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WADD TECHNICAL REPORT 60-42

AD-A280 890
SOME QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF FATIGUE OF MATERIALS
J-~33/

Harold N. Cummings Curtiss-Wright Corporation, PropellerDivision Caldwell, New Jersey

il•-i•

S

DTIC
E L E C T ;D

19941,It JUN 14&

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JULY 1960

I

WRIGHT AIR DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

94-18371

NOTICES When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation, the United States Government thereby incurs nd responsibility nor any obligation whatsoever; and the fact that the Government may have formulated, furnished, or in any way supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data, is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto.

Qualified requesters may obtain copies of this report from the Armed Services Technical Information Agency, (ASTIA), Arlington Hall Station, Arlint. on 12, Virginia.

This report has been released to the Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C., for sale to the general public.

Copies of WADD Technical Reports and Technical Notes should not be returned to the Wright Air Development Division unless return is required by security considerations, contractual obligations, or notice on a specific document.

WADD TECHNICAL REPORT 60-42

SOME QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF FATIGUE OF MATERIALS

HaroldN. Cummings Curtiss-Wright Corporation,PropellerDivision Caldwell, New Jersey

Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced Justification ............................
By ........................ ......... Distý ibution I Availability Codes

JULY 1960

Materials Central

Contract AF33(616)-6552 Project No. 7381

Dist

Avail and Ior Special

WRIGHT AIR DEVELOPMENT DIVISION AIR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO
600 - October 1960 - 3-165

Ak

FOM WOED
This report was prepared by Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Propeller Division, under USAF Contract No. AF 33(6W6)- 6552. This contract was Initiated under Project No. 7381, 'Materials Applications', Task No. 73810, OLiploratory Design and Prototype Development.0 The work was administered under the direction of the Materials Central, Directorate of Advanced Systeas Technology, Wright Air Development Division, with Mr. K. D. Shimmin aoting as project engineer. This report covers work conducted from May 1959 to April 1960. The interest and suggestions of Messrs. .oH. Horgen, Director of Engineering, Fe B. Stulen., Assistant Chief Engineero Analysis, and W. C. Schulte, Chief Metallurgist, at Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Propeller Division, are gratefully acknowledged.

WADD T.. 6o-42

ABSTRACT In this report are given not only the fatigue properties of many structural materials but also the "static" properties and such other supplementary information as was given in the references consulted. The data are in general from room temperature tests, but a few data are given on tests at higher temperatures. The data are presented in tables and on curves, supplemented by brief discussions in the text.

PUBLICATION REVIEW

This report has been reviewed and is approved. FOR THE COMMANDER:

W. J. TRAPP Chief' Strength and Dynamics Brahch Metals and ceramics Laboratory Materials Central

WAfDD TR 6o-42

iii

0 0 * 0 0 0 0 . . . . 3. .. . .1 General . 19 00 . .. * 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 7 9 0 1 14 II Steels 2. 274 . . ... 14 .1 2. . Da T•able I " . . . .1 aterials. . * • • . o e e 0n 24 24 Bibliography List of . .. . Aluminum Alloy 7075 758). .e 0 • . * a *o o . . . . . .. .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .. . e • e a e o e o e ... ..0 .0 .1 5. Aluminum Alloy 2014 (14.o.eo.2 IV Discussion of Data' inable V . o Special Steels . ...2 Discussion ofiaaianýTiablesoVlto*Xi 4.. . 268 List of Authors of References. .0 . ..a. . . . .. . .. . . o. 0 0. . Aluminum Alloy 7076 (76B). a 0 0 . .. . . . .5 4. o o. Aluminum Alloy 2024 24s). .... .2. .. . . .. . . ... 7. . . .2. .. .*. VII Misoellaneous M 7. . .2.. 0 0 0 0 . . 0. .. 14 14 4. . . . . . . ..)... . . .. . . . .* .... Discussion oi Lata'in ablef i . . wADD TR 6o-42 Iv .0.. . SAE Steels 52100 to 98B40 .1 1.3 4. . G enera l . . . .2 General .. .. . . .. e..1 2. 21 i 1 21 24 6 .2 1. .. . . .*.. o. . o . .s*zawc I Introuction e. . .4 SAS Steels 1008 to 4335. .2. • " General . 276 Materials. . . e mAOZ o. ..2. . .. . . 16 16 18 18 19 Magnesium Alloys 5... o. . . .. Aluminum Alloy 6061 (61S). . .. . .a0 00 0 sAESteels 4340 toJ45. . . oo.o o . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . o o .* e 0 0 0 * . 1 1 1. 90 *0 0* 19 Titanium Alloys. . The Format of This Report .#. 6.. . .1 ..o . o Aluminum Alloy 7079. .oo. . . . . . 0.1 4. 'to . i Discussion of .. Notation. . . . . .2. 3.6 V o . .o. .2 2. .. III Heat Resistant Alloys. . .. . o e *o .o.3 Purpose of This Report. .2. . . 0.2 Discussion of Data in Table XIII. .. ..2. 0 * . . .. . .. . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 .. . .. . Discussion of Iata L•iii in 2. .2.. 0. . . . . 0 0 0 *.. 0 e 4..2 4. . . . .%. .4 .2 VI General . .o* .10 Alunminum Alloys* o & v .2.3 2. ..2 * * *e . . . .. . . o . . . . .. . . . e .

.. . Titanium Alloys ... *..... .. .. .. . 84 58 90 Alu•inum Alloy 2014 (14) o AluminumAlloy 2024 (2) Alloy 6061 (61S) Alumlnum . *. 142 .. .. .. .. a 62 IT V VI VAI VIII IX x XI ... 138 . 0. . . ... .. . .... .. .4 Icui UTS . 94 .. .. Magnesium Alloys.......... ... •* ... ..... . ... Annealed.. . . PAGE *.. . . 83. Smooth ... . . ..... .. Normalized and Tempered....o. 139 3 4 5 6 7 8 S-N Curves for 1020 Steel ....... .. * * . 5200 to 98B40 . . . o.. * . *...... . .. . 142 S-N Curves for 1040 Cast Steel.. . ... .. . ... ... . .. o . Ultimate Tensile Str6ngth. • . . Aluminum Alloy 7076 (768) .Carburized 2315 Steel. ... Normalized and Tempered. . ... . . .. .. .. .. ... 90 ksi U'S .. . . . . .. . .... .. 28 40 . . 0 . . 81. Aluminum Alloy 7075 (75S) ... .. . .. .. . 143 VAW'Tt 60-42 v . o Aluminum Alloy 7079 .. . .* . ... .... .. . . .. . *o 96 .. . 14o S-N Curves for 1040 Wrought Steel... .. . ... .. . e . . . . . 54 . 66 82 ....... . . Heat Resistant Alloys ... .. ... S-N Curves for SAE 1008 Steel. * . . ... .. ... . . 0.. . . . . . . . ... . .2 ika 1 UT . . o.... .. . ... . o o o .. .... loo 102 114 128 XII XIII XIv Niscellaneous Materials .. ... e.. . . . ... .. . ... .. .... . .. ... .. ... ... ... 0 .. . . US Stools Special Steels. . . Annealed...LIST OF TA•LES TAWZ I II In SAS Steels 1008 to 4335 SAB Steels 4340 to 4350 o *. 141 S-N Curves for 1040 wrought Steel.. . 141 . .. S-N Curves . • 1 2 . S-N Curves for 1040 Cast Steel. . LIST OF ILWUSTRATIOIS JIGUH• PAGE Fatigue Strength of Steels vs... ..... ... ... o o a * . ... .. o o o ..5 ki UTS1 . ... Decarburized and Not Decoaburized.

S-N Curves.. .. . .Steel SAE 00 a . e 154 e155 High RAT . . . . Axial Stresses*. .145 146 S-N Curves .. . .150 S-N Curve for Smooth V-Modified 4330 Steel. 30 31 32 33 Alternating Stress .Smooth 2330 Carburized Steel . . for Fully Reversed Axial Stress. . S-N Curve for SAE 2340 Steel. 222 kul UTS . . . . SAE 4340 Steel. 263 kel UTS . S-N Curves . of 158. . .156 . . . . . 0 34 S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel.. . .... .. .*. .158 •. .. ... S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel.Normalized. Mean Endurance Limit vs. 0 .. .151 S-N Curve for V-Modifled 4330 Steel. 14 15 16 Approximate S-N Curves for Normalized 4130 Steel.. . . *. * . ... . 150 17 S-N Curves for V-Modified 4330 Steel... .152 . . 0 . . . . . .° * o . .. SAE 4340 Steel. 250 ksl UTS .160 4340 Steel . . Tested in Bending ... . . . . .145 . . 4320 . . . & . . ... 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 • .152 Statistical Variation in Fatigue Life and Endurance Limit of * .. .e. . . . SAE 4340 Steel...159 . . e9o # o.Room Temp. . . .151 Statistical Variation in Fatigue Life and Endurance Limit for Quenched and Tempered SAE 4340. "-. .e . S-N Curves for V-Modified 4330 Steel. . .150 S-N Curve for Smooth V-Modified 4330 Steel. . . . 25 26 27 28 29 S-N Curves. . 201 ksi JTS. . 161 vi WADD TH 60-42 ."Transverse" Specimens..147 . .Room Temp.157 • • .148 Alternating vs. .. . .. . . .. . *. of SAE 4340 Steel... . . .** ....156 .*. 0 0 . . . .. . .149 .. .. . . .. * .* . Low RAT. .. 172 ismi U7S. . S-N Curves for SAE MTS 150 kcal.. . . . .. Notched . 0 Fully Reversed # e e. . . for . . . . Axial Tests. . . 0 . S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel . S~PAOZ 9 10 11 12 13 Design of Notch Used for Fatigue Tests or Carburized Steels . . . . . . * • e e S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel.. Quenched and Spheriodized SAE 4340.With Steady Stress . 4130 Steel. S-N Curves. . .. Axial Stresses. . . e * *153 . . ..5 kl UTS. . . .Notched 2315 CarburIzed Steel. .Notched 2330 Carburized Steel. . . Mean eStress.. .*. .*. . S-N Curves .* . . . . . . .Steady Stress Diagrams for Different Lifetimes. . 144 S-N Curves . 236 ksl TS . ... . . ..155 . . 1TS of SAE 4340 Steel.144 .*. * * * a e e * * e e . UTS 164 kei. . * "Fully Reversed" S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel . . .

