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10/01/2015

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Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU
Master science of
geotechnical engineering
Soils particle size
19.5mm>d>4.76mm
.
Gravel
4.76mm>d>0.075mm
Sand
Coarse grained soils
0.075mm>d>0.002mm
Silt
d<0.002mm
Clay
Fine grained soils
Soils
Sieve analysis method
For coarse
grained soils
Retained cumulative

%R=
% 100
.
. .
×
weight total
cumulative retained weight
Passing cumulative
%P = 100-%R
Logarithm scale
Logd
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
a
If 0.001<d<0.01
X=a.Log(1000d)
If 0.01<d<0.1
X=a.Log(100d)
If 0.1<d<1
X=a.Log(10d)
If 1<d<10
X=a.Log(d)
If 10<d<100
X=a.Log(0.1d)
Hydrometer
analysis
For fine
grained soils
Hydrometer analysis
% 100 * %
S
W
R R
a P
A +
=
T
L
K D =
P%-passing cumulative
a- soil factor
AR-corrected factor
Ws-weight of dry soil
D-soil diameter
K-hydrometer factor
L-depth of hydrometer in
Solution
T÷ time in minute
Soil particle size curve Uniformity coefficient UC=D60/D10
d10 d60
Weight and volume relation ship
V
Va
Vw
Vs
W
Wa=0
Ww
Ws
W=Ws+Ww
V=Va+Vw+Vs
Vv =Va+Vw
V= Vv+Vs
Soils sampling
• Disturbed sample for determine properties
physics of soils
• Undisturbed sample for determine
properties mechanics of soils, we call
undisturbed when A
R
(%)<10%

• A
R
:Area ratio
• D
o
: Outside diameter of the sampling tube
• D
i
:Inside diameter of the sampling tube

100 (%)
2
2 2
0
×
÷
=
i
i
R
D
D D
A
Soils unit weight
Natural water content:

Bulk unit weight:¸=

Dry unit weight: ¸
d
=

Unit weight of particle solid: ¸
s
=
w
s
e
e S G
V
W
¸ ×
|
.
|

\
|
+
× +
=
1
s
s
V
W
100
1
e
¸
+
=
V
W
s
% 100 × =
s
w
W
W
e
Another parameter
Void ratio:

Degree of saturation:

Saturated unit weight:

Effective unit weight:

d
d s
s
v
V
V
e
µ
µ µ ÷
= =
w
s
v
w
e V
V
S
µ
e µ
×
×
= × = % 100
W
s
sat
e
e G
¸ ¸ ×
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
1
w
s
w sat
e
G
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ×
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
= ÷ =
1
1
'
Another parameters
Specific gravity:

Relative density:

Saturated water content:
w s
s
s
V
W
G
¸ ×
=
% 100
min max
max
×
÷
÷
=
e e
e e
D
R
% 100
1 1
× ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
w
s d
sat
µ
µ µ
e
Typical values of unit weight of
soils
Soil type
¸
sat
(KN/M
3
) ¸
d
(KN/M
3
)
Gravel 20 to 22 15 to 17
Sand 18 to 20 13 to 16
Silt 18 to 20 14 to 18
Clay 16 to 22 14 to 21
Description based on Relative
density
D
R
(%) Description
0 to 15 Very loose
15 to 35 Loose
35 to 65 Medium dense
65 to 85 Dense
85 to 100 Very dense
Soil consistence
Shrinkage
limit
Ws
Plastic
limit
Wp
Liquid
limit
WL
Atterberg
limit
State of cohesion soils
Plastic index
I
P
=e
L
-e
P

Liquidity index
I
L
=
P
P
I
e e ÷
State of cohesion soils
•If 0<e<e
s
: State solid

•If e
s
<e<e
p
: State semi-solid

•If e
p
<e<e
L
: State Plastic

•If e>e
L
: State Liquid
CH
MH
CL
ML
CL-ML
Soil classification
USCS:Unified soil classification system
(ASTM Test Designation D-2487)
ASTM: American Society for Testing
and Materials
Proposed by Casagrande in 1942,this
system was revised in 1952 by U.S
Bureau of Reclamation.
Coarse grained soils
%R(4.76mm)>0.5%R(0.075mm)
Gravel
%R(4.76mm)<0.5%R(0.075mm)
Sand
%R(0.075mm)>50%
Coarse grained soils
Gravel
UC<4
GP
UC>4
GW
Clean Gravel
%P(0.075mm)<5%
Gravel
Located CL or CH
clayey Gravel
GC-GP
Located ML or MH
silty Gravel
GM-GP
Located CL-ML
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GP
UC<4
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
clayey Gravel
GC-GW
Located ML or MH
silty Gravel
GM-GW
Located CL-ML
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GW
UC>4
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Gravel
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
Gravel
Located CL or CH
clayey Gravel
GC
Located ML or MH
silty Gravel
GM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Gravel
GC-GM
Mixed Gravel
%P(0.075mm)>12%
Sand
UC<6
SP
UC>6
SW
Clean Sand
%P(0.075mm)<5%
Sand
Located CL or CH
clayey Sand
SC-SP
Located ML or MH
silty Sand
SM-SP
Located CL-ML
silty Sand
SC-SM-SP
UC<6
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
clayey Sand
SC-SW
Located ML or MH
silty Sand
SM-SW
Located CL-ML
silty Sand
SC-SM-SW
UC>6
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Sand
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
Sand
Located CL or CH
clayey Sand
SC
Located ML or MH
silty Sand
SM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Sand
SC-SM
Mixed Sand
%P(0.075mm)>12%
Fine grained soils
CL CH
For Clay
ML MH
For Silt
CL-ML
For Silty clay
%R(0.075mm)<50%
Fine grained soils
on plastic Chart Casagrande
Lean Clay(CL)
%S>%G
Lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Lean Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
lean Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
lean Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Lean clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Fat Clay(CH)
%S>%G
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Fat Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Fat clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silt (ML)
%S>%G
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Elastic Silt (MH)
%S>%G
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Elastic Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Elastic Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silty clay (CL-ML)
%S>%G
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
Silty clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silty clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Silty clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silty clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Soil classification
•AASHTO:Association American for
State Highway and Transportation
official, was developed 1929 and
proposed by the committee on
Granularity Type Boards of the
1945(ASTM Test designation D-
3282;AASHTO method M145)
Granular Materials %P(0.075mm)<35%
Group
classificati
on
A-1 A-3 A-2
A1-
a
A1-
b

