain. V buses treated in load flow studies? 5.Power Flow Analysis 175 Questions 5. 6. 5.No.9 Give the flow chart for Q. 5.15 Compare the Newton-Raphson method.5 Discuss the method ofNewton-Raphson method in general and explain its applicalibility for power flow solution.2 Discuss breifly the bus classification.

It is.fs of the machines in the network. if the fault is cleared by switching operations. therefore. the current flowing is determined by the internal e. During the fault period. For such fault analysis studies and in general for power system analysis it is very convenient to use per unit system and percentage values. base or reference value In the same umts In power systems the basic quantities of importance are voltage. Once the base values or reference values are chosen. impedance and power. necessary to calculate the short-circuit current at different instants when faults occur.6 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Electrical networks and machines are subject to various types of faults while in operation. Per unit quantity = Actual value in any units . 6. the other quantities can be ohtained as follows: Selecting the total or 3-phase KVA as base KVA. for a 3-phase system . However.1 Per Unit Quantities The per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of the actual value in any units to the chosen base quantify of the same dimensions expressed as a decimal.m. and by the impedances of the network and machines. The network impedance may also change. current. In the following this system is explained. . the impedances of machines may change their values from those that exist immediately after the fault occurrence to different values during the fault till the fault is cleared. For all per unit calculations a base KVA or MVA and a base KV are to be chosen.

In order to convert the per unit impedance from given base to another base....3 (base KV A)/3 (base KV (line-to-line)2 base MVA h 177 Base current in amperes = · . Per unit impedance = (actual impedance in ohm) x KVA 2 (base KV) x 1000 Some times. · d ... If phase values are used base KVA Base current in amperes = -b-a-se-K-VBase impedance in ohm = ----=(base KV)2 x \000 base KVA per phase base voltage base current · ..Short Circuit Analysis base KVA . h Base Impe ance In 0 ms = = Hence... so that base power K W = base KVA Now...' ...:.---~-----. new KVA base )(giVen KV base)2 ( given KV A base new KV base .. h (base KV (line-to-line)2 x \000 Base Impe ance In 0 m = .. it may be required to use the relation (Per unit impedance in ohms) (base KV)2 x \000 base KVA Very often the values are in different base values. Base Impedance In ohm = b (base KV)2 MVA h ase per p ase In all the above relations the power factor is assumed unity.. h) (actua I Impe ance In 0 m Per unit impedance on new base Z -u = Z U new p gIven p.. Base Impedance In ohms .. the following relation can be derived easily.... = ...:..' . d ...------''---- .3 [base KV (Iine-to-line)] [base KV (line-to-line)2 x 1000] h[ ] . d .:.base KVA where base KVA and base MVA are the total or three phase v.tllles....

Per unit impedances of electrical equipment of similar type usually lie within a narrow range. Transmission lines are represented by series reactances. 2. 5. Armature resistances. All non-rotating impedance loads are neglected.178 6. Resistances. Induction motors are represented just as synchronous machines with constant voltage source behind a reactance.2 Advantages of Per Unit System Power System Analysis 1. Voltages. shunt admittances are not considered. Resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. -=- VI 12 II V2 Base impedance for primary V = _I II = Base impedance for secondary V2 G = Per unit impedance referred to primary ZI (VI/II) II ZI VI . currents and impedances expressed in per unit do not change when they are referred from one side of transformer to the other side. This is a great advantage'. Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of machines and transformers in per unit or percent of name plate ratings. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. 4. and core fusses are neglected. Smaller motor loads are generally neglected. 2. when the equipment ratings are used as base values. 3. The magnetizing current. This can be avoided by using per unit system. Synchronous machines are represented by constant voltage sources behind subtransient reactances. saliency and saturation are neglected. 5. Transformer connections do not affect the per unit values. While performing calculations. Per unit impedances of transformers : Consider a single-phase transformer with primary and secondary voltages and currents denoted by V I' V2 and II' 12 respectively. 1. we have. 3. 4. 6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits In the analysis of symmetrical three-phase short circuits the following assumptions are generally made. referring quantities from one side of the transformer to the other side serious errors may be committed. Star-delta phase shifts are also neglected.

single line reactance diagrams can be drawn for calculation. it is simpler to represent the system by a single line diagram without losing the identify of the 3-phase system. However. we draw reactance diagrams.cY ei HI-------i~LOM Gene transformer Lines (a) A power system (b) Equivalent single-line reactance diagram Fig. the per unit impedance referred remains the same for a transformer on either side.Short Circuit Analysis 179 [2 Z2 2 Per unit impedance referred to secondary = V( Yy2. 6. This is an impedance diagrams. Thus.5 Percentage Values The reactances of generators. For 3-phase balanced systems. transformers and reactors are generally expressed in percentage values to permit quick short circuit calculation. including short-circuit analysis it is sufficient to consider only reactances neglecting resistances.1 6.1 (a) & (b) and by its single line reactance diagram . 6. Percentage reactance is defined as : % X = -xIOO [X y . )2 Again. actual impedance referred to secondary = Z. Per unit impedance referred to secondary = Per unit impedance referred to primary Thus. 6. Hence. This is illustrated by the system shown in Fig.4 Reactance Diagrams [n power system analysis it is necessary to draw an equivalent circuit for the system. in several studies. .

X V.. V . The percentage values of Rand Z also do not change with the side of the transformer or either side of the transformer they remain constant.. . . in case percentage resistance and therefore. 6..= -'--'---1. --xIOOO 1000 1000 100. 10 (KV)2 As has been stated already in short circuit analysis since the reactance X is generally greater than three times the resistance. resistances are neglected. in a similar manner we can define %R = -x IR V 100 and IZ %Z= -xIOO V with usual notation. V (%X)V X = . (%X) I . The ohmic values of R. _ V= Isc . But. I V. I = full load current V = phase voltage Power System Analysis X = reactance in ohms per phase Short circuit current Isc in a circuit then can be expressed as.. I 1000 V V V (%X) (KV)2 10 == -----'--'---KVA Alternatively KVA (%X) = X. 100 xlOO Percentage ~actance %X can expressed in terms of KVA and KV as following 2 From equation (%X) . X and Z change from one side to the other side of the transformer. percentage impedance values are required then.180 where.6 Short Circuit KVA It is defined as the product of normal system voltage and short circuit current at the point of fault expressed in KVA. Short circuit current is expressed in term of short circuit KVA based on the normal system voltage at the point of fault. I (%X)-..1 00 100 . when a fault occurs the potential falls to a value determined by the fault impedance.

Rating of the largest plant or unit for base MVA or KVA. 3. ( %X)on =. (% X at UOIt KVA) Unit KVA Ifa transformer has 8% reactance on 50 KVA base.V.V Isc 1000 3. 1. Calculation are required to be performed where different components or units are rated differently. . The following are some of the guide Iines for selection of base values. The percentage values specified on the name plates will be with respect to their name plate ratings. JSc 100 = I. %X The three phase or total short circuit KVA 3.Short Circuit Analysis Let V = normal phase voltage in volts 1= fall load current in amperes at base KVA %X = 181 percentage reactance of the system expressed on base KVA. Any arbitrary value.I 100 (%X) 1000 3V I 1000 100 %X 100 Therefore short circuit KVA = Base KVA x (%X) In a power system or even in a single power station different equipment may have different ratings. it is often convenient to draw the reactance diagrams indicating the values in per unit. ( new base Base KVA) . The total capacity ofa plant or system for base MVA or KVA. The short circuit current. its value at 100 KVA base will be (%X)IOO KVA = ( 50 100) x 8 = 16% Similarly the reactance values change with voltage base as per the relation where X I and = reactance at voltage V I X2 = reactance at voltage V2 For short circuit analysis. 2. Hence. it it necessary to select a common base KVA or MVA and also a base KY.

6.8 Analysis ofR-L Circuit Consider the circuit in the Fig. An insight can be gained when we consider an R-L circuit connected to an alternating voltage source. components of stator currents. line-to-ground. The electrical and mechanical forces that develop due to a sudden three phase short circuit are generally severe when the machine is operating under loaded condition. and a. The forces on the end windings depend on both the d.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents 1. The electro dynamic forces on the stator end windings may result in displacement of the coils against one another. 2. 4. Other well known reasons include line-to-line.c. S. This may result in loosening of the support or damage to the insulation of the windings.2 Let e = Emax Sin (rot + a) when the switch S is closed at t = 0+ di e = Emax Sin (rot + a) = R + L dt . Following a short circuit. Some times even mechanical causes may create short circuits. 3. or line-to-line faults on over head lines. Fault currents which are several times larger than the normal operating currents produce large electro magnetic forces and torques which may adversely affect the stator end windings. the circuit being switched on through a switch. The resultant short circuit has to the interrupted within few cycles by the circuit breaker. As the fault is cleared with in 3 cycles generally the heating efforts are not considerable.c.182 Power System Analysis 6. 6. Short circuits may occur in power systems due to system over voltages caused by lightning or switching surges or due to equipment insulation failure or even due to insulator contamination. It is absolutely necessary to select a circuit breaker that is capable of operating successfully when maximum fault current flows at the circuit voltage that prevails at that instant. 6. s t = 0'· R + L Fig. it is always recommended that the mechanical bracing of the end windings to checked for any possible loosening.2. Knowledge of short circuit current values is necessary for the following reasons.

ia c = ~ xl] = I" . 6.c. 6. component = Emax IZT Sin (cot + a .4 shows the alternating component of the short circuit current when the d. component vanishes. Its duration is determined by Td' ' the subtransient direct axis time constant.c. the r. 6. component is eliminated. The general solution is i= E IZI max Sin (cot+a-8)-e L Sin (a-8) [ --Rt 1 where and IZI = ~R 2 + co 2 L2 coL 8 = Tan-I R The current contains two components : a.8) and d. Figure 6.3 for the short circuit currents the three phases. component the quantities x.c. component = IZT Emax e -Rt L· Sm (a.Short Circuit Analysis 183 a is determined by the magnitude of voltage when the circuit is closed.e) 8 =0 If the switch is closed when a the d.8 = ± '2 1t 6. The changing field current is shown in Fig.5 shows the electrical torque. xd and x~ can be determined. Fig. From the oscillogram of a. component is a maximum when a . The fast changing sub-transient component and the slowly changing transient components are shown at A and C. The value of ia c decreases to with Td as the direct axis transient time constant when t > Td V 7d . component.c.m..c.s subtransient short circuit. V when t > Td' .c.. e = 1t or when a - the d.c.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator If a three phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of a salient pole synchronous we obtain typical oscillograms as shown in Fig. If V is the line to neutral prefault voltage then the a.6. x~.

-.c.4 Alternating component of the short circuit armature current . max (l = 0 is . 6.3 Oscillograms of the armature currents after a short circuit.---. (t)-"L. ~ Fig. off-set component that occurs in any phase at 1 d.c.---.-e xd k2 V -IITA where TA is the armature time constant. i:: ~ u 1~ :~ J r- . 6. Fig._ _ ----t 0 B -0 61 F sec.184 Power System Analysis The maximum d.

t Fig.-_+-_-_-_-_.. a load current IL is flowing into the load from the generator.. 6..Short Circuit Analysis 185 o 0. Field current after short circuit o.. 6. ._-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_. 6.. E. is the subtransient internal voltage.50 .. 6. Let a three phase fault occur at the load terminals..7 indicates the simulation of fault at the load terminals by a parallel switch S. Before the fault occurs.40 0..-. t ----+ Fig. the generator reactance is xd' The circuit in Fig.. = Vt + j Xd' IL = VI' +(Xext + j xd)I L where E.6 Oscilogram of the field current after a short circuit.5 Electrical torque on three-phase termlnaJ short circuit..10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current Consider a 3-phase synchronous generator supplying a balanced 3-phase load.10 020 030 0. . . Let the voltage at the fault be vf and the terminal voltage of the generator be Vt' Under fault conditions.

Especially. Every time. 6.12 Construction of Reactors These reactors are built with non magnetic core so that saturation of core with consequent reduction in inductance and increased short circuit currents is avoided. Otherwise Eg• the steady state voltage in series with the direct axis synchronous reactance is to be used for all calculations. is required to be computed. if the fault is a dead short circuit at the terminals or bus bars t?normous currents flow damaging the equipment and its components. the fault current level increases and it may become necessary to change the switch gear. (ii) Feeder reactors. 6. (iii) Bus-bar reactors . They are also so located that the effect of the fault does not affect other parts of the system and is thus localized. From time to time new generating units are added to an existing system to augment the capacity. 6. When this happens.13 Classification of Reactors (i) Generator reactors. and depends only on the field current. a new E.186 Power System Analysis s Fault Fig. Eg remains the same for all IL values. These reactors are large coils covered for high self-inductance. With proper use of reactors addition of generating units does not necessitate changes in existing switch gear. Alternatively.11 Reactors Whenever faults occur in power system large currents flow. 6. it is possible to use iron core with air-gaps included in the magnetic core so that saturation is avoided. of course. or E~ are used only when there is a prefault current IL . To limit the flow of large currents under there circumstances current limiting reactors are used.7 For the transient state E~ = VI + j xd IL = Vf + (Zext + j xd ) IL E.

(i) Generator reactors The reactors are located in series with each of the generators as shown in Fig. (ii) Feeder reactors: In this method of protection each f~eder is equipped with a series reactor as shown in Fig.Short Circuit Analysis 187 The above classification is based on the location ofthe reactors. In the event of a fault on any feeder the fault current drawn is restricted by the reactor. Generators Bus Bars Fig.9. Generators --~~r-----~--~------~~BVS Reactors JC' ~ Bars ~ Fig. even during normal operation. 6. 6. Reactors may be connected in series with the generator in series with each feeder or to the bus bars. 6.9 . generator reactors are now-a-days not used except for old units in operation.8 Disadvantages (a) In the event of a fault occuring on a feeder. (b) There is a constant voltage drop in the reactors and also power loss. 6.8 so that current flowing into a fault F from the generator is limited. the voltage at the remaining healthy feeders also may loose synchronism requiring resynchronization later. Since modern generators are designed to with stand dead short circuit at their terminals.

Hence they are to be used only in special case such as for short feeders of large cross-section. (a) Ring system : In this method each feeder is fed by one generator. There are two ways of doing this. However. Feeder reactors do not offer any protection for bus bar faults. Voltage drop and power loss still occurs in the reactor for a feeder fault.11 Another advantage is that additional generation may be connected to the system without requiring changes in the existing reactors. 6. 6. the tie-bar.11. Neverthless. bus-bar faults occur very rarely. 2.188 Power System Analysis Disadvantages: I. 6. the voltage drop occurs only in that particular feeder reactor. The consequent disadvantage of constant voltage drops and power loss can be avoided by dividing the bus bars into sections and inter connect the sections through protective reactors. system voltage regulation will be impaired. Generators (iii) BVS Bars F F F BVS bar Tie bar F2 Peeders Fig. (b) Tie-bar system: This is an improvement over the ring system. Current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in series between sections. If a fault occurs on any feeder. the voltage drop and power loss are negligible. As series reactors inhererbly create voltage drop.10 Fig. This is shown in Fig. Very little power flows across the reactors during normal operation. only the generator to which the feeder is connected will feed the fault and o~her generators are required to feed the fault through the reactor. Bus bar reactors: In both the above methods. . the reactors carry full load current under normal operation. The only disadvantage is that this systems requires an additional bus-bar system. Hence.

2. side T2 as shown in Fig. side of the transformer is connected to a transmission line of reactance 100 ohm. 10 KV base and draw the reactance diagram.1 E. 11 KV respectively are connected in parallel to a bus.5 MVA and 10 MVA respectively. E. The h.75% 9 Reactance of motor 2 = XM2 = 15 (1 0 r( r(~~ The reactance diagram is drawn and shown in Fig. 60 KV / 10 KV with 10% reactance the generator supplies two motors connected on the l.1. Take generator rating as base.(~~) .8 KV. E.v. C ~ r.2 A 100 MVA.6. 3-phase generator has a reactance of 20%.~) = 81 % J = 60. The rated voltage of the motors is 9 KV. Assume 50 MVA. (50) 10 = 72. .5 KV1110 KV with 10% reactance. Solution: The reactances of the generators and motors are calculated on 50 MVA. 10 KV base values. 13.Short Circuit Analysis 189 Worked Examples E 6. 11 KV and 15 MVA.6.v.1 Two generators rated at 10 MVA. E. (I~ ~.4% 11)2 Reactance of generator 2 = XG2 = 12 ( 10 Reactance of motor I = X M1 = 15 . The reactance of each generator is 12% and that of each motor is 15% on their own ratings.6. The bus bars feed two motors rated 7. Draw the reactance diagram showing all the values in per unit. The motors are rated at 25 MVA and 50 MVA both at 10 KV with 15% reactance.6.6% = 48. The generator is connected to a 3-phase transformer T I rated 100 MVA 12. Reactance of generator I = XG1 = 12 . Fig. The far end of the line is connected to a step down transformer T 2' made of three single-phase transformers each rated 30 MVA.

and 121.8 110 Base KV for the line = 13.62 J2 (90J = 15.62 KV 20 % = 0.44 Line-to-line voltage ratio ofT2 = Base voltage for motors % X for generators = = .47 ohms 0.85 % = = 0.3192 p.44xl0 114.62 KV is % X T2 = 10 x C~.2.ll.8 x 100 8. E.44 KV: 10.0985 p.31 = . 10.44J2 Base reactance for line = ( 100 100 Reactance of line· = 147.6.2% = % X for transformer T2 on . Fig.ll.2 p.92% 0. = % X for transformer T) 12.S.8 x 12.ll.J3 x66KV 10KV = 114. = = = 10 lOx ( 10.5J2 100 10 x ( 13.190 Solution: Base MVA = 100 Base KV = Power System Analysis 13.96% The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.31 :=----w- 121.~2r xC~~J = 9. E. 121. Reactance of motor M2 = 10 x 10 50 ( 10.5 = 121.62 J2 (90J 25 31.J3 x 66 : 10 KV and 3 x 30 MVA base 10% % X for T2 on 100 MVA.2 .678 p.ll.47 Reactance of motor M) = 147.

3 Obtain the per unit representation for the three-phase power system shown in Fig.u.172 p. Generator 3 : 35 MVA.ll. E.u. as h.Short Circuit Analysis 191 E. 11/66 KV. 6.u.L) Base voltage on transmission as line 1 p. . reactance of generator 2 = (6.2 ohm X = 0.u.6 KV. reactance of transformer T] p. l.u.u. (66 KV) Base voltage for generator I : 11 KV Base voltage for generators 2 and 3 : 6. reactance of transmission line = 66 2 '1'5 x50 ~ 20x50 = 0.78 p. Generator 2 : 25 MVA. reactance of generator 3 = (6.u.7438 p.2 KV.3.2)2 = 0. Fig.&x 50 p. E.1 KV p.8 ohm X = 1.6 ohm X = 15 ohm/phase X 66/6.6 KV.6. = 1..1377 p.6x50 p.2 x 50 0. 0.u.ll. side X = 12 ohms Transformer T2 : 25 MVA.56 p. 6.u.6. p. reactance of transformer T2 = = 0. Transmission line : XL = 20 ohm/phase Solution: Let base MVA = 50 base KV = 66 (L. p.2)2 = 1. = 6T = 12x 50 = 0.3 Generator 1 : 50 MVA.229 p. 10.6. Transformer T 1 : 30 MVA.u.u.v.5 KV. reactance of generator 1 = (11)2 1.

