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Storage Tank Foundation Design Guide_doc

Storage Tank Foundation Design Guide_doc

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Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide
PURPOSE
This practice establishes guidelines and recommended procedures for the design of Tank foundations using AFES (Automatic Foundation Engineering System). AFES can design Tank foundations as either soil- or pilesupported footings.

CONTENTS
This practice comprises the following:

Create or Open New Project Setting Soil and Pile Parameters Creating New Structure Exporting Load Combination Assign Foundation Grouping Editing footing sizes and other parameters Pier and Footing Reinforcement Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations Import Load Combination for various foundation groups Assigning Equipment Data Performing Design and Analysis functions Quantity BOM (Bill of Material) function Construction Drawing Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS, PDS Frame Work Plus)

FOUNDATION TYPES
Types of foundations normally considered as are the following: Gravel ring walls supporting the tank shell. Concrete ring walls supporting the tank shell. Concrete mat on grade supporting the entire tank. Concrete mat on piles supporting the entire tank. Concrete rib beams and mat foundation for cold storage tanks. Concrete mat and heating coils for cold storage tanks.

Foundation type to be utilized depends on the design requirements, type of tank, tank dimensions, soil and site conditions, environmental conditions, material availability, local codes, and Client requirements. 1

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide
Design data sample for equipment is shown below based from actual projects. This equipment is a Exchanger supported by rectangular shape foundation.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Assumptions: The center to center diameter of ring wall is equal to the nominal tank diameter. If not applicable, an alternate foundation type shall be used.

W=

Empty Load − Bottom Plate Weight π x Tank Diameter

Bottom Plate Weight = γ steel x Bottom Plate Thickness x Bottom Plate Area

t.cal =

2 xW q x H − 2 x h x (γ c − γ s )

t.min = 300 mm

γs =

γ s 1 x h1 + γ s 2 x h2
h1 + h2

Where:

q = unit weight of Tank fluid γ c = unitweight of concrete h1, h2 : Filling material height of ring wall γ s 1, γ s 2 : unitweight of soil under Tank W = weight of Tank shell plus the tributary weight of a cone perimeter of circumference N = thickness of Tank shell plate H = height of Tank h = height of Ring wall D = tan k diameter

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Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

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Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

Create or Open New Project
The first step is to enter project specific items. These items include general data, client data and Job data about a project. General data includes project No. Project Name, Client Name, Site Name, any more. The client data includes your client manager name, e-mail, number of telephone and fax, address. Job data includes assigned engineer, supervisor, duration of project, project rate that values the program needs to use for the specific project.

The Project Number and Structure Name entered in Project Information will display as a menu header

Note: General Data should be input. This data needs to use for the specific project.

To open the existing project, or create a new project, Click on the “New/Open Project” from Top toolbar menu

4

select New/Open Project. A window dialogue will display as shown. Select New Project option then click OK button. A window dialogue will display as shown.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Create New Project From File menu. 5 .

A window will display as shown.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Enter information then click OK button. 6 . Or Open Existing Project From File menu. Select a project then click OK button. Select Open Existing Project. select New/Open Project.

supports and anchor bolt options. In case of New project. Enter Soil Bearing Capacity (Qa) value. Click Save button. safety factor. This includes a number of parameters such as design code. strength reduction factors. capacity of pile. allowable increase of soil. Set Bearing Capacity of Soil from the Setting of Constant command Click Setting of Constant button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Setting Soil and Pile Parameters Setting of constants options include design information that AFES needs in order to design a foundation. allowable increase of pile. material and unit weight. clear cover. set all design parameters from the “Setting of Constant” form. 7 . Select Bearing Capacity of Soil tab. bearing capacity of soil. Enter name in the Soil Bearing Capacity Name text box.

Enter name in the Pile Name text box. Enter values for Elastic Modulus (Ep) and Pile Area.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Capacity of Pile from the Setting of Constant button. Select Pile Type. Click Save button. 8 . Enter values for Allowable Capacities. Select Capacity of Pile tab. Select Pile Shape. Enter values for Pile dimensions.

An engineer is able to create a file for a new project. “Add: New Structure Name” dialog window will appear. Input structure name. and then click on the “New” button. or eliminate old and useless data for the user’s own sake. 9 . which provide work efficiency in control over project information.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Creating New Structure Every input and output data can be saved in AFES Data Base according to projects. reuse data from projects conducted previously. Choose Create New Structure button.

Export Load Combination before assigning group otherwise they will be deleted. A warning message will appear as shown. 10 . After exporting the file.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Exporting Load Combination This function enables us to export load combination data that was saved in text file in AFES program. Click Load Combination button. Click Load Case/Combination button. The Load Combination form will appear as shown. Click OK button. it will be available for import in this program.