... . ... 0175 S-N Curves for 8630 Cast Steel....5 kBI DTS .. Moore Rotating Bending Tests. Specimens. . .. * • * . . . .. . . . n • mn nn io m nnn ie m g-l nu . . a . . R. . *. .e* 0 9 Transverse Smooth . .. . . . R. Moore Rotating Beam Tests of 4350 Steel. .. . . . . . Tests of SAE 4340 Steel. R.. . . Moore Constant Life.. R. . a . . .174 S-N Curves .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) F3DURE 35 36 37 38 S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel. . . R. . . .. .. ... .. 43 44 45 46 47 190 kel UTS Light Dash Line. UTS 190 ksi. R. R. . R. R. . Moore Rotating Beam Tests .... . . . Moore Rotating Bending Tests. ... for SAE 1340 Steel. 171 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. . 260 kul UTS. a. 190 ksl UTS. * * oe . .. R. . .Aircraft Quality SAE 4340 Steel.. . . Rotating Beam Tests . .. . . . .170 . . .. *. . UTS 230 ksl.00 . . Heavy Solid Line. . . R. . . . .. ISTS 140 kei. . .. . . S-N Curves for 52100 Steel.. . . . . . ... 161 . .. . .. .173 48 49 50 51 52 S-N Curves for 52100 Steel.165 41 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. . .. .. for SAE 4340 Steel. . 300 ksi UTS . . . Normalized and Tempered. Rotating Beam Specimens .... . . . 172 . .. . Steady Bending Stresses for SAE 4340 Steel. . .. . 340 Steel. .. R.. . . . 172 k1. . . for SAE. . Rc= 59 .. . . PAGE UTS. . . vII 176 WADD TR 60-42 U l -- - m . * .0.for 8630 Cast Steel. .. Moore Rotating Bending Tests. . . 168 . Specimens.. . .. .. . . UTS 260 ksl. . . . . .. o. . . 169 Tests of SAE 4340 Steel.. . Rc =45 . R. ... . for SAE 4340 Steel. ... . . e * . 163 39 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. .. Transverse Smooth * a . 137. . Steady Shearing (Torsion) Stresses... .. . Tests of SAE 4340 Steel.. . . . .. 172 ksl UTS .. . . R.. .. . 172 ksi UTS . .. . Transverse Smooth . . 167 *.52100 Steel. .. . R. . . . for SAE 4310 Steel. 0 00 0* 176 S-N Curves. .. . . .. .. Tests of SAE 4340 Steel. . .. 164 40 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at R. . . 1410 ksi UTS.. . ..... . . Transverse Smooth . .. 162 S-N Curves of constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life.*. . Specimens.. Moore Rotating Bending Tests. . a.. R.. Moore Rotating Beam Tests . 166 42 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. .e . a * . . 230 ksi UTS. . Tested in Torsion ... . . 190 ksi UTS.. . . .5 kol UTS . . .. 162 Alternating vs. e.. . . .. . .. Alternating vs. ... 110. R. Quenched and Tempered. . .Vacuum Melted SAE 1340 Steel. e .. . Specimens. ... . . Moore Rotating Beam Tests . . .

. * .. * * * * Minimum UTS * e * . . Re 61-62... 189 • 9 191 * . S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel. . . . . .. 194 WADD TR 60-42 Viii . . . 70 S-N Curves for Super Hy-Tuf Steel. .. 65 66 67 68 69.a....... .. . . .. . 260 kni UTS. . . . 0. . . .. ** ... . . . . * • * * o * * . Smooth and Notched .. . Normalized and Tempered. .... 270 ksUl TS . .. . 284 ksi UTS . 302. ... Not Nitrided and Nitrided . . . . . 0 ..... . 245 ksi UTS S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel. . . . . . . S-N Curves for SAE H-l1 Alloy Steel Bar Heat Treated to ... . .... .. . . ..... . & &90 1%8 71 72 73 . . . o . . .. . .. . . * * * * * * . .... 204 ksitl TS .. . 74 75 76 192 193 S-N Curves for M-20 Steel. . .. . Smooth and Notched . Steady and Alternating Stress . ... S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel.o . and GMR-235 Heat Resistant Alloys... ... * * 177 108. 1 S-N Curves for Tricent Steel.*. 243 ksi UTS .. S-N Curves for S-816. S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel. Quenched and Tempered.. . .. ...183 . •* .... Lapelloy. * . and Type 403 Alloys .. . .6 ksinUTS . .. . S-N Curve for H 23 Hot Work Tool Steel.. .0. Smooth . . . .. Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life .... * * at Zero Alternating Stress. 280-300 ksi UTS . .0. . ... . o.. .. * S-N Curves for Inconel X-550 Alloy... .LuS FIGURE or nLBYAwmixoU (Contuinued) PAGE 53 54 S-N Curves for 8640 Wrought Steel. . . . * * e * * * a .0 184 185 • 186 S-N Curves for Udimet 500. . . o * . . . ... e * * 1700o7 S-N Curves for Inconel t13C at Several Combinations of ... * 177 • 178 179 o 179 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 S-N Curve for 14B50 Steel. .. S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel... . . 182 S-N Curves for Super TM-2 Steel. Smooth and Notched . .. .. 17000F S-N Curves for Inconel 713C at Zero Steady Stress and a e * e * * e ... * * 179 * 180 180 . * .. . . ..5 k-ei u• .187 ... *.. Heat Treated to 155 Isl . . 182 S-N Curves for Hy-Tuf Steel.. . .... 181 S-N Curves for Crucible UHS-260 Steel. 138 kal UTS . 183 Approximate S-N Curves for Ferrovac WB-49 Steel. Not Nitrided and Nitrided. S-N Curves for Heat Resistant Alloys Tested at Room Temperature S-N Curves for Inconel X Sheet.. . .0.. . 0 0. Hastelloy R-235. . . S-N Curves for 8640 Wrought Steel.. . . . . .. . . . . ..* .....

.. . 0 . . . . for Two Heat Treatments . e 0 . . . . e .. With Steady Loads * * 0 * 0 # 0 e .. e a 0 e o.. S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 2014-T6 (14S-T6) Rolled ..0. S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 24S-T.LIST 0F ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE 77 78 79 PAGE S-N Curves for PH 15-7 Mo Stainless Steel. . 2. With Zero Steady Loads (A ='o ) * e * 0 e e * . With Steady Loads (A = 0. Condition RH950. . e * 0 . . S-N Curves for 24S-T4 Aluminum Alloy. . . . Hand Forged. .. . ... and 16000. .0. & . . . .. . . .. . 198 S-N Curves for Sandvik Steel. 0 . S-N Curves for Notched Alclad 24S-T3. .. . 12000.. . * . . a.. . . a & * . Condition TH1050. .5. ... S-N Curves for Smooth Rene 41 Alloy. . (A -o. * e* * 0 0 0 . . S-N Curves for 16-25-6 Timken Alloy ..67) . 87 S-N Curves for Smooth Rene 41 Alloy. 14000. Rolled. . 211 . . 202 202 203 Mo-Waspalloy .. . * 0 0 0 S-N Curves for Alclad and for Bare 24S-T3. . e * * * e e e o e. 0 0 * * * 0 * * * . . at .0 * 107 Cycles. ... * * 0 0 0 * 0 * * 204 88 S-N Curves for Smooth Rene 141 Alloys for Two Heat Treatments.0. . Heat Treated to 180 ksi Minimum UTS e .e. for 14S-T6 0 0 0 e 0 * . . 14000 and 16000p.3% . ..4 0) Alloy S-N Curves for 6. e e .. .... ... Rolled. Axial Tests . . Kt = Kt z 2. 197 80 81 S-N Curves for X-816 Alloy . ... ... . and Short Transverse. Longitudinal. . Showing Steady Plus Alternating Stress ... for Two Heat Treatments. . e . S-N Curves for Refractaloy 26 at Room Temperature . WADD TR 60-42 ix . . * a . . 114000. .. . 12000. at Room Temperature..* a e 0 * 0 210 * 210 95 96 97 98 Alternating vs. at Room Temperature. for One Heat Treatment.. . 199 82 83 84 85 86 S-N Curves for 347 Stainless Steel.. e.'. Heat Treated to 225 kui Minimum UTS . . * . . .. 0 * 0 0 e 208 208 # 209 92 93 94 Alternating vs. .. * 195 196 S-N Curves for 17-7 PH Stainless Steel.25) . e . .. . 0 . o 201 S-N Curves for Stellite 31 (X. Extruded . for N Aluminum Alloy. . 4 . Smooth . 0 &. and 16000. Extruded . Showing Steady Plus Alternating Stress . . .. * * . e .. 0 . ..... . 0 *. 200 S-N Curves for 403 Stainless Steel. .. .5. . e . 207 . # . * 205 89 206 90 91 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 2014 (14s-T). Steady Stress for Notched Alclad 24S-T3. ..0. Mean Stress... . . ... 211 212 .. .0.. S-N Curves for 2014-T6 Aluminum Alloy. .

Smooth Specimens . . . for Aluminum Alloy 2 4 S-T. . Kt z 4. ... Scattere *. .&. Showing Mean. Hot Rolled.. Mean Stress for 24S-T3 Aluminum Alloy Plate . 216 . e Aluminum Alloy. . Steady Stress. . Fully . Kt 110 ll 2.. .. . for Steady Plus .. .. Log-Probability Diagram Showing Fatigue Life-Times.. . .. Smooth ... . .. . .. * * * * 212 . *.. . Smooth o . . 105. on Notched Specimens.223 e S-N Curves for 758-T6 Aluminum Alloy. . .. .. Alter'nating vo. Alternating vs.. . .. .. • .. . * *. Specimens • S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 758-T6. .... .. . Hot Rolled . and. . * * 217 Typical Load-Time Curves for Part of S-N Curve on Fig. .. 217 S-N = ma) *for * . * . . for 758-T6 Aluminum Alloy . . Fully . .226 . . * * * * . . . 216 AlternatIng vs. . . .05. . for Aluminum Alloy 758-T6. Axial Loads.. .* * . 8-N Curves for 248-T3 Plate.0. . . .. . . .. . . . Notched. .0 * Stress (A = 1. 214 S-N Curves for 24S-T4 Aluminum Alloy.. . Smooth. Smooth and Notched. .. . . .219 Alternating vs.*. Mean Stress.. .. .224 . . . Fully Reversed . Steady Stress for Alclad 75S-T6.. . • • • .. . . . e . . for Aluminum Alloy 24S-T. .... . . . * • . Reversed Axial Stress ...0) ... . 219 112 113 1l4 115 116 117 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 755-T. . . . for 24S-T4 a 0 * a . * o . o222 .. . 220 S-N Curves . e• . . . .. Extruded. 218 o . . for Steady plus Alternating . Notched. for Aluminum Alloy 758-T6.225 118 119 120 0 0225 S-N Curve for 758-T Aluminum Alloy.. Band. . S-N Curves for Alolad 75S-T6... itt = 2. Mean Stress. . *... . 213 Alternating vs.. Reversed Stress . ... . . . . . for N . (A Curves & 61s-T6 * .. .. .. . . Rolled.... .. . . Extruded Bar 75S-T6. . 221 Fully Reversed . . ..5 . . 758-T6 Rolled and Drawn Rod. Axial Stress. Kt z 2•5. S-N Curve. S-N Curve for 2IS-T3.. a . . . .. Steady Stress... . .. . . * . .0) . S-N Curve.215 Alternating vs. . 207c) Cycles. .. .. * * * . .226 " Stresses. . . Notched. . S-N Curves for 615-T6 Aluminum Alloy Sheet.. 218 S-N Curves for 61S-T6 Aluminum Alloy. ..Ijay or UaMYAYZ (Continued) PAGE VMS= 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 AlmIinum Alloy. .. . at Different • . .. . Fully Reversed at Three Speeds. Rolled Plate. . ... . . x VADD YR 60•42 . .. . . . . ..218 Alternating Stress (A = 1. Plate.