Determine the leakage impedance referred to 440 V side. 440)2 110 Leakage reactance referred to 440 V side = (0. The equivalent leakage impedance of the transformer referred to I.01239 p.13° 11.52 = = 11.05 ohm.13° ( 480)2 The base impedance on the h. side of the transformer is 20. Its leakage reactance measured on 110 V side is 0.LI.000 = = Z = V base 2 12 VA base 0. side.6.52 ohm 0.v.13° 0. of the transformer 0. side = = 480 V 120 V sid~ The leakage impedance on the l.v.u.05 Per unit reactance on 110 V side = 4. determine the per unit leakage impedance referred to the h.8 ohm . u.v.v.033 ohm 0. Solution: Base impedance on 110 V side = (0.v.192 Power System Analysis E 6.13°] = 0.72 ohm p.0525 78. v. side 0.v.05) ( = 0.11)2 x 1000 3 = 4.LI. . 480/120 V at 50 HZ.13° p. side and t.033 = 0.v.0729 78.84 78.v. side Base voltage on l.000 p.0525 70.v.01239 p. E.4 A single phase two winding transformer is rated 20 KVA.5 A single phase transformer is rated at 110/440 V. 0.13° = 0. of the transformer (120)2 20.0525 78. side is 0.53 = 0. leakage impedance referred to h. 3 KVA.8 Base impedance referred to 440 V side = 64.u.72 Equivalent impedance referred to h.13° ohm using transformer ratings as base values. side is = Zp u 2 = (~~~r [(0.0729 78. Solution Let base KVA = 20 Base voltage on h.84 78. leakage impedance referred to the l.

E.6. impedance of load referred to ~ = 1210 = 0.lI.6.000 = Base impedance at R = 302.12 = 8 ohm 8 p. impedance ofthe 200 ohm load referred to 110 KV side and 11 KV side.6.661 112 x 1000 Similarly base impedance at P = 10. Selecting 10. E.1 ohm Impedance of load referred to P = 200 x 22 x 0.Short Circuit Analysis 193 E.lI. impedance at R = 302.6 Consider the system shown in Fig.4.000 KVA and 110 KVas base values.u.1 = 0. II KVI 1I0KV IIOKV/55KV ~o"oo~-VA---~Q~-~ ~ XII =9% X I2 ~7:.000 = 121.u.' 1 200 ohm Fig.5 ohm 200 ohm p. impedance of load at P = 12. find the p.5 ohm = 0.4 Solution: Base voltage at p = 11 KY Base voltage at R = ~2 110 = 55 K Y 2 55 x 1000 10.661 ohm 1102 x 1000 10.661 ohm .000 = Base impedance at ~ = 1210 ohm Load impedance referred to ~ = 200 x 22 = 800 ohm 800 p.

81)2 90 = 0.000 KVA. The transformer in unloaded and there is no circulating current between the generators. v. Y.5 Base impedance on I. side of the transformer is 63 KY.lI.lI. side = 48.Y.5 0.Y.000 KVA at 11 KV f.1613 ohm p.7 Three transformers each rated 30 MVA at 38.G. The per unit load resistance remains the same. load resistance on 1.1613 = 3. . Base impedance on h. E. side = (66)2 = 48.lI.4 = 3.Y. Fig. side = (base KYL _ d 2 Base MYA = (3.v.6. 11 KV. The transformer is rated 90. side of a 3-phase delta-star transformer as shown in Fig..000 KVA.6.4 ohm 90 66 J2 0. side of the transformer find the base values for the I. Generator 2 is rated 30.6.8 Two generators are connected in parallel to the I. star connected resistors.81 KV are connected in star-delta with a balanced load of three 0. Generator 1 is rated 60.81 150 Load resistance referred to h. Solution. side.5 x ( 3. Before a fault occurred the voltage on the h.194 Power System Analysis E.099 p. load resistance referred to h. side = = 150 ohm p.6.5 ohm. Each generator has a subtransient reactance of xd = 25%. E. 11 KV.099 p.t. Find the subtransient current in each generator when a 3-phase short circuit occurrs on the h.lI.1/3. Selecting a base of 900 MVA 66 KV for the h.Y.v. E. side 0.t. / 66 KV Y with a reactance of 10%. side of the transformer.

375 x 0. the fault condition is simulated. The internal voltage for generator I Eg1 = 0.63 0.S Solution: Let the line voltage on the h.75 of the parallel circuit is 0.7 .10 s Fig. For generator 2 : xd = 90. the equivalent reactance 0.u.000 60.955 p.63 0. The internal voltage for generator 2 Eg2 = = 0.000 = 0.u.Short Circuit Analysis 60.375 p.75 = 0. The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.000 = 0. As there is no circulating current between the generators.955 p.66 = 0.7 when switch S is closed.v.6. xd = 0. side be the base KV Let the base KVA = 90.000 30.u.u.u. 195 11 KV /66 KV ~~ l1.375 + 0.75 p.000 KVA Generator 1 : = 66 KV. j 0.25 p.25 x tr 90.OOOKVA 11 KV Fig. E. E./Y "'-' r----' 30.S.66 0.S.000 KVA 11 KV "'-'1-----.

x of generator 1 = j 0.1 0) Th e Sll btraQslent The voltage as the delta side of the transformer is (-j 2.196 · Power System Analysis .75 1.819 p.S. The far end of the transmission system consisting of 200 km long double circuit line is connected to load from bus B.0. = 0.6. 111132 KV 75 MVA A 75MVA B 200Km 10% 25MVA ~25~ 10% 0.S Solution: p. The actual fault currents supplied in amperes are II' = 1.= 0 . .3 r.955 . determine the total fault current and fault current supplied by each generator. = J. 27285 p. the subtransient current flowing into fault from generator I. side as base values.' = G0.0. (j0.37 A E.15 p. u.78 A I. 12 = = -j 1..189 ohm/phaselKm 8% 111132 KV Fig.v.819 x 90.819 p.375 0. x II = 8592. 9 5 5 .955 .u.u.2785 j 0. u.000 ".' Similarly.7285) I.u. = 0. Select 75 MVA and I1 KVon LV side and 132 KVon h. current I.000 x II J3 = 4294. If a 3-phase fault occurs at bus B.9 R station with two generators feeds through transformers a transmission system operating at 132 KV.27285 j 0.27205 p. E.25 + jO.lI.909 x 90.10) = 0.

u.6.9 Fig. 132xl32 =JO.u. j 0. p.10 25 = 197 j 0.248336 J 4. u.07745 = j 0.Short Circuit Analysis 75 p. x of transformer T.6. x of transformer T2 = j 0.1549 jO.248336 = - Total fault current I LO o j 0.xofeachline= j 0. E.0268 p.24 p.u. E.1 j 0.180x200x75 . = j 0.u.7745 jO.3 p. (b) & (c) can be reduced further into Zeq = j 0.u. 75 x 1000 J3 x 132 = 328 A . x of generator 2 = j = 0.17 + j 0.5 j 0.1549 (a) j 0.08 x 25 = j 0.9 (a). E.1 75 p.17 + jO.1549 The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig.9 (a).2483 (b) (c) Fig.07745 = j 0. Base current for 132 KY circuit = .6. (b) & (c).

X = 10(KVf .000 KVA 6~ rv}-_ _--l . The line is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 6000 KVA stepup transformer which has a reactance of 6%.S.000x16 = IOx(33)2 = 14. 10% The line impedance is converted into percentage impedance %X KVA.000 5000 = 10% 6 x 10.3 = 3936.. 1585139 L .10 A 33 KV line has a resistance of 4 ohm and reactance of 16 ohm respectively.198 Hence actual fault current = - Power System Analysis j 4.25 j 0.:= Base current for 11 KV side of the transformer = Actual fault current supplied from 11 KV side = 3936. terminals of the transformers and at the load end of the line.6.v. E.424 A L-90o E.90° x j 0..9xj 0.0268 x 328 = 1321 A L -90 0 75 x 1000 {.6 A ".000 6 000 = . %X Lme 10.79 = -J 10835.54 + j 0.000 KVA be the base KVA Reactance of generator 1 Xo 1 = 10% Reactance of generator 2 X02 = Reactance of transformer XT = 5 x 10.0248 1585 J.54 Fault current supplied by generator I = Fault current supplied by generator 2 j 0.25 15851. The station has two generators rated 10.69% . 9 A L-900 .6 x 4. Solution: 10.000 KVA Fig.. 33 KV 4 + j 16 FI 5% 5.000 KVA rv}---.10 (a) Let 10. 10% 60.476 A = = 5016.xlI .". Calculate the fault current antl short circuit KVA when a 3-phase fault occurs at the h.000 KVA with 10% reactance and 5000 KVAwith 5% reactance.

Short Circuit Analysis 19000x 4 % RLine = ---::. 11/112 KVand have a leakage reactance of 8%.11 (a) shows a power system where load at bus 5 is fed by generators at bus 1 and bus 4.672 % 10(33)2 (i) 199 For a 3-phase fault at the h.6. Line L1 is 100 krri long while lines L2 and L J are each of 50 km in length.6722 + 29.10 (b) Short circuit KVA fed into the fault = = = 10. The transformers are rated each at 100 MVA. The lines have an inductance of 1 mH 1 phase 1 km. 6.67 MYA For a fault at F2 the load end of the line the total reactance to the fault = 15 + l4.y.916 % = = = Short circuit KVA into fault 100 29.69 % Total resistance to fault = 3. side terminals of the transformer fault impedance = ( .69 = 29.672 % Total impedance to fault = = ~3.000 33433. Find the fault current and MVA for a 3-phase fault at bus S.= 3. The generators are rated at 100 MVA..433 MYA E. 11 KV with subtransient reactance of 25%.63 KYA 33. .916 x 10.6.+ 10= 15 % 10 + 10 IOXI0) Fig.67 KYA 66.000 x 100 15 KYA 66666.69 2 29.11 Figure E.

125 p. impedance of line L? = 125.44 p.u. v.11 (b). impedance of line L3 = 0. side = II KVand Base voltage for h.v.v.44 = 0. E.125 p.u. side = 112 KV Base impedance for h. 6. c Fig.u.4 ohm 3l. side of transformer 112x112 100 = 125.21 ohm = 2 x P x 50 x 1 x 10-3 x 100 = 31.4 Per unit reactance of line Ll = 125. = 0.11 (a) Solution: Let base MVA = 100 MVA Base voltage for l.6.11 (b) .u. side of transformer = Reactance of line Ll 100 II x II = l.v.25 p. 271: x 50 x 1 x 10-3 x 50 p. The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.44 ohm Base impedance for l. E.200 Power System Analysis Fig.6.u.

Short Circuit Analysis 201 By performing conversion of delta into star at A.125+ j 0.345 2 j O.6. E.125 = j 0. the star impedances are j 0.6.03125 j 0. Z3 = j 0.0625 Z2 = and j 0.125xj 0.11 (c) This can be further reduced into Fig.6. E. E.25xj 0. E. Fig.08 i 0.5 j 0.6.125 = j 0. 20375 (e) Fig. E.5 The following reactance diagram is obtained.25 x j 0.11 (f) .25+ j 0.l1 (t). j 0.ll (d). Band C.0625 j 0.0625 j 0.125 = j 0.6. E. 03125 j O.11 (d) Finally this can be put first into Fig.6.125 Z\ = j 0.2 j 0.08 B J 0.11 (e) and later into Fig.03125 Fig.

202 Power System Analysis Fault MVA = 0.u. based on their own ratings of 6 MVA.u. = 100 MVA x 4.5 p.ll Fig. = 0.6.3 x (.90797 = 490.6 KV and its reactance is 0.797 MVA 1 Fault current = j 0.6.18 p. . Infinite bus ~5MVA 112/KV/6.75 p.90797 p.u.5 2530 Amp E.6 KV Base KV for h. 6. E.v side = 112 KV For each motor xd xd = 15 0.u.6.20375 = 4.20375 = 4. = 0.90797 = 515.u. 100x 10 6 Base current = Fault current .1 p.12 Two motors having transient reactances 0. = 4.u.2 x (. Calculate (a) the subtransient fault current (b) subtransient current in circuit breaker A (c) the momentary circuit rating of the breaker and (d) if the circuit breaker has a breaking time of 4 cycles calculate the current to be interrupted by the circuit breaker A.12 (b). 15 0. 112 KY / 6.3 p.90797 p.515 5 Amp . For each motor = The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.2 p. E.J3 x I 12 x 103 x . A 3-phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of one of the motors.12 (a) Solution: Let base MVA = 15 Base KV for Lv side = 6.8 KV are supplied by a transformer rated 15 MVA. and subtransient reactances 0. u.6 KV X = 0.

-I LOo jO.6. E.5 j 0.5 jO..12 (b) Under fault condition the reactance diagram can be further simplified into Fig.99 Amps (lagging) (b) Total fault current from the infinite bus.18 j 0.3 x 6.18 jO.---_.S 1 LOo Subtransient fault current = j 0. E. .19 x (-j 9.18 J 0.u.-----(1 LOIr----i j 0.6..55 p. 3 = 1312.6.F .5 Fig. E.55 p.12 (c).. 15 x 106 Base current = r.12 (c) Impedance to fault = -1---1--1- --+-+jO..6 x 10 Subtransient fault current = 1312.u.1047 = -j 9.55) = 12531.Short Circuit Analysis 203 Fig.18 = -j 5. .19 A .

-----11 LOI------i j 0.3 7 x 1.u.12 (d) The fault impedance is -1---1---1.6 1 LOo The fault current == jO.u.c.u.37 A If the d.u.25 A (d) For the transient condition.1.55 + (-j 2) == -j 7.6 x 9907 == 15851. The reactance diagram for the transient state is shown in Fig. --+-+jO.55 p. So that the transient fault current == 11665.1125 p. E.19 == 11665.15 jO.5 == -j 2p.89 1312.12 (d).6. x Transient fault current = -j 8.9 Amp. that is. after 4 cycles the motor reactance changes to 0.1 = 12831.1125 = j 8. offset current is to be considered it may be increased by a factor of say 1.c.6 jO. E.. . j 0.. Fault current into breaken A is sum of the two currents from the in infinite bus and from motor 1 == -j 5. off-set component is approximately 1.6.6 Fig.55 == 9907 Amps x 1312. Total fault current into breaken == -j 7.19 (c) Manentary fault current taking into the d.== j 0.204 Fault current from each motor == Power System Analysis 1 LOo jO.89 p.u.18 .3 p.

13 (b) Looking into the network from the fault using Thevenin's theorem 0.2 j j 0.15 x 0. E.2 j 0.13 (b). Base line impedance = .~MV~ II KV 11. A 3-phase short circuit occurs at bus A calculate the per unit value of (i) subtransient fault current (ii) subtransient generator and motor currents.13 Consider the power system shown in Fig.6.13 (a) The synchronous generator is operating at its rated MVA at 0.1652 p.565 = Zth = j X th = j 0.6..15 + 0.~ J-+I-X-L-=-20-0h-m--+I-.2 Fig. A C D B 100MVA 110 KVIlI KV XlI 205 .6.1 0.1 j 0. j 0.08 j 0. E. E.0/IIOKV Delta/star IIOKV/II KV Star/delta =0. E. Also compute (iii) the subtransient generator and motor currents including the effect of pre fault currents. Neglect prefault current.95 lagging power factor and at rated voltage.13 (a).Short Circuit Analysis E.6.u.1652 Fig.565 ) j ( 0. The reactance diagram including the effect of the fault by switch S is shown in Fig.= 121 ohm (110)2 100 = Line reactance in per unit ill 20 = 0.1185 .6.

715 f . E.fj x II 100 [COS-I 100MVA .248 L . = 7.000 KVA 60% G1 "-.045 -82.668 (ii) The motor subtransient current I" .15 m .248 KA .0.95 .6.248 1 L -18°. The percentage reactance of each alternator is expressed on its own capacity determine the short circuit current that will flow into a dead three phase short circuit at F.95 + jO.981 + 0.95] = 5.J 6.19 KA = Iload = 5.000 KVA 40% 15. 8.15 I" _ 0.6.95 -j 0.770 p.6.0.19 5.14 (a).fj x l1KV = 5.u.95 -j 1.311) p.74 L-56.15 f 0.19 = (0.3ll = -0.95 = (0.u.J G2 "-. I~ = j 6.981) p.93° E.250 p.j 0.77 .565 I" _ 0.0.14 Consider the system shown in Fig.4388 _.248 L-18°.7125 .0.668 + 0. = ---:i 1.95 -j 6.311 = -j 6. Generator base current = .J ----~~---r----~----BVS 11.4388 .J 1. The subtransient generator and motor currents including the prefault currents are I.715 (iii) x _.459 = 1. E.565 + 0.000 V Bars F Fig.18° .u.565 x j8. 10. Generator prefault current = 0.206 (i) Power System Analysis The subtransient fault current 1" _ lm - 0.u.14 (a) . 0.

.19 Amperes.000 ~ = 103 x -3 v3xll1O = 1312.000 and base KV = 11 % X of generator 1 = 25. Short CIrCUIt current = 16.000 x 60 = 100% . The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6. Find the external reactance per phase to be connected in series with the alternator so that steady state short circuit current does not exceed six times the full load current. 11 KV alternator has internal reactance of 6%.000 KVA and 11 KV 25. F Fig.14 (b) 100x 100 The net percentage reactance upto the fault = 100 + 100 = 50% IxlOO %X 13 12.15 A-3-phase. Solution: Full load current = 11 x 10 3 Vphase = v3xllx1O ~ 25 x 106 3 = 1312..000 10.000 % X of generator 2 = 15.6. Line current at 25. 25 MVA.14 (b).6.039 volts. E.Short Circuit Analysis Solution: Let base KVA = 25. 19 x 100 = Short circuit current = 50 = 2624.30 A E.000 x 207 40 = 100% 25.67 % x 100 = - 6 x 100 . 1 Total % X = Full-load current .9 A Jj = 6351.