A2-4 A2-5

A2-6

A2-7
%P(2mm)
<50
%
%P(0.425
mm)
<30
%
<50
%
>51
%
%P(0.075
mm)
<15
%
<25
%
<10
%
<35% <35%

<35%

<35%
W
L
<40 >40 <40 >40
I
P

<6% NP <10 <10 >10 >10
Usual type
of
materials
Stone
fragment,
gravel., sand
Fine
sand
Silty or clayey gravel and sand
General
rating
Excellence to good
Silty - clay material
%P(0.075mm)>35%
Group
classification
A-4 A-5

A-6

A-7
A-7-5
A-7-6
%P(2mm)
%P(0.425mm)
%P(0.075mm)
>35% >35% >35%

>35%

W
L
<40 >40 <40 >40
I
P

<10 <10 >10 >10
Usual type of
materials
Silty soils Clayey soils

General
Fair to poor
For A-7-5: I
P
<W
L
-30 For A-7-6: I
P
>W
L
-30
Group index GI
GI=(%P(0.075)-35)[0.2+0.005(W
L
-40)]+0.01(%P(0.075)-15)(I
P
-10)
Soil compaction
• Standard Proctor test

• Modified Proctor test
Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test
designation 698-91)
Item Method A Method B Method C
Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold 943.3cm
3
943.3cm
3
2124cm
3

Weight of hammer 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N
Height of hammer
drop
304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm
Number of hammer
blows per layer
25 25 56
Number of layer of
compaction
3 3 3
Energy of
compaction
591.3KNm/m
3

591.3KNm/m
3
591.3KNm/m
3
Soil to be used
%R(4.75)<20
%
Used soil
%P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20
%
%R(9.5)<20%
Used soil
%P(9.5)

%R(9.5)>20
%
%R(19)<30
%
Used soil
%P(19)

Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test designation 1557-91)
Item Method A Method B Method C
Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold 943.3cm
3
943.3cm
3
2124cm
3

Weight of hammer 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N
Height of hammer
drop
457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm
Number of hammer
blows per layer
25 25 56
Number of layer of
compaction
5 5 5
Energy of
compaction
2696KNm/m
3
2696KNm/m
3
2696KNm/m
3
Soil to be used
%R(4.75)<20%
Used soil
%P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20
%
%R(9.5)<20%
Used soil
%P(9.5)

%R(9.5)>20
%
%R(19)<30
%
Used soil
%P(19)

Compaction equipment
Compaction curve
MOISTURE DENSITY RELATIONSHIP CURVE
1.900
2.000
2.100
2.200
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
Moisture content %
D
r
y

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

g
/
m
3
Wopt
µ
dmax

California Bearing Ratio(CBR)
•For study the strength of soils after
compacting in optimum state.
1-Recompaction the soil in optimum
state
2-Determine CBR in dry condition
3-Saturated the soil under water 4 days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition
CBR=
% 100
. . standard
. .
×
BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR)
Project: Pochentong Airport Job No.
Location of Project: Pochentong Airport Boring No 2 Sample No.2
Description of Soil:
Tested by: Mr. Men Tharith Date of Testing. 16/05/2002
Mold
Surrcharge
2
mm ( unit )
0.000 0 0
1.00 0.045 2.3077
2.00 0.075 3.8462
3.00 0.11 5.641
4.00 0.145 7.4359
5.00 0.175 8.9744
6.00 0.21 10.769
7.00 0.25 12.821
8.00 0.28 14.359
9.00 0.31 15.897
10.00 0.34 17.436
CBR(2.54)= 7.1429
Acceppted CBR= 7.14
Final water Top 7.9
conten, w% Midle 7.8
(soaked) Bottom 7.99
sample Averagee 7.8967
Wet unit wt. = 2.2952 g/cm
3
Dry unit wt. = 2.13444 g/cm
3
Wet unit wt.(soaked) = 2.303 g/cm
3
Curve CBR Test
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Renetration (mm)
L
o
a
d

(
k
g
f
/
c
m
2
)
P2.54
Penetration(mm) Standard unit
2.5 6.9
5 10.3
7.5 13
10 16
12.7 18
CBR equipment
CBR equipment
CBR special for field control
• Compaction the soils in optimum state
with different energy
1-Compaction 10 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
2-Compaction 25 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
3-Compaction 55 blows per layer and
saturated the soil under water during 4
days
4-Determine CBR in soaked condition for
each
5-Plotted values CBR with dry density on
chart
CBR chart
CBR General
rating
Uses Classification system
USCS AASHTO
0-3
Very
poor
OH,CH,MH,OL A5,A6,A7
3-7
Poor to
fair
OH,CH,MH,OL A4,A5,A6,A7
7-20
Fair Subbase
OL,CL,ML,SC,S
M,SP
A2,A4,A6,A7
20-50
Good Base
subbase
GM,GC,SW,
SM,SP,GP
A1b,A2-5,
A3,A2-6
>50
Excellent Base
GW,GM A1-a,A2-4
A3
Control soils compaction
•%Compaction=

•Determine field density by
using:
1-Undisturbed sampling
2-Sand cone method
3-Balloon density equipment
4-Nuclear method
max
.
% 100
d
field d
µ
µ
×
Sand cone method
Control CBR
• Field CBR
• By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP

1-Kleyn and Van Heerden(60
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.632-
1.28Lg.(mm/blow)

2-Smith and Pratt (30
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.555-
1.145Lg.(mm/blow)

3-VanVuuren (30
0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.503-
1.15Lg.(mm/blow)

0
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.48-
1.057Lg(mm/blow)

• By using CBR Chart
CBR control
Shear strength of soils
• Total Stress Analysis (TSA)
-for clayey soils with permeability very low,
work together.
• Effective Stress Analysis(ESA)
-for sandy soils with high permeability,so
only
• For analyze soils stability
problems(bearing capacity,slope
stability,lateral pressure on earth-retaining
structure)
Effective stress in soils mass
•Total stress o
0
= ¸
sat.
Z
•Effective stress o’
0
= ¸’
.
Z
•Pore water pressure U= ¸
w
.Z
¸’= ¸
sat-
¸
w
¸
w
unit weight of water

Mohr-Coulomb Criteria
•The shear stress on the failure plan as
a linear function of the normal stress
(Coulomb,1776)
t = c + o tg¢
•A material fails because of a critical
combination of normal stress and
shear stress, and not from either
maximum normal or shear stress
alone (Mohr,1900)