Fully Reversed. . * * . .0 e . . . . . . * * * and Short Transverse. . ... 229 125 126 127 128 S-N Curves for 76S-T61 Aluminum Alloy-Alternating Torsion Stress Superimposed on Steady Torsion Stress . . ... Longitudinal. . . Steady Stress.6. . . for Various Probabilities of Failure. .. . 228 S-N Curves for 768-T61 Aluminum Alloy-Alternating Bending Stress Superimposed on the Indicated Steady Bending Stress . • 227 . . ..e 230 S-N Curves for Vibratory Reversed Bending of X76S-T Aluminum • . . 0. . . . Alloy. .*... . S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy X76S-T. . . . ZK6OA-T5. . . and Coated 232 Anodically to 0. * * a * * * * *. . S-N Curves for AZ-81T4 Cast Magnesium Alloy . 10. . .. 239 240 241 242 Magnesium Alloy. Alloy . . . . . . . 135 136 Magnesium Alloy .. 230 . Kt 2 4. * 229 Rotating Bending Tests ... .. . Hand Forged.. for N = 107 Cycles . . . . . . . . Kt 0 3.. * a * . . for=N = vs. * . .. . . . . for Axial Loads. 133 134 Steady Stress vs.. and Short Transverse. . Axial Tests . . 123 124 S-N Curves for 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) vIFGw• 121 122 S-N Curves for 753-T6 Aluminum Alloy. .. * o . Longitudinal. .* .. . . . . . . . Alternating Stress for Magnesium Alloy FS-lh. . Steady Stress for Extruded Magnesium Alloy .a. on Notched Specimens.* ... . .. . . .. * • • * * a . . . . . . Steady Cycles for Extruded Alternating Stress v . . . . . *a Alternating Stress vs. . .0. .. * * S-N Curves for Magnesium Alloy AZ31X. .. Magnesium Alloy. 234 . . Stress ... . .. . . .. . . * * * • * 9 . . .. . . Axial Tests . . .236 Alternating Stress107 and 10. WADD TR 60-42 xi . for Notched X76S-T Aluminum .. 50. . * . ... .. .0025 inch Thickness .0. . . . ... . Smooth Sheet. . . 227 PAGE S-N Curve for 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloy. . for N : 101 and 5(103) Cycles .. 237 238 137 138 139 140 141 S-N Plot of Fatigue Tests of FS-la (AZ31A-0) S-N Plot of Fatigue Tests of J-1 (AZ61A-F) S-N Plot of Fatigue Tests of 0-1 (AZ8OA-F) Magnesium Alloy. . . ZK6OA-T5. .. .* * * & 231 231 129 130 131 132 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 7076-T61. and 90% . . Not Coated. 233 234 S-N-R Curves for Magnesium Alloy FS-lhq Smooth. .. . ... . Hand Forged. 235 S-N Curves for Extruded Magnesium Alloy ZK6OA-T5.. . .-.. ... . . S-N Curves for 7079-T6 Aluminum Alloy. . o . Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. .. .. S-N Curves for Magnesium Alloy J-.. . . . . ..

. . 0 . . . .. . .. at 750. R... .. * . at 750. . 0 * . 6000 and 6500F. . R. . . .. . . 2145 145 1*6 S-N Plot of Fatigue Tests of Titanium Alloys TI-150A and RC-130B . Smooth 7 AI-3 Mo Titanium Alloy. . * a .0) .. . * . . R. .... . . WADD TR 60-42 Xi1 . . . * PAGE 243 143 S-N Curves for Smooth Specimens of Magnesium Alloy HM-21 at Room Temperature and at 5000 and 6500F. e . . . . 252 * *. 151 152 S-N Curves for 6 AI-4 V Titanium Alloy Bar. . . 254 254 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life. . . 8000.. .. 8000... . . . .. . . and 1000. . . . . . . . . for Two Heat Treatments . * ... . . . . . . . . . . S-N Curve of a Heat Resistant Glass-Fabric Reinforced Plastic Laminate. . ..0) ... & . With Steady Loads (A = 1..F.. . * 248 249 249 249 149 150 S-N Curves for 6 Al-4 Va Titanium Alloys. . 246 247 S-N Curves for Titanium Alloy RC-130B . 251 153 S-N Curves for Aged.. and Annealed.Smooth 7 Al-3 Mo Titanium Alloy. . Speeds With and Without Coolant . . .0 . . With Zero Steady Load (A =l .9 . 4000• 6000. With Steady Loads (A = 0..*. . . . 0 0 0 . . .. . . . Heat Treated to 160 kul Minimum UTS . * a & 250 S-N Curves for Aged.. of Survival of Stress at Constant Life.0. . * .. . .. .. * * * .. and Annealed.0) and Without Steady Loads (A -). at 450 With the Warp.*. .0. .. S-N Curves for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Laminates .. and 1000O. . . Alloy. . . . 0 * . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . e* 253 155 156 S-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress at Constant Life.000 ... .. * . 0 . .. .. a . . Moore Tests of Al-NI Bronze .. . R. .. . . Alloys. o. S-N Curves for 6 Al-4 Va Titanium Alloy . . * 154 S-N Curve for Both Smooth and Notched Gray Iron ... . . . ... . 157 158 S-N Curves for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Laminated .Constant Probability * * o* . . . .. . . .. . . . * . . . Moore Tests of Beryllium Copper .. .LIST OF 1LTPSRATIONS (Continued) FIOUIG 142 S-N Curves for Smooth Specimens of Magnesium Alloy HM-31 and HK-31 at Room Temperature and at 5000.. . a 244 144 S-N Curves for Smooth and Notched Specimens of Titanium & . With and Without Superimposed Mean Stress . .. 0& 0 00& ..67 and 1. 147 148 S-N Diagrams for Ti-75A Titanium Alloy Tested at Different Effect of Alloy Content on the Fatigue Properties of Ti-Cr-Mo . . . .0 . With Steady Loads (A = 1. . . 255 256 257 258 159 160 S-N Curves for a Heat Resistant Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic laminate. 4000. RC 55 Type .

* . o . . . . .261 . . * * * a . o . * . * * * . . at 2100OF .. . . . . . . * * * * * .. . . .. S-N Curves for Natural and Laminated Wood.. . * .. .. o 0 . . .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE 161 162 S-N Curves for a Heat Resistant Glass Fabric Reinforced Plastic PAGE Laminate.. . Steady Plus Alternating Stress. * . . 266 . . . 260 . 167 168 169 Stress-Rupture Curves for QNV Beryllium at 1100OF o .. . . . . Steady Plus Alternating Stress. o o . Smooth and Notched. . Rotating Bending Tests. .. and Laminated Woods . . . * * * .. * * a 258 * S-N Curves of Heat Resistant Glass-Fabric Reinforced Plastic Laminates . . . . . . . . * * . 265 Approximate S-N Curves for Beryllium.0. WADD TR 60-42 xiii .. * * * * * * & 259 163 164 165 166 S-N Curves for a Glass Fabric Laminate Plastic.. . Smooth Specimens. 264 Approximate S-N Curves for Beryllium. . Alternating Stresses Only. . ... at Room Temperature .e. . . 267 170 Approximate S-N Curves for Beryllium. .. . * . . . . . . Smooth and Notched. . . . 262 263 S-N Curve for Brush QMV Beryllium. . . . Smooth and Notched. at 1100 0 F.. . Approximate S-N Scatter Band for 200k Specimens of Natural . .

1. Dev. (I)-/. the data for each item begin on the left hand page. In other words. but it must be done cautiously. the report presents for each item all of the special conditions under which its reported fatigue properties hold good as far as they are stated in the references. RAT R. anJ are continued on the right hand page. Reference (2) should be consulted for a discussion of the statistical analysis of fatigue data. and an "Item" number in the table.3 Notation A AC cpm Elong. with Table. Number of Life Cycles for Indicated Sm St.SECTION I.1 Purpose of This Report IMTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to provide research and design engineers and metallurgists with. 2_/ Numbers in parentheses refer to the Bibliography. as determined in the laboratory. In the few cases in which a value of the "standard deviation" is given. Transverse Room Temperature Fatigue Strength.2 The Format of The Report The information gathered from the references is presented in tables. Se Geometric (Theoretical) Stress Concentration Factor Oil Quench Ratio of Minimum to Maximum Stress Root Radius of Notch Reduction of Area (Static) Reduction of Area. 1. and Figure numbers. WADD TR 60-42 . is given at the back of the report. only about one-half of the specimens tested had as much strength.A. and the other half showed less than the tabulated strength. Fully Reversed Stress. The values of fatigue strength for a specified cycle life. some extrapolation downward may be Justifiable. 1960 for publication as a WADD Report. Paragraph. A list of the materials. figures and brief discussions. FC Ht. 1. and a few high temperature properties. listed under Se in the tables. In these tables. complete data as to the "room temperature" fatigue properties of structural materials. Information not covered by the topics in the tables is given in the brief discussions to be found in Sections II to VII and on the figures referred to in the discussions. since these properties can he so radically changed by so many different variables. as nearly as possible.T. Also. on which the item numbers are repeated. Each individual value of Se is given a line in the proper table. UTS WC Mean (Steady) Stress Standard Deviation of Fatigue Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength (Static) Water Cool YP _ Yield Point (Static) Manuscript released by the author March 31. as discussed in ref. ksi Ratio of Alternating to Steady Stress Air Cool Cycles per minute Elongation (Static) Furnace Cool Heat Thousands of psi Kt OQ R1 R R. must of course be understood to be an average or median value.

S-N curves are given on Fig. (See also data on 4135. A pecullar~design for notched R. Specimens were carburized to a depth of 0. Eight to eleven specimens were tested for each S-N curve. in general. 8.0 to 4. Items 24-30 Ref. on Fig. Steels that have been carburized or nitrided are not plotted on the figure. Figs. 6 Material is Smooth 2315 Steel. Moore specimens was used. .e "fatigue limit" of the iron. 4 The 1020 steel was "hot-rolled bar stock . Fig.1 Discussion 9f Data in Tables I to IV SAE Steels 1008 to 4335 Items 1-3 Ref. Authors of ref.. 6 WADD TR 60-42 2 . were more responsible for the failures than the choice of one steel rather than another of those studied.ii on this very low carbon steel cannot be extrapolated to predict the results of partial decarburization of modern high strength steels. 2. therefore the authors of reference 6 concluded that stress concentrations due to designs or machining marks. The desl nis shown in Fig. Items 4-5 steel". however. 5 Ref. These are steels designed by the steel-makers. etc. Items 6-23 Ref.0. R. the carbon content nearly to the vanishing point would lower. . 6 shows SiN curves. have been classified as Heat Resistant Alloys and listed in Table V. For the materials tested the authors conclude that "there Is no advantage of one material over the other at either small or large numbers of cycles when critically shaped notches are present in steels tested in fatigue". much less than the tests predicted.1 General STEELS Steels given SAE or AISI numbers are placed in Tables I to III. NOTE: There is no particular significance in the fact that "Item 30" is in the same block as Item 27. since they offer considerable resistance to corrosion under high temperature conditions. the wrought steels in the form of hot-rolled stock". 4 to 7 give S-N curves for the 1040 steel. 3.2. 1.SECTION II.2 2. 4140.044". The gears failed at fatigue strengths. 9. Fig. These studies were made in connection with studies of the fatigue of full-scale rear-axle automobile gears. or eliminat . Stainless steels. have been plotted on Fig. of electric melted In this series of tests the "cast steels were supplied in coupon form. The long-life (N = 107) fatigue strength of smooth steel specimens.041" to 0. The tests were primarily to study the relative merits of cast and wrought steels. 3 These tests on SAE 1008 steel were run primarily to see if lowe . Other steels. 2. 2 shows the S-N curves for the 1008 at before and after decarburizing. Items 31-33 Ref. 6 Material is Notched 2315 Steel. usually for various specific fields of application. or lives. and also of specimens notched with theoretical stress concentration factors anywhere from 2. 8630 and 8640 steels). It must be pointed out that the effect sh•. are listed as Special Steels and will be found in Table IV.