000 KYA base = 5000 x 5 = 12% .0393 x 10. E.000 10(11)2 x 6 = 59.876 % %XTotal = 25 + 12 + 59.5 = 96. %X = - IX x 100 Y 1312.5 ohm and reactance of 6 ohm is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 5 MVA step-up transformer having reactance of 5%.l t~Load K ~ ~ (1. Calculate the short circuit KVA fed into a symmetric fault (i) at the load end of the transformer and (ii) at the X= 6351.67 % Power System Analysis Let X be the per phase e'xternal reactance required in ohms. 5 MVA 5% Fig.5% %RTotal = 14.-l_ I I V _ + .516428 ohm 1312.000 %X of transformer as 12.67 h.6398% .0-3-9-3- 10.67 = = 0.19 x 100 E.6.5 + j 6) v..67 .000 10(11)2 12.876)2 = 97. Solution: A B 12 MVA 25% ~ &-r.000 KYA %X of alternator as base KYA = 25% 12.19X.208 External reactance needed = 16.5)2 + {14.6. The bus bars are supplied by a 12 MVA generator having 25% reactance.5% %R of line = (i) x 1. v.15 Let the base KYA = ~2.876% %ZTotal = ~{96..6 = 10. %X of line = 12.100 -6-3-51-.5 = 14.16 A 3-phase line operating at 11 KV and having a resistance of 1.J. terminals of the transformer.

43 E.v.6398 = 12290 209 Short circuit KVA at the far end or load end F2 = If the fault occurs on the h.Short Circuit Analysis 12.000 % X of transformer T = 6000 = =30% 15% (i) If fault occurs at F l' the reactance is shown in Fig.17 (b). . Load is taken as shown from the station bus-bars through 6000 KVA. side of the transformer at F 1 0/0 X upto fault F1 = % XG + % XT = 37 % = 25 + 12 Short circuit KVA fed into the fault 12.000 KVA generators connected in parallel each with 15% reactance and a third generator of 10. side of the system for a symmetrical fault.000x 100 97.6. Determine the maximum fault MVA which the circuit breakers have to interrupt on (i) t.000 '" 15% % X of generator G2 = 15% % X of generator G 3 = 20 x 15000 10. v.000 KVA with 20% reactance is also added later in parallel with them.17 A 3-phase generating station has two 15.6. side and (ii) as h. 15. E. 6% reactance transformers.000x 100 37 = 32432.17 (a) Solution' % X of generator G 1 = 15 x 15.v.000 KYA 6000 KYA ~6% Fig.000 15. E.6.000 6 x 15.

12% reactance or another bus B. E.6.17 (b/ The total % C upto fault ~ J -+-+-15 15 30 I I I =6% Fault MVA = 15.000 KVA 250 MVA (ij I I f the fault occurs at F2' the reactance diagram wi II be as in Fig.17 (c) The total %X upto fault 6% + 15.2111 Power System Analysis 15% Fig. E.6. • 15% Fig.000 x 100 6 = = 250.17 (c) .43 E.18 There are two generators at bus bar A each rated at 12. two more generators rated at 10. what is the short circuit MVA fed into the fault? .6.000 KVA.6.000 KVA with 10% reactance are connected.6 = 21 % Fault MVA = 15. The two bus bars are connected through a reactor rated at 5000 KVA with 10% reactance.000x 100 21 x 100 = 71. E. If a dead short circuit occurs between all the phases on bus bar B.

6. E.000 KVA 10% 'V A----~--------~--~ 5000 MVA 10% F Fig.S.18 (b). E.000 KVA 10% 'V 10.000 12% c-c 12% lOx 12000 % X of bus bar reactor = 5.000 KVA 12% 'V 10.000 KVA be the base KVA % X of generator G] = 12 % % X of generator G2 = 12 % % X of generator G3 % X of generator G4 = = lOx 12000 10.18 30x6 30+6 (c) % X up to fault Fault KVA = = = 50% 600.000 KVA 12% 'V 21 1 12.000 KVA 600 MVA 12.000x 100 6 = = .S.000 = 24% The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.18 (a) Solution' Let 12. 30% 12% 12% 12% 6% F F (b) Fig.Short Circuit Analysis 12.

500 KYA be the base KYA O'n 8x 7500 X of generator A = .6.19 A power plant has two generating units rated 3500 KVA and 5000 KVA with percentage reactances 8% and 9% respectively.5% 7% 7.5524% X+7% x F (b) (c) Fig. It is planned to extend the system by connecting it to the grid through a transformer rated at 7500 KVA and 7% reactance. E.212 Power System Analysis E.S. Calculate the reactance needed for a reactor to be connected in the bus-bar section to prevent the circuit breaker from being over loaded if a short circuit occurs on any outgoing feeder connected to it. The bus bar voltage is 3.5% % X of generator B = °:0 X of transformer = 7% (as its own base) I he reactance diagram is shown in Fig.1428% 3500 9 x 7500 5000 = 13.6.= 17.S. 19 (b)... E. E. 13. 3500 KVA A "'v 5000 KVA ~7% 9% Rcactor 8% CB Fig.19 (a) Solution . Let 7. The circuit breakers have breaking capacity of 175 MVA.19 .3 KV.

.1 02 ohm is required to be inserted..3 2 7500 = 0.102 ohm In each share of the bus bar a reactance of 0.2 ohm.5524] 17.5524) % X + 7'+ 7.6.5 The short circuit KVA should not exceed 175 MVA Total reactance to fault = ([ 7.5524) Short CIrCUIt KVA = 7500 x 100 (X + 7)(7. X(X + 14.5524) This should not exceed 175 MVA 7500x 100(X + 14..02% %X = KVA .33% . If these two are to be interconnected by a tie-line with reactance 1.....142813. (X) = _ _ (X) 7500 x 10{KV)2 \0 x {3.5524 .Short Circuit Analysis 213 Note: ( [ I I + _1 ) = 7.5524 X + 14. E.20 The short circuit MVA at the bus bars for a power plant A is 1200 MVA and for another plant B is 1000 MVA at 33 KV. Solution: Let base MVA = 100 % X of plant I = base MVA short circuit MV A x 100 100 = 1200 x 100 = 8. Determine the possible short circuit MVA at both the plants..(X + 7)(7.3)2 -C:.---'-- X = 7.02 x \0 x 3.5524) Solving Again X = 7.5524) 175 x 103 = .5~24 + X-~7 ] = (X + 7) (7.5524) % = (X + 7) (7.

. E.33% 10% . The plant is protected by a tie-bar system.3)2 x 1.9657 % base M V A x 100 Short circuit MVA = .45 Short circuit MVA = E.B 8.------* Fa 11. With reactances rated at 7500 MVA and 6%. If the reactors were not present what would be the fault KVA.~19] = 5. .214 Power System Analysis 100 % X of plan 2 = 1000 x 100 = 10% % X of interconnecting tie line on base MVA 100x 10 3 = 10x(3.23 For a fault at the bus bars for plant B A-..019% Fig.~3 + 21.~49+ I~] = 6.96576 = 1676.20 %X= ([19.S. determine the fault KVA when a short circuit occurs on one of the sections of bus bars.21 A power plant has three generating units each rated at 7500 KVA with 15% reactance.2 = 11.6.%X 100 x 100 5.019 % For fault at bus bars for generator A % X = ([8.59 % 100 x 100 6..59 = 1517.--------r-..

E. E.5% 6% F ~---------'--- F F~--------------~ (b) (c) (d) 18% 15% 15% F~--------------~---- (e) Fig.21 (a) which reduces to Fig. (b) & (c).6.21 . 7500 15% 7500 '15% 7500 15% ~ 7500 6% 7500 6% 7500 6% (a) 15% 15% 16.Short Circuit Analysis Solution: 215 The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig.6.

A third generator R of capacity 12.000 KVA. A reactor X of capacity 5000 KVA and 5% reactance is connected between A and B.6. Each section is connected to a tie-bar by a similar reactor.000 KVA with 11 % reactance is connected to another bus bar B.000 KVA 150 MVA Problems P:6. What do you understand by short-circuit KVA ? Explain. 50 Hz.2 6. IS x 7.857 % 7500 x 100 7.000 KVA.857 Power System Analysis The short circuit KVA = = 95456. three phase generator. Determine the reactance of each reactor in ohms. Calculate the short circuit KVA supplied by each generator when a fault occurs (a) at A and (b) at B. Explain the construction and operation of protective reactors. Each section is supplied by a 25.3 6. the voltage on the remaining section falls to 65% of the normal value.5 The total % X up to fault F = IS + 16.3 Questions 6.4 Explain thr importance of per-unit system.1 There are two generating stations each which an estimated short circuit KVA of 500.1 6. what will be the short circuit KVA at each station? Two generators P and Q each of6000 KVA capacity and reactance 8.5 = 5 % Short circuit MVA = = = 7500x 100 5 150.28 KVA = 95.46 MVA Without reactors the reactance diagram will be as shown.4 ohm. If these two stations are interconnected through a reactor with a reactance of 0.216 15x16. Power is generated at 11 KY.5% are connected to a bus bar at A. P. th~ merits and demerits of different types of . II KV.5 The total % X up to fault F = 15+7. How are reactors classified? Explain system protection usin~ reactors. When a short circuit occurs between the phases of one of the section bus-bars.5 = 7. The bus bars in a generating station are divided into three section.000 KVA and 600.2 P.6. Each generator has a short circuit reactance of 18%.

transmission and utilization of the bulk of electric power generated world over. The symmetrical Coordinates proposed by Fortesque are known more commonly as symmetrical components or sequence components.L. c. Breaking down of line conductors is also another source for unbalances in Power Systems Operation. An unbalanced system ofn phasors can be resolved into n systems of balanced phasors. analysis becomes difficult. They are denoted by the suffix I. three-phase short circuits with different fault impedances etc create unbalances. Fortesque proposed in 1918 at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers through a paper titled "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates applied to the solution of polyphase Networks". The above holds good even when some of the transmission lines are replaced by d-c links. . With reference to 3-phase systems the following balanced set of three components are identified and defined.7 UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS Three phase systems are accepted as the standard system for generation. displaced from each other by 1200 in phase and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors constitute positive sequence components. a very useful method for analyzing unbalanced 3-phase networks. Dr. When the three phase system becomes unbalanced while in operation. Faults of various types such as line-to-ground. (a) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude. These subsystems of balanced phasors are called symmetrical components. line-to-line.

Denoting the phases as R... These voltages are expressed in terms of the sequence componel~s VRi' V yl' VBI' V R2' V Y2' V B2 and V RO' V YO' V BO as folIows :VR=VRI+VR2+VRO Vy=VYI + Vy2 +V.3) V Y1 Positive Sequence Components Negative Sequence Components Zero Sequence Components Fig.O VB = V BI + V B2 + V 80 . They are denoted by the suffix 2. (c) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude and alI in phase (with no mutual phase displacement) constitute zero sequence components.. .. 7.1) . and having a phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors constitute the negative sequence components. Y and B V R' V Y and VB are the unbalanced phase voltages.2) ..218 Power System Analysis (b) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude.. (7.. They are denoted by the suffix o... (7. just as j operator is used to denote 90 0 phase displacement.. an operator "a" is used to indicate the phase displacement. displaced from each other by 1200 in phase...1 The Operator "a" In view of the phase displacement of 120°.1 7. (7.

4) = V RO ..5 . 1.e a 2 = lL240 J3 -a 2" ° = I.:--------.jO.e = l. V R1 = V R1 V R2 = V R2 VRo = VRo VY1 = a 2 VR1 VY2 = aV R2 V yo .. We can write the sequence phasors with the operator as foilows... -a' .e.866 a 3 =IL360 o =l+jO so that I + a + a2 = 219 0 + jO The operator is represented graphically as follows: a -I..2 Note that a = lL120 0 = I..Unbalanced Fault Analysis a = I.e J31- 4" 6" 3 a 3 = lL360 0 = I. 7. (7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases With the introduction of the operator "a" it is possible to redefine the relationship between unbalanced phasors of voltages and currents in terms of the symmetrical components or sequence components as they are known otherwise.L120o = -0.5 + jO.--------::-*--.... a3 Fig...866 a 2 = IL240 0 = -0.l 21t 7..

.7) [lJ[: a2 a a a2 IE"] ..220 Power System Analysis The voltage and current phasors for a 3-phase unbalanced system are then represented by YR = YR1 + YR2 + YRO } Yy =a 2YR1 +aY R2 + YRO YB = aY R1 + a 2YR2 + YRO IR = IRI +IR2 +I RO } Iy = a 2IRI + aIR2 + I RO IB = aIRl + a 2IR2 + I RO The above equations can be put in matrix form considering zero sequence relation as the first for convenience...9) consider the inverse of the transformation matrix C .8) relate the sequence components to the phase components through the transformation matrix... (7...... (7..5) . (7... (7. . (7. (7..... (7.. (7. ..6) [V' and Yy = 1 a 2 a YB I a a2 [1 IHV"1 YR1 YR2 IRI IR2 .10) Then the sequence components can be obtained from the phase values as .11 ) ...8) Eqs...7) and (7.... .

(7.14) ..3 Power in Sequence Components The total complex power flowing into a three . (7....13) VRIR'+VyIy'+VzI/ Written in matrix notation .. (7...... (7.....phase circuit through the lines R. (7..15) Also ..16) . (7.. (7..14) a a I]llI 2 a a 2 l]lIRO]' .....12) 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 221 and .17) .... (7..18) From equation (7..19) IR1 I a2 a 'R2 .... Y... B is s = P + jQ =VI • = .

... (7..21) [~: H~l [: and I a a 2 RO HVR1 V VR2 j . 7.20) Power in phase components is three times the power in sequence components. The disadvantage with th~se symmetrical components is that the transformation matrix C is not power invariant or is not orthogonal or unitary.. Defining a transformation matrix T which is unitary..22) . (7..25) ... T~ [~l[: VB ) a- a a~1 a2 a .... (7.222 Note that Ct C· = 3 U Power System Analysis ... (7. (7.....24) [VRO VR1 VR2 J [J3H a:][~:J 3 = 1 a 1 a2 .... "c" as a unitary matrix so that the transformation becomes That is power in phase components = Power in sequence components... (7.1 [::H~l [: r' = a 2 a a] I 2 a rj RO IRI IR2 ..23) so that [J3] [: a a2 ~j .4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance It is more convenient to define power invariant. such that.

.27) = r~: l' r::1' . (7. (7.26) s= P + jQ = V . a a ~Jl . (7 ...* ....32) .Unbalanced Fault Analysis 223 and .... (7....29) r ~:1t =r~::1[~lr: VB VR2 1 I a.

..37) we obtain power invariant transformation with sequence components.3 . (7. The impedance offered to the flow of positive sequence currents is called "positive sequence impedance ZI' The impedance offered to the flow of negative sequence currents is called negative sequence impedance Z2' When zero sequence currents flow through components of power system the impedance offered is called zero sequence impedance ZOo 7. Fig..36) Thus with the unitary transformation matrix . (7. z m~ r ~l..35) ... 7.3.. 7.. 7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load Consider the circuit in the Fig. (7..5 Sequence Impedances Electrical equipment or components offer impedance to flow of current when potential is applied.224 Power System Analysis ...

.2 [Z]o. Defining VaO.. (7..I..38) Zm la + Zm Ib + Zs Ie + Zn 'n = Ia + Ib + 'e 'n Eliminating 'n from eqn..}) = [A-I] [Zabel [A] lr+ Z .41) ..... (7.45) [ZO. (7.}.39) Put in compact matrix notation [Vabel = [Zabel [Iabe] Vabc = [A] Va0. (7.] I aa 1 I 2Z 0 ) Zs -Zm 0 z.42) .40) by [A]-I and using eqns..~zJ . Zn is the impedance in the neutral circuit which is grounded draws and current in the circuit is In' The line-to-ground voltages are given by Va = Zs Ia + Zm Ib +..1.43) .40) ..2 abe a Premultiplying eqn... (7. = ..1. 0 Zs 0 ~J .. = + 3Z.Zm 'e + Zn 'n } Vb = Zm Ia + Zs Ib + Zm 'e + Zn 'n Ve Since.. (7. (7.2 = [A]-I [Zabel [A] IaO...42) . (7. (7. (7.46) From the above.38) Va] Vb Vc [Zs +Zn [ = Zm + Zn Zm + Zn Zm + Zn .41) and (7....Unbalanced Fault Analysis 225 A three phase balanced load with self and mutual impedances Zs and Zm drawn currents la' Ib and Ie as shown..... + 3Z If there is no mutual coupling r 1 ~ Zm + Zn m Zs + Zn +z"f . it can be concluded that for a balanced load the three sequences are indepedent.. which means that currents of one sequence flowing will produce voltage drops of the same phase sequence only..2 and I = [A] ....... (7. (7. ~ 1[: a a 2 Zm +Zn Zs + Zil Zm +Zn Zm + Zn Zm Zm +ZIl a2 ~ fez.2] rz...}.44) we obtain.. .0.

-.. (7.7 Transmission Lines Transmission lines are static components in a power system.b Vc . (7. 7...49) . The zero sequence impedance is different from positive and negative sequence impedances.[V abe .4 . (7.I.. a at Va Vb .48) [Vabel = [Vabe ] .. The geometry of the lines is fixed whatever may be the phase sequence.] = [Zabel [Iabe] [ZO.50) o .. (7.51) The zero sequence currents are in phase and flow through the line conductors only if a return conductor is provided.. Hence. for transmission lines ZI = Z2 we can proceed in the same way as for the balanced 3-phase load for 3-phase transmission lines also Z.... .226 Power System Analysis 7.'" c Zm( bl Vi d zm( 0 ~ ct I Tb V Vi c I la + Ib + Ie 0 Fig.2] = [A-I] [Zabel [A] .....47) .. Phase sequence has thus. (7.. no effect on the impedance.....

a~~al . The zero sequence impedance and the equivalent circuit for zero sequence currents depends upon the neutral point and its ground connection. It can be proved that the phase shift for the line voltages to be -30° for negative sequence voltages. the transformer is a static device.?( 'n.5. Since.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 227 7.g a~ _al • g a~ _ _ al 1 g a~~al ~~ a 0--- Il~al Fig. the magnetizing branch is neglected and the transformer is represented by an equivalent series leakage impedance. phase sequence has no effect on the winding reactances. 7.5 Zero sequence equivalent circuits. In star-delta or delta-star transformers the positive sequence line voltage on one side leads the corresponding line voltage on the other side by 30°. 7. is the leakage impedance If zero sequence currents flow then Zo = ZI = Z2 '= Z. Hence where Z. . a~~al y if a~~al [> if a roQO' at . The circuit connection for some of the common transformer connection for zero sequence currents are indicated in Fig.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer For analysis.