Failure plan
o
x

t
o
y

t
o
t
f

u
u= 45+|/2
Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria
t
o
C
|
Line Coulomb’s: t = o.tg|+C
Unconfined compression test
• Type TSA test
• Undisturbed sample with
h
0
=2d
o
• Speed c=2%/min

c=2%/min=Ah/h
0
*100%/
min

• For determine undrained
cohesion Cu, in this case
|u=0

q
u
Mohr circle
t
o
0
q
u

C
u
Direct shear test
• Type undrained
test or drained
test
• Undisturbed
sample
• For determine
cohesion of
soils C and
internal friction
angle of soils |
• Build by
Casagrande

Shear box
Porous
stone

Shear force
Shear box
Normal force
Porous
stone

t
t
Soil sample
Determine C & |
( )
2 2
) (
i i
i i i i
n
n
tg
o o
o t o t
|
¿ ÷ ¿
¿ ¿ ÷ ¿
=
n
tg
C
i i
o | t ¿ ÷ ¿
=
t
o
C
|
0
Triaxial test
•UU test: Unconsolidated undrained
test

•CU test: Consolidated undrained test

•CD test: Consolidated drained test
Triaxial equipment
UU test
t
o
0 o
0
q
u

Cu
General relationship of consistency and
unconfined compression strength of clay
Consistency q
u
(KN/m
2
)
Very soft 0-25
Soft 25-50
Medium stiff 50-100
Stiff 100-200
Very stiff 200-400
hard >400
Empirical equation related to Cu and o’
0

Reference Relationship Remarks
Skempton
(1957)
Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P
].
o’
0
Cu from vane shear
test
For normally
consolidated
clay
Chandler(1988
)
Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P
].
o’
c
Cu from vane shear
test
o’
c
preconsolidation
pressure

Can be use for
over
consolidated
clay not valid
for sensitive
clay
Jamiolkowski
et al (1985)
Cu=[0.23 0.04].o’
c

For lightly over
consolidated
clay
±
CU & CD test
t
o
0
|
C
o
3
o
1

Typical values of drained Angle of friction
for Sand and Silt
Soil type
u (degree)
Sand : Rounded grains
Loose 27-30
Medium dense 30-35
Dense 35-38
Sand : Angular grains
Loose 30-35
Medium dense 35-40
Dense 40-45
Gravel with some sand 34-48
Silts 26-35
Typical values of drained Angle of friction
and Cohesion for Gravel
USCS
u(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
GW 40 5 0
GP 38 6 0
GM 36 4 0
GC 34 4 0
GM-ML 35 5 0
GM-GC 33 3 2 2
GC-CL 29 4 3 3
GC-CH 28 4 4 4
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
± ±
Typical values of drained Angle of friction
and Cohesion for Sand
USCS
u(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
SW 38 5 0
SP 36 6 0
SM 34 3 0
SC 32 4 0
SM-ML 34 3 0
SM-SC 31 3 5 5
SC-CL 28 4 5 5
SC-CH 27 3 10 10
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
± ±
Typical values of drained Angle of friction
and Cohesion for Fine grained soils
USCS
u(degree)
C(KN/m
2
)
ML 33 4 0
CL-ML 30 4 15 10
CL 27 4 20 10
CH 22 4 25 10
OL 25 4 10 5
OH 22 4 10 5
MH 24 6 5 5
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
±
±
±
±
±
Stress in soils mass
O
M
Z
M
1
Z
Q
2a=L
2b=B
Determine stress in soils mass
1-Stress at the center of footing
o
vM
=4.I
2
.q = 4.K.q

BL
Q
q =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I
t
Z
B
m
2
=
Z
L
n
2
=
a
Z
= ç
Determine stress in soils mass
2-Stress at the corner of footing
o
vM1
=I
2
.q = K.q

BL
Q
q =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ +
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I
t
Z
B
m =
Z
L
n =
a
Z
2
= ç
Determine stress in soil mass by
using table
b/a

K

0

0.1

0.2

1/3

0.4

0.5

2/3

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

5

10

·
0
0.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.2
0.000 0.137 0.204 0.234 0.240 0.244 0.247 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249
0.4
0.000 0.076 0.136 0.187 0.202 0.218 0.231 0.240 0.243 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244
0.5
0.000 0.061 0.113 0.164 0.181 0.200 0.218 0.232 0.238 0.239 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
0.6
0.000 0.051 0.096 0.143 0.161 0.182 0.204 0.223 0.231 0.233 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234
0.8
0.000 0.037 0.071 0.111 0.127 0.148 0.173 0.200 0.214 0.218 0.219 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220
1
0.000 0.028 0.055 0.087 0.101 0.120 0.145 0.175 0.194 0.200 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.205
1.2
0.000 0.022 0.043 0.069 0.081 0.098 0.121 0.152 0.173 0.182 0.185 0.187 0.189 0.189 0.189
1.4
0.000 0.018 0.035 0.056 0.066 0.080 0.101 0.131 0.154 0.164 0.169 0.171 0.174 0.174 0.174
1.5
0.000 0.016 0.031 0.051 0.060 0.073 0.092 0.121 0.145 0.156 0.161 0.164 0.166 0.167 0.167
1.6
0.000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.055 0.067 0.085 0.112 0.136 0.148 0.154 0.157 0.160 0.160 0.160
1.8
0.000 0.012 0.024 0.039 0.046 0.056 0.072 0.097 0.121 0.133 0.140 0.143 0.147 0.148 0.148
2
0.000 0.010 0.020 0.033 0.039 0.048 0.061 0.084 0.107 0.120 0.127 0.131 0.136 0.137 0.137
2.5
0.000 0.007 0.013 0.022 0.027 0.033 0.043 0.060 0.080 0.093 0.101 0.106 0.113 0.115 0.115
3
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.016 0.019 0.024 0.031 0.045 0.061 0.073 0.081 0.087 0.096 0.099 0.099
4
0.000 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.027 0.038 0.048 0.055 0.060 0.071 0.076 0.076
5
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.018 0.026 0.033 0.039 0.043 0.055 0.061 0.062
10
0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032
15
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.010 0.016 0.021
20
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016

ç
50
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.006

Consolidation
Settlement of soils
Ahi
S
Ho
S
ho
Consolidation curve
e
Logo
o’
p

o
1
o
2
o
3
o
4

e
1

e
2

e
3

e
4

Determination parameter of
consolidation

Natural void ratio

Void ratio after consolidation

Swell index

Compression index

0
0 0
H
H h
e
÷
=
0
0 0
H
h H h
e
i
i
A ÷ ÷
=
1 2
2 1
log log o o ÷
÷
=
e e
C
s
3 4
4 3
log log o o ÷
÷
=
e e
C
c
Determination parameter of
consolidation