At the end of this step.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Export button. The available foundation types are as follows. This is very important because it eliminates repetitions of commands. 11 . Assign Foundation Grouping. The foundation modules in red box shown in above figure are normally used for Storage Tanks. The Assign Foundation Grouping command is used for assigning group for models with multifoundations. Foundations with the same load combinations are recommended to join in one group. assign file name then click Save button. Choose directory to save file. we will create the structure as shown below.

12 . Enter coordinates as shown in figure above. Create 3 nodes by clicking Add button 3 times.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Geometric Data button.

Select Same size. Select Pile fdn. Select Tank_1 from the Group type. Click arrow pointing to the right. Click Save button. Click New button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Assign Foundation Grouping button. 13 . Assign group for node 1. Select node 1 from the Using node list form. option. Assign name from the Group name text box.

Click New button. Click arrow pointing to the right. option. Assign name from the Group name text box. Select Different size. Select Non Pile fdn. Click Save button. Select node 2 from the Using node list form. 14 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assign group for node 2. Select Block Foundation. Select Tank_1 from the Group type.

Select Tank_1 from the Group type. Click arrow pointing to the right. Select Non Pile fdn. Select Different Size. Assign name from the Group name text box. Select node 3 from the Using node list form. option. Click New button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assign group for node 3. 15 . Click Save button.

16 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The preliminary structure configuration is shown below.

the possibility of the moment increasing the punching shear should be considered similar to the way it would be for slabs (refer to Building Code). Click Feature Data/Dimension button. For thin footings with a large concentrated pier moment. Plan footing dimensions should be in even 2 inch (50 mm) increments.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Editing footing size and other parameters The Feature Data (Dimension) command is used to define the dimensions and other parameters necessary for the foundation and piers. 17 . Engineering judgment should be used in deciding when this might be applicable. the footing thickness shall be checked in accordance with Building Code. Select TANK1 from the Group selection in top menu. The footing thickness adequate for embedment of pier or column reinforcement should be checked in accordance with Building Code. Size for both footings should normally be the same. Edit footing size of group TANK1. If top tension exists. The footing thickness shall be 12 inches (300 mm) minimum and thickened in 4 inch(=100 mm) increments. Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Footing tab> <Pier tab> 18 .

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier. Select TANK1RING from the Group selection in top menu. <Footing tab> 19 . Click Feature Data/Dimension button. Edit footing size of group TANK1RING. Click Save button. Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection.

Select TANK1BLOCK from the Group selection in top menu. Click Feature Data/Dimension button. Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection. 20 . Click Save button. Edit footing size of group TANK1BLOCK.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Pier tab> Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Footing tab> 21 .

Click Save button. Note that only Grout Thickness is activated. 22 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Pier tab> Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier.

Use dowels to transfer the column loads to the footings. Reinforcement data form will 23 . Minimum Pier Reinforcement Piers should be designed as cantilever beams with two layers of reinforcement. click the “Reinforcement data” appear as shown in below figure. If top reinforcing is required. Dowel splices are not required if the vertical pier reinforcing projection is less than 6 feet in height. as is normally the case. use dowels with minimum projections required for tension splices in accordance with Building Code. Pier ties are not normally detailed as column ties. investigate the pier as a column.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Pier and Footing Reinforcement The Reinforcement Data command is used to assign bar sizes and spacing for piers and footings. Size and reinforcement for both columns should normally be the same. Size and reinforcement for each pier should normally be the same. The arrangement of footing bars are parallel to the X and Y axis except for Tank1 and Tank2 Ring type modules which are in radial and longitudinal directions. For cases that exceed this limit. Minimum reinforcing for piers is #5 at 12 inches on each face with #4 ties at 12 inches. If longitudinal reinforcing is not required to resist vertical loads. From the main tool bar. All ties should encircle the vertical reinforcement. through ties are not required. minimum reinforcing is #4 at 12 inches c/c. Minimum dowel projection should be that required for a tension splice in accordance with Building Code. Below are based from our company standards. Set of bar array options are available in the Footing option. Minimum Footing Reinforcement The minimum amount of bottom reinforcing is #5 at 12 inches c/c. Reinforcement bar sizes depend on the design code designated in the Setting of Constant command. or the rebar size in feet above the top of the footing. When the required reinforcing approaches ρmax. Place double ties at top of piers to protect anchor bolts. button.

Set Footing reinforcement arrangement. Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented. 24 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Tank1 Foundation with Ring Wall Pier Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Select Save then Close button. Select Pier tab. Tank1 Block Foundation 25 . Select Save then Close button. Enter the values of footing re-bar as shown.