Eb and Ec' Current In flows through the neutral impedance Zn' ~Ia Fig. . 7. the same as the leakage flux Xo=X. when they flow.53) 7. Under these conditions a positive sequence current flows in the generator that can be represented as in Fig. (7. They are equal in magnitude with a mutual phase shift of 120°.. the net flux rotates at twice the synchronous speed relative to the rotor.52) The zero sequence currents.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine The positive sequence reactance of a synchronous machine may be Xd or Xd' or Xd" depending upon the condition at which the reactance is calculated with positive sequence voltages applied. b. When negative sequence cements are impressed on the stator winding.. (7.1 Positive Sequence Network Since the generator phase windings are identical by design and oonstruction the generated voltages are perfectly balanced. .. the zero sequence reactance is approximately.6 7.. The resultant air gap flux due to zero sequence currents is zero. 7. the generated voltages are of positive sequence. The generated phase voltages are Ea. and c respectively. are identical and the spatial distribution of the mmfs is sinusoidal. 7. Hence.228 Power System Analysis 7.7.10. Thus. The negative sequence reactance is approximately given by X2 = Xd" ....10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines Consider an unloaded synchronous generator shown in Fig..6 with a neutral to ground connection through an impedance Zn' Let a fault occur at its terminals which causes currents' la' Ib and Ic to flow through its phass a.

(7... 7. 7.55) The negative sequence current paths and the negative sequene network are shown in Fig.8 Va \ = Ea .2 Negative Sequence Network Synchronous generator does not produce any nagative sequence voltages.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 229 Fig. Then. Z.. ..7 ZI is the positive sequence impedance of the machine and la' is the positive sequence current in phase a. 7.Ia\ .54 ) 7. bus ~------------------~a Fig.10. the negative sequence reactance is taken as the average of direct axis and quadrature axis subtransient reactances..9. the negative sequence mmf sets up a varying armature reaction effect. . Ref.8. 7. The positive sequence network can be represented for phase 'a' as shown in Fig. This causes the negative sequence mmf to move past the direct and quadrature axes alternately.. (7. Hence.. X 2 = (Xd" + X q")/2 . If negative sequences currents flow through the stator windings then the mmf produced will rotate at synchronous speed but in a direction opposite to the rotation of the machine rotor..

230 Power System Analysis Reference bus Z2 Iv..56) 7.. The zero sequence voltage drop VaO = -3 laO Zn . (7..10.. Consider the circuit in Fig... However.. (7. 7.....3 Zero Sequence Network Zero sequence currents flowing in the stator windings produce mmfs which are in time phase..10 (a).laO ZgO Zgo = . 7.9 .57) .59) zero sequence impedance per phase of the generator Zo 1 = 3Zn + Zgo VaO = -laO Zo 1 Hence.. 7..10 (a) Since laO = lbo = leO The current flowing through Zn is 3 laO. 1'1 ~Ia2 c + (a) (b) Fig. (7.. when the rotor is not present. so that .. in the actual machine leakage flux will contribute to zero sequence impedance. Sinusoidal space mmf produced by each of the three stator windings at any instant at a point on the axis of the stator would be zero.. (7. Fig.58) .

~Ial + + tVal Positive Sequence Network Negative Sequence Network ~Ia2 + t Va 2 Zero Sequence Network ~Iao + jVao Fig.11 Unsymmetrical Faults The unsymmetrical faults generally considered are • • • Line to ground fault Line to line fault Line to line to ground fault Single line to ground fault is the most common type of fault that occurs in practice.11. it is possible to represent the sequence networks for a power system differently as different sequence currents flow as summarized in Fig. . 7. Reference bus 231 ~-------------------oa Fig. 7.11 7.10 (b). 7. 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.10 (b) rhus. Analysis for system voltages and calculation of fault current under the above conditions of operation is discussded now.

7. the positive. 7. The same can be extended to a power system and results obtained for faults occurring at any point within the system.12. networks are uncoupled before the occurrence of the fault.232 Power System Analysis 7. Va =0 Ib = 0 .12 We can write under the fault condition the following relations. 7. Let a line to ground fault occur on phase a. 7. Positive sequence voltages of all the three phases are equal tothe prefault voltage VF' Prefault bus voltage in the positive sequence network is VF' 3. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs they get interconnected at the point of fault. Tranformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. negative and zero seq. It is conceptually easier to understand faults at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous genrator and obtain results. Induction motors are either neglected or represented as synchronous machines. Synchronous machine armature resistance. Therefore. saliency and saturation are neglected.12 Assumptions for System Representation I.--~a ~Ia b ~------------------------_oc Fig. 6. 5. 2. r---------~-.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator Single Line to Ground Fault: Consider Fig. Power system operates under balanced steady state conditions before the fault occurs. Transmission line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. All non-rotating impedance loads are neglected. Prefault load current at the point of fault is generally neglected. 4.

61) into eqns..62) . 7.. (7.. (7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis and It is assumed that there is no fault impedance.13 .. (7... 233 IF = la + Ib + Ie = Ia = 31al Now Ial = - I + be 3 (laal + an I ) 1 + b aI 3 (IaanI +e ) 1 Ia2 lao = - ... (7... (7.. 7.63) Hence the three sequence networks carry the same current and hence all can be connected in series as shown in Fig.13 satisfying the relation..60) Ib = = 0 .. (7...63a) Since Va = 0 .61) = "3 Ie (la + Ib + Ie) Substitute eqn. Fig..

64) The line voltages are now calculated....14.a (ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z n ) ...E .. (7.Ial ZI) + a r (-l a2 Z2) I = 1 a2 ao +a V +arV ....Ia ZI) + a (-Ia Z2) -u 1 2 = a 2 E3 . .. 7..234 Ea = Ial ZI + Ia2 Z2 + lao Zo + 3Ial Zn Ea = Ial [ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Zn] Hence..Ial (ZO + a 2 ZI + a Z~) Substituting the value of I al V b = Ea a2 E .65) V =V c = Since I al = ao al 32 (-lao Zo) + a (Ea . Power System Analysis a I = -. (7.66) The phasor diagram for single line to ground fault is shown in Fig...-----"------.a (ZI + Z2 + Zo ) ... 3.. (7. Va=O Vb = V = 2 ao + a V al + a V a2 (-IHn Zo) + a2 (Ea ." .

..14 7.15.67) and Vb ==V c .15 From the Fig.. r---------ova ~Ia Fig.X. (7. 7.15 it is clear that 1==0 } la ==-1 b c .14 Line-to-Line Fault Consider a line to line fault across phases band c as shown in Fig. Li l .2 X2 Fig. 7. 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 235 LJI.. 7..

.236 Utilizing these relations Power System Analysis I 1 + bc Ia1 = . .. (7.16...a) I b 3 3 I .69) 1 1 Iao = .a) V = Cal .71) Fig..Ia1 Z1 = ....(a ..(0 + Ib .(Iaal + a2 I ) = . (7..a) Ib 3 3 .(I a + Ib + Ic) = . (7..16 From the diagram we obtain Ea .72) ...la2 Z2 = 1 Z2 Ea = Ia (Z1 + Z2) 1 'a I = a1 E .... 7.a Z1 +Z2 ..a) V 81 32 .Ib) = 0 3 3 Since Vb=Vc a2 Va1 + a Va2 + Vao = a Va1 + a2 Va2 + Vao (a 2 . (770) Va1 =V a2 The sequence network connection is shown in Fig. 7.(a2 .(Iaab c ) = ..68) 1 1 2 + 2I + a I a2 = .. (7..

(7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 237 ...73) .. (7....a)Ea ZI +Z2 ..a) Ial (a z .74) Also... (7.77) EaZ2 (a + a Zl +Z2 2 ) Ea (-Z2) Zl + Z2 .lal = 0 Ib = aZ Ial + al az = (aZ....75) Ia = lal + laZ = lal . a + aZ= -I Since Hence Again I Val =V az = .... (7. (7..[Va + (aZ+ a) Vb] = + aZV + a V) 3 1 + a + aZ = 0..(V a + V) 3 b .76) ..79) ...(Va V + aZV ) = ... (7..[V a + (a + aZ Vb] +a ) 3 bc 3 1 1 Vaz3 (Va b c = ..... 1 1 Val = .78) . (7..

. 0---------0 a ~Ia va b Fig. 7.18. (7.. Ea Fig.. 7.... 7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault Consider line to line fault on phases band c also grounded as shown in Fig.17..80) =-va 3 1 .18 . (7. 7.17 7..238 Power System Analysis The phasor diagram for a double line fault is shown in Fig.81) .

. (7.1ao + 31 ao = .85) . (7..84 ) In may be noted that IF = = Ib + Ic = a2 Ial + a Ia2 + Iao + a Ial + a2 Ia2 + a Iao (a + a2) I (a + a2) I + 2 I aJ a2 ao = ...83) and ..82) Hence But ..86) .. (7....19.19 ..Ial ...1a2 ...Unbalanced Fault Analysis 1 Va2 = -3 (Va 2 V + c ) + ab a V 239 =-V a 3 Further 1 .Ia2 + 21 an = . 7.. Fig.. (7. (7..1al ...(I al + 1a2 + 1an ) + 3 Iao = 0 + 3 1ao = 31 ao The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. 7.

.lao Z~ 1 =-1 = - la2 Z2 -Ea Z2 Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] la2 Z2 ... (7.90) E...Power System Analysis ... (7.la] Z E _ Ea (Z2 +Zo) Z + Ea ZO 2 + Ea· Z2 (Zo +3Z n ) a ~ Z]Z2 ] ~ Z]Z2 ~ Z]Z2 ..89) an -a2 Z~ £] - Z2 Va =V a] +V a2. Vb = 0 .ZoZ]] ~Z]Z2 + aEaZOZ2 V = --=----------------------= b 2 Ea [ ZOZ2 + a ZO 2 + aZO 2 + 3Z 2 Zn ] Z z ~Z]Z2 2 Ea [ ZOZ2 (I + a + a ) + 3Z 2Z n] Z]Z2 + Z2 Z0 + ZOZ4 If 3.87) Similarly .....E a...91 ) Zn = 0..Z2Zn Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] .88) . +V aO = = Ea ..lao (ZO + 3Zn) .. (7. [Z2Z0 + 3Z 2Zn ] + alE. (7.Z2Z] . (7... [Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] ..

20. (7..21.Unblllllnced Fllult Anlllysis The phasor diagram for this fault is shown in Fig.16 Single-Line to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance If in (7.. 7.63a) willbe modified into ~Ia ~--------. Ea 241 Fig. 7..92) ..---~a ------ob ~----------------------__oc Fig. (7.21 . Egn.20 7. 7. 7.13) the fault is not a dead short circuit but has an impedance ZF then the fault in represented in Fig.

Power System Analysis 1 = ---------''---:---- 3E a a Z.93) 7.a) Y2 = ZF (a2 .23).a) Y I i.242 Substituting Y a = 0 and solving for la . +aY 2)-(Y O+aY.17 Line-to-Line Fault with Fault Impedence Consider the circuit in Fig.. (7. - (a2 .22 and 'a = 0 'b = ..... + Z2 + Zo + 3 (Zn + Zd .23 . (7.ZF Fig...22) when the fault across the phases band c has an impedence ZF' ~Ia Fig. (7.'e Y b .95) +a2y 2) .96) in eqn. 7. (7. = ZF (10 + aTJI.. (a 2 .. 7.... (7.96) (Yo +aTY.94 ) .97) The sequence nehosh connection in this case will be as shown in Fig..... + aJ 2) Substituting eqn...95) and (7. (7...e. .a) I I .. (7.Y e = ZF 'b . (7.

(7.. Z..a)V I = (a~ .18 Double Line-to-Ground Fault with Fault Impedence This can is Illustrated in Fig.. 7.99) (V 0 + a" V I + a V~) = (10 + a II + al~ + 10 + aJ I + a 12 ) ZF + Zn) a2 .. the fault conditioris are given by 10 + II + 12 = .. Fig.a) V~ VI = V2 2 2 .101 ) Zo + Z2 .VI = (Zn + ZF) (21 0 + 10 ) = 3(ZF + Zn)'[O Hence..24 The representative equations are la = 0 Vb = Ve Vb = (Ib + Ie) (ZF + Zn) [I ..VI) = (Zn + ZF) [21 0 [0 II - [2)\ = . (7.Unbalanced Fllult Analysis 243 7.a =-[ (V?.. 7.24. (7.and so on as in case (7. (7..15) Ea Z6 Z....=- .100) 0 VI =V 2 and Vo .98) But.II - [2 Vo . + -1--. Since But since 10 + + [2 =0 V0 + a V I + a2 V2 = Va + a~ V I + a V1 (a 2 .. So that or Further. and also...1.VI = 3(ZF + Zn)' [0 -----=--..

25 . 7.25.244 where Power System Analysis The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. V2 10 Fig. 7.

.

7. Van] V = Vbn [220 220 /-120 0 KV 220 /+ 120 0 rVen "3 1 I = ~ j Solution: = [200~ + 200/-120 0 + 220 /+ 1200 ] =0 VI ="3 = = [Van+aVbn+a2Ven] [220 &:.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 245 Worked Examples E.7.1 Calculate the sequence components of the followinmg balanced line-to-network voltages.2 Prone that neutral current can flow only if zero-sequence currents are present la Ib lal + la2 + laO a21al + ala2 + lao Solution: = = = alai + a21a2 + laO If zero-sequence currents are not present Ie then laO = 0 . E. + 220 1-1200 + 1200 ) + 120 /(120 0 + 240 0 )] "3 1 220lsEKV 1 ~ 2 V 2 = -3 [V an + a-V bn + a V en ] = "3 "3 I I [220 ~ + 220/-1200 + 240 0 + 220 /120 0 + 1200 [220 + 220 1200 + 220 240 0 ] = =0 Note: Balanced three phase voltages do not contain negative sequence components.

[Ia b c +a-I +aI] 2 3 = = '3 '3 I 1 [100 ~ + 100/1200 + 240 0 + 100/-1200 + 2400 ] [IOO&:.[10()~ + 100/2400 + 100/1200 ] 3 > =0 A 1 .Q:J = 100A Note: Balanced currents of any sequence. neutral cements will flow only in case of zero sequence components of currents exist in the network. 1=. + 100~ + 100/.. E.7. positive or negative do not contain currents of the other sequences.[I aaI + c ] + b arl 3 = '3 I [100~ + 100/1200 + 120 0 + 100 /-120 0 + 240 0 ] -I = . Hence. .246 In that case Power System Analysis Ia + Ib + Ic = Ial + Ia2 + a21al + aI a2 + al a I + a2 1 a2 = (I aI + al aI + a21 ) + (J aI a2 + a21 + al ) a2 a2 =0+0=0 The neutral cement In = IR = Iy + Is = O.3 Given the negative sequence cements 1= [::1 =r:~~ !iir l Ie l100 /-120 0 J Obtain their sequence components Solution' = '3 I [100 lJE + 100/120 0 + 100 /-120 0 = 0 A 1 I I = .

j 1.849] == 3 [34. la= 10~ Ib Ie Solution 2 a1 ][10 /_90° 10 247 = = 101.285/135 0 A 1 'I ="3 [IO~+ = 10-/900 + 120°+ 15/135 0 +240 0 ] "3 1 [10 (I + jO.309298]/15 0 = 1 I 11.5) + 15 (.j 0.jlO .866 + jO.605 + j 0.707 + j 0.4808] 3.0.j a 10 /135 0 10="3 = 1 [100°+ 10-90°+ 15135°] [10 (l + jO.O) + 101300 + 15/15 0 = 1 3 [10 + 10 (0.605] I "3 "3 I 1 I = = "3 [.j 9.10.542 .2588] == 3[33.2588 .9659) 3 [-2.O) + 10 (0 .605 + j 10.5) + 15 (0.4 Find the symmetrical components for the given three phase currents.436/15 0 A I 12 = 3 [I~+ 10/240°-900 + 15/135 0 + 120°] = 1 3 [10 (l + jO) + 10 (-0.0.0) + 15 (.866 + j 0.2744/105 0 A 1 = = .0.605] = "3 = [0.8555]/135 0 0.9659 + jO.1485 + j 8.90° 15/135° l!t.Unbalanced Fault Analysis E.707) [10 .7.

6).7.(10-10)=0 3 E.10 A Find the symmetrical components Solution IR I = -3 [1 R + a Iy + a2 IB] 1 I 10 ="3 [0-a(l0)+a2 (-10)]= Jj A IR2 = 1 "3 [IR + a2 Zy + a JB] 1 10 = "3 (a 2 .7.S Power System Analysis In a fault study problem the following currents are measured IR = 0 Iy = 10 A IB = .7. (E.10 + a (-10) = .Jj 1 IRo = "3 (lR + ~ + IB) 1 = .6) Zero sequence network for the given system .7. (E.248 E. Solution ~he zero sequence 'network is shown Fig.6 Draw the zero sequence network for the system shown in Fig.

249 if Y T.7).7. (E. E.~ X T1 LI XLI X L2 L2H-fHM X T2 XM L/~ Fig.Unbalanced Fault Analysis E.7 XLI if/L Refcrcncc Positive sequence network Negative sequence network X Mo Zero sequence network . 7.7 Draw the sequence networks for the system shown in Fig. 7.

866] 3 [.j 0.31§Q° A '1 = "3 1 [100~ + 0 + 100/1200 + 240 0 ] = 12 = "3 "3 I 1 1 [100~+ 100~ = -3.= 66.866] .[0. Phjlse b is open due to conductor break.1 A = Ie 100 [120° J '0 = "3 [JOOLQ:+ 0 + 100/120°] = "3 1 [100 (l + jO) + 0 + 100 (.7.0.5 .8. Ia = 100i1EA Ib = 100/1200 A IOOIit ----<0 Solution I=[.866] = 33. E.5 .33.5 + j 0.66 A 200 [IOO~ + 0 + 100/1200 + 1200 ] ="3 = [100 [I + jO .: 1[1 ~o lJr..33~A 100 ..0.8 Power System Analysis Consider the system shown in Fig. Calculate the sequence currents and the neutral current.866) = 100 -3.250 E. 7.5 + j 0.j 0.0.

Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Nuetral current In
= =

251

10 + II + 12

100&: + 0 +100/120 0 100 [I + jO - 0.5 + jO.866] 1001Q.Q° A

= =

Also, In E.7.9

=

3 10 = 3 (33.33 (600 ) = IOOIQ.Q° A

Calculate the subtransient fault current in each phase for a dead short circuit on one phase to ground at bus 'q' for the system shown in Fig. E.7.9.
E=I!Jf

~ ~1-_Lin_e--+-1~ ~ .....
~ @>
JO.17
jO.06

x~=jO.16
X2 =

xl=xc=jO.ll Xo = jO.33

cg

~

Q

X~ = jO.2
X2

= )0.22

Xo = )0.15

p/6
xI =x2 =xo =10.10

Xo

=

Yl

XI =x2

=

jO.IO

All the reactances are given in p.u on the generator base.
Solution:

(a) Positive sequence network.

J 0.17

j 0.22

(b) Negative sequence network.
p

q

J 0.1
j 0.06

j 0.33

j 0.1
j 0.15

(c) zero sequence network.