Modulus of elasticity

e and o located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa

Compression index

Swell index

o | A
A ÷
+
=
e
e
m E
k s
0
1
.
Types of soil

emKuNsMBaF m
k

GaRs½yeTAnwgemKuNes<at e
o

0.45

0.55

0.65

0.75

0.85

0.95

1.05

Sandy silt

Silt

Clay

4.00

5.00

-

4.00

5.00

-

3.50

4.50

6.00

3.00

4.00

6.00

2.00

3.00

5.50

-

2.50

5.00

-

2.00

4.50

Soil type
RbePTdI
µ
|
Sand
xSac;/ l ,ayxSac;
0.30 0.74
Silt
l ,aydI\dæ
0.35 0.62
Clay
dI\dæ
0.42 0.40

Elastic parameter of various soils
Type of soils Modulus of
elasticity Es(Mpa)
Poisson’s ratio µ
s

Loose sand 10-25 0.20-0.40
Medium dense
sand
15-30 0.25-0.40
Dense sand 35-55 0.30-0.45
Silty sand 10-20 0.20-0.40
Sand and gravel 70-170 0.15-0.35
Soft clay 4-20
0.20-0.50
Medium stiff clay 20-40
Stiff clay 40-100
Coefficient of consolidation
Log t
Ah
t
1

t
1
/4
t 100
o100
o0
o50
t 50 1min
Determination coefficient of
consolidation
Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande
method C
v
[m
2
/s]

h
0
- initial thickness of sample
Permeability coefficient

Coefficient of compressibility

Coefficient of volume change
50
2
197 . 0
t
H
C
v
=
2
50 0
o ÷
=
h
H
e
a C
K
w v v
+
=
1
. . ¸
o A
A
÷ =
e
a
v
0
1 e
a
m
v
v
+
=
Typical values of coefficient of
consolidation C
v
[cm
2
/s]
Liquid limit Lower limit of
recompressio
n
Undisturbe
d virgin
compressio
n
Upper limit
remolded
30 3.5*10
-2

5*10
-3

1.2*10
-3

60 3.5*10
-3

1*10
-3

3*10
-4

100

4*10
-4

2*10
-4

1*10
-4

Source U.S Navy 1962
In situ test
• Static cone penetration test
• Dynamic cone penetration test DCP
• Standard penetration test
• Shear vane test
• Pocked penetration test

Static cone penetration test
K
c
N
q
Cu
0
o ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
0
'
log 38 . 0 1 . 0
o
|
c
q
Arctg
E=2.q
c

q
c
:cone resistance
Nk=20
Dynamic cone penetration test
A
H M
M M e
M
q
d
.
.
) ' .( +
=
q
d
:cone resistance
M:weight of hammer
M’:weight of rods
A:cone area
H:height hammer falling
e:penetration for one blow

Standard penetration test

Index SPT
N value is amount of blows for penetration split spoon sampler
in soils 30 cm
N=N
1
+N
2

N
cor
= C
N
.N
field

C
N
= 0.77log
D .
2000
¸
Peck1974
0
'
1
78 . 9
o
=
N
C
Liao & Whihman 1986
0
' 01 . 0 1
2
o +
=
N
C
Skempton1986
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
6 . 95
'
log 25 . 1 1
0
o
N
C
Seed 1975
For fine sand or silt saturated with N >15
N
cor
=15+0.5 (N
field
-15)
Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils
20 20 + = N |

Hatanaka & Uchida 1996
2
00054 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 27 N N ÷ + = | Wolff 1989
15 18 + = N |
sMrab;fñ;l ;nigs<an
27 36 . 0 + = N | For building design
sMrab;GaKar
20 45 . 0 + = N |
in general
sM rab;krNITUeTA
E (KPa) = 766N For sand saturated
sMrab;xSac;CaMTwk
E (KPa) = 500(N+15) For dense sand
sMrab;xSac;hab;
E (KPa) = 2600N For dense sand
sMrab;xSac;hab;
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) For Gravelly sand (N<15)
sMrab;RKYsl ayxSac;
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) +2000 For Gravelly sand (N>15)
sMrab;RKYsl ayxSac;
E (KPa) = 320(N+15) For Clayey Sand
sMrab;xSac;l aydI\dæ
E (KPa) = 300(N+6) For Silt,sandy silt,clayey silt
sMrab;dIl ,aym:dæ
Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils
• Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974)

3.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take K=4.4KPa

• Cu=29.N
0.72
Hara et al(1971)
Soils type

N
blows

D
R

%

|
degree

¸
KN/m
3

Very loose

0 ÷ 4

0 ÷ 15

< 28

11 ÷ 16

Loose

4 ÷ 10

15 ÷ 35

28 ÷ 30

14 ÷ 18

Medium
dense

10 ÷ 30

35 ÷ 65

30 ÷ 36

17 ÷ 20

Dense;

30 ÷ 50

65 ÷ 85

36 ÷ 41

17 ÷ 22

Very dense

> 50

85 ÷ 100

> 41

20 ÷ 23

Soils type

N

q
u
KPa
Very soft

< 2

< 25

Soft

2 ÷ 4

25 ÷ 50

Medium

4 ÷ 8

50 ÷ 100

Stiff

8 ÷ 15

100 ÷ 200

Very stiff

15 ÷ 30

200 ÷ 400

Hard

> 30

> 400

• Mr. Sieng PEOU
• Master science of
geotechnical
engineering

Soils particle size
Soils

Coarse grained soils

Fine grained soils

Gravel

Sand

Silt

Clay

19.5mm>d>4.76mm .

4.76mm>d>0.075mm

0.075mm>d>0.002mm

d<0.002mm

Sieve analysis method
For coarse grained soils

Retained cumulative %R= weight.weight Passing cumulative %P = 100-%R .cumulative 100 % total.retained.

01 If 0.1 If 0.1<d<1 If 1<d<10 X=a.001<d<0.Logarithm scale 0.Log(1000d) X=a.Log(d) If 10<d<100 X=a.1d) .01 0.001 0.Log(100d) X=a.Log(0.Log(10d) X=a.01<d<0.1 1 10 100 a Logd If 0.