Set Footing reinforcement arrangement. Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Pier reinforcement arrangement using the Pier tab. 26 . Tank1 Ring Foundation with Ring Wall Pier Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout. Select Save then Close button.

27 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Select Save then Close button. Select Save then Close button. refer to Help documents. Select Pier tab. Enter the values of footing re-bar as shown. Fore further discussions.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations The Pile Data command is used to layout and assign piles in the foundation. Set Pile Arrangement for foundation group TANK1 (Circular Array) Select TANK1 from the Group selection in top menu. Click Pile Data command. Click OK button. 28 . Select Origin Point. and Pile Circle Dia. Enter Star Angle. No. Define pile features first before proceeding to this function in the Setting of Constant command. This function is activated only when the selected type is Pile fdn. Select Array Wizard tab. in the Assign Foundation Grouping command. (PCD). Set Circular option. Regular pile arrangements are available for circular or rectangular arrays. Select PHC-12 from the Pile Name selection. Click Regenerate button.

Combinations referring to Ultimate Strength Design are used for footing reinforcement. The Load Case/Combination command is used to define. add. one way shear check. Mainly applied load combinations are Allowable Strength Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. uplift check. 29 . pier design. Combinations by Allowable Strength Design are normally applied with 1.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Repeat above steps in creating new circular pile array arrangement then click “Add Draw” to include to defined pile arrangement. Import Load Combination for various foundation groups. sliding. and taking different factors for various cases.0 factored value. The purpose of the combinations is to take into account soil bearing capacity. and pile capacity check for a pile supported foundation. overturning. Assigned load cases can be combined with factors in accordance with a few design methods and specifications. edit or delete load cases and combinations.

and ladders and platforms. Operating Weight (Do) The operating weight (also called "wet weight") is defined as the empty weight of the exchanger/vessel (De2) plus the weight of operating fluids or products. Wind Loads (W) Transverse and longitudinal wind loads shall be determined in accordance with Design Guide 3DG-C0100001 unless project criteria dictates otherwise.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Below are load cases and load combinations usually used for Horizontal Vessel and Exchanger footing based from Building code. Erection Weight (De1) The erection weight is defined as the fabricated weight of the vessel. Empty Weight (De2) The empty weight is defined as the in-place weight of the completed exchanger/vessel (De1) plus the weight of internals. No allowance shall be made for shielding of wind loads by nearby equipment. insulation. Verify that all items which are to be erected with the vessel are included in the erection weight. This information is taken from the vessel drawings. Verification of the operating conditions may be required from the Process Engineering Discipline. piping. The calculated design moments and shears due to wind load should be compared to those shown on the exchanger/vessel drawings. but excluding the weights of fluids or products which will be placed in the exchanger/vessel during operation. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets and planning study drawings. DESIGN LOADS The following design loads shall be considered for design of the foundations. Test Weight (Dt) The test weight is defined as the empty weight of the exchanger/vessel (De2) plus the weight of test fluid (usually water) and any attached piping and equipment required for the hydrostatic test. including internals and attachments that are installed integrally with the vessel. Load cases definitions are also discussed for further information. Note that this load condition is considered only when the exchanger/vessel is to be field-hydrotested. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets. In case of major discrepancies between calculated 30 . Verify with the Mechanical Discipline for this condition. These are also based from our actual projects.

E = ±(1.9D ± (1.7 Lb (for exchanger foundations only) (g) 1.0E). as listed in ACI 318.75 (1.3 EH2) and E = ±(0.2 is used (instead of 1.75 [1. the factor of 1.4 Dp) ± 1.0 EH1 ± 0.2 Dt The load factors shown above are based on ACI 318. except for load combinations (c) and (e). The longitudinal seismic force shall be resisted by the fixed end pier only unless the piers are tied together by tie beams below the base plates.2 De2 ± 1.6 W (e) 1. i. Transverse seismic forces shall be resisted by both piers using saddle or base plate reactions as the basis for computing base shear.4 (Do + T + Dp) (b) 0. Seismic Loads (E) Seismic loads shall be determined in accordance with procedures presented in Company Design Guide unless project criteria dictates otherwise.2 (Do + T + Dp) ± 1.e. which are based on the slightly more conservative requirements of IBC 2000.0 E (f) 1. Also..0 EH2). 31 . in load combination (g).Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide wind loads and the loads shown on the equipment drawings. do not need to be considered since they are covered by load combinations (b) and (c). The horizontal seismic loads shall be applied 100% in one direction and 30% in the orthogonal direction.0 E (d) 0.4 De2 (or 1.4 De1)] ± 1. coordinate with the Mechanical Discipline for resolution. LOAD COMBINATIONS Concrete Foundation Design The following factored load combinations should be used for design of the foundations (a) 1. The load combinations 0.4 T + 1.4 De2 + 1.4 Do + 1.4) due to the transient nature of hydrotesting conditions.3 EH1 ± 1.6 W (c) 1.6W or 1.