252

Power System Analysis
The three sequence networks are shown in Fig. (a,b and c). For a line-to-ground fault an phase a, the sequence networks are connected as in Fig. E. 7.9 (d) at bus 'q'.
j 0.14029

lilt

Negative sequence

E.7.9 (d)

The equivalent positive sequence network reactance Xp is given form Fig. (a) 1 1 1 -=--+Xp 0.47 0.2

Xp

=

0.14029

The equivalent negative sequence reactance Xn is given from Fig. (b) 1 1 1 = 0.48 + 0.22 or Xn = 0.01508

x::-

The zero-sequence network impedence is j 0.15 the connection of the three sequence networks is shown in Fig. E. 7.9(d).

10 = II = 12 = jO.14029+ jO.150857 + jO.15

j0.44147

JlsL

= -

J2.2668 p. u

.

E.7.10 In the system given in example (E.7.9) if a line to line fault occurs calculate the sequence components of the fault current.
Solution:

The sequence network connection for a line-to-Iine fault is shown in Fig. (E.7.1O).

Unbalanced Fault Analysis

253

j 0.14029

1/sL
From the figure I
J

j 0.150857

=

I =
2

II!L:.
jO.1409+ jO.150857

~ + --===--jO.291147

= - j 3.43469 p.u

E.7.11 If the line-to-line fault in example E.7.9 takes place involving ground with no

fault impedance determine the sequence componenets of the fault current and the neutral fault current.

Solution
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig.
jO.14029

jO.15085

j 0.15

1~
IJ
=

-jO-.1-4-02-9-+-=H=o:.1:50=8=57:):(j=0.=15:) jO.150857 + jO.15

112:
jO.14029+ jO.0752134
= - j 4.64 p.u

1~
jO.2155034

12

= -

j(4.64) (. jO.15 ) = - j2.31339 p.u J0.300857 '(4.64) (jO.150857) j 0.300857
= - .

I = o

-

J

J

2.326608 .u P

The neutral fault current

= 3 jo = 3(- j2.326608) = - j6.9798 p.u

254

Power System Analysis

E.7.12 A dead earth fault occurs on one conductor of a 3-phase cable supplied by a 5000 KVA, three-phase generator with earthed neutral. The sequence impedences of the altemator are given by
Z1 = (0.4 + j4) n; Z2 = (0.3 + jO.6) nand Zo
=

(0 + j 0.45) n per phase

The sequence impedance of the line up to the point offault are (0.2 + jO.3) n, (0.2 + j 0.3)W, (0.2 + j 0.3) nand (3 + j 1) n. Find the fault current and the sequence components of the fault current. Aslo find the line-to-earth voltages on the infaulted lines. The generator line voltage is 6.6 KY.

Solution
Total positive sequence impedance is Z1
=

= (0.4 + j 4) + (0.2 + j 0.3) = (0.6 + j 4.3) n.

Total negative sequence impedence to fault is Zo = (0.3 + j 0.6) + (0.2 + .iO.3) (0.5 + jO.9) n
t

Total zero-sequecne ill'pedence to fault is ZO = (0 + j 0.45) + ( 3 + j 1.0 ) -= (3 j 1.45) n Z1 + Z2 + Z3 = (0.6 + j 4.3) + (0.5 + j 0.9) + (3.0 + j 1.45)
=

(4.1 + j 6.65) n
6.6x 1000

la1 = laO = Ia2 =
= =

.J3

(4.1 + j6.65)

381O.62A . :Z.8.1233

487.77 -58°.344 A (255.98 - j 415.198) A 1463.31 A [-58°.344

Ia = 3 x 487.77 1---580.344
=

E.7:13 A 20 MVA, 6.6 KV star connected generator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of 30%, 25% and 7% respectively. A reactor with 5% reactance based on the rating of the generator is placed in the neutral to groud connection. A line-to-line fault occurs at the terminals of the generator when it is operating at rated voltage. Find the initial symmetrical line-to-ground r.m.s fault current. Find also the line-to-line voltage.

Solution
Z1 = j 0.3; Z2 = j 0.25 Zo = j 0.07 + 3 x j 0.05 = j 0.22 Ia1
=

Ta1

=

1 j(O.3) + j(0.25) = jO.55

I/sr.

=

. -J1.818 p.u

= -

j 1.818 x

20x 1000 r;; ",3 x 6.6

= -

j 3180 Amperes

Unbalanced Fault Analysis
lao
=

255

0 as there is no ground path Va = Ea - la, Z, -l a2 Z2 1 = - j 1.818 (j 0.0.3 -jO.25)
= 0.9091 x 3180 = 2890.9 V

Vb = a2 E - (a2 la, Z, + ala2 Z2)
= (-0.5 - j 0.866).1

+ j,.fj (-j 1.818) G0.3)

= (- jO.866 - 0.5

+ j 0.94463)
x

== (- 0.5 + j 0.0786328)

3180

== (- 1590 + j 250) == 1921.63
V c == Vb == 192 I .63 V

E.7.14 A balanced three phase load with an impedence of (6-j8) ohm per phase, connected in star is having in parallel a delta connected capacitor bank with each phase reactance of27 ohm. The star point is connected to ground through an impedence of 0 + jS ohm. Calculate the sequence impedence of the load.

Solution
The load is shown in Fig. (E.7.14).

f--------l 1-------\ b

256
Converting the delta connected capacitor tank into star CA/phase - 27 ohnm 1 Cy/phase = 3" 27 = a ohm

Power System Analysis

The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. E. 7.14(a)

60

+ J80

The negative sequence network is also the same as the positive sequence network Z ZI' Z2 = Zstar II 3" delta (6+j8X-j9) = 72-j54 6+j8-j9 6-jl
=

90~
6.082/9°.46

14.7977 /27 0 .41 ohm

The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.

60

Jxn

T
r

27

-j,=-j9"

~ J + jS"
0

Zo

= Zstar + 3 2n = 6 + j8 -I- 3U5) = (6 + j 23) ohm = 23.77 80°.53

Derive an expression for the fault current for a double-line fault as an unioaded generator. .2 7.16 ohm in the neutral.1 Determine the symmetrical components for the three phase currents IR = 15 LOo.1 7.2 The voltages at the terminals of a balanced load consisting of three 12 ohm resistors connected in star are V = 120 LO o V RY V YB VBR = = 96.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 257 Problems P 7.6 7.4 7. Find the sub-transient line current o for a single line 'to ground fault when it is disconnected from the system.4 Find the subtransient line current for a line-to-line fault on two phases for the generator in problem (7.17 and X = 0.5 A 125 MVA. What are sequence impedances? Obtain expression for sequence impedances in a balanced static 3-phase circuit.3) P 7.06 per unit. while it is operating on noload at rated voltage a double line-to ground fault occurs on two phases. 22 KV turbo generator having xd" = Xl = x2 = 22% and Xo = 6% has a current limiting reactor of 0.8 What are symmetrical components? Explain. Questions 7. Iy = 15/230° and 18 = 15/1300A P 7.7 7. It!.5 7.m. What is the utility of symmetrical components. Find the initial symmetrical r. Derive an expression for power in a 3-phase circuit in terms of symmetrical components.s fault current to the ground. Explain the sequence networks for an synchronous generator. It is star connected and solidly grounded. reactances are xd" = xl = x2 = 0. It is operating at rated voltaage and is on no-load. P 7.3 A 50 Hz turbo generator is rated at 500 MVA 25 KV. What is the influence of transformer connections in single-phase transformers connected for 3-phase operation.44° V 108 L1300 V Assuming that there is no connection to the neutral of the load determine the symmetrical components of the line currents and also from them the line currents. Derive an expression for the fault current for a single line-to ground fault as an unloaded generator.3 7. P 7.96 L-121.

258 7. .11 Power System Analysis Derive an expression for the fault current for a double-line-to ground fault as an unloaded generator. 7.9 7.12 7.10 7.13 Explain the effect of prefault currents. Draw the phasor diagrams for (i) Single-line-to ground fault Double-line fault and Double-line to ground fault (ii) (iii) Conditions as on unloaded generator. double line fault and double line to ground fault conditions. Draw the sequence network connections for single-line-to ground fault. What is the effect of fault impedance? Explain.

various types of motors and other types of loads with widely varying dynamic characteristics can be analyzed through some what oversimplified methods for understanding the processes involved. The electromechanical dynamic behaviour of the prime mover-generator-excitation systems. Stability when used with reference to a power system is that attribute of the system or part of the system.8 8. There are three modes of behaviour generally identified for the power system under dynamic condition. They are (a) Steady state stability (b) Transient stability (c) Dynamic stability Stability is the ability of a dynamic system to remain in the same operating state even after a disturbance that occurs in the system. equal to or greater than the disturbing force so as to restore a state of equilibrium between the elements. . which enables it to develop restoring forces between the elements thereof.1 POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Elementary Concepts Maintaining synchronism between the various elements of a power system has become an important task in power system operation as systems expanded with increasing inter connection of generating stations and load centres.

8. This will be dealt with later. if it returns to the same st~ady state operating condition following a disturbance. Instability refers to a conditions involving loss of 'synchronism' which in also the same as 'falling out o'fthe step' with respect to the rest of the system. Such a state is called a transient state. They ~re connected through a line of reactance Xe' The various voltages are indicated. Such disturbances are generally small in nature. Dynamic stability is generally associated with excitation system response and supplementary control signals involving excitation system.260 Power System Analysis A power system is said to be steady state stable for a specific steady state operating condition. The third aspect of stability viz.1. Larger disturbances may change the operating state significantly. 8.x where X = Xg e m +X +X J Power del ivered to motor by the generator is P = Re [E J*] . A stability limit is the maximum power flow possible through some particular point in the system. but still into an acceptable steady state. 8. when the entire system or part of the system to which the stability limit refers is operating with stability.1 E=E m +J·xJ·' g 1= Eg -Em .1 From the Fig. Xe Fig. 8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept Consider the synchronous generator-motor system shown in Fig. The generator and motor have reactances Xg and Xm respectively.

if the load power is increased in do very small increments from 0 = 0 to 0 = rr.. (8. 2..2) The graph of P versus 0 is called power angle curve and is shown in Fig.. . Fig.2 8. 8. 8.1 ) P is a maximum when 0 = 90° P max = --=--X Eg Em . we obtain the following possibilities for increasing the value of Pmax indicated in the next section. (8../2. the system will be stable.Cos 90° Cos (90 + 0) = X X ..p max is dependent on E g.2. Theoretically. The steady state stability limit will be reached./2.. The system will be stable so long dP is positive. Reducing the reactance between the generator and the motor.. Use of higher excitation voltages.Power System Stability 261 E 2 Eg Em -g.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit 1. Thus. At 8 = rr. Em and X. The reactance X = Xg + Xm + Xe is called the transfer reactance between the two machines and this has to be brought do\\-n to the possible extent... thereby increasing the value of Eg.

. the system enters transient state. and transient reactances X~ are used in calculations. P= Eg Em X Sin 0 do 8. therefore.6 Stability of a Single Machine Connected to Infinite Bus Consider a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus. Since.5 Transient Stability Steady state stability studies often involve a single machine or the equivalent to a few machines connected to an infinite bus.3) is called Synchronizing power coefficient or stiffness. However. Undergoing small disturbances. The speed is the synchronous speed ())s' Neglecting losses power in put is equal to the mechanical load supplied. Transient internal voltage E. For stable operation dP. the motor is decelerating. where disturbances are larger and require study over a longer period beyond one second. The study includes the behaviour of the machine under small incremental changes in operating conditions about an operating point on small variation in parameters. however.262 Power System Analysis 8. If the load on the motor is suddenly increased to PmI' this sudden load demand will be met by the motor by giving up its stored kinetic energy and the motor. (8. The inclusion of any control system or supplementary control depends upon the nature of the disturbances and the objective of the study... is .3. The torque angle 0 increases from 00 to 0 1 when the electrical power supplied equals the mechanical power demand at b as shown in Fig. The first swing transient stability is a simple study involving a time space not exceeding one second. Transient stability of the system involves non-linear models. multiswong studies are performed taking into effect the excitation and turbine-generator controls. If the machine remains stable in the first second. 8. 8.. When the disturbances are relatively larger or faults occur on the system. Initially the motor is supplying a mechanical load Prno while operating at a power angle 00.4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient We have The quantity . slows down. it is presumed that it is transient stable for that disturbances. The first swing of the machine (or machines) that occur in a shorter time generally does not include the effect off excitation system and load-frequency control system. the speed. the synchronizing coefficient must be positive.

The torque angle starts decreasing till 1 is reached at b but due to the fact that till point b is reached Pe is still greater than Pm!' speed is more than N s .. At this point c further increase of () is arrested as Pe > Pml and N = Ns. 8. g where T = . 8. a = Mechanical angular acceleration WR2 = Moment of Inertia in kg-m 2 . The motor will reach the stable operating point b only if the accelerating energy AI represented by bce equals the decelerating energy A2 represented by area abd. (8. The net torque acting on the rotor of a synchronous machine WR 2 T=--a.4 ) algebraic sum of all torques in Kg-m. This is usually called swing equation. Hence. But. Hence.Power System Stability 263 less than Ns at b.7 The Swing Equation The interconnection between electrical and mechanical side of the synchronous machine is provided by the dynamic equation for the acceleration or deceleration ofthe combined-prime mover (turbine) . 8. () decreases further till point a is reacted where N = Ns but Pml > Pe• The cycle of oscillation continues. the torque 'angle ()' increases further to ()2 where the electrical power Pe is greater than Pml .. the rotor is brought to the new operating point b with speed N = N s ..3 Stability of synchronous motor connected to infinite bus.3 area 'abd' represents deceleration and area bce acceleration. ° In Fig.synchronous machine roter. but N = Ns at point c. It Fig.. due to the damping in the system that includes friction and losses.

(8. 60f rpm P 2 60f) 11e = ( . (8..11m rpm .7) The electrical angular position d in radians of the rotor with respect to a synchronously ../sec t = time in seconds (Note: 8 + coat = 11e) The angular acceleration taking the second derivative of eqn. (8.. (8. (8.... (8..5) PN f= 120 .264 Power System Analysis Electrical angle Where 11 m is mechanical angle and P is the number of poles The frequency .6) Where N is the rpm...60f dt 2 g 60f dt 2 r ... (8....8) is given by From eqn.9) . (8......7) differentiating twice _e=l-f) d 2 11 ( 60 dt 2 _m d 2 11 rpm dt 2 From eqn.4) T = WR 2 rpm) d 2 11 e = WR 2 (rpm ') d 2 8 g .coot Where And Wo = rated synchronous speed in rad..8) rotating reference axis is be = 11 e ..

The electrical and mechanical torques acting on the rotor of a motor are of opposite sign and are a result of the electrical input and mechanical load. T a =TIn -Te Where Te is the air-gap electrical torque and Tin the mechanical shaft torque. (8. electrical output torque and damping torques due to prime mover generator and power system. = ---0)0 I WR 2 2 g 2 . (8...12) Where COo ') rpm = .1( rpm)2 ____ v~ 60 base KYA KE atrated speed ... We may neglect the damping and rotational losses..11 ) Kinetic energy K..13 ) The torque acting on the rotor of a generator includes the mechanical input torque from the prime mover.10) torque in per unit .e..". windage and core loss)]. 60 1(-baseKYA Defining H kinetic energy at rated speed -? _ ~ WR 2 g (. ...... friction... (8. (8..Power System Stability Let the base torque be defined as 265 . . so that the accelerating torque.. torque due to rotational losses [(i..E.

.266 Power System Analysis . The stored energy of an electrical machine is more usually expressed in mega joules and angles in degrees...(Sec)2/(rad)2 since m is in rad/sec....15) Torque in per unit is equal to power in per unit if speed deviations are neglected.mot d"t=d"t.mo Since the rated synchronous speed in rad/sec is 27tf ---+m d8 dS dS d8 dt ..14) d 28 = 7tf (T _ T ) dt2 H In e (i.15) and (8. (8. since 8 = S .m Where m is the synchronous speed of the machine and M is called inertia constant.) . Kinetic Energy = 2" 1m2 joules 1 The moment of inertia I may be expressed in louie . Angular momentum M is thus described by mega joule . per electrical degree M = l... The quantity H defined earlier as inertia constant has the units mega Joules. H= -----~---.. (8. (8. (8.17) but stored energy = 1 2 1 -1m = .:"---"----- stored energy in mega joules machine rating in mega voltampers(G) ... (8.MOl 2 2 .. It may be noted.. that.e.sec.16) are called swing equations. Then .dt () we may put the equation in another way.16) The eqn... In practice m is not synchronous speed while the machine swings and hence M is not strictly a constant..

. (8.8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation Equal area criterion is applicable to single machine connected to infinite bus. (8.. The swing equation connected to infinite bus is given by H dro .18) 1 I GH = .. (8... ...22) EV · s..: S lllu X So that with usual notation.... (8.. (8.Power System Stability In electrical degrees (j) 267 = 360f (= 2nD ... (8.sec/elec degree . .25) ..=p -p =p n f d t2 mea ..20) So that d 0 = nf(p _P) dt2 H In e . Further p = e .M(360f) = ... It is not directly applicable to multi machine system..... the criterion helps in understanding the factors that influence transient stability.. (8.. However.. (8.M2nf = Mnf 2 2 M = GH nf mega joule ..24) or .21 ) which may be written also as This is another form of swing equation.......19) In the per unit systems M 2 = H nf .23) 8..

For Stability dt d8 = ° Hence. .. 8.268 Power System Analysis Also Now as t increases to a maximum value 8max where d8 dt d8 both sides by 2 dt we obtain 2 d 8 db = Pa 2 db 2 . 80 is the initial rotor angle from where the rotor starts swinging due to the disturbance.. (8.4 Equal area criterion. I I) on dt 2 dt Integrating both sides d8)2 = ~ ( dt M db dt M dt fp a d8 =~~ 1<>0 Pa d8 r<' M 1t Fig.. Multilying eqn (8.26) = 0..

That is. pml [(52 . A I ~ A2 = 0 means that. But Pe = Pmax sin (5 Pm «51 .6.(50] max But Hence .[(52 . In the case AI> A2. as stated the machine will loose its stability since the speed cannot be restored to Ns .. Then.cos (52) + Pml «52 .. there must be a limiting case where A2 is just equal to AI as shown in Fig. Any further increase in Pml will cause .(50) + Pmax (cos (51 .5. we fail to locate an area A2 that is equal to area AI..9 Transient Stability Limit Now consider that the change in Pm is larger than the change shown in Fig. 8. (8. 8.. 8.(51) = 0 i.. the acclerating and decelerating energies involved in swinging of the rotor of the synchronous machine must equal so that a stable operating point (such as b) could be located..5. Between these two cases of stable and unstable operating cases. The system is stable.e. This is illustrated in Fig.27) The above is a transcendental equation and hence cannot be solved using nonnal algebraic methods.cos (50) I Pmax (cos (51 .e.Power System Stability 269 i. if we could locate a point c on the power angle curve such that areas Al and A2 are equal. a disturbance occurs.(50] COS = Pmax [COS (50 - COS (52) (50 - COS Pml (52 = -P. 8. Equal area criterion states that whenever.