Hydrometer analysis For fine grained soils .

Hydrometer analysis P%-passing cumulative a.time in minute .soil factor R  R R-hydrometer reading P%  a *100 % WS R-corrected factor Ws-weight of dry soil L DK T D-soil diameter K-hydrometer factor L-depth of hydrometer in Solution T.

Soil particle size curve Uniformity coefficient UC=D60/D10 d10 d60 .

Weight and volume relation ship Va Vw V Wa=0 Ww W Vs Ws .

W=Ws+Ww V=Va+Vw+Vs Vv =Va+Vw V= Vv+Vs .

we call undisturbed when AR(%)<10% 2 D0 .Di2 AR (%)   100 2 • AR :Area ratio Di • Do: Outside diameter of the sampling tube • Di:Inside diameter of the sampling tube .Soils sampling • Disturbed sample for determine properties physics of soils • Undisturbed sample for determine properties mechanics of soils.

Soils unit weight Natural water content: Ww   100 % Ws Bulk unit W   Gs  S  e   g weight:g V   1 e    w Ws Dry unit weight: ggd  V 1 100 Ws Unit weight of particle solid: gs Vs .

Another parameter Void ratio: .g w    g w  1 e  .1  s  g '  g sat . Vv s d e  d Vs Degree of saturation:    Vw s S Vv 100 %  e  w W Saturated unit weight:   Gs  e g  g sat    1 e  Effective unit weight: G .

e DR   100 % em ax .Another parameters Specific gravity: Ws Gs  Vs  g w Relative density: em ax .em in Saturated water content:  sat  1 1     w 100%   s   d  .

Typical values of unit weight of soils Soil type gsat(KN/M3) gd(KN/M3) Gravel Sand Silt Clay 20 to 22 18 to 20 18 to 20 16 to 22 15 to 17 13 to 16 14 to 18 14 to 21 .

Description based on Relative density DR(%) Description 0 to 15 15 to 35 35 to 65 65 to 85 Very loose Loose Medium dense Dense 85 to 100 Very dense .

Soil consistence Atterberg limit Shrinkage limit Ws Plastic limit Wp Liquid limit WL .

State of cohesion soils Plastic index IP=L-P Liquidity index  -P IL= I P .

.

State of cohesion soils • If 0<<s : State solid • If s<<p: State semi-solid • If p<<L: State Plastic • If >L : State Liquid .

.

CH MH CL CL-ML ML .

S Bureau of Reclamation. .this system was revised in 1952 by U.Soil classification USCS:Unified soil classification system (ASTM Test Designation D-2487) ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials Proposed by Casagrande in 1942.

Coarse grained soils %R(0.075mm) %R(4.76mm)<0.76mm)>0.5%R(0.075mm) Gravel Sand .075mm)>50% Coarse grained soils %R(4.5%R(0.

075mm)<5% UC<4 Poorly graded Gravel GP UC>4 Well graded Gravel GW .Gravel Clean Gravel %P(0.

Gravel
Mixed Gravel 5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%

UC<4 On plastic Chart Casagrand

UC>4 On plastic Chart Casagrande

Located CL or CH Poorly graded clayey Gravel GC-GP

Located ML or MH Poorly graded silty Gravel GM-GP

Located CL-ML Poorly graded clayey silty Gravel GC-GM-GP

Located CL or CH Well graded clayey Gravel GC-GW

Located ML or MH Well graded silty Gravel GM-GW

Located CL-ML Well graded clayey silty Gravel GC-GM-GW

Gravel
Mixed Gravel %P(0.075mm)>12%

Located CL or CH clayey Gravel GC

Located ML or MH silty Gravel GM

Located CL-ML clayey silty Gravel GC-GM

Sand
Clean Sand %P(0.075mm)<5%

Sand Mixed Sand 5%<%P(0.075mm)<12% UC<6 On plastic Chart Casagrand UC>6 On plastic Chart Casagrande Located CL or CH Poorly graded clayey Sand SC-SP Located ML or MH Poorly graded silty Sand SM-SP Located CL-ML Poorly graded clayey silty Sand SC-SM-SP Located CL or CH Well graded clayey Sand SC-SW Located ML or MH Well graded silty Sand SM-SW Located CL-ML Well graded clayey silty Sand SC-SM-SW .

Sand Mixed Sand %P(0.075mm)>12% Located CL or CH clayey Sand SC Located ML or MH silty Sand SM Located CL-ML clayey silty Sand SC-SM .

Fine grained soils %R(0.075mm)<50% Fine grained soils on plastic Chart Casagrande For Clay For Silt For Silty clay CL CH ML MH CL-ML .

075mm)<50% %S>%G Lean Clay With sand %S<%G Lean Clay With gravel %S>%G %S<%G %G<15% Sandy lean Clay %G>15% Sandy lean Clay with gravel %S<15% Gravelly lean Clay %S>15% Gravelly lean Clay With sand .Lean Clay(CL) If:%R(0.075mm)<15% Lean clay If%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)>15% Look 15%<%R(0.

Fat Clay(CH) If:%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<50% %S>%G Fat Clay With sand %S<%G Fat Clay With gravel %S>%G %S<%G %G<15% Sandy Fat Clay %G>15% Sandy Fat Clay with gravel %S<15% Gravelly Fat Clay %S>15% Gravelly Fat Clay With sand .075mm)<15% Fat clay If%R(0.075mm)>15% Look 15%<%R(0.

075mm)>15% Look 15%<%R(0.075mm)<15% Silt If%R(0.075mm)<50% %S>%G Silt With sand %S<%G Silt With gravel %S>%G %S<%G %G<15% Sandy Silt %G>15% Sandy Silt with gravel %S<15% Gravelly Silt %S>15% Gravelly Silt With sand .075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.Silt (ML) If:%R(0.

Elastic Silt (MH) If:%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)>15% Look 15%<%R(0.075mm)<15% Elastic Silt If%R(0.075mm)<50% %S>%G Elastic Silt With sand %S<%G Elastic Silt With gravel %S>%G %S<%G %G<15% Sandy Elastic Silt %G>15% Sandy Elastic Silt with gravel %S<15% Gravelly Elastic Silt %S>15% Gravelly Elastic Silt With sand .