Similarly.) The weight of the foundation and of the soil on top of the foundation shall be included as dead load in all of these load combinations. the seismic load factors should be increased as appropriate. rather than servicelevel). for service-level seismic loads based on another code. The Load Combination form will display as shown. 32 . Access the load combination file then click Open button. You can actually create new load combinations through the Load Combination button but in this example.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Wind load is calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-98 (including the directionality factor) and seismic load is calculated in accordance with IBC 2000 (based on strength-level methods. we will use Import command. (See Section R9. Click Load Combination button. Click Import button. the load factors for wind in the various load combinations should be reduced appropriately. If wind load is calculated using another code which does not include the wind directionality factor.2 of ACI 318 for guidance.

Select appropriate button as explained in the warning message form. 33 . Click Save button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide A warning message will appear as shown. Repeat same procedure for the other foundation groups.

Operation and testing weights may need to be entered again in the load case tables as they have no direct links. Tank dimensions and soil parameters including of the backfill materials are also necessary. Empty load is used to determine required ring wall thickness to be compared to the minimum allowed. Figure 2: Tank foundation modules showing equipments.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assigning Equipment Data Equipment data is essential for Storage Tank Foundations. Nevertheless. 34 . the input load values for the Empty. Figure 1: Sample equipment input data for a certain equipment type normally used for Storage Tanks.

Click on the Foundation Analysis/Design button to be able to start analysis and design. 02. BS 8110. Korean. It is assumed that all external forces are loaded at the center of the piers and the connection between the pier and the footing is considered to be rigid enough to carry those forces. corbels and tie girders are properly examined. stability and sectional design of components of footing. Select Analysis button. 35 . CP-65 and IS456 (2000). The design codes of AFES support ACI318-99. pier. Strength. AIJ-WSD99.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Performing Design and Analysis functions AFES executes Foundation Analysis and Design according to design standards widely accepted.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide For through discussion on setting other functions such as General. Click Analysis button. 36 . Temperature and Shrinkage/Stability. you may refer to help menu. Detail Report Option and Contents. Tank Design. Click Report button to view calculation report. The calculation report will display as shown below.

concrete. grout. 37 . For Active Foundation structure From Design menu. Set parameters from the Afes – Bill of Material form. lean concrete. anchor bolts and steel reinforcements. select Quantity (BOM) then Take off BOM 3D. formworks.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Quantity BOM (Bill of Materials) function BOM functions are used for estimate of earthworks including other related items such as excavation. crushed stone. disposal. backfill. protection materials. Click OK button. Options for BOM take off for active structure and all structures in a project is supported.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The Bill of Material form will display as shown below. select Quantity (BOM) then Take off BOM 3D (All Structure). From Design menu. 38 .

39 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set parameters from the Afes – Bill of Material form. Click OK button. Check structures to include BOM Take off calculation from the form below. Click OK button.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The Bill of Material form will display as shown below. 40 .

AFES interfaces with AutoCAD and MicroStation to create a construction drawing with bar-schedule. Standard drawings are already set up for various design codes. The program will create the DWG or DXF file format and display a construction drawing through a viewer. The Export DXF File command is used to export the drawing files made from AFES to other programs such as AutoCAD and MicroStation. Click OK button. Click Export DXF File button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Construction Drawing AFES is a completely integrated software package for automatically producing drawings of reinforcing details for foundations that have been analyzed and designed using AFES. The drawing report consists of the Standards. A form will display as shown below. Set options from this form. 41 . You can set from this command the drawing preferences to be utilized before exporting to AutoCAD. Layout and Drawing detail including plan and sections of foundation with reinforcement schedules.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Drawing details will display as below. <Foundation Layout Plan> <Tank1> 42 .

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Tank1Block> <Tank1 Ring> 43 .

Set Output unit and coordinate mapping options. Check Send Model Data to PDS option then click OK button. Set various parameters accordingly and click OK button. plant design works involve many design parts. you will experience significant productivity. With our design to modeling interface from AFES to Frameworks Plus. A dialogue form will display as shown.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS. modeling objects from each part allows other parts to assess those object on their work process helping streamlining the work process through project completion. 44 . For further discussions. A 3D foundation model of the objects designed by various design parts effectively communicates the geometric design data. Export to PDS Click Export PDS Data button. Export to PDMS Click Export PDMS Data button. PDS Frame Work Plus) Today. you may refer to Help PDF manuals. A dialogue form will display as shown. Therefore automating the work process from design to 3D modeling forms an integral component of reducing overall project cost.

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