Items 54-59 Ref. Items 60-67 Ref. 5 Discussion of Items 6-23 applies also to these items on 4135 and 4110 Item 53 Ref.14 for the two-dimensional ease and 3. 2330 is shown in Fig. Items 38-39 Ref. Items 40-44 Fig. Fig.M7 for S-N curves are given in Fig.rolled from commercial. 12 Thest tests show the nitrided notch strength to be about triple the unnitrided notch strength for this 4320 steel. for Item 37. 6 *3t Nmes . WADD TR 60-42 3 . For this SAE 1130 steel. The S-N curves taken from the report are given on Figs. at the Intersction ot the bottom of the notch with the surface where the stress is No method Is known for calculating stress at that point. S-N curve for Notched Garburized Smooth Carburized 2330 are shown in Fig. the value obtained for the surface opposite the notch was used in "An Approximation plotting curves". Peterson says: can be obtained by means of the Neuber solution. Static properties are given as determined at Wright Field "Tested transverse to the direction of rolling". Items 45-52 steel.OWs of the sh•pe of the cross-sectlon through the notch. Failure starts. electricfurnace heats". In general. 16 shows the S-N curve as traced from the reference report. 12. 10 Ref. Comparison of Items 56 and 55. The material is described as "hot. Fig. plotted from data in the reference. Because Material is Smooth 230 Steel for Items 34-36 and Notched 2330 Steel r-N curves for See Items 2to 3A &Dove for general discussion. 13. the three-dimensional case". or 59 and 58. however. which gives a stress concentration factor of 3. Ref. Most of the data for static properties of this 41330 steel and all 17-21. 11 Etching showed the grain flow of this 4320 steel to be transverse to the axis of the specimens. 8 for notched specimens The "endurance limits" for this SAE 2340 steel were obtained from a few specimens. 10. In the "Discussion"p R. this point is more highly stres•d than In the center of the notch. 13 data for fatigue properties were scaled from various charts in the reference report. the S-N curves upon which these items depend were each based on from five to ten or fifteen specimens. indicates that increasing the time of nitriding from 8 to 15 hours Increased the long life fatigue strength of the specimens tested by about 15 percent. apparently highest. are given in Fig. based on eight specimens. Items 34-. E. were calculated at the surface opposite the notch. therefore.-T Ref. 15 shows the effect of mean (steady) stresses superimposed on the alternating stresses. reference 7. only. 11. 14. The reference shows an S-N curve. approximate S-N curves for fully reversed stressing.

2.6 to 14. The curves for smooth derived by extrapolation from tests on notched specimens. 2 Refs. The stresses reported herein are based on the findings of reference 16. 5 Discussion of Items 6-23 applies also to these items on 4335 steel. Items 3-12 Ref. rotating" instead of "rectangular-cantilever". A large number of specimens was used for these studies. Note that the finite life variability was obtained by analyzing constant-stress data. Figs.16 It should be noted that by changing the heat treatment the item 2 steel was given a different microstructure and a reduced tensile strength.19. Is based on only about a dozen test specimens.) This Is thought. (Surface finish In not reported for these specimens. Considerable variability appears in the detailed data of this refer'ence. to specimens of greater size. by the authors. whereas the endurance limit variability was obtained by analyzMg constant-life data. Static properties are averaged from tests of two to four specimens.4 ksl. The reference gives 95% confidence limits for each Se. The small differences among them are probably not as significant as they appear to be. in case-oiFextrapolating from test results on specimens In the neighborhood of 2" diam. to account for the disproportionally low endurance limit of the notched 1 3/4" diameter specimens. reversed axial specimens were two curves for WADD TR 60-42 Refs. Fig. been "round.20 25 based on reference 20. determined fatigue strength.2. The method of computing stresses as reported in reference 15 was reviewed in reference 16 and certain inaccuracies pointed out. amounting to from 1. The "endurance limits for these items may be presumed to be lower than would have been obtained if the specimens had (See Figs. (Photomicrographs show pronounced bending In some of the longitudinal sections. show the statistical variability of the two steels. 4 . The authors of the reference believe It to be due. It may be presumed that this accounts for the reduced fatigue strength of the Item 2 steel. These tests were made by the Prot method which theoretically gives So for Infinite life. The the 190 ksi UTS steel represent specimens from different bars. There is an Implied conclusion in the reference that size effect is extremely small. Each of the curves. 15. Items 74-77 Ref. shows individual S-N curves for fully tests on four hardnesses of the steel. and between longitudinal and transverse specimens cf each heat. as shown. reference 15. 18. 17 The reference reports a size-effect study on specimens of SAE 4340 steel for sizes from 1/8 inch to 1 3/A inch diameter. to non-uniformity both transversely and longitudinally in metallurgical structure of the 3" diameter bars used as source material.2 SAE Steels 4340 and 4350 Items 1. 22 and 23. Figs. wATER gves a-high degree of confidence to the resultsA for the type of specimen used and the manner of testing. 24 shows S-N curves from the reference report. at least to a considerable degree. The implication of the report. The S-N curves. 14.Items 68-73 Ref. 16 of reference 23). Items 13-16 Fig. 15.). both in the data tables and on the S-N curves. 14 These six values of Se for 4330 steel indicate variations among three different heats of steel. Is that inclusions rather than surface finish. 22 and 23.

23 Fig. so that a curve of the type of those on Fig. both of which might have been a little higher if the carbon had been chosen to the usual 4340 speoifications. S-N curves. undum crystals with silicate glass. throughout the S-N curve. which may indicate that the SAE 4340 steel in general is permeated by this composition". . Data for Items 22 and 25. . were obtained by combinabout 50 specimens. one of the heats to about the same static strength as the other.Twelve speolmens were tested for each S-N curve on Fig. . was in finite life. shown in the data table. Items 27. presented herein. In for this purpose. . The 2 0. and that for any value shown on these curves there was also a steady stress of WADD TR 60-42 5 . supposedly clean material. in each case. . . and correspondingly low fatigue strength in the transverse direction. 25. Check tests with product rather than a product of refractory erosion. . of the specimens made by the metallurgical laboratory of the Republic Steel Corporation revealed some fine dispersed globular non-metallic inclusions . a few specimens of this material. small inclusions of the same appearance were found. 24 Fig. which is probably a deoxidation . of about 15 additional specimens tested at constant stress. It Is to be noted that two heats of steel were used. give Information regarding Items 21. 29 cannot be drawn. a considerable These data are amount of data were obtained on 4340 steel at room temperature. 28 and 29. 26 and 27. Ing the staircase (2) test results with the results. 30.#23. Items 17-20 Ref . especially at high stress of high stress level specimens so seriousHeating effects shortened life ly that cpm were reduced. the inclusions proved to be carborthroughout the matrix of the steel. for them. 32 shows results of tests of 4340 steel. the mean (steady) stress varies continuously maximum tension". (items 17 and 18) showed low ductility in the direction transverse to forging. each hardened However. which were studies of the effect of varying amplitude. Alternating stress-steady stress diagrams (modified Goodman diagrams) are given for both smooth and notched specimens on Fig. Each value of Se in the data table Is based on a staircase test of The S-N curves. Ref.were obtained from tests run at "zero to In such tests. determined from the staircase tests. submitted by Republic Steel Corporation. This heat also showed more variability in the transverse tests than in the longitudinal tests. from 3450 to 90. 28 Ref. Pigs. Items 21-26 Ref. 22 In this report on high temperature fatigue tests. Note that curves for items 38 and 39 show alternating stresses only. revealed negligible influence in this respect. submitted by Republic Steel Corporation especially However. The discovery of a few unusually large inclusions led to "Micro-examination considerable study of the cleanliness of SAE 4340 steel. 24 and 26. curves show scatter Scatter in long-life strength. . Figs. Items 29-39 levels. 31 shows the "control" S-N curves for 4340 steel obtained by the authors of reference 23 incidental to the main purpose of their tests. This fact should be taken into account in conparticularly items 19 and 20. 21 These steels are called SAl 4340 but they are somewhat low in carbon. sidering either the static or the fatigue strengths.

37. were made to "investigate the actual fatigue behavior of SAE 4340 steel in what range". appears to have only a slight effect on torsional alternating stress. 38. in the reference. were "drawn separately by inspection in order to represent the trend of the data". Items 63-67 Ref. 42. 41. to the fact that "the notches cut in the 'notched' and strength of the steel to practicalvacuum melted specimens reduced the life ly the same values previously found for the air-melted steel".. 887 of the reference.e. zero to tension.In other words. as shown in the reference. About 450 For items 65 and 66. 36. The steel used for item 67 was made by the consumable electrode method. I. the tests were "puleating". For higher tensile strengths the "endurance limits" have. Items 57-62 Refs. the data from the two shanks were combined. and the standard deviation from t e-"ean as 8. 26 The S-N curves for 4340 steel shown on Figs. the S-N curves are given on Fig.39. therefore. data were taken. Between 170 and 200 additional specimens were tested and the results used In determining the values of Se for each of the items 57. since the nominal formula used for calculating them (Nc/I) does not apply in the plastic region. according to Fig. 34. 35. The effect of steady stress. Items 68-71 Ref. . Note that torsional steady stress.40.* The purpose WADD TR 60-42 6 . This gives an unusual degree of reliability to these values of Se. The reference states that "the rehas been reported to be a brittle ported brittleness of the 230 ksi UTS steel tested is perhaps not so serious as had been thought". studies show no significant difference in the strength of the that statistical two shanks. analyfed by the Step Method (reference 2)s which gave the mean endurance limit at 10 cycles as 86 kal. Item 40 Ref. 27. is called. appear on Fig.28 S-N curves for 4340 steel are shown on Figs. is shown on Figs. p. and 61. for items 63 and 64. 25 Reference states The 4340 steel was taken from two propeller shanks. stresses plotted to the right of the yield-point boundary are more of the nature of modulus-of-rupture points. been found to increase at a slower rate for this steel. Only 20 specimens were tested and the reference suggests that the value of Se as determined by an abbreviation of the Prot method is subject to some uncertainty. 30 These tests of the transverse fatigue properties of SAE 1340 steel were made on steel from the same heat that was used for items 57-72. 33 shows mean "endurance limits" increasing linearly with UTS. 59. At least 280 specimens were used in determining each of the six S-N curves on these figures.magnitude equal to the maximum tensile alternating component. The tests Two hundred or more specimens were used for each of the S-N curves. Attention specimens of vacuum melted steel were tested for each of the curves. 37. Of course. 29 The S-N curves for 4340 steel. and From Tables II and III. up to 220 kcl UTS. Fig. Items 41-56 Ref. in general.0 ksls for this steel which had been heat-treated to about 160 ksl UTS. but only for the single heat from which all of the specimens were taken.