075mm)>15% Look 15%<%R(0.075mm)<50% %S>%G Silty clay With sand %S<%G Silty clay With gravel %S>%G %S<%G %G<15% Sandy Silty clay %G>15% Sandy Silty clay with gravel %S<15% Gravelly Silty clay %S>15% Gravelly Silty clay With sand .Silty clay (CL-ML) If:%R(0.075mm)<30% 30%<%R(0.075mm)<15% Silty clay If%R(0.

was developed 1929 and proposed by the committee on Materials for sub grades and Granularity Type Boards of the Highway Research Road in 1945(ASTM Test designation D3282.Soil classification • AASHTO:Association American for State Highway and Transportation official.AASHTO method M145) .

.425 mm) %P(0. gravel. sand NP Fine sand <10 >40 <10 <40 >10 >40 >10 Silty or clayey gravel and sand .075mm)<35% Group classificati on A-1 A1a <50 % <30 % <15 % <50 % <25 % A-3 A2-4 A-2 A2-5 A2-6 A2-7 A1b %P(2mm) %P(0.075 mm) >51 % <10 % <35% <35% <35% <35% WL IP Usual type of <40 <6% Stone fragment.Granular Materials %P(0.

Group classification Silty .clay material %P(0.075mm)>35% A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-7-5 A-7-6 %P(2mm) %P(0.075mm) WL IP Usual type of materials General subgrade rating For A-7-5: IP<WL-30 >35% >35% >35% >35% <40 <10 >40 <10 <40 >10 >40 >10 Silty soils Clayey soils Fair to poor For A-7-6: IP>WL-30 .425mm) %P(0.

2+0.075)-15)(IP-10) .075)-35)[0.005(WL-40)]+0.Group index GI GI=(%P(0.01(%P(0.

Soil compaction • Standard Proctor test • Modified Proctor test .

5)>20 % .4 N 304.8mm Diameter of mold Volume of mold Weight of hammer Height of hammer drop Number of hammer blows per layer Number of layer of compaction Energy of compaction Soil to be used 25 3 25 3 3 56 3 591.6mm 943.Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test designation 698-91) Item Method A 101.8mm Method C 152.3KNm/m 3 3 %R(4.75)<20 % %R(4.4 N 304.8mm Method B 101.3cm3 24.75)>20 % %R(9.4 N 304.3KNm/m 591.3cm3 24.3KNm/m 591.6mm 943.4mm 2124cm3 24.

5)>20 % .75)>20 % %R(9.6mm 943.Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test designation 1557-91) Item Diameter of mold Volume of mold Weight of hammer Height of hammer drop Number of hammer blows per layer Number of layer of compaction Energy of compaction Soil to be used Method A 101.6mm 943.75)<20% Used soil Method B 101.3cm3 44.2mm 56 5 3 2696KNm/m3 2696KNm/m %R(4.2mm 25 5 2696KNm/m3 %R(4.5 N 457.4mm 2124cm3 44.5 N 457.5 N 457.3cm3 44.2mm 25 5 Method C 152.

Compaction equipment .

00 8.00 12.00 4.00 16.00 Wopt Moisture content % .Compaction curve MOISTURE DENSITY RELATIONSHIP CURVE 2.200 dmax 3 Dry Density g/m 2.00 2.00 10.00 18.00 20.000 1.00 6.900 0.00 14.100 2.

load . .unit.California Bearing Ratio(CBR) • For study the strength of soils after compacting in optimum state.load 100% CBR= standardunit. 1-Recompaction the soil in optimum state 2-Determine CBR in dry condition 3-Saturated the soil under water 4 days 4-Determine CBR in soaked condition Test.

2 Date of Testing.11 5.0 9.8462 3. Boring No 2 Sample No.145 7.25 12.0 Renetration (mm) Dry unit wt.0 3.54 7. 16/05/2002 Curve CBR Test 20 18 16 14 Load (kgf/cm ) 2 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 P2.00 0.00 0.769 7.BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR) Project: Pochentong Airport Location of Project: Pochentong Airport Description of Soil: Tested by: Mr.(soaked) = Final water Job No.045 2. = Wet unit wt.14 7.31 15.897 10. Men Tharith CBR Test Load Data (soaked) Mold Surrcharge Piston load Load.4359 5.00 0.436 CBR(2.0 1.28 14.0 5.34 17.3077 2.8 7.0 12.54)= 7.2952 g/cm 3 2.9 7.0 11.00 0. 2 Penetration.21 10.641 4.0 4.0 6.303 g/cm 0.359 9.00 0.0 2.821 8.000 0 0 1.9744 6.00 0.075 3. dial reading kgf/cm mm ( unit ) 0.13444 g/cm .0 7.00 0.00 0. w% Midle (soaked) Bottom sample Averagee Wet unit wt.1429 Acceppted CBR= Top conten.0 8.175 8.99 7.00 0.00 0.8967 3 2. = 3 2.0 10.

5 5 7.5 Standard unit load(Mpa) 6.Penetration(mm) 2.3 13 10 12.7 16 18 .9 10.

CBR equipment .

CBR equipment .

• Compaction the soils in optimum state CBR special for field control with different energy 1-Compaction 10 blows per layer and saturated the soil under water during 4 days 2-Compaction 25 blows per layer and saturated the soil under water during 4 days 3-Compaction 55 blows per layer and saturated the soil under water during 4 days .

CBR chart .

A2-4 A3 .A6.GP GW.A6.GC.A5.CL.A7 M.OL Subbase OL.A7 0-3 3-7 7-20 20-50 >50 Very poor Poor to fair Fair Good Excellent Subgrade OH.SW.A7 A4.ML.A2-5.SC.SP. A3.CBR General rating Uses Classification system USCS AASHTO A5.A6.GM A1b.MH.CH.A4.S A2.SP Base subbase Base GM.CH.A2-6 A1-a.OL Subgrade OH. SM.MH.

field 100% • %Compaction=  d m ax • Determine field density by using: 1-Undisturbed sampling 2-Sand cone method 3-Balloon density equipment 4-Nuclear method .Control soils compaction  d .

Sand cone method .

555: Lg.(mm/blow) 2-Smith and Pratt (300cone) 1.(CBR)=2.Control CBR • Field CBR • By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP 1-Kleyn and Van Heerden(600cone) : Lg.48- • By using CBR Chart .6321.28Lg.057Lg(mm/blow) : Lg.(mm/blow) 3-VanVuuren (300 cone) 1.(mm/blow) 4-TRRL Road Note 8(600cone) 1.(CBR)=2.15Lg.(CBR)=2.145Lg.(CBR)=2.503: Lg.

