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Geotechnical Materials (ENG1001M


Lectures 7 and 8: Formation and classification of soils

Mehdi Mirzababaei

Formation of soils
Learning outcomes
At the end of this section of the course (lectures, tutorials and private study) you should be able to: • Understand various processes that result in the formation of loose soils soils. • Describe and classify different soils.

Formation of soils
Suggested Reading
You are expected to read the prescribed texts and tackle tutorial problems in addition to grasping the material presented in formal classes.

Text Books The following text books are recommended:  Blyth and de Freitas. A Geology for Engineers.  Clayton et al., (1984). Site Investigation.  Smith. Soil Mechanics.

Formation of soils

The surface rocks break down into smaller pieces through a process of weathering. Over time a thin layer of soil is created and compacted.Formation of soils Soil formation The formation of soil happens over a very long period of time. Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks and minerals. . It can take 1000 years or more.

Formation of soils Under the action of Rocks Frost Temperature Gravity Rain Wind Soils .

There are two different types of weathering. a hard material may change to a soft material after chemical weathering. Biological weathering action. c) Biological weathering . Salt-crystal growth In chemical weathering it still breaks down the rocks. Pressure release. Physical weathering and chemical weathering. y change what it's made of. In physical/mechanical weathering it breaks down the rocks. For instance. Frost Weathering. but what it's made of stays the same(mainly due to abrasion). Different types: a) Hydration. b) Oxidation.Formation of soils Weathering Weathering is the process of the breaking down rocks. Different types: Thermal weathering. Hydraulic action Salt crystal growth. but it may g .

. Sweden fractured along existing joints possibly by frost weathering or thermal stress Salt weathering of building stone on the island of Gozo Malta Gozo.Formation of soils Physical weathering A natural arch produced by erosion of differentially weathered rock in Jebel Kharaz (Jordan) A rock in Abisko.

.La Palma.Formation of soils Chemical weathering Oxidized pyrite cubes Biological weathering of lava by lichen.

Formation of soils .

Formation of soils Factors controlling the formation of soils:  Parent material  Climate p g p y  Topography  Biological factors  Time .

Or is the unconsolidated detrital material that is the stuff of rock. .Formation of soils Soil: is any uncemented or weakly cemented accumulation of mineral particles formed by the weathering of rocks. Most soil can be easily excavated by hand or hand tools.

. sand.Types of Soils based on formation: 1) T Transported soils t d il such as gravel. silt and clay which are transported by a) Water through rivers and deposited in different places of stream due to change in velocity of stream g y b) Wind is another transportation agent in arid parts of the world c) Ice is a transportation agent which can transport large pieces of boulder clay 2) Residual soil (top soil) The soils which are formed in place by chemical weathering 3) Organic soil These soils contain large amount of decomposed animal and plants. They are usually dark in colour and of a distinctive odour.

The Greenland ice sheet is over 1400 m in some parts.Formation of soils Glaciation The work of ice     Accumulation of ice over long time to form ice sheets. The ice caps move off the high areas in all directions as GLACIERS following and creating valleys or building up as g g y g p sheets. it becomes compacted to ice. The ice sheet is not static. The Antartic ice sheet is three times as thick thick.  . As snow falls on the highest areas.

The moving ice abrades the contact surface.     . Material is picked up in the ice and transported. The flow is equivalent to viscous flow over the valley bed bed. Friction between bed and ice results in fractures and crevasses being formed in the top surface.Formation of soils Glaciation Ice movement  At the head of a valley glacier. cracks form in the top of the glacier and the glacier then moves at about 600mm per day for Alpine glaciers.

Moving ice forms a characteristic “U” shaped valley with rounded sided compared to “V” shaped valleys formed by rivers.   .Formation of soils Glaciation Ice movement    Ice moving over land surface removes soil and exposes the bed rock. i Glaciers do not always honour the paths of rivers down mountains as a result buried channels can be found at the bottom of glaciated valleys. The ice and transported material acts as an abrasive. Rivers sometime follow glaciated valleys. The surface of the bed rock can be left smooth and material in the form of rock flour and large boulders is removed removed.

Glacial Till Bed rock k . Glacier erodes main valley and deposits glacial till.Formation of soils Glacial tills    Part of glacial drift which deposited directly by glaciers Could be unstratified drift/till or stratified drift Unsorted material ranging in particle size from clay to boulders.

Glacial tills .

Formation of soils Classification of tills based on their deposition: Lodgement till:  Rock debris was carried along at the base of a glacier  Due to abrasion and grinding. silt and clay size material is relatively high Ablation till:  Rock debris was carried/transported within and on the ice .

Formation of soils Fluvio-glacial and Estuarine deposits  As glacier melts. are characterised by sedimentation of silt from the river at the river mouth . a new channel is formed and then filled up with Fluvio-glacial deposits.  It refers to deposits carried by mixture of water and ice Fluvio-glacial deposits Estuarine deposits Glacial Till Bed rock Current river flows through the valley creating the estuarine deposits.

BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004) Soil classification Coarse and fine soils are classified on the basis of particle size using sieve analysis and sedimentation Fine soils such as clay and silt are classified according its behaviour using the plasticity chart Coarse soil: if less than 40% of the soil is passing 63 micro m.Classification of soils (Euro code 7: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002. Fine soil: at least 40% passing 63 micro m .