There is not enough information to warrant any assumption as to the variances of the "fatigue strengths" listed in Table III.) Tentative conclusions. as*Obe ags-. are based on about 250 smooth and 250 notched specimens. . amounting to from 3. 48 and 49 was drawn to represent either 7 or 8 specimens. amounting to from 2.5 to 4. 5 These items show the effect of different heat treatments on smooth Ref.* The reference concludes 40~. '19 Item 2 Surface Treatment Gentle grind Gentle grind Gentle grind Dry grind Gentle grind Gentle grind & shot peen & tumble "8 Type Round " No. Surface Treatment of Specimens Tested for Fgse. but it is shown that the differences are so small in many cases that they may not be significant. 32 Each S-N curve of the 22 that are shown on Figs. 2. In addition to the effect of shape. The reference gives 95% confidence limits for each Se. These tests were made by the Prot method. Items 72-75 and notched 4340 steel. which theoretically gives So for infinite life. as to the effect of various degrees of gentleness in surface finishing. Items 86-87 Ref. The reference gives 95% confidence limits for each So. •n the present steels ar of a •ow . 29 The S-N curves for this 14350 steel. These tests were made by the Prot method which theoretically gives So for infinite life.2. are drawn in the report. Static properties are averaged from tests of two to four speqimens.'fRM. (The fatigue strengths are given as listed in the reference report. & hand polish 7 " " 7 VADD Tn 60-42 . l2 These eight values of So for 4350 steel indicate variations among four different heats of steel. and between longitudinal and transverse specimens of each heat.0 to 3. 417. The small differences among them are probably not as significant as they appear. and between longitudinal and transverse specimens of each heat.8 ksi. The small differences among them are probably not as signifioant as they appear to be. between the tests of round and of flat specimens of the same material. Static properties are averaged from tests of two to four specimens. Much greater differences occur.5 ksi. 40. shown on Fig. in general. as shown in the table below.aleable inolusion.3 SAN Steels 52100 to 98B40 Items 1-22 Ref. there may be some small difference chargeable to the difference in the speeds of testing round and flat specimens. maust~lgto the zlat5ve oeffcet of non-. Items 76-85 Reo. 14 These ten values of Se for 4340 steel indicate variations among five different heats of steel. of Specimens 8 7 48 7 6 & hand polish & heat treat. not Important causes B-N otves for the four different hardnesees are given in Pigs.aleable spheroidal Inclusions tftvw* as oesared with lon~gitudImil specimens. item 88-95 Refe.

so that Items 23 and 25 were from the bore of the tube and Items 24 and 26 were from the outside of the tube. in spite of the great reduction in size of foreign inclusions". Particular attention is given to the apparent lack of an endurance limit for this steel in the high hardness state. Figs.. " 19 20 21 22 Gentle grind & electropolish Severe grind Items 23-26 Ref. . and for wrought 8640 steel in Figs. 50 shows tests apparently comparable with R. S-N curves for cast 8630 steel are given in Figs. Size of specimens Is not stated.Surface Treatment of SUeemens Tested row Fly. Items 41-42 Ref. Items 2T-32 Ref. Moore rotating cantilever tests.1 applies also to these Items on 8630 and 8640 steel. 33 A comprehensive study by Styri on 52100 steel. A supplementary set of tests was run on a special (vacuum) melt of 52100 to see if the size of inclusions affected the degree of scatter.. 32 The four sets of specimens were cut from a tube of 3 5/8" O. 8 In the case of the boron steel 14B50. 5 The discussion of Items 6-23 in paragraph 2. 13 For the data in Table III on this boron steel.2.and t3-the very conse-loe-rable scatter in the test results. for smooth specimens only. Items 33-o0 Ref. 40. 49 t contInuea j Item Surface Treatment Type "No.D. and 5/8" I. 98B40. "A wide scatter appears here also. 53 and 54. 56-60 show the S-N curves as given in the report. Items 43-52 Ref. WADD TR 60-42 8 . Fig.D. R. values were scaled from graphs in the reference report. 51 and 52. the reference shows an S-N curve. 55. Gentle grind & grit blast Severe grind & shot peon Gentle grind & shot peon Severe grind & tumble Gentle grind " Flat " " . of Specimens 8 8 8 10 9 Gentle grind Gentle grind & hand polish Severe grind Gentle Gentle Gentle Gentle Flat "8 Severe grind & hand polish 11 12 2j grind & hand polish grind & tumble ggrind & shot peon grind Round 7 7 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 17 1 15 Gentle grind & hand polish & heat treat. a Rc 60. Fig.

61. and 8. but was partially stress relieved (3000P). it has about the same 5. 62 and 63 for both Items 111-7 Ref. The S-N curves appear in the reference up to log cycles only. Ref. testing procedures. Item 9.Items 1-6 given on Fig. Items 10-13 Ref. Items 7-9 Ref. in attempting to account for the differences in fatigue strength. 64-65. etc. S-N curves for these steels are given on Figs. but as they are drawn it is reasonable to assume they would not show much decrease in values of Se if they had been carried out to 107 cycles. was tempered at the same temperature as was Item However. 34 S-N curves for these tests of Tricent Steel (now called 300-M) are Also on the figure are the curves for notched saecimens of Kt a 3. 34 smooth and notched specimens. fatigue strength as item 5. S-N curves are given in Figs. Attention should be given to the many differences between the conditione of heat treatment. between values of So for these items and that of item 1. Super Hy-Tuf. 5. 29 The two Items 7 and 8 on Tricent-Steel apply to steel of about the There is about 15 percent difference same tensile strength as that of item 1. 13 Data for the Hy-Tuf and Super Hy-Tuf steels were scaled from charts in the reference. WADD TR 6042 9 ..

Items 5-6 Ref. 66. 67 together with two other alloys. and 51 to 63 arbitrary. Items 8-9 See Fig. 36 Comments on items 5-6. 37 For Halmo tool steel ghe reference gives a small S-N curve indicating that the fatigue strength at 10 cycles is appreciably lower than at 107 cycles. Room temperature S-N curves are given on Fig. TP-2B. Item 12 Ref. and the inclusion of such alloys as are listed in Table V in rather Items 64 to 74 of Table XII.SECTION III. Item 7 Ref. of Table XIV might have been included in Table V. the authors of reference 39 made "exploratory tests on several" heat resistant For eash of the room materials (S-816. they used five or six specimens. above. The curve is based on abput a dozen and a half specimens.2 Discussion of Data in Table V Items 1-4 Ref. They show the combination of steady and alternating stresses at the various stress levels. 35 An S-N curve for this H-23 steel. based on 107 specimens. 3. HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS 3. Items 13-14 Refs.1 Generl1 Many of the fatigue strength values given in Table V for these heat resistant alloys are the room temperature strengths of materials that had been The term "Heat Resistant" is not well prepared for high temperature testing. defined. 'They "Although the scatter in the fatigue data is generally relatively small. 69. temperature S-N curves on Fig. 38 Regarding item 13. 38 S-N curves for H-11 alloy bar steel are given on Fig. TP-2-R). Items 10-11 Ref. Special attention should be given to the scale of stresses on this figure. 39. 67 to 86 of Table XIII. is given on Fig. apply to this Hastelloy R-235 alloy. 67 for S-N curve. the alternating stresses also increase. Note that as steady stresses increase. 68. 70. 35 The effect of nitriding this Perrovac WB-49 steel is shown graphically on Fig. Inconel Xp Type 403. The data on Inconel X come from two references. Notched fatigue strength is considerably increased by thp nitridIng. say:these data must be considered only approximate since so few specimens were used for each curve". Ref. WADD TR 60-42 10 . 36 The fatigue data for this GMR-235 "high temperature" alloy given in Table V are room temperature fatigue properties of a material that had been prepared for testing at temperatures of 1200OF and 1650 0 F.

were derived from figures given in the 713C. the other scale for the upper pair of ourves which show the effect (creep) of a steady stress only (A X0) Item 27 Ref. 40 Values of So for the Inconel X-550 were scaled from the S-N curves Ref. The authors of the reference say:. are given on Fig. 41 These Items give hih temperature (17000F) data on cast Inconel The S-N curves. for PH 15-7 Mo Stainless Steel show the combined steady and alternating stress aseparately on the scale of stresses.M Oembe zt1ce "fr Inoonael X. based on five or six specimens each. Items 17-26 Ref. Items 40-45 Ref. one for the lower pair of curves which show the effect on reversed stresses at 17000F. Figs-7•. 76. 43 S-N curves. 71. 74. derived from reference 38. Note that each curve is based on a small number of specimens. 42 S-N curves for Lapalloy. shows a Item 15-16 on Fi. 77. 37 For M-1 steel th# reference gives a small S-N curve indigating that the fatigue strength at 100 cycles is appreciably lower than at 104 cycles."Since only a small number of points were obtained for each curve. reference. 72. Figs. whose S-N curves are given in Fig. Fig. Items 38-39 Comments on items 36-37. 73. Ref. 74 show the separate components of crest stress. the comment above in item 28 applies. 73. Items 36-37 Ref. Notice that there are two scales on Fig. 35 The M-l0 steel. and two other alloys for comparison. Item 29 Ref. Whereas the reference figures show crest stresses (steady plus alternating). the diagrams presented are only approximate". 37 For V57-1 steel. 44 Although it may appear that the change in grain size of this Refractalloy 26 is responsible for the sharp decrease in long-life strength WADD TR 60-142 11 . Item 28 Ref. Items 30-33 Ref. Items 34-35 Ref. ouve S-9 of steadj and alternating stresses on Fig. 78 for 17-7 PH steel. above. for the N-155 alloy are given on Fig. 38 The S-N curves. The curve is based on about a dozen and a half specimens. 70. Note that the steady stresses increased as the alternating stresses Increased. 38 apply to Fig. 75. shows considerably more improvement in notched fatigue strength after nitriding than is shown in the WB-49 steel (Items 1-4).