6 Transient stability limit.6 is the maximum load change that the machine can sustain synchronism and is thus the transient stability limit. 8. 8. 8.5 Unstable system (A 1 > A 2) .PmO in Fig. 8.270 A2 Power System Analysis to be less than AI' Pm l . MW pl----f a 1t Fig. 180 Fig.10 Frequency of Oscillations Consider a small change in the operating angle <>0 due to a transient disturbance by 60. Corresponding to this we can write 0 = 0° + 60 and where 6Pe is the change in power and PO the initial power at 0° e' (P e + 6Pe) = Pmax sin 0° + Pmax cos 0°) 60 .

power transmitted over the line to the infinite bus will become zero instantaneously.[P max sin 8° .29) Transient st~bility and fault clearance time consider the electrical power system shown is Fig.[P max cos 8°) il8] = (P max as 8°) il8 271 P d d~ is the synchronizing coefficient S... If a 3-phase fault occurs near the generator bus on the radial line connected to it.7 . The frequency of the undamped oscillation in 00 m =)00 8° 2H 0 . the equation represents simple harmonic motion. Pm = PeO = P max sin 8° (P m . Fault clearance at 8\ angle or point c will shift the operating point from c to e instantaneously on the P . The swing equation is 2H d 8° ___ = P = P _ P 0 00 2 dt 2 a m e Again.. where So is the synchronizing coefficient at Peo. (8.. The rotor comes back from f and finally settles down at 'a' where Pm = Pe' 8\ is called the clearing angle and the corresponding time t\ is called the critical clearing time tc for the fault from the inception of it at 80' .28) The frequency f is given by f = _I)oo8 2n 2 H . Hence.. The mechanical input power Pm remains constant. 8. Let the fault be cleared at 8 = 0\ . Therefore..Power System Stability Also. All the mechanical input energy represented by area abc d = AI' will be utilized in accelerating the rotor from 80 to 8\ . 8..Peo + ilP e) = P max sin 8° .8 .. which is a linear second-order differential equation.8 curve. (8. If 8° is positive. Hence.. an area A2 = d e f g is obtained which is equal to A\ Fig. The solution depends upon the sign of 8°. At point f.

7 8. Fault clearance cannot be delayed beyond te' This limiting fault clearance angle De is caIled critical clearing angle and the corresponding time to clear the fault is called critical clearing time te' Pe e ~----------~--~~~8 Fig. Then.272 Line p Power System Analysis Inf. 8. 8. 8. any furter increase in the fault cleaing time tl Pe ° 01 ----~------------------~~o Fig. in the previous case.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle If.10. 8. Beyond 0e' A2 starts decreasing.9 .9. 8. Where AI is just equal to A 2. would not be able to enclosed an area A2 equal to AI' This is shown in Fig. the clearing time is increased from tl to tc such that 1 is 0e as shown in Fig. bus Radial line Fig.8 beyond te.

8.Power System Stability 273 Fig. (8.9F 8max = 1t .80 Pm = Pmax sin 00 A2 = (max(Pmaxsina-Pm) deS = Pmax (cos <\ .30) During the period of fault the swing equation is given by - dr 8 1t f =(P .Pmax [(1t - °)-°] o· 0 + cos (1t - 80) . e . But since P = 0 d tr H me. 8..10 .P ).rom Fig....cos 0maJ - Pm (Omax - <\) AI =A2 gives Pm cos 8C = .

. XI > x I2 (two lines in parallel)..8. (8. Now. v Generator ~I------C-~ x~.P t2 +K c 2H m At t = 0. 8. Since.P t m 1tf 0 = .0 curve for one line in operation is given by Pel EV = Xd + xI sin 0 . then the two circuit-brea~ers on either side will open and disconnect the line 2. 0 = 00 . (8.. = --:--.-. Hence K = 00 Hence ~.11 Double-circuit line and fault..11. if a fault occurs on line 2 for example.12 Xd + X12 EV sin 0 where - 1 =- 1 +- 1 X12 Xl X2 and xd is the transient reactance of the generator.. . The eletrical power transmitted is given by Pe .12 Fault on a Double-Circit Line Consider a single generator or generating station sup lying power to a load or an infinite ·bus through a double circuit line as shown in Fig. the P .E Infinite bus Fig.32) 8.3l ) Hence the critical cleaning time tc = sec...274 During the fault period dro 1t f -=-P d{ H m Integrating both sides Power System Analysis 1 --2- dro dt dt = £1tf -H Pm dt do 1tf dt H and integrating once again -=.

8. 13 .13 .13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault Consider the case where during the fault period some load power is supplied to the load or to the infinite bus. The operating point shifts from a to b on p~ curve Pe and the rotor ~IJcelerates to poin 0 where 8 = 8 1.12. Since the rotor speed is not synchronous. win be below the P . 8.Power System Stability 275 . 8. thk rotor decelerates till point d is reched at 8 = 8 2 so that area AI (= area a b c) is equal to area A2 (= area c d e). If the P-8 curve during the fault is represented by curve 3 in Fig. The rotor will finally settle down at point c due to damping. p I outpu :during fault ClUVe 3 I I d Fig. At point c Pm = Pe l Fig.8 curve P as shwon in Fig. 8.12 8.

sin. 8.cos 0 0 ) + Pm (Omax ..0c) + P max2 (cos 0max . When the fault is cleared at 0 = 0l' the operating point moves from b to c along the curve Pe3 and then shifts to point e.tu=O Pm (Oc . . (8.I ~ Pmax2 (Pm' 0 + Pmax'COS 0) (: + (pmax 2 COSO-Pm·O) .276 Power System Analysis Upon the occurrence of fault. If area d e f g e could equal area abc d (A2= AI) then the system wUl be stable. It is clear from the Fig.cos 0c) = 0 .max(pm:x sino-Pm) do Pel before fault P..14 Critical clearing angle-power transmitted during fault.2 after fault Fig.oJ + P max 3 (cos 0c ..14 such that area abc d c r8 C (P ko max sino-Pm)do= r. If the fault clearance is delayed till (A I) is just equal to and e d f (A 2) then 81 = Oc as shown in Fig. 8.. the operating point moves from a to b on the during the fault curve 3. 8.14 that 0max = Integrating 1t - 00 = 1t .33) The angles are all in radians.

If the faulted line is removed then power transfer will be again shifted to post-fault characteristic where line I only is in operation.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in Double-Circuit System Consider a double circuit system as in section 8. be located and the operating characteristic changes from pre-fault to during the fault. The step-by-step method suggested here is suitable for hand calculation for a single machine connected to system. 8. Uninhibited increase in the value of 5 will cause instability. The plot of 5 versus t in seconds is called the swing curve. the machine reaches the stable state. as in the previous case then an area A2 = AI will. ° p Fig. so that at some later point in time. 8. Hence. . The maximum angle the rotor swings is 53' For stability 2 should be lessthan om' The illustration in Fig. if the fault is cleared and line 2 is reclosed. it is desired to solve the swing equation to see that the value of 5 starts decreasing after an initial period of increase. If a fault occurs on one of the lines while supplying a power of Pmo. 3 or 2 cycles are the times suggested for circuit breaker interruption after the fault occurs. A variety of numerical step-by-step methods are available for solution to swing equation. the operation once again shifts back to pre-fault characteristic and normalcy will be restored.15 Fault clearance and reclosing .Power System Stability 277 8. For stable operation area AI (= area abcd) should be equal to areaA 2 (= area defghk). 8.15 assumes fault clearance and instantaness recJosure. 5.15 Solution to Swing Equation Step-by-Step Method Solution to swing equation gives the change in 5 with time. Gnerally 8.12. Subsequently.

(n . wr ' the difference betwen wand W s is kept constant throughout the interval at the value calculated at the mid point. both the assumption are not true. Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals..16 Plotting swing curve.16 (a). (a) Pa(n-2) Pa (n -2) Pa (n) Pa n-2 (b) OJ". Let the time intervals be ~t is made Consider. . Likewise. The angular speed therefore is assumed to change between (n . The accelerating power Pais computed at the end of these intervals and plotted at circles in Fig. (c) • ___ _ • ___ ___ .l n Fig. the calculated values become more accurate. (n .1/2) ordinates we know that ~O) = dt' ~t dO) .l n Assumed Actual 312 ffi. (n . 8. 8. OJ"n - n..2).I) and nth intervals.I). When very.3/2) and (n . -} __ t.'/ ./5 0 - 1 n-2 n. small. Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz./5 n } t.278 Power System Analysis ~t Since 8 is changing continuously. nand (n + I).

3/2) and (n . the plot of 8 with time increasing after a transient disturbance has occured or fault takes place can be plotted as shown in Fig. (8...34) il8 i.... 8.8n _ 1= ror (n _ 112) • ilt . the fault severity decreasing with two phase fault and single line-to ground fault in that order.36) From the two equations (8.16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability Transient stability is very much affected by the type of the fault. w r' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at the value calculated at the mid point.35) d8 il8 n = 8 n . A three phase dead short circuit is the most severe fault.. This can easily be understood from the curves of Fig. (8. nand (n + I)... the accelerating power is reduced to that extent.dt 2 ' H a(n-l)' 2 dro Hence Again change in 8 .I )th inteJl..s peed therefore is assumed to change between (n . 8.I). for (n . When.Yal and = dt . ilt .16) and (8.. (8.Power System Stability 279 Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz. If the fault is farther from the generator the severity will be less than in the case fault occurring at the terminals of the generator.16 (c).. 8. (n . Power transferred during fault also plays a major role.. Likewise.. (8... The angular ..1/2) ordinates we know that ilro = dt' ilt _ d 8 ilt = 180f P ilt ror(n-l)-ror(n-3/2).15) we obtain . Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.e.37) Thus.16.. part of the power generated is transferred to the load. of a ..

Thus looking at the swing equations 0 M d 22 = Pa = P _ P = P _ EV Sino dt m e m X l2 the possible methods that may improve the transient stability are: (i) (ii) Increase of system voltages. (iii) (iv) When faults occur. Use of quick response excitation systems Compensation for transfer reactance X I2 so that Pe increases and Pm . the system voltage drops. 8. The dimensions of the machine are determined by the output desired from the machine and stability cannot be the criterion. If a load change occurs and the field current If is not changed then the various quantities mentioned change with the real power delivered P as shown in Fig. increasing the dimensions of the machine. increasing'M may interfere with speed governing system. this is not a practical proposition since.17 (a). However. Other theoretical methods such as reducing the spacing between the conductors-and increasing the size of the conductors dre not practicable and are uneconomical. increasing M means. and use of automatic voltage regulators. 8. Use of high speed circuit breakers which reduce the fault duration time and hence the acclerating power. Reduction in transfer reactance is possible only when parallel lines are used in place of single line or by use of bundle conductors. The direct axis rotor angle with respect to a synchronously revolving axis is d. Support to the system voltages by automatic voltage controllers and fast acting excitation systems will improve the power transfer during the fault and reduce the rotor swing. which is uneconomical. Since majority of the faults are line~to-ground faults selective single pole opening and reclosing will ensure transfer of power during the fault and improve stability.17 Dynamic Stability Consider a synchronous machine with terminal voltage Vt • The voltage due to excitation acting along the quadrature axis is Eq and E~ is the voltage along this axis.280 Power System Analysis Theoretically an increase in the value of inertia constant M reduces the angle through which the rotor swings farther during a fault. . Quick opening of circuit breakers and single pole reclosing is helpful.P e = PI reduces. Also.

This is shown in Fig.17 (a) Vt p In case the field current If is changed such that the transient flux linkages along the q-axis E~ proportional to the field flux linkages is maintained constant the power transfer could be increased by 30-60% greater than case (a) and the quantities for this case are plotted in Fig. 8. 8.17 (c).17 (c) . 8.17 (b) If the field current If is changed alongwith P simultaneously so that Vt is maintained constant. 8.E~ Vt ~----------------~p Fig. :q VI 1) Eq I------T---E~ ~----------------~p Fig. Eq EI 1) q 1 Eq I::::::::::=----r-. then it is possible to increase power delivery by 50-80% more than case (a).Power System Stability 281 1) E'q VI 1) "'I Fig. 8.17 (b).

There controller have not much control on the first swing stability.18 . Such a situation is termed 'forced excitation' or 'forced field control'. compensating networks are introduced to produce torque in phase with the speed. ~. 8.V and increase of E matters in increasing Pmax' In Russia and other countries. Note that Pm ax = X E. As an example consider the system shown in Fig. This way of system control for satisfactory operation under changing load conditions using excitation control comes under the purview of dynamci stability. but have effect on the operation subsequent swings. 8. Such a network is called "Power System Stabilizer" (PSS). that excitation control has a great role to play in power system stability and the speed with which this control is achieved is very important in this context. Not only the first derivatives of L'11 and L'1 Yare used. Fig. Hence.18. regulator in the forward path of the exciter-generator system will introduce a damping torque and under heavy load contions'this damping torque may become ndegative. This is a situation where dynamic in stability may occur and casue concern. Power System Stabilizer An voltage. It is also observed that the several time constants in the forward path of excitation control loop introduce large phase lag at low frequencies just baoe the natural frequency of the excitation system. control signals utilizing the derivatives of output current and terminal voltage deviation have been used for controlling the voltage in addition to propostional control signals. 8.282 Power System Analysi~ It can be concluded from the above.rl>----X-'2-----I~ X/l &J I C\ Infm. buses which are excited by internal voltages of the machines only are considered. load buses are eliminated.to b". but also higher derivatives have been used for voltage control on load changes.18 Node Elimination Methods In all stability studies. To overcome there effects and toi improve the damping.

8. which can be converted into a delta network using the standard formulas. it can be eliminated. 8. <D Q) Fig. then the reactance diagram will become as shown in Fig. line 2.18 (a) The transfer reactance between the two buses (I) and (3) is given by Where 1 1 1 --=-+X /ll2 XII XIZ If a fault occurs an all the phases on one of the two parallel lines. 8.Power System Stability 283 Fig. 8.18 (c).18(b). 8.18 (c) . no source is connected to bus (2). Fig. (2).18 (b) Since. The network willbe modified into Fig. say. (3) and (g) become a star network. The three reactances between buses (1).

. 8.18 (d).. the nodal equations are Since no source is connected to bus (2).Y21 V1 . 8.Y V3 Y Y 22 22 This value of V2 can be substituted in the other two equation of ( eliminated ) so that V2 is . Q) t----' Fig. 12 has to be mode equal to zero y 21 V 1 + Y 22 V 2 + Y 23 V 3 = 0 Hence 23 V2-. Consider the same example with delta network reproduced as in Fig.18 (d) For a three bus system. Le. it can be eliminated.284 Power System Analysis X:3 is the transfer reactance between buses (I) and (3).

46586 1380.2093 8.2 Two generaton rated at 4-pole.2093 = 75 H = MJ 443.08755 M = 180f = 180 x 50 = 0. 75 MW 0. The machine rotor has a moment of intertia of 9000 Kg-m2.08755 GH 87.86 power factor lagging. For the second machine .86 = 87.f (lag) with moment of inertia 28.46586 MJ!MYA MI = = 58. 50 Hz.15337 MJS/degree elect. t A 4-pole. = 1 1 2")eo 2 = 2" x9000 + (10011:) 2 = 443.8235 x 23. 50 Mw 0. 11 KV turbo generator is rated 75 MW and 0.E = 2" x 28.2093 x 5.85 = 58.000 kg-m1 .682 x 106 = J 443.0492979 MJS/O dc E 8.f (lag) with moment of inertia t 5.ad l-pole.344 HI = 58.8235 = 23.Power System Stability 185 Worked Examples E 8.82 p.000 x(10011:)2 1 = 1380. 50 Hz. Take 100 MVA base. 50Hz. Find the inertia constant in MJ / MVA and M constant or momentum in MJs/elec degree Solution: co = 211:f = 100 11: rad/sec Kmetlc energy .344 x 106 J 50 MVA = 0. .8235 1380.000 kg_m 1 are eoaRected by a transmission line.682 MY A = 87.682 MH MYA rating of the machine = 0. Solution: For machine I K.344 180 x 50 180x 50 0. Find the inertia constant of each machine and tile inertia constant of single equivalent machine connected to infinite bus.85 p.

0848 180 x 50 = 0.5 MJIMVA (i) no MVA 12.000 "2 1 x (100 n)2 = = 739. neglecting losses.5 MJ 180 x 50 x 0. 50 HZ has an inertia Determine the stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed. find the change in the torque angle and the rotor speed in rpm at the end of 8 cycles Solution: (i) Stored energy = GH = 110 x 5.0535 on 100 MVA base.5 = 605 MJ where G = Machine rating (ii) Pa = The acclerating power = 10 MW 10 MW = d20 GH d20 M dt2 = 180f dt2 .0126 0. (ii) When the generator is supplying a load of 75 MW. H= 100 = 4. Determine the rotor acceleration.082163 MJS/oEIc M= --'---"-- M1M2 Ml+M2 0.degree = 180 x 50 x M 481.470 H2 = 91.470 MJ 75 MVA = 0.000 J 739.815 MJIMVA 481.15337 0.4634 739.15337 = 0.the input is increased by (iii) If the rotor acceleration in (ii) is maintained for 8 cycles.5 E 8.082163+0. inertia constant.082163xO.E = "2 1 x 15.3 A four pole synchronous generator rated constant of 5.4634 = 8.286 Power System Analysis K.82 = 91.5 KV.235533 GH = = 0. 10 MW.0535 MJS/Elec.470.4634 x 8.0848 M2 = 91.

4 Power is supplied by a generator to a motor over a transmission line as shown in Fig.5p. Change in 8= !. Determine the steady state power limit with and without the capacitor in the circuit.u l E= 0.lp.2 + 0. E8.(1:) x t __ 120 x 50 P u 4 x 1.16 sec.2 = 0.8Ix(0.xI48.Power System Stability 287 180 x 50 dt 2 =10 d 28 d 28 10 0. 0.u Fig.144 r. E.lp.u 1.8p.P_'U__ ~-+_~ ~Motorv= Ip.1 0.8 Fig.4 (b) .81 elec degrees/sec 2 (iii) 8 cyles = 0.2 0.u T'= Xc = 0.2p.p.81 a = 148.2 x 1 0.1 ::=- 1. the following circuit is obtained. To the motor bus a capacitor of 0.0672 dt 2 = 10 or dt2 = 0.u Xd = ___ X':':'hn::.8 pu reactance per phase is connected through a switch.1 0.8..::e_=_0_.904768 x 0.m E 8.8 + 0. Generator~ ~-+I x l1 =O.8.0672 = 148.16 = 457.4 (a) Steady state power limit without the capacitor P ma.6 pu 2.1 + 0. E.16)2 2 Rotor speed at the end of 8 cycles __ 120f .8 + 0.1 = 1.u x l2 =O.2.0 With the capacitor in the circuit.8 0.:.4(a).