Classification of soils (Euro code 7: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002. BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004) .

 Plasticity characteristics for material less 425 micro m. clays and silts are graded according to the behaviour rather than particle size.  For engineering purposes.  Tests are carried out to determine Atterberg limits: Liquid limit (LL) and Plastic Limit (PL) .  The particle size distribution of clays and silts can be determined by sedimentation but it is time consuming. BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004) Classification of fine grained soils:  Silts and clays are those particles of material passing a 63 micro metre sieve.Classification of soils (Euro code 7: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002.

 Grading curves are plotted on a graph with a logarithmic scale of particle size against a normal scale for percentage passing or retained on a given sieve.Classification of soils Classification of coarse grained soils  Examples of coarse grained soils are sands and gravels.  The particle size distribution is determined by sieving. .  The particle size of coarse grained soils > 63 micro metre.

Classification of soils Sieve analysis: Shaking a dry sample of the soil through a set of sieves. Requirements: R i t A set of sieves that have progressively smaller openings ll i Oven Scale .

The soil is oven dried 2. The lumps are broken into smaller particles 3. The amount of soil that is passed through each sieve is obtained .Classification of soils Sieve analysis 1. After completion of shaking. the mass of retained soil on each sieve is determined 4.

The results of the sieve analysis are plotted as the percentage passing in normal scale on the vertical axis against the diameter of the opening of the sieve in logarithmic scale on the horizontal axis . The percentage passing for each sieve is worked out as the ratio of the weight of soil that is passed through divided by the total weight. 6.Classification of soils 5.

so what do you think .Classification of soils Question: Clay soils are very fine particles which might stick to coarse grains because of their internal moisture content. y about the occurring errors of this method and what could be the solution? .

Classification of soils .

Classification of soils Classification of coarse soils: The slope and shape of a distribution curve can be described by means of the 1. Coefficient of curvature: D60 D10 Cc  D30 2 D60 D10 . Coefficient of uniformity Cu  2.

Classification of soils .

Classification of soils Based on BS-1377-1:1997 code:    In general the higher the value of Cu the greater the range of particle size in the soil.   .0 (for sand soils) then the soil is either well graded or gap graded and the correct description can be decided by a quick look at the grading curve. Cc values between 1 and 3 indicate a well graded soil soil. Uniformly graded soils and gap graded soils are special cases of poor graded soils.0 (for gravel soils) Cu > 6. If Cu < 4 then the soil is uniformly graded If Cu > 4.

Classification of soils Based on Euro code 7 namely: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002 BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004 .

BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004) Soil description in both codes: .Classification of soils Based on (Euro code 7: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002.

Classification of soils Based on Euro code 7 namely: BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002 BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004 In this diagram: 1: Gravel content 2: Sand content 3: Fine content (silt+clay) 4: Clay content 5: Fine soil 6: mixed grained soil 7: Coarse soil .

Classification of soils .

300 242. Also determine the uniformity and curvature coefficients and classify the soil.Classification of soils Worked example The results of a dry sieving test are given below.8 2 122 1.3 0.35 75.063 240. The total mass of the sample of dry soil was 2105.425 282.1 0.212 233.6 240 0.3 g.7 0.150 265.2 3.7 0.3 44. Determine the percentage passing.4 6.18 193. Sieve size (mm ) Mass retained (g) 20 0 14 18. plot a particle size distribution curve and give a description for the soil.9 10 67.0 tray 80 .2 0.

30 122.10 6.80 90.80 206.20 72 20 84. mm 20.30 233.70 233 70 1520.59 24.00 1.90 93.00 762.20 9.20 242.00 10.18 1 18 0.00 282.20 3.00 2105.30 1785.15 0.60 61.00 99.20 84.30 3.06 tray Retained mass Total retained g g 0.00 .90 67.80 15.81 50.80 96.40 86.30 193.00 522 00 240.00 1520 00 265.00 328.20 130.90 18.30 % Retained % 0.10 95.10 72.00 % Passing % 100.30 44.20 100.90 27.50 75.00 0.70 193 70 522.40 38.10 1286.00 14.60 0.00 6.20 1044.19 49.21 75 21 63.43 0.41 75.00 18.30 0.30 240.79 24 79 36.21 0 21 0.30 80.90 4.Classification of soils Dim.00 2025.80 0.80 27 80 15.35 2.00 0.

% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.01 0.52 1 D30=0.1 D10=0.Classification of soils 100 90 80 Percent tage passing. mm .24 10 100 particle size.11 D60=0.

Classification of soils D10=0.11 Cu  D60 D10 2 D30=0.11) Cc=(0 24)^2/(0 52*0 11) = 1 D60 D10 Gravel content (materials with diameter between 2mm and 63mm) = 100%.61% Clay/Silt content (materials with diameter less than 0.11 4 7 C 0 52/0 11 = 4.063mm) = 3.7 D30 Cc  Cc=(0.52/0.59% Sand content (materials with diameter between 0.52*0.41%= 15.8%= 80.52 Cu=0.24) 2/(0.84.41%.24 D60=0.8% The soil is poor graded sand or SP or SaP .3.063mm and 2mm) = 84.

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