Item 75. 83 show the steady and the alternating components of the stress. Note that the steady stress Increases as the alternating stress Increases. Items 46-63 Refs. Sandvikenj. For Item 47. above. 70. Note that each curve is based on a small numjer of specimens. 45. Items 68-70 The material Is 347 stainless steel.42. 79. 40 The "scatter diagrams" of the tests of Stellite 31 showed "relatively large scatter" which the reference says is "not unusual for cast materials and Is probably due to the large primary grain size". 80.39. The S-N curves are shown on Fig. 75. Ref. Items 71-77 Refs. show WADD TR 60-42 12 . together with two other alloys for comparison. The values of Se The data for 8 m and Se for items 51-63 were derived from values scaled from S-N curves of "crest" stresses in the reference. This primarily due to differences in heat treatment of this martensitic steel. materials referred to in the discussion of items 13-14. 81. 75 as one of three alloys shown on the figure for comparison. 403 stainless steel. Note that each curve is based on a small number of specimens. 82. 70. an S-N curve Is shown on Fig. cycle life Items 76. Attention Is called to the different values of Set at 2(101) cycles.40 The data on 403 stainless steel were collected from four references. 84. 4 The Sandvik steel was supplied to the investigator by Sandvikens Jernwerks Aktiebolag. Items 78-80 Ref. 45 The S-N curves on Fig.40 The data on S-816 alloy come from three references. 80. 77 refer to fatigue strength at two different values of for 403 stainless steel heat treated much the same as the steel in item 75. He goes on to say:"Consequently. appears on Fig. Table V were scaled from Fig. on the stress scale. For items 71-73s S-N curves on Fig. in items 74 and 75.42. 39. This is one of the above. Items 64-67 Ref. derived from curves In the reference. Sweden. The S-N curve. in S-N curves for items 48-50 are given on Fig. For Item 74. S-N curves for smooth and notched specimens and for two heat treatments are given on Fig. Item 46 is one of the materials mentioned in the discussion of Items 13-14. It is possible that there may be metallurgical dissimilarities other than grain size". Fig.of the smooth specimens. an S-N curve is shown on Fig. but not the notched ones. Each curve was based on at least five specimens but in no case more than ten specimens. the author of the reference points out that "the two grain sizes were obtained by using two different solution treatments" (see Table V ). show the steady and the alternating components of the stress. S-N curves are given on FPi. Varying the heat treatment affected the fatigue strength of smooth specimens appreciably.

85. Ref. but because of the small number of specimens available the variation between the heats could not be investigated completely. The S-N Items 88-90 Ref'. 70. Two heats of this alloywere tested. curves on Fig. Items 81-83 curves on Fig.s 87.qF ý ..1-11. 1' "1 n Inversion at st•legth* fora 10. The "creep" effect presumably would be considerable at the high temperatures used.4. 87 show fully reversed tests. at room and at high temperatures. 85.. Their S-N curves appear on Fig . This suggests caution in using the values of Se given. WADD TR 6o-42 13 . '40 Values of Se in S-N curves for this 6. 89. that could perhaps be Moot•ed tow b7 the lange soatter In a relatively small number of specinens. 88. 39 These heat resistant materials TP-2B and TP-2-R (molybdenum with and without tungsten) are among those referred to in the discussion of Items 13-14. 40 Values of so for this 16-25-6 Timken Alloy were scaled from the S-N Items 84-85 Ref. notched specimns.6-lit. Values of So In Table V were scaled rrom •i. Items 91-102 Ref. Table V were scaled from Fig. The values of Se given In Table V were scaled from the S-N curves given In Pig. curves appear on Fig. . 88. Items 86-87 Comments on items 5-6.- . 36 apply to this Udimet-500.- . 67. Ref. above. Those on Figs. show steady loads combined with alternating loads.3% Mo-Waspalloy are given on Fig. 89. 8. The speed of testing is not given in the reference. and would depend upon elapsed time. therefore total elapsed time for 107 cycles cannot be stated. 46 These are evaluation tests of General Electric's heat resistant nickel base alloy Rene 441."'l - 1W -v -4" 1- r 1U . 86.

48 S-N curves for smooth and notched specimens are given on Fig. 2. but give also. Items 3-6 Ref. The anodizing process was as follows: 1. Fig.2.surface polished but smoothness not measured although "believed" to be about 20 micro-in.SECTION IV. and on the figures. 92. for which 13 to 16 specimens were used for each curve. 123 and 130 for other aluminum alloys. In the discussions.2 14. 47 "Extruded" material . The specimens used for items 3 and 4 were subjected to corrosion WADD TR 6o-42 14 . 91. 3. (The forgings were 3" x 6 x 38" in size.1 General The titles of Tables VI to XI list the respective aluminum alloys according to the present Alcoa number code. 90 shows tests on same material. Fig.smooth .) Similar curves are shown on Figs. Ref. 93. show small differences between longitudinal and short transverse fatilue properties for this hand forged 2014-T6 alloy.. The effect of steady stress on the 10( cycle strength of this 2014-T6 material Is shown on Fig. ALUMINUM ALLOYS 4. Paint with zinc-chromate primer and normal finishing of Preparakote.2 Aluminum Alloy 2024 (24s) Items 1-4 alloy. 50 These items show the effect of certain surface treatments on the Microsooric examination of anodized surface showed that "entire surface was pitted". Within the tables. the code numbers used by the respective references appear. under similar conditions excepting shape. Seal in water at 1850F.1 Discussion of Data in Tables VI to XI Aluminum Alloy 2014 (14S) Items 1-2 Ref. For anodized and painted specimens.) Note that only nine specimens were tested for each S-N curve. in parentheses. Items 7-10 Ref. the corresponding former code number. ("Sharp edges in the gage section were broken with emery paper". Clean with hot caustic soda bath. The reference showed S-N curves from 104 to 107 cycles. 49 The S-N curves. machine and speed. 4. 4.2. Immerse in 15% H2SO04 both at 700F. a fourth step: 4.

9sl0. 418 1 "Rolled" materialI . and speed. items 8-9 Ref. Pig. 101 shows the effect of mean (steady) stress in reducing the alternating stress. Axial tests are reported in the reference at various "stress- WADE) TR 6o-*42 15 . which were traced from the reference report. but the equivalent information for 107 cycle life Is given in Fig. However. these curves are not reproduced herein.8wizs the ratigfs stressing by Vallowift P~lin taP water to drop slowlY uPOR an extrweamy light-weight wick In conttaot with the spcimen". it was made to behave closely like 75h-T6. traced from reference 51. 24S-T3s commercial sheet. 103 and 104 were plotted from Table 8 of the reference. Item 5 Ref.. Figs. 98 shows S-N curves for zero mean stress. Figs. by re-heat treating 24•3 to approximately the hardness of 75s-T6. ""Sharp edges :in the gage section were broken with emery paper".54 Material. However. Items 19-21 24s-T4 has superior energy oon Ref.smooth . 97 shows tests on this material. and Material is 214-TI hot-rolled aluminum alloy. Fig. 96.e. determined that lower notch-sensitivity.53. 100 shows S-N curves for fully reversed loading. Items 1*4-18 Ref's. by slow bend tests on specimens fatigued art-wa toward failure. fully reversed stresses.smooth and notched specimens of Alloy 24s-T #. *47 "Extruded" material . Fig.. Fig. 0. -Items10-13 Ref. 95 are for notched Aiclad 24S-T3. In this type of graph the mean (steady) stress Is changing continuously throughout the graph. The type of testing machine used made it Impossible to run a test at absolutely zero mean stress and constant amplitude. Items 22-23 Ref. i.5 Item 6 is Alciad and Item 7 is Bare 2143-T3. combinations of steady and vibratory components of stress.* 99.) Only 6 or bspecimens were tested for each S-N curve. 102 shows S-N curves for smooth and for notched 2*5-T3T. under same conditions excepting shape$ machine. the anodized specimens (Item 2) appear to have about the same strength as specimens subjected to tap water corrosion (Item 3). As a matter of fact.* Authors believe that errors In load values do not exceed t5%. The authors. 55 capacity. 56 for ratios".surface polished but smoothness not measured although "believed" to be about 20 micro-in. Therefore. the variations were of about the esae order as the scatter shown on the S-N curves. Fig. Th* author of referwence 50 concludes that anodizing Is detrimental. 914. compared with 75-T6. Each S-N curve depends upon from 5 to 12 or 15 tests. Fig.* The reference report gives' also S-N curves for various constant ratios of alternating to mean stress. 51 They were The curves. It m 6 7Re .090" thick.

shown on Fig. 107 and 108 show the effect of "zero to strength of the alloy. 105. From 7 to 11 specimens were used for each were broken with emery paper". For 75S-T6 plate material. wADD TR 60-142 16 . Items 14-18 Refs. on extruded "75S-T". which suggests that the straight-line "Goodman" diagram may not be conservative In all cases. 58 tension" 3. 115 are for the most part concave.3 Aluminum Alloy 6061 (61s) Items 1-4 Ref. 4. if a complete set of tests had been made. It must be pointed out that the test results depend upon not only the type of specimen but also the type of testing machine and the speed of testing. are shown in Fig. No information is given as to the variability The reversal of stress from the tests at less than 50 cpm of the material.2. The curve for item must be taken as less precise than the other 108 shows the steady component separately Ref. 111. items 2 and 3. at each of the three rates of cpm. 115 shows the effect of mean (steady) stress In reducing the alternating stress. S-N curves are given on Fig. they are not particularly different in the region l1: to 107 cycles. It should be noted that the curves on Fig. 51. S-N curve. 112 shows results of tests. for the range N a 1 to N w l0 cycles. although it "Sharp edges in the gage section was "believed" to be about 20 micrc-inches. based curves. They were traced from ref. are for notched Alclad alloy 75S-T6. are based on larger numbers of specimens than those digaussed above. as shown on Fig.53. probable that the S-N curve would actually be three different curves.10.4 Aluminum Alloy 7075 (758) Item 1 Ref. was not sinusoidal. stressing on the fatigue on only three specimens. from the The S-N curves on Figs.Item 24 Ref. commercial sheet. Typical load-time curves. Fig. traced from the reference. Tests were run It is at three significantly different rates in cpm. 51 The S-N curves shown on Pigs. 57 The material tested was thin 24S-T3 aluminum alloy. 110. Each S-N curve depends upon from 5 to 12 or 15 tests. Prom 10 to 20 specimens were used for each of these curves. •14 shows S-N curves for fully reversed loading. 45 Items 5-7 Curves for these "zero to tension" tests on sheet 61S-T6 alloy. The stress scale for Fig. Items 2-13 Ref. The authors believe that errors in load values do not exceed *5%. 106.54 The material is 75S-T6. alternating component. Fig. 4. 47 These items come from a study of the effect of type of specimen on fatigue properties of 75S-T6 aluminum alloy.090" thick.2. 0. Fig. 109. However. 113. The surfaces were polished but the smoothness was not measured. 9.

Here.T4 it waAe Ito behave closely like 24S-T4. for the range N = 1 to N a 107 cycles. determined that %6" has poorer . and higher notch- Items 22-24 Ref. 23 Fig. show considerable longitudinal and short transverse smooth specimens of but no significant difference for notched specimens. Authors conclude that the thin coat may be beneficial to smooth specimens. by slow bend tests an specimens fatigued toward failure. but by using a best-fit straight line for each stross level. the thin coat of anodizing material appears to slightly improve the fatigue streng•'-f the alloy. No information is given as to the variability of the material. 120 shows the results of testing large numbers of specimens. 60 The material is 75S-T6. 121. for fully reversed stresses. Item 26 Ref. The crosses show anodic coatings. It is probable that the S-N curve would actually be three different curves. 117 shows S-N curves for smooth. and for notched. Fig. but the static properties are about the same as others given In the data table for 75S-T6 aluminum alloy. Tests were run at three significantly different rates in cpm. Fig. at each rate of cpm. 118 shows S-N curves for 75S-T6 Extruded Bar. The material Is 75S-T6 hot-rolled aluminum alloy. However by reheat-treating 75 to approximately the hardness of 243-. as shown on Fig. 57 Material tested was 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloy.0005" thick. The authors. Typical load-time curves. Its width depends upon the variability of the material and the number of specimens tested. . 106. 49 difference between the hand forged alloy. traved from the reference. Items 28-31 Ref. if a complete set of tests had been made. Item 27 Ref. Fig. + a 0.Item 11-21 S sensitivity. Item 25 Ref. 122. S-N curves were plotted as shown in Fig. aluminum alloys. Increasing the number of specimens usually-fhcreases the width of scatter bands.and that notched specimens are not partioularly sensitive to either thin or thick coatings. The plotted test points showed no apparent difference between longitudinal and transverse specimens. 116 shows 8-N curves for smooth and for notched hot-rolled 75S-T6. 123.nergy-absorption cap Iytan 243-Y4. (The forgings were 3 x 93 and 130 for other The S-N curves. Fig. Fig. plotted on logarithmic normal-probability paper. WADD TR 60-42 17 . 117.00009" thick. 119 shows the "mean" S-N curve and the "scatter band" for a total of 30 specimens. The reversal of stress for the tests at less than 50 opm was not sinusoidal. For the material used in these tests the heat treatment was not given. are shown In Fig. as In Fig. of thickness as follows: X a 0. The lines are by no means straight. 6" x 38" in size.) Similar curves are shown on Figs. Caution: A "scatter band" is not a "probability" curve" . 59 75S-T6 Rolled and Drawn Rod.