9)(-jO.0 p.S.f behind transient reactance.5 A generator rated 75 MVA is' delivering 0.u.m.99 + 0.8 = X\2 = jO.2) a 1 = 0.8 Fig.0p.0 x 1.8 x 0.9 Power System Analysis E = 1.99 + 1.jO.u 0.3 = 0.jO.tor e.8 p.72 + 0. Find also the maximum power that can be transferred. the transfer reactance between the two nodes X 12 .j 0.2x 1 Steady state power limit = 0. Solution: When the power transferred is 0.8 = .6 jO.24 .u and that of the motor is also 1.1 + 0.7625 p.88 -0. E. E.8 -0.2 p.4 (d) (j1.61 ------= =-. Fig. The terminal voltage of the generator is 1.1) -jO.S.7625 = 1.4 (c) Converting the star to delta network.8 pu power to a motor through a transmission line of reactance j 0.1)(j0.u 1.u.5738 pu E 8.288 Simplifying jl.8 .Sin 1.8 x jl.8 0.8) + (-jO. Determine the genera.1 j 0.9) + (j0.3 sin e e = 0.2 .0 sin (0.

The generator is operating at a terminal voltage of 1.4_p_u_.8571/Tan.3 j 0.8 + j 0.0973 + 0.5 ffi. The generator is supplying 0.0496 47°.1 0. .24) -I jO.2 = 0.0292 + jO.96 1.05 p.1 .=-JO_I·2_ _-+_~ Fig..8 p.4 pu bus Fig. E.3 = = 1 = 0. J 0. voltage.~r--_J_. E.2 (0. 0934 Voltage behind transient reactance = lLOo + j 1.u E 8.11676 = = 0.8.6(a).O_.8747 p.88324 +.u and the infinite bus is at 1.6(b).8 = Pmax X EV = 1.0. Gen~:: ~.3 -0.6 Determine the power angle characteristic for the system shown in Fig.u power to the infinite bus..0496xl 1.u.8.0973) = 1 + j 0.8.8 0.6 (a) Solution: The reactance diagram is drawn in Fig. j 0..96 . E.1216 jO.1 Current supplied to motor lL13. E.9708 + jO.0 p.8571 /6.24 jO..Power System Stability 289 j 0.o8865 -lLOo 1= (0.~.i 0.~ ~ ~_+-I__~--.8.

1299 /22°.55 Pe = 2.05/13 0 .3 • = 0. sin 0 = 0.4 pu Power System Analysis Fig.22216 + j 0.j 0.21 The terminal voltage is 1.05436 sin 0 .21 1.(1 + jO) 1= ' jO.290 j 0.44 1.24 1.8.040 + j 0.25 + J 0.074) j 0.24 .u (0.1 + -2- = j 0.3 p.25 + 1.24 j 0.932 The transient internal voltage in the generator EI = = = = The total transfer reactance between E l and V = J 0. t = jO.022216 + j 0.8 . .22857 and 0 = 13°.4.02216 + j 0.05)(1.074 = 1.022216 + jO.u The power angle characteristic is given by p e .24) jO.6 (b) The transfer reactance between.V I and V is we have VV -x .022216+ jO.u ~ Sin u == (1. = E I V sin 0 == (1.= J 0.3 .55 p. jO.08977/5.1299).3 (0.0) 0. Sin 0 = 0.j 0.2 + 0.8 .24 The current supplied by the generator to the infinite bus 1.1 + -2.0185 + 1.°28482 p. E.4 j 0.8 Solving for 0.0) sin 0 X jO.(1.

1 showin in Fig..S.0 Fig.7 Consider the system in E 8. Determine the power angle characteristic for the system with the fault persisting.. A three phase fault occurs at point P as shown at the mid pOint on line 2. E.4 Fig. E.j 5.7.Power System Stability 291 E 8.8.j 5.j 2.5 (D. E.7(b). . i 0.8. Lme! Infinite bus Fig.8.7(a).7 (b) .---J .7 Solution: The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.0 . E.8. E. E.7 (a) The admittance diagram is shown in Fig.8.

6896 and the transfer reactance = 1.~ (2.0 .292 Power System Analysis The buses are numbered and the bus admittance matrix is obtained. Yl3 Y31 Y II (modIfied) = Y II (old) ..85271 (2) 0.45 P2 = or 1.6896 (2) 0.85271)(2.89655 The transfer admittance between the two sources is 0.3571) =0.07137 Y I2 (modlfied)=0- (2.85271) (-10.06896 -6.3571) = - j 2. .3571 Node 3 or bus 3 has no connection to any source directly.(-10.5 .j 1.u Pe = 0.5) (-10.6.u .07137 0.2.05 x 1 1.5) = . it can be eliminated.3571) = .8527)(2.j 10.45 sin 8 p.0 j 2.Y 33 (2.5 .8571 - = .85271 0.5 j 2.j 7.5)(2.896549 The modified bus admittance matrix between the two sources is CD CD (2) -2.6896 _ Y32 Y23 Y 22 (modlfied)-Y 22 (old) .8271 j 2.7241 sin 8 p.5 CD j 2.7.

1500 Pa E 8.8 For the system considered in E. Given M = 1 1500 = Solution: ISOf lS0x50 == H 6 1500 1 d20 1500 dt2' = O.8. Solution: The net transfer reactance between EI and Va with only line 1 operating is j 0.5 MJIMVA Pe = 2.1 + j 0.9624167 Solution: dPe do = 2.s cleared on line 2 by operating the circuit breakers on both sides of the line.4 = j 0.7 jf the 3-phase fault i.05)(1.6 if the H constant is given by 6 MJ/MVA obtain the swing equation Solution: H d 20 The swing equation is -f .8 p.0) jO.10 Determine the swing equation for the condition in E 8.Power System Stability 293 E 8.u Pe = (1. determine the frequency of oscillation and also its period.75 Sin 0 = 1.7659 .9 when 0.Pe = Pa.05 sin 0 If the machine is operating at 28° and is subjected to a small transient disturbance.4 Sin 0 E8.4 sin 0 is the swing equation where 0 in electrical·degrees. determine the post fault power angle characteristic.9 In E8.75 p. the acclerating power 7t dtIn If 0 is in electrical radians ISOx 50 P _ 6 a .05 cos 28° = 1.S .1. Given H = 5.05 sin 28° = 0. E8.25 + j 0.11 Consider example E 8.6 with the swing equation Pe = 2.) = P .u power is delivered.

2739 = T = 0.= 1. Determine the critical angle.7287 = 0.13 Consider the system shown in Fig.578 Cos 80 = 0.9165 80 in radians 280 = 0. E.294 The angular frequency of oscillation = Power System Analysis con CO n = )COS O = 2H 21tx50x1.4113 Cos 8e = 1.8. .5 p.9215 E8.5 -P. I f = n 21t x 4 8 = .0.5 = 7.9165 = 0.8226 1t .25 sin 8 The H constant is 5 sec and initially it is delivering a load of 0.09148 .13 .280 = 2.13.4 = Sind 80 max .17498 be = 79°.12 The power angle characteristic for a synchronous generator supplying infinite bus is given by Pe = 1.= I 25 = 0. 80 = 23°. Solution: Pmo 0.7659 2x5.2739 Hz 1t 1 1 Period of oscillation = T = fll = 1. E.785 sec E8.8. Fig.u.099888 = 8 elec rad/sec.

25 Sin 8 1 = 0.25 p.u and IVI = 1. Determine the stability of the system when one of the lines is switched off due to a fault.u Initially the system is operating stable while delivering a load of 1.25 + 0.lI.4 p.778 p.u When one line is switched off pI emax = 1.Power System Stability x~ = 0.25 Pe max = 0.45 8 0 = 26°.25 p.2 = 0.923 p.4665 radinas At point C P~ = 1.65 1.7437 = 0.4 0. Solution.lI .u Sin 80 = 0.5416 == 0. XI = X 2 = 0.25 x I = 1.25 p. When both the lines are working 1.7072 radian .u Pea = 2.923 Sin 8 1 = 1.25 + 0.u 295 lEI = 1.65 8 1 = 40°.45 = 2.25 = 0.0 p.25 p.778 Sin 8 0 = 1.25 x I 1.

46 1t-0 7072 (1.300625 + (-0.4665 + 1.25 (2.7599 . hence the negative sign] ES.5416 = 0.255759) = 0.2.34548 .25 2 55°.923 Sino}do oj = (-1.923 Cos 0 I 1.5 °= 2 ° ° 2 2 = 2.)do= f 139°.25 line and area A2 is above P2 = 1.1.25)do 0] 07072 = -1.1.e.923 Cos O + 1.923Sino-1.923 Cos 0 = 0.7072 = 1.25 x 1. 25 -1.0450 = 2..157 = -1.30048 . i.14 Determine the maximum value of the rotor swing in the example ES.923 (Cos O2 .296 0] 07072 Power· System Analysis A] = area abc = f(P2-P~)dO= fO.25 + 1.25 line.76) 2 i.25 x 0.7072) .0.. Solution: Maximum value of the rotor swing is given by condition AI =A 2 AI = 0.923sino)do 04665 00 0.25 O + 1.e.25 I 0.13.25 2 = 1.3971 »A] The system is stable [Note: area A] is below P2 = 1.7256 = 0.0450 Maximum area available = area c d f g c = A2 max Om ax A2 max = f (P:-P.044866 02 A2 = f(-1.4328 . By trial and error = + 1.7072) 40°.923 Cos O + 1.7599 .0.0.

just after the occurrence of fault Pmax = 0.45 Sin Pe2 and Pe 3 = = 0.2938 = Pe = 0. the average acclerating powr at t 0+0.2 . degree 297 The prefault.9 At t = 0+.45 Sin ° ° 0. Pmax = 2.2938 = 0.9 p.55° At t = 0_ just before the occurrence of fault.05) _ _ x _ ° M a3 X 10-4 .9 = 2.524 and 0° = 21 °.6373 and hence 0.15 The M constant for a power system is 3 x 10-4 S2/elec. The calculations are tabulated upto t = 0.524 ~o = 2°. Sin x ° 0 = 0.45 = 0.9 .45 = 21.33 Pa . the acclerating power 0.9 ) The initial power angle 0o = Sin-I ( 2.55.00 Sin ° ° ° respectively choosing a time interval of 0.u.05 second obtain the swing curve for a sustained fault on the system. .8.45 = Sin 0o = Sin 21 °.9 .8.33 0.303 .3673 0.Pe = 0.8 = Pa.303 (~t)2 P _ (0.606 2 I = = 0ave 0.606 Hence.8.8 Sin 2.05 x 0.3673 x Pe = Pmax Sin 0o = 0.Power System Stability E8.55 0. The prefault power transfer is 0.3673 Pa = 0 2.4 sec. during the fault and post fault power angle characteristics are given by Pel = 2. SolutIOn: P el = 0.0.

3673 0. 00+ °ave 2.30 0.00 73°.1 S.p.8 0.1847 2.8 0.327° 14°.10 0.2121 90.3 0.4 • 0. 7.075 31.1422 0.9 0.25 0. 160 140 E (8.35 0.7578 0.70 128.5207 0.8 - - 2155° 21.9081 1.2938 - .3673 0.u.2500 2°.3574 0.) Power S.0 100 80 60 1 40 20 • 0.8 0. 0 0.8 0.4079 0.606 0.55° 24°.45 0.1 0. 4. 8.1000 0.4166 0.33 x p. 3.7875 0.7786 4.9472 0.s P max Sin 0.1S.2700 -M (~t)2 M .05 0.1170 08330 1.596 2.075 24°.0 0.097 2.9574 0. From the table it can be seen that the angle 0 increases continuously indicating instability. = 8.15) '" " 0 \ Curve I '" tb 120 <.40 0.2 0.8 0.1341 0.8 0.3673 0.212 170.15 0.027 2.8 0.5737 0.524 4. 9 0.347 21°.304 16°.3766 42°.329 18°.s P •= Pa = 0. I.298 Table 8.524 7°.5 t(sec)~ .7999 0. 5.7036 570.5411 108.No t (sec) Pmax (p. 6.047 149°.6782 08357 0.20 0.5426 0.3263 0.6300 Table of results for E8.9.303 0.977 1.ystem 1nalysis Sin .9999 0.2290 0.s p.6709 0.4834 0.3 II °.1623 19°.8 0.7659 0.

Then for t = 0. Sin 8 = 0. = In this the calculations performed in the previous example E8.00 sin 8.57367 giving as before But.075 0.2.075 = 29°.5+ Gust after the fault is cleared) Pmax becomes 2.0. Solution: As before (M2 ) M Pa = 8 .5.05 sec. so that Pa = 0.05 are the average accelerating power at the instant of fault clearance becomes Pa ave (~t)2 = 0.8158 = 0.5 .9 .9 .Power System Stability 299 ES.3289 = 2°. and Pe = Pmax Sind 8 = 0. since the fault in cleared at 0.05 sec.3263.33 5. there will two values for Pa1 one for Pe 2 = = 0. . This gives a value for P a = 0.5 cycles second 50 cycles 0.4079. 33 Pa Time to clear the fault = 2. Pa = 8.8289 2 M and A8 .8158.8 sin 8 and another for P e3 = 2.339 These calculated results and further calculated results are tabulated in Table 8.0842 = 0. t 4 is cleared at the end of 2.5 cycles determine the swing curve and examine the stability of the system.Pe = 0.Gust before the fault is cleared) Pmax = 0. at t = 8 = 24°. 14 hold good for Dave' However. At t 0.74 = 8 = 5.264 + 24. t 6 If the fault in the previous example E.264 x 0.S.0842.u at the same 8 and Pe = P max Sin 8 = 0.0 p.57367 + 0..

4079 0.524 0.98 1.05+ 0.3673 03673 0.1423 5.2165 -0. The generator is transmitting an active power of 1.1S p.4079 0.0 2. 0O~ 2.u in series with a transient reactance of jO.8 2.15 0.5737 0.0 2.20 0.0 0.O\ve 3.2 S. The fact that the increase of angle 8.1196 1.5976 2. 7.49 0.3673 0.1 p.3289 -0.8 0. The line has a series reactance of j0.0842 0.33 x p.2182 -4.858 2.0 p..0 2.9 .9J67 36.545 -2.2056 1.2366 0.075 2.8038 -2. - I.339 33. 0.524 °ave 2.6664 -1.45 0.730 37.3273 -2.558 0.55° 21.05 34°.5711 Table of results for E8. ES. 4. 5.3263 0.2938 - 21.018 - 29. = 8.15.p.u while the infinite bus is represented by a voltage source of 1. 6. 0.05 0.0 p.83 30°.0 2.u.1165 1.264 4. Solution: .55° 24.9 0.303 0.300 Table 8.08 -0.u and an inertia constant H = 4 sec is connected to an infinit~ bus through a transmission line.u when a 3-phase fault occurs at its terminals.4079 0.2423 p.39 2.598 0.0 2. started decreasing indicates stability of the system.10 0.296 -0.5933 O.25 0.7937 0.6028 0. Plot the swing curve for a sustained fault.17 A synchronous generator represented by a voltage source of 1.4664 -2. 0 0.740 -0.40 p. Determine the critical clearing time and critical clearing angle.No t Power System Analysis Pm•• Sin /) P •= P •= (dt)2 d/) /) M Pmax Sin /) 0.606 0.3056 -0.

5 p.05 x 0.05) P = 5. Change in the angle during 0.S6507 rad te = 2 x 4 x 0.59 -30° = 49 .14x50 = 0.63 P M a (4.S66] = COS-I [l.2099 sec Calculation for the swing curve _ [\8 n -8n _ l + (ISOf) [\t2 Pa(n-I) H Let [\t = 0.14 rad ISO 8e .u.= 2 Sin 80 - 1.Power System Stability _ 8e = COS-I [(1t .05 s~c after .59° = = 0.28 0 }sin 8 0 - 301 COS 8 0 ] = COS-I [(ISOo .59 Critical clearing time = 49.59 Critical clearing angle = 79°.05 sec 8n _ 1 =30° --= ISOf ISOx50 H = 4 I = 2250 H M ISOf = 2250 = 4. - 0 = I p.0 =0 Accelerating power immediately after the occrrence of the fault Pa+ = 2 Sin 80 0+1 Average acclerating powr = -2fault occurrence.59 x 3.u = 0.80 = 79° .44 x 10-4 ) a a Accelerating power before the occurrence of the fault = Pa.2 x 30° )Sin 30° .Cos 30° ] = cos-I[~-0.44 x 10-4 ([\t)2 P = (0.S6507 Ix3.S07] = 79°.

..( . ...... E.. ........ ...12 0........ ..S1 The results are plotted in Fig.06 0... 50 .... ....... .... Fault cleared at Infs 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0..----r---r---r---~--........ ... .. .. . . ......S1 = 32°......17 (b) The system is unstable....14 0....8....1 0.: ...............302 ~81 = 5.. ~...····· .. : +........ : : 80 ...... i ..5 = iO.......16 0....17. ...2 t...........:..4 .. .....:.... ...r············\"" .. \....... '" .. sec Fig.. .... 1. .....4 Fig. "1' .. ES..................63 )( 0. .....18 0. : : 60 .... .....i. : : : 70 ......8 1..: ...08 0..6 t................ ...---~---r--~---......!' ....... :...... ........ !... ....17 (a) One-machine system swing curve........ \...~ ...... E.......8... Fault cleared at Infs 90r---..!........ Power System Analysis One-machine system swing curve.......2 0...... : .81 81 = 30° + 2°.. 40 .. (·······t········1·········....:...... t············:··········· 0.. .... 300~~~--~--~--~---7----~--~--~--~~ 0......2 1.... j. .. sec 0...

