California State Test

Grade 7

• Strength of army; roads; money; citizenship • Loyalty; huge land empire • Too big to control; corruption • Disease, starvation, city structure collapses

End of the Roman Empire


• • • •

Middle East (desert) Trading (merchants) Empire Islam - monotheistic (Muhammad); religious tolerance • Nobility, scholars, merchants, poor

• Eastern Asia • “Period of Disunion” created stable dynasties • Trade, farming • Buddhism; Confucianism • Nobility, government officials, inventors, farmers, poor


Ghana & Mali
• West Africa • Empire • Salt and gold trade; farming • Folk religions; Islam • Centered on village and family; oral traditions

• • • • Islands off of Asia Monarchy (emperor) Landowning; trade Confucianism; Buddhism • Daimyo and samurai; shogun (military)

The Middle Ages

• Europe • Aristocracy advised by Church officials • Taxes to Church and government; manor system • Christianity (monotheistic) • Feudalism - like citystates

Ancient Americas
• Central and South America • Aristocracy with religious counsel • Trading, farming, building • Polytheistic • Priests and nobility, merchants, farmers, slaves

Renaissance “rebirth”

• Humanism - found Greek/Roman writings • Artist, inventor (“Mona Lisa”) • Artist (Sistine Chapel) • Printing press • English poet and playwright • Throughout Europe

• German monk who wanted to reform Church • Swiss reformer; brought Church to basics • 1)Luther’s 95 Theses (reasons) to reform Church; 2) Split Catholic and Protestant; 3) Counter-Reformation


Scientific Revolution

• 1) Earth center of universe; 2) Sun center of universe; 3) Scientific method • Throws out religious based ideas • Weakened power of kings • Science and math schools • COPERNICUS/GALILEO: Sun center of solar system • Laws of gravity and motion • Scientific method of observation and experimentation

• Improved sailing to Asia, Africa, and Americas • Logic based on philosophy, society, politics from Greek/Roman, Christian, Renaissance, scientific thought • High value on human logic and reasoning • Social contract; govt protects people, people are loyal • Govt powers are separate

Eighteenth Century

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