125. 49 The S-N curves. 126 and 127 give S-N curves for this material. Fig. The reference suggests the possibility that the much higher values of fatigue strength obtained by the Prot method . Fig. show some difference between longitudinal and short transverse smooth specimens of the hand forged alloy. 93 and 123 for other aluminum alloys. 62 These tests were run In 1941 or 1942. on material that at that time was designated XT68-T.5 Aluminum Alloy T076 (76B) Item 1-9 Ra. Items 10-21 Ref. 29 These tests were run to investigate the applicability of the Prot method of testing to aluminum alloys. similarly. 130.402. Fig. Reference 61 also gives various tables and curves showing combinations of alternating bending and torsion with superImposed steady bending and torsion.) similar curves are shown on Pigs. the relation of alternating to steady stress. originally designated as m68. but no sloLnticant difference for notched specimens. and referled to in reference 62 as XT6S-T. 124 shows S-N curves for bending# without and with superimposed steady bending stresses. for 76S-T61.Abe due to some "coaxing" effect. Long-life S-N curves are given on R 129. without and with superimposed steady torsion stresses. shows S-N curves for torsion. (The forgings were 3" x 6" x 38 :In size.6 Aluminum Alloy 7079 Items 1-4 Ref.2. and Pig. Items 22-23 Ref. 4. WADD TR 60-42 18 . Figs. 128 shows. It will be noticed that the composition and heat treatment are reported as Identical with those reported In reference 61.f 61 This material Is 76S-T61. There are not enough data regarding any one test to determine even approxifately the variability of the material. for notched material.

Fig. of R (ratio min. a large number of them do not show the tensile (static) strength.2 Discussion of Data in Table XII Items 1-12 Ref. WADD TR 60-42 19 . 64 Heat treatment is The material is Dow Chemical Co's. 5. 131 gives Items 13-29 Ref.1 General MAONSIUM ALLOYS Although there are numerous items In Table XII. 132 in odequivalent separate steady and vibratory components for 10( cycles. and to avoid buckling from compression the stress ranges for these tests were kept between zero and a maximum tension. 63 S-N curves for item 1. Extruded bar This Is a "solid solution precipitation hardening type with Mg-Zn compound as the submicroscopic precipitate". Items 49 .).e. Most of the data were from sheets. Ref. Invariably. correlation of fatigue with static strength. Items 30-43 Ref. Fig. fatigue but not Regarding these test.5 1 stock. The reference states that the coating the fatigue strength by approximately 1000 psl for each 0. C-AC. it is recommended that the test bar data presented here not be used quantitatively for design values. 133 was derived . C-HT.magnesium alloys a nonmetallic coating hard and corrosion-resisting". C-HTA. The reference states that fatigue resistance was generally. of smooth and of notched specimens. Fig. but rather. and C-HTS. to max. 66 Material Is magnesium alloy ZK6OA-T5 (Dow Chem. 65 Material is Dow FS-lh. simply for a qualitative comparison of materials".001 inch of Several specimens were exposed to warm salt spray for five days then tested. I. the curves for crest stresses.. 132 shows the S-N-R curves. 5. Inspection of the Table will show that there seems to be little. Fig.by converting values scaled from Fig. the reference says that the "HAE" "produces electrolytically on. FS-1 alloy. . 64 The warning above applies also to the data on the magnesium casting alloys. A few data are given In Table XII (items 64 to 74) for high temperature fatigue. Fatigue strengths were measured in terms stress per cycle). for fully reversed stress. but the items marked FS-la are presumably annealed and those marked FS-lh are presumably hard rolled. Warning: The reference says: "* . not specified in the reference. process that is reduced coating. on AZ31X. Items 44-48 Ref. if any. 134 shows S-N curves.SEC!ION V. so that the missing static strengths would be of only academic Interest. not decreased by exposure to the spray.

stress 9 ksi. 69 The tests on HM-31 forged alloy are plotted on Fig. 137. In addition to the tests plotted. At 6500 F.700 cycles. Items 54-61 Ref.085. one specimen failed at 2.Figs. Items 62-63 Ref.. and 0-1.for comparison Items 70-74 These tests of HM-21 forged alloy were "preliminary". 68 The tests on AZ8l-T4 cast alloy were made "to compare the fatigue properties of AZ8l-T4 with other similar magnesium alloys now In service". one specimen failed at 1.900 cycles after having survived 100 cycles at 10 ksl at 5000P. 14.135 and 136 show. S-N curves are given on Fig. S-N curves are shown on Fig. 143. but values of "Fatigue Limit. "a limited number of the specimens were also tested in completely reversed loading". The reference concludes that "the unnotched fatigue strength of AZ81-T4 is approximately 4 ksi lower than AZ63-TV" and "the notched fatigue properties were practically identical to those of AZ63-T4". stress 15 ksi.875.102. stress 7 ksi. The values shown on the figure are based on stressing from zero to tension (A z 1. lo7 cycles" were given. WADD TR 60-42 20 . with the following results: At room temp. Items 614-69 Ref. No S-N curves were given in the reference. At 500 0 F. 70 . with HM-31 alloy. 138-140.0). stress 12 ksl. These are the values used in Table XII. 67 These tests on three magnesium alloys. J-1. 4 the Approximate S-N curves for magnesium alloy J-1 are given in Fig.100. The individual specimen tests are plotted in Figs. Ref. As a result of these tests the authors of the reference state that some magnesium alloys give appreciably higher strengths in rotating bending than In plate bending or in axial (push-pull) loading. PS-la. were made to show the difference In fatigue strength of the alloys caused by differences in the test methods. In modified Goodman type diagrames Influence of steady stress on alternating stress strength.500 cycles and one specimens failed at 3. one specimen failed at 91. one specimen failed at 1.300 cycles.000 cycles. 142 together with "results of previous testing on annealed HK-31 magnesium alloy". Items 59-53 Ref.

ksl YP St. 71 Reduction in endurance limit of smooth specimens. The variability of Ti-alloys appears in an analysis of the static (Standard deviations have been properties as reported in reference 72:computed from the data in the report. 6. . Oround .Vs. is thought to item 6. The following excerpt is quoted from subject report: ABSTRACT "The evaluation of the effects of various treatments on the fatigue properties of titanium bar stock alloys Ti-150A and RG-130B was made.63.1 Reference 72 says: "These melts were early experimental ones and consequently were not of comparable quality to melts produced at present".000 psi Ten percent permanently stretched and ground . and did not heat up. 143. It is Interesting to note that in Table XIII the fatigue strengths percent fifty of smooth titanium alloys run close to and sometimes exceed.2 Discussion of Data in Table XIII Items 1-6 Ref.5k.2 127. are Increased from 1. item 5s. 72 The reference refers to earlier tests on Rem-Cru sheet 0. 144 shows the S-N curves for this alloy. A few data (items 67 to 86) are given on high of the tensile strengths.060" thick.0 153. I chargIowhen op. that the curves are based on small numbers of specimens. Fig. No completely satisfactory reasons could be given to account for the annealed and pickled samples producing the best results and the cold rolled specimens the poorest results". DEV. treatments of TI-150A and their corresponding fatigue The varioe endurance limits are as follows: 2. The tests reported in reference 72 were made to study further some of the problems referred to above.6 5. showed little be because of the relatively small volume of material subjected to maximum stress and the ability of surrounding material to conduct the heat away as fast as generated. temperature propertles. of specimens for each curve Is noted on tho figure. The fact that notched specimens. effect from speed.2 DEV.68. "The fatigue values tested in Krouse sheet fatigue machines. Machined and polished .TM ALL< .000 psi 3. Alloy Ti-150A * RC-130B * UTS ksl ST.6 147.000 WADD TR 6o-42 21 .0 5.000 to 70. and remarksj were higher In the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction for all conditions. 1.9 3.000. the heating effect resulting from high speed cycling. 6. It is to be noticed The total number Item 7-l4 Ref.800 to 10. Alloy C-55 Type.

Fig. a study of the statistical the data are analyzed by using the means of the reciprocals of the life cycles. and to extremes of speed.56.000 psi Machined notched . radiography identified caused by grinding and cold work.000 psi (approximately 415 percent of tensile ultimate strength) for the ground. 76 These items show the sensitivity of the nearly pure titanium. Ti-75A. properties excepting UTS were Summary. tungsten general the surface treatment has a marked effect upon the fatigue For the conditions tested. Items 41-44 Ref. 147. 6. WADD TR 60-142 22 . with the values stated for "fatigue endurance limits". In Fig. the authors refer to limit of the alloy appears to although the tensile strength In these tests of titanium-chromium-molybdenum alloys." Fig. In inclusions which were probably a contributing factor.000 RPM.000 psi for the ground The wide range of values for the ground TI-150B alloy notched material. a strength of titanium and its alloys. 148 and say:be unchanged. static content". except for the notched RC-130B gave endurance limits of about condition as would be expected. unnotched condition. and surface discontinuities. 14 5 shows the evidence upon which the discussion of items 7 to The. however.specimens were tested at any one stress level. 77 20 specimens were used in tests for each value of Se. 146. These values are listed as "plus-orminus" values to indicate that they are not highly precise in the second significant figure. and about 214. In general only three or four . 5. The values of Se for 107 cycles that appear in the data tables were scaled from curves in the references. 147 shows S-N curves for these items.21. from 400 RPM to 10.40. machined and polished surface produced the optimum fatigue properties.P-S-N (Probability-S-N) curves were established Items 16-40 Refs. is greatly increased as a result of alloy For the data in Table XIII. 73 These tests of RC-130B titanium alloy were run to provide data for In the reference report nature of the material.000 psi Ground and notched .000 psi The fatigue strength varied from about 35 to 145 percent of the tensile ultimate strength for the different treatments. "The fatigue endurance Fig. regardless of alloy content. Values of Se in Table XIII were scaled from Fig. In their scaled from graphs in the reference. Item 15 Ref. In addition. to heating under high speed cycling. high degree of scatter must be considered in connection 14 Is based. 74. that "specimens which were water cooled to dissipate the internal heat showed small spread in the failure curves for the different speeds of testing that were studied". that is.4. Items 45-62 Ref. the.75 by probit analysis (reference 29). and for the 10 percent stretched and ground Ti-150A alloy may have been due to various degrees of surface cold work.sometimes five . The reference says. 67. psi (wide scatter of data) Ground and scaled .