U..000 kg-m 2 . .3 The prefault power angle chracteristic for a generator infinite bus system is given by PeI = 1. If the maximum steady stae capacity of the transmission line is 110 Mw.. obtain the swing curve. and the initial load supplied is I R.. . : .17.... E8. ~ : 50 .8 0.. ..u----111--18 xd = 0. determine the maximum sudden increase in the load that can be tolerated by the system without loosing stability..1 s 70.' .5 0....I A 2 pole.:. if the fault is cleared in 0.."i~ __~~__~~__~~__~__~~ 0.. II KV synchronous generator with a rating of 120 Mw and 0. E8.. G 81---'1~_P2_-+_0. .2 0...3 sec 1 X = 0.62 Sin 0 .25p. .• \" \ ...7 0.. : ..: :.:" .u H=2. 40 .. .6 0.25 p... 30 ':'...18 In example no. .4 0.... 50 Hz. .. . : . o. t...S.. E.. .. Fault cleared at 0.7_5P_. " . PS....05 sec.1 0...IS. if the fault is cleared in 100 msec.9 1 o Fig. :. .18 The system is stable. .S7 lagging power factor has a moment of inertia of 12..4 Consider the system operating at 50 Hz. PS..9 Sin 0 2 Determine the critical clearing angle and the clearing time. One-machine system swing curve. . Problems PS. .Power Sy!tem Stability 303 E8. ... sec ~: ..3 0. PS.\~ : .ll I LO 0 If a 3-phase fault occurs across the generator terminals plot the swing curve....2 A 4-pole synchronous generator supplies over a short line a load of 60 Mw to a load bus. During the fault power angle characteristic is given by Pe = 0. . .. Solution: The swing curve is obtained using MATLAB and plotted in Fig. Plot also the swing curve. -10~~ .... :'. 60' .'.. Calculate the constants HandM.

8.2 Discuss the various methods of improving steady state stability.1 Explain the terms (b) Transient stabiltiy (c) Dynamic stability (a) Steady state stability 8. .3 Discuss the various methods of improving transient stability.7 Explain the equal area critrion.304 Power System Analysis Questions 8. for a sudden load increment. derive an expression for the critical clearing angle. 8.10 Discuss the method of solution for swing equation. 8.5 Derive an expression for the critical clearing angle for a power system consisting of a single machine supplying to an infinite bus.6 A double circuit line feeds an infinite bus from a power statio'll. 8. If a fault occurs on one of the lines and the line is switched off.4 Explain the term (i) critical clearing angle and (ii) critical clearing time 8.8 What are the various applications of equal area criterion? Explain.9 State and derive the swing equations 8. 8. 8.

to -line»)2 x 1000 ....J3 Base KV(line to line) BaseKVA BaseKV(lineto line) BaseKVA 3 Base KV (line to line) (b) (c) .- 20 Base impedance in ohms is (a) [Base Voltage in KV (line .line) J2 X 3 baseKVA (b) (c) 30 Impedance in ohms is (a) (poUo impedance) [base KV (line .Ojective Questions I Base current in amperes is BaseKVA (a) 0 .to -line)]X 1000 baseKVA [Base Voltage in KV (line ..to -line)]2 x I 000 baseKVA (b) (c) . .J3 base KVA (poUo impedance) [base KV (line .to -line)]2 X 1000 baseKVA [Base Voltage in KV (line .to .to -line)f baseKVA xlOOO (pouoimpedance)[baseKV (line ..

impedance on (c) ( given KVA andKV base given KVA base new KV base 5.u. Which of the following is false? (a) An element of a graph is called an edge.impedanceon ] (giVen KVA base) ( new KV base )2 given KV A and KV base New KV A base given KV base (b) ( ](giVen KVA base) (giVen KV base)2 p. (b) Each line segment is called an element. The rank of a graph is (a) n (b) n-I (c) n+I where n is the number of nodes in the graph. 7. Which of the following statements is true? (a) n basic cutsets are linearly independent where n is the number of nodes.306 4. (c) The removal of k branches does not reduce the rank of a graph provided that no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of the graph by one when it is removed from the graph. Objective Questions Per unit impedance on new KVA and KV base is (a) ( p.u. 9. (b) The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph.u. If Ab and AI are the sub matrices of bus incidence matrix A containing branches and links [] only and k is the branch path incidence matrix then (a) A b kt = U (b) kt = Ab (c) AI A b. The dimension of the bus incidence matrix is (a) e x n (b) e x (n. In a graph if there are 4 nodes and 7 elements the number of links is (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 8.I ) (c) e x e 10.impedanceon given KV A and KV base New KV A base new KV base ) ( new KV A base) (giVen KV base)2 p. 6.I = kt . ( c ) Each current source is replaced by a short circuit in a graph.

is the basic cut set incidence matrix containing links only..:. = = 307 8 where 8 is the basic cut set incidence matrix. Which of the following statements is true? (a) There is a one-to-one correspondence between links and basic cut sets.Objective Questions 11.Zbl ) (b) Zbl = Zal + ---"----'-------'Yab-ab (c) Z bl = Z 81 + ---"--'-----'- Yab-XY (ZYI • Zal ) Yab-ab 15. A b-' (c) 8.. With the addition of a branch to a partial network with usual notation. Identify the current relations (a) [Al] [y] [A] (b) [Bl] [y] [8] (c) [Cl] [z] [C] = Y'oop Z'oop = ZBR = 14. Identify the correct relation (a) Y BUS = [st] [y] [B] (b) Y'oop (c) Y BR = [C t] [y] [C] [B]l [y] [B] = 13.. 12.-'------''-'Yab-ab 1+ Yab-XY (ZX8 .. Yab-ab Yab-xv (Zal ..- Yab-ab .. (b) A. The self impedance Zbb of a branch ab added to an existing partial network is given by [ ] 1+ Yab-XY (Zab .' ' ... A...ZYI ) (a) Zbl = Zal + -~-'-----'.Zxy ) (b) Zbb = Zab + . kt where 8. the mutual impedance is given by [ ] Yab-XY (:ZXI ..:::..ZXY ) (a) Zbb = Zab + ---=.

Which of the following is correct (a) VR=VRO+aVRI+a2VR2 (b) The sequence compoenets are related to the phase components through the translonnation matrix C " l: :' j a: 21.I IJ (ZII . Modified impedances are computed when the fictitious node introduced for the addition of a link is eliminated.308 Objective Questions 16. no 18 there is no mutual coupling and if "a" is the reference node (a) Zbb = zab-ab (b) Zbb = Zab (c) Zbb = Zab + zab-ab 18. If in q. Identify the correct relation (a) a2 = - 0.5 + j 0. For stationery bi lateral unbalanced network elements () a RY Z ab = ZYR ab an dZ ab RR = ZYY ab ZYY ab (b) ( c) ZYR Z RY ab=-ab ZRY"# ZYY ab ab RR an dZ ab= . Then ZjJ (modified) [ ] (a) Z (before elimination) _ __IJ II 'I Z Z Zn (b) Z'I (before elimination) - ziZ . eJ 47t! 3 (c) 1+a+a2 =0+jO 20.no 18 there is no mutual coupling (a) Zbb = Zab (b) Zbb = Zab + zab-ab (c) Zbb = zab-ab 17.866 (b) a = 1. If in q.Zlj) (c) Z'J (before elimination)- 19.

ZYR ab ab ZRY ot= ZYR ab ab ( b) (c) The admittances are symmetric 23. For balanced rotating 3-phase network elements 309 (a) ZRY . (c) P = 1.u. A balanced three phase element with balanced excitation can be considered as a single phase element (a) true [ ] (b) false (c) some times it is true 24.u. The inertia constant H is of the order of (a) H = 4 (b) H = 8 (c) H = I 28. Unit inertia constant H is defined as (a) Ws / Pr (b) Pr / ws (c) Ws Pr / rad .1 p.675 Neglect reluctance power (b) P = 0. For a 3-phase stationary network element the negative sequence impedance is given by [ ] 27.8 p. delivering power at a load angle ono o the power delivered with x d = 0. zero sequence impedance is given by [ ] 25. For a 3-phase stationary network element the positive impedance is given by [ (b) Z~) .6875 29. For a stationary 3-phase network element ab.6 p. When a synchronous machine is working with 1.2 Z~~ 26.375 [ ] (a) P = 0.u. and x q = 0.Objective Questions 22.lI excitation and is connected to an infinite bus of voltage 1.0 p.

The number of iteration required for an n-bus system in Newton-Raphson method are approximately [ ] (a) n (b) n2 (c) 3 (d) n(n + 1) 2 .) 35. Q bus IVI bus will become a P. - ~ .8. + j Sin 8) 11 Real power loss = . the state variables are (a) P andQ (b) IVI [ IVI and 8 (c) P and IVI P and 8 34. =V' ~ Y') VJ . At a load bus the quantities specified are (a) P and Q (b) (b) (a) P and (c) (c) IVI and 8 PandQ Pand Q Cd) (d) (d) (d) P and 8 IVI Q and IVI IVI and 8 [ P and 32.I (Cos 8. N ~ .ctive Questions 30.jQ . (Total generation) . .(Total load) (d) Q= .310 Objt:. At a slack-bus the quantities specified are P and IVI 31.=1 N ~ N Pg.. = IV.8) .=1 Pd . At a Generator bus the quantities specified are (a) IVI and 8 (c) (b)Q and IVI 33. = . The number of iteration required for an n-bus system in Gauss-Seidel method are approximately [ ] (a) n (b) n2 (c) 3 (d) n(n + \) 2 37.1=1 IY'I Vi VII COS (8. 36.=1 ~ P. Which one of the following is not correct? (a) (b) (c) P . Which of the following is true? (a) (b) (c) (d) Gauss-Seidel method is a direct solution method for power flow All iterative methods ensure convergence A generator bus is also called a swing bus If the reactive generation exceeds the limit then the P. In load flow studies. 'j=J n V.

The operator 'a' is given by (a) EI1200 (b) (c) EI600 ( d) E -J600 43. (a 2 . Which of the following is true? (a) Short circuit KVA = Bore KVA (%X) 100 100 (%X) (b) Ishort ClfCUI! = Ifull load x (c ) %Z = x 100 IZ v 41. Phase voltages Ea. In a tie-bar system current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in series.Objective Questions 38. In ring system of reactor connection the voltage drop and power loss are considerable. C-11200 42. there is no protection for bus-bar fautls.jJ3 44. Which of the following is not true (a) (b) (c) In a feeder reactor protection. The speed of fast decoupled load flow method when compared to Newton-Raphson method is [ ] (a) (b) (c) (d) Veru slow almost the same double the N-R method speed per iteration Five times the N-R method speed per iteration 40.a) is given by (a) jJ3 (b) -j J3 (c) I jjj (d) 1 . V 1 and V 2. then which of the following is true? [ ] (a) (c) Va2 =-(Ea b c +aE +a2 E) 3 1 (b) (d) VaO=Ea+Eb+Ec 1 Val = .(Ea 2 E +c ) + a b aE 3 . With usual notation which of the following is true for a decoupled model (a) (c) L\P = [H] L\8 L\P = [M] L\IVI 311 (b) L\Q = [L] L\8 L\IVI IVT (d) L\P = [M] 39. Eb and Ec are related to symmetrical components Yo.

the terminal conditions are (a) Ib = Ie = 0 (c) Vb + Vc 2 ''1=1=0 b e 50. Vb = Vc 49.312 Objective Questions 45. For a single line-to-ground fault.J3 1 dl 47. V= a (Za + a 2 Zb + aZ e) Ib = -Ie. In case of star-delta connected transformers (a) (b) (c) (d) IS There is only a phase shift of 90° between the sequence components on either side There is only a change in the magnitude There is change both in phase and magnitude There is no change [ ] 48. Id2 and Ido are delta connected network sequence currents for the same unbalnced network. If lSI' Is2 and Iso are star cQnnected network sequence current components and Idl .J3 1 Id2 0 (d) I sl = - j. For the solution of 3-phase star connected unbalanced load problem which method is more suitable [ ] (a) (c) Symmetrical components Thevenin's theorem (b) (d) Direct analysis Mil1man's theorem 46. For a double line fault on phase band c (a) I a = 3E a ----=--ZI + Z2 + Zo . then [ ] (a) (c) (b) I sO = Is2 = j . The positive sequence impedance component of three unequal impedances Za' Zb and ZC (a) (c) "3 1 (Za + aZ b + a2Z c) (b) Cd) (b) Cd) "3 1 CZa + a 2 Zb + a Zc) (Za + aZ b + a 2Z c) Va = 0.

A line-to-line fault occurs at the terminals of the generator operating on no-load.j 0. (c) (b) (d) + j \.9 p.u.0.j p. What is the negative sequence component of fault current in Q. is '[] (a) + j 0.866 p.0.u. (c) .866) +jp.866) G0.u.u. 50% and 10% respectively.u. in case of a double-line to ground fault on phases b and c [ ] (i) I al = Z\ +Z\ ' (b) (d) (ii) only is correct Eo (a) (c) 52. What is the positive sequence component of the fault current in per unit.5 j p.2j p. (52) if the fault is a line-to-ground fault on phase a then.5 . negative and zero sequence reactances of 50%.u.u. (11) (a) (c) 53. The most common type of fault to occur is (a) (c) Symmetrical 3-phase fault Double line fault Single line-to-ground fault Double line-to-ground fault 56.No.j 0. the positive sequence component of the fault current in p.9 KV generator. (. In Q. [] 55.u (b) .Objective Questions 51. (d) .j 0.No. 6.u (b) (d) G0.j 0. (d) 0.866) 54.u (b) . [] (a) .5 j p.5 + 0. star connected has positive.9 p.5 . (i) only is correct (i) and (ii) are both correct both (i) and (ii) are false A 15MVA. 313 For an ungrounded neutral. The zero sequence network for the transformer connection delta-star with star point earthed is given by [ ] ---~--- (a) (b) --0 (c) (d) .0 p.

the steadystate stability limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered A synchronous generator is supplying power to an infinite bus through a transmission line. (b) 1.u 61. 1 (b) j ( x. the steady state stabil ity limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered 62. 1 (c) 58. A synchronous machine having E = 1.~x.u. Objective Questions The negative sequence reactance of a synchronous machine is given by (a) j ( x~ . If a shunt capacitor is added near the middle of the line.6 p.l A star connected synchoronous machine with neutral point grounded through a reactance xn and winding zero sequence reactance Xo experiences a single line-to ground fault through an impedance xf" The total zero sequence impedance is [ ] (a) (c) xo+ xn + x f (b) Xo + 3xn + 3xf (d) In case of a turbo generator the positvie sequence reactnce Under subtransient state is more than transient state but less than steady state synchronous reactnace Under subtransient state is less than transient state and morethan synchronous reactance The transient state reactance is more than subtransient state reactance but less than synchronous reactance The transient state reactane is less than subtransient state.u. the steady stae power limit is (a) 0. If the transfer reactace is 0.u (c) 2 p. .6 p. x. j ( (d) j(x.0 p. .314 57.2 p. but more than synchronous reactance.0 p.u A synchronous generator is feeding as infinite bus through a transmission line. xO+3xn +x f 3 (XO+xn+x f ) 59. (a) (b) (c) (d) 60. If the middle of the line a shunt reactor gets connected. x~ 1 x~ ~ x.u is supplying power to an infinite bus with voltage 1.

65.fiH (c) f= _1 2n ~(O80 2H 67.S mu X (c) EV X 66..Objective Questions 63. (3) is shifted to the infinite bus. 315 If the shunt capacitor in q. If power is transmitted during the fault period on a double-line circuit with fault [ ] as one of the lines the critical clearing angle 8c is given by .V ~ (a) -Cosu X (b) EV · ~ . For a step load disturbance. Coefficient of stiffness is defines as E. Critical clearing angle for a step load change is 68.no. the frequency of oscillations is given by 1 (08 0 (a)f= .- 2n . excitation response is important (c) Dynamic stability is independent of excitation system response 64. the stability limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unchanged Which of the following is correct (a) In steady state stability excitation response is important (b) In transient stability studies.

316 69. ~t On _ 1 = ffir (n _ I) 0n-2 (c) ~On-I = 0n_l- = ffi r (n-2) . Objective Questions In step by step method of solution to swing equation (a) ~on-I = on_I (b) ~on = On .'~t .0n_2 = ffir(~-3/2) ~t .

49. 64. 2. 27. 17. 30. 41. 39. 13. 29. 25. 40. 50. 35. 34. 60. 65. 53. 67. 20. 63. 58. 47. 4. 3. 68. 31. 33. (b) (c) (a) (b) (d) (d) (c) (c) (a) (a) (c) (c) (a) (a) (b) (b) (c) (b) (c) (c) (c) (b) (a) (c) (a) (a) (c) (b) (a) (a) . 56. 48. 61. 28. 7. 59.Objective Questions 317 Answers to Objective Questions 1. 54. 45. 57. 69. 66. 19. 6. 5. 12. 52. 46. 9. 23. 10. 36. 32. 8. 21. 18. 62. 55. 37. 38. 14. 24. 22. 11. (a) (b) (c) (c) (c) (b) (b) (b) (b) (a) (c) (c) (c) (a) (b) (b) (a) (a) (c) (b) (c) (c) (c) (c) (a) 26. (b) (b) (b) (c) (c) (c) (d) (b) (d) (d) (a) (c) (a) (d) 51. 43. 44. 16. 42. IS.

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INDEX B Base current in amperes 177 Base impedence in ohms J 77 Basic cut-set incidence matrix 20 Basic cut-set 10 Basic Loop incidence matrix 21 Basic loops 9 Branch path incidence matrix 19 Bus bar reactors 188 Bus incidence matrix 18 Critical clearing time tc 272 Cut set 9 D Oecoupled methods 119 Double line to ground fault 238 Dynamic stability 259 Dynamic stability 280 E Edge 6 Element node incidence matrix 18 Equal area criterion 267 c Co-tree 8 Convrgence J 24 F Fast decoupled methods 120 Feeder reactors 187 Frequency of oscillations 270 Critical clearing angle 272 .

320 Power System Analysis G Gauss-seidel iterative method 105 Generator reactors 187 Generator bus I 0 I Graph 6 Positive sequence components 217 Power flow 100 Positive sequence network 228 Primitive network 4 R J Rank of a graph 7 Reactance diagrams 179 Reactors I 86 Jacobian 110 L Line-to-line fault 235 Load bus 101 Load flow 100 Rectangular coordinates method 110 s Sequence components 2 I 7 Sequence impedance of transformer 227 Sequence impedances 224 Sequence networks of Synchronous machines 228 Sequence reactances of Synchronous machine 228 Short circuit KVA 180 N Negative sequence components 218 Negative sequence network 229 Newton-raphson method 109 Node 6 Nonsingular 115 0 Optimal ordering 118 Operator "a" 218 Single line to ground fault 232 Singular transformation 24 Slack bus 101 Sparsity 115 Stability 259 Steady state stability 259 Step-by-step method 277 Subgraph 7 Swing equation 263 Symmetric 115 Symmetrical components 217 Synchronizing power coefficient 262 p Partial network 53 Path 7 Per unit impedence 177 Per unit quantities 176 Percentage values 179 Polar coordinates Method 112 Positive 2 I 7 .

Index 321 T Transient stability 259 Vertex 6 v Voltage controlled bus 101 a Transient stability limit 269 Tree 8 Triangular decomposition 116 z Zero sequence components 218 Zero sequence Network 230 u Uniatary transformation 222 Unsymmetrical faults 231 .

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