CBR control .

slope stability.Shear strength of soils • Total Stress Analysis (TSA) -for clayey soils with permeability very low. • Effective Stress Analysis(ESA) -for sandy soils with high permeability.lateral pressure on earth-retaining .so for short term loading soils work yourself only • For analyze soils stability problems(bearing capacity. so for short term loading soils and water work together.

.

Z • Pore water pressure U= gw.Z • Effective stress s’0 g’.gw gw unit weight of water .Z g’= gsat.Effective stress in soils mass • Total stress s0 gsat.

1900) .Mohr-Coulomb Criteria • The shear stress on the failure plan as a linear function of the normal stress (Coulomb.1776)   c  s tg • A material fails because of a critical combination of normal stress and shear stress. and not from either maximum normal or shear stress alone (Mohr.

Failure plan sx  s f  q sy q 45f/2 .

Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria  Line Coulomb’s:   s.tgfC f C s .

in this case fu=0 .Unconfined compression test • Type TSA test • Undisturbed sample with h0=2do • Speed e=2%/min e=2%/min=h/h0*100%/ min • For determine undrained cohesion Cu.

qu .

Mohr circle  Cu 0 qu s .

Direct shear test • Type undrained test or drained test • Undisturbed sample • For determine cohesion of soils C and internal friction angle of soils f • Build by .

Shear box

 
Soil sample

Shear force
Shear box

Porous stone

Determine C &

f

n ( is i ) -  i  s i tgf  2 2 n  s i -  s i 

 i - tgf  s i C n
C 0

f

s

Triaxial test

• UU test: Unconsolidated undrained
test

• CU test: Consolidated undrained test • CD test: Consolidated drained test

Triaxial equipment .

.

UU test  Cu 0 s0 qu s .

General relationship of consistency and unconfined compression strength of clay Consistency Very soft Soft Medium stiff Stiff Very stiff hard qu(KN/m2) 0-25 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 >400 .

0037.04].IP]. s’0 Cu from vane shear test Chandler(1988 Cu=[0.23 . s’c ) Cu from vane shear test s’c preconsolidation  pressure 0.Empirical equation related to Cu and s’0 Reference Skempton (1957) Relationship Remarks For normally consolidated clay Can be use for over consolidated clay not valid for sensitive clay For lightly over Cu=[0.s’c Jamiolkowski Cu=[0.IP].0037.11+0.11+0.

CU & CD test  f C 0 s3 s1 s .

Typical values of drained Angle of friction for Sand and Silt Soil type F (degree) Sand : Rounded grains Loose Medium dense Dense Sand : Angular grains Loose Medium dense Dense Gravel with some sand Silts 27-30 30-35 35-38 30-35 35-40 40-45 34-48 26-35 .

Typical values of drained Angle of friction and Cohesion for Gravel USCS GW GP GM GC GM-ML GM-GC GC-CL GC-CH Fdegree) 40  5 38  6 36  4 34  4 35  5 33  3 29  4 28  4 C(KN/m2) 0 0 0 0 0 2  2 3  3 4  4 .

Typical values of drained Angle of friction and Cohesion for Sand USCS SW SP SM SC SM-ML SM-SC SC-CL SC-CH Fdegree) 38  5 36  6 34  3 32  4 34  3 31  3 28  4 27  3 C(KN/m2) 0 0 0 0 0 5  5 5  5 10  10 .

Typical values of drained Angle of friction and Cohesion for Fine grained soils USCS ML Fdegree) 33  4 C(KN/m2) 0 CL-ML CL CH OL OH MH 30  4 27  4 22  4 25  4 22  4 24  6 15  10 20  10 25  10 10  5 10  5 5  5 .

Stress in soils mass 2a=L Q 2b=B O Z Z M M1 .

q = 4.q q Q BL B m 2Z L n 2Z Z   a 1 I2  4  2mn m 2  n 2  1  m 2  n 2  2   2mn m 2  n 2  1    2   arctg 2  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2    m  n .I2.Determine stress in soils mass 1-Stress at the center of footing svM=4.m n  1  m  n  m n 1 m  n 1     .K.

q q Q BL B m Z L n  Z Z  2a 1 I2  4  2mn m 2  n 2  1  m 2  n 2  2   2mn m 2  n 2  1    2   arctg 2  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2    m  n .m n  1  m  n  m n 1 m  n 1     .q = K.Determine stress in soils mass 2-Stress at the corner of footing svM1=I2.

238 0.000 0.200 0.001 0.214 0.250 0.005 0.147 0.004 0.067 0.5 0.055 0.001 0.136 0.243 0.148 0.069 0.000 0.060 0.2 1/3 0.018 0.031 0.250 0.240 0.013 0.250 0.250 0.076 0.200 0.000 0.000 0.131 0.4 0.000 0.081 0.039 0.004 0.048 0.051 0.234 0.137 0.006 0.022 0.000 2.250 0.137 0.203 0.167 0.020 0.181 0.010 0.000 0.013 0.220 0.000 1.120 0.014 0.039 0.232 0.244 0.244 0.003 0.096 0.247 0.026 0.000 0.250 0.240 0.043 0.250 0.189 0.2 1.5 1.061 0.234 0.014 0.076 0.001 0.002 0.101 0.174 0.240 0.024 0.071 0.6 0.031 0.000 0.233 0.055 0.012 0.250 0.000 0.189 0.016 0.000 0.249 0.000 0.218 0.218 0.223 0.061 0.009 0.001 0.250 0.027 0.006 0.249 0.121 0.4 0.240 0.002 0.250 0.000 0.Determine stress in soil mass by using table b/a K 0 0 0.006  .001 0.169 0.161 0.231 0.189 0.240 0.202 0.5 3 4 5 10 15 20 50 0.101 0.000 0.035 0.250 0.160 0.154 0.121 0.000 0.010 0.120 0.000 0.039 0.244 0.187 0.028 0.173 0.016 0.000 0.002 0.115 0.001 10 0.007 0.111 0.005 0.019 0.000 0.000 0.5 2/3 0.062 0.000 3 0.182 0.084 0.244 0.249 0.080 0.061 0.249 0.099 0.205 0.185 0.133 0.127 0.187 0.002 0.250 0.145 0.160 0.113 0.043 0.000 0.048 0.006 0.006 0.166 0.1 0.6 1.244 0.145 0.085 0.000 0.249 0.096 0.071 0.115 0.076 0.007 0.001 0.4 1.182 0.016 0.5 0.002 0.009 0.244 0.000 0.000 0.112 0.249 0.000 0.018 0.019 0.072 0.164 0.045 0.033 0.107 0.240 0.005 0.174 0.000 0.113 0.028 0.011 0.164 0.066 0.000 0.152 0.032 0.003 0.001 0.174 0.249 0.220 0.175 0.073 0.244 0.156 0.056 0.027 0.000 0.093 0.143 0.249 0.171 0.001 0.2 0.204 0.8 1 1.101 0.200 0.010 0.000 2 0.148 0.022 0.140 0.051 0.127 0.8 2 2.046 0.194 0.204 0.011 0.024 0.234 0.000 0.028 0.056 0.033 0.010 0.060 0.073 0.098 0.021 0.009 0.148 0.000 1 0.000 0.234 0.136 0.002 0.020 0.250 0.164 0.121 0.202 0.003 0.240 0.220 0.000 0.000 0.161 0.097 0.002 0.016 0.092 0.046 0.160 0.219 0.148 0.220 0.001 5 0.012 0.080 0.239 0.5 0.154 0.106 0.234 0.143 0.250 0.060 0.087 0.055 0.000 0.007 0.061 0.038 0.137 0.218 0.000 0.000 0.136 0.173 0.037 0.167 0.204 0.099 0.055 0.131 0.003 0.205 0.043 0.087 0.002  0.157 0.004 0.081 0.231 0.033 0.234 0.

Consolidation .

Consolidation curve s1 s2 s’p s3 s4 e1 e2 Logs e3 e4 e .

Determination parameter of consolidation Natural void ratio h0 .log s 1 Compression index e 3 -e4 Cc  log s 4 .hi ei  H0 Void ratio after consolidation Swell index e1 -e2 Cs  log s 2 .H 0 e H0 h0 .log s 3 .H 0 .

Determination parameter of consolidation 1  e0 Modulus of elasticity Es   .e e and s located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa Compression index Swell index .mk s .

00 4.75 0.00 5.00 5.50 5.00 2.50 6.05 Sandy silt Silt Clay 4.95 1.85 0.45 0.55 0.00 - 4.00 5.65 0.00 2.Types of soil emKuNsMBaF mk GaRs½yeTAnwgemKuNes<at eo 0.00 6.00 4.00 3.50 2.50 4.00 3.00 - 3.50 .

a I d yd æ \ Clay d d Iæ \ Soil type  0.30 0.42  0. Silt l .62 0.74 0.40 .35 0. c.a a a yxS c.RPd beTI Sand xS/ l .

20-0.15-0.20-0.40 0.25-0.40 0.50 .20-0.45 0.Elastic parameter of various soils Type of soils Loose sand Modulus of elasticity Es(Mpa) 10-25 Poisson’s ratio s 0.40 Medium dense sand Dense sand Silty sand Sand and gravel Soft clay Medium stiff clay 15-30 35-55 10-20 70-170 4-20 20-40 0.30-0.35 0.

Coefficient of consolidation 1min d0 t1/4 t1 d50 t 50 t 100 Log t d100 h .

g w 1 e Coefficient of compressibility av  .Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande method Cv[m2/s] h0 .d 50 H2 Cv  0.av .initial thickness of sample Permeability coefficient K  Cv .197 H t50 2 h0.e s Determination coefficient of consolidation av Coefficient of volume change mv  1  e0 .

Typical values of coefficient of consolidation Cv[cm2/s] Liquid limit Lower limit of Undisturbe recompressio d virgin n compressio n 3.5*10-3 4*10-4 1*10-3 2*10-4 Upper limit remolded 30 60 100 1.S Navy 1962 .2*10-3 3*10-4 1*10-4 Source U.5*10-2 5*10-3 3.

In situ test • Static cone penetration test • Dynamic cone penetration test DCP • Standard penetration test • Shear vane test • Pocked penetration test .

s 0 Cu  NK   qc   f  Arctg 0.1  0.qc qc:cone resistance Nk=20 .38 log   s '    0   E=2.Static cone penetration test qc .

e.H qd  .Dynamic cone penetration test M M .( M  M ' ) A qd :cone resistance M:weight of hammer M’:weight of rods A:cone area H:height hammer falling e:penetration for one blow .

Standard penetration test .

Nfield CN = 0.Index SPT N value is amount of blows for penetration split spoon sampler in soils 30 cm N=N1+N2 Ncor= CN.25 log  0   95 .01s ' 0  s'  C N  1 .D 1 s '0 CN  2 1  0.78 For fine sand or silt saturated with N >15 Ncor=15+0.1.5 (Nfield-15) Peck1974 Liao & Whihman 1986 Skempton1986 Seed 1975 2000 g .6  .77log C N  9.

a r b K in general sM rNI U ra. a.clayey silt sM d .sandy silt. n a bl g n For building design sM G a ra. K yxa b Y s c For Gravelly sand (N>15) sM R l a S. I ym bl d For road and Bridges design .a : æ ra. ra.3 N . ñ.i s< raf .45 N  20 E (KPa) = 766N E (KPa) = 500(N+15) E (KPa) = 2600N E (KPa) = 600(N+6) E (KPa) = 600(N+6) +2000 E (KPa) = 320(N+15) E (KPa) = 300(N+6) sM.1  0. aw ra. ra. aC k b cM x T For dense sand sM xa. a. ra. Sh b b c For Gravelly sand (N<15) sM R l a S.Relationship of SPT and properties mechanics of soils f  20 N  20 f  27 . a I d ra. K yxa b Y s c For Clayey Sand sM xa.36 N  27 f  0. TT b eA k For sand saturated sM S.00054 N 2 f  18 N  15 Hatanaka & Uchida 1996 Wolff 1989 f  0.0. S l yd æ b c \ For Silt. Sh b b c For dense sand sM xa. ra.

Relationship of SPT and properties mechanics of soils • Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974) 3.4KPa • Cu=29.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take K=4.72 Hara et al(1971) .N0.

Soils type N blows 04 4  10 10  30 30  50 DR % 0  15 15  35 35  65 65  85 85  100 f degree < 28 g KN/m3 11  16 14  18 17  20 17  22 20  23 Very loose Loose 28  30 30  36 36  41 Medium dense Dense. Very dense > 50 > 41 .

Soils type N <2 24 48 8  15 15  30 > 30 qu KPa < 25 25  50 50  100 100  200 200  400 > 400 Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very stiff Hard .

Sieng PEOU • Master science of geotechnical engineering .Thank you for your attention • Mr.

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