only four of which broke at less Whether or not this alloy has an "endurance limit" at cycles is questionable. 149 than 100 o yles. The S-N curves. were derived from curves given in the reference. 38 The reference says of the S-N curves for 6 Al-4 V titanium alloy bar from which Fig. 79 These tests of 7 A2-3 Mo titanium alloy were made to study the effect of ageing versus annealing treatments on the high temperature creep and fatigue properties of the alloy. 29 The S-N curve for 6 A2-4 Va titanium alloy shown on Fig. 150 in 63 specimens whereas the lower curve of the same material is based on A specimens. fatigue data". They indicate the steady stress component as well as the vibratory component of stresso and it should be noted that the steady stress increases as the alternating stress increases. l249 !rersent tests rum to "illustrate the Improvement in endurance strength wihabe realised using duplex heat treatments". The stress scales on the figures show the steady stress component and the alternating stress component. 152 and 153.Ite. 78 me two s-N curves for 6 A1-4 Va titanium alloys shown on ig. WADD TR 60-42 23 .m 63-64 ARG. Item 66 Ref. around 10F or 10o Ref. Item 65 based on tests of shown og Fig. 151 was derived that they show "some limited axial . The scale of stresses on Fig. Figs. Items 67-86 Ref. 151 should be read carefully.

items 14-15. 76 specimens were tested to give the S-N curves shown on Fig.2 Discussion of Data in Table XIV Items 1-2 Ref. and In the case of the laminate with a glass mat. Items 25-30 Ref. Items 34 Ref. 159.SECTION VII. Item 5. 157. Item 24 Ref. For the beryllium-copper. MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS 7. is actually less than unity. showing the effect of superimposed mean (steady) stress. 155. The data In Table XIV apply to plastic and wood laminates and a few metallic materials. 8 The Ingot Iron used for item 2 was specially treated "to retain as much carbon and nitrogen in solid solution as possible". Items 7-17 Ref. Items 5-6 Heof. Item 6. 80 This item. 163. 80 These items. 42 An S-N curve for this glass fabric laminated plastic Is given on The curve is considerably different in character from most of those 24 WADD TR 60-42 . Some data on high temperature properties of beryllium are Included. The values of Se given In Table XIV are probably higher than would be shown for longer cycle life. 29 For the aluminum-nickel bronze. 158. 156. the plots of Individual test results as given In the reference warrant the drawing on PIg. are shown as S-N curves on Fig. The strength reduction factor of these notched laminates Is noticeably smaller than that usually found In metals.1 0enel. for a single laminate. 80 S-N curves for these glass-fiber-reinforced plastic laminates are given on Figs. 66 specimens were tested for the S-N curves on Fig. so that the effect of coaxing on Prot tests could be Investigated. 7. represented by the S-N curve on Fig. Item 31 Fig. The effect of anisotropy can be seen by comparing this Item with item 18. Items 18-23 Ref. 154 of a single S-N curve to represent both the smooth and the notched specimens. 80 S-N curves for these heat resistant glass-fiber-rainforced laminates are given on Figs. 160. Ref. 161. shows the effect of stressing the glass-fabric-reinforced laminate at 45o with the direction of the warp. 4 In the case of this gray (cast) iron.162. This treatment was used to render the Iron more susceptible to "coaxing" under fatigue stressing.

po Pnts out that the "endurance limit" for these woods is apparently below the 10 cycle strength. as based on four specimens. it has been found that plywood specibeams subjected to repeated or reversed bending mens tested as cantileer stress. in fatigue strength value with Increasing number of cycles is relatively smallm.on the The specimens were round Instead of flat. . with the plane of the veneers perpendicular to the load and the grain in the wood before of the outside plies parallel to the span. both It must be solid and laminated. 166. small but persistent decrease in fatigue strength as speed increases from 3450 Steels have not been found so sensitive at these speeds.5% for The reference says "it is believed that no serious the compressed laminates. .000 psi". reference gives 7 or 8% by weight for the natural woods. for much wider differences have shown the opposite effect.000 psi". PIgs. 157 to 162 although the long life fatigue strength is consistent with items 32-47 Ref. and there is no Indication In the tests of how far below.6 to 3. warm extruded Beryllium to be 31.300 psi at 108 cycles". as 32. were scaled from Fig. 84 The 1100°F stress-rupture data for Brush QMV Beryllium are plotted on Fig. Also. 164 for 10 cycles. 27% of static modulus of rupture.000. and the-resin was not identical "The decrease The reference says:with those used for the other laminates. is shown on Fig. is given for 50. Test results are shown on Fig. "Since the shear stress is relatively low the statement in the reference:compared to the fiber stress in bending. One respect in which the data in the last eight items differs from There is a values for steel Is in the effect of increased speed of cycling. The "scatter" in data cannot be determined since each S-N curve was based on The reference somewhere between half a dozen and a dozen and a half specimens. and the reference points out that the slope of the S-N negative. the reference states that other investigators have reported "the fatigue strength under direct stress of hot pressed. change in moisture content occurred during the test".000 cycles. Item 50 Ref. The A variable not listed in the tabulation is "moisture content". it quotes another set of tests as showing that strip specimens under direct stress showed "an endurance limit at 107 cycles of 22. will fail separation of the veneers occurs".600 cpm. 83 The S-N curve. Items 48-49 Ref. Item 51 Ref. 167. and 1. The average value. 81 Values of se for these tests of yellow birch and hard maple. and the "fatigue strength of Beryllium under cantilever bending . Regarding other data on beryllium. remembered that these values are "mean" strengths of laboratory-size specimens. WADD TR 6o-42 25 . 82 Data for these flat-plate bending tests of solid and laminated wood specimens are given as percents of the static modulus of rupture "because specimens of the same species from different trees will vary considerably in strength". 165 as a "scatter band" since the separate test values for the two solid and the two laminated woods were comThis is consistent with pletely Intermingled on the figure in the reference. and to 10. indicating that this is not the "endurance limit" curves is still of the woods tested. those ef the other laminates. stressing was In bending instead of being axial.

170 show tests at 11000F. PFig shown is based of the ligs. 85 the reference The axial test data for Brush QMV Beryllium given by tests and 168 shows room temperature are plotted on Figs. 168-170.Items 52-63 Ref. 169. Each in Table S-N curves read from the XIV were on a small number of specimens. WADD TR 6o-42 26 . The data S-K Curves.

pp. PP. 274-275 WADD TR 60-42 27 . 28-137 ILLUSTRATIONS. LIST OF MATERIALS.TABLES. 138-267 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 268-273 LIST OF AUTHORS OF REFERENGES. pp. 276-278 pp. PP.

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0 r4 0 0 - ~ -P IZ I U3 WADD TR 6o-42 146 .

Fully Reversed Axial 3tresses (Plotted from Table 7 of Ref. 3. lO~~ 4..2.0' 5 105 5 Cycles to Failure Fix.o0 50 '4 i~~ .0) WADD TR 6o-42 147 . 14 106 5 107 Appro~ximate S-N Curves for Normalized 4110 Steel. K -• 0.80 70 60 Kt 1.

0 40 = 4 . 10 1 0t 0 500 20 30 10 40 50 Fig..570 miq t 10 50 A - 50 Kt.0 Kt 4. for Normalized 4130 Steel Axial Stresses (Plotted from Table 7 of Ref.0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Mean Stress.Kt Kt 10 __ -4.1. Mean Stress.1 301 Kt 0 2 0 ' S2 10 5-0. ksi Alternating vs.80 8 0 1N . 15 0 10 20 30 0 50 Mean Stress. 10 ) WADD TV 60-42 148 .0 30 4 SKt ~20 Kt = 1Kt . ka.0- 111.O 30 . 80 -- B N - N-107 106 7 60 70 60 50 • 50t 1. 104 8 - 1 5 0 70 ..5 Kt 2.0 -5.

90 so 75 IS Cycles to Failure Fig."Transverse" Specimens (Traced from ref. 11) WADD TR 60-42 149 . 16 S-N Curve - Steel SAE 4320 .

13) (Fr. 13) *t2001 100 10 ioi0 Cycles to Failure Fig. Spe im g. 13) 200 __00_ Kt =1. 18 S-N Curves for V-Modified 4330 Steel. 263 kica UTS (From Ref. 17 S-N Curves for V-Modified 4330 Steel." 200 100 1. 250 ksi UTS (From Ref.0 4 3 00 Cycles to Failure 236 ksi UTS S-N Curves for Smooth V-Modified 14330 Steel. WADD TR 6o-42 150 . Ref.

Cycles to Failure FIP.- 8. 41330 13) Steel. 20 S-M Curves for Smooth V-Modified 4330 Steel. 201 ksi UTS WADD TR 60-42 151 . 21 S-N Curves for V-Modified (From Ref .0 _ _ _ _ _ _ b0- 104l lpo Cycles to Failure Fig. 222 ksi UTS (Fro Ref. 0 ° l&oi ° 13) zo6 i 7 10 200 60-42_151 4' ______ _ _ _ _ _ _Kt .200 100 .

16 9 .1. 22 Statistical Variation in Fatigue Life and Endurance Limit For Quenched and Tempered SAE 4340 70 1 A-X 65 a- X-tee.ZOO- stea. X-0-A S e. 1 . 2 60A -X - A0 ___0_.M 96 92 9 0 -Mean Life 0 w-fI& 90 X-±_ Id" A-&-t21r 3.2 152 . so 43Iao 9e X Itm 1 -x ~Refs. Cycles to Failure Fig.6 Az 434o Its.___ ~ m 1 55 E 43 0o=Mean LiU: -x-titr A-i 2r 5 o35 5 106 5 107 5 o8 Cycles to Failure Statistical Variation in Fatigue Life and Endurance Limit of Quenched and Spheroidized SAE 4340 WADD TR 60 .

UTS 164 ksi (Tr6ed fr ref.M6 800 c.d17) WADD TR 6---2 153 .s to Failur S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel.~1.

7i 260 20 10 iC 80Bse 120 W TR0 6orsl ons Kt .10 .

49 U% N Ql) - in~z~gkI~w~sf> WADD~~ TB6V) 5 .4 o. d 000rU V._ _ _ _IOU .

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40 4. 32) WADD TR 60-42 157 .Steady Stress Diagrams for Different Lifetimes. Steady Strewr. kel Fig.5 ksi UTS Axial Tests (Traced from ref. 3o Alternating Stress . of 158. SAE 4340 Stee].

~ wADD TH 6o-42 158 .q .r47 0 _ 0M t4 .z g k0a3.

6 333 II C~leu to Fatliw. S-N Curves 32 Steel for SAE 4340 (Platted fran scaled readings on char'ts in ref.8 19 158.) WADD TR 60-112 159 .- c 302 33 - s L Stme..5 32 a 13 51 ' 7 Is1 i" 3k 35 36 38 220.IV .-.8 3. Al o95 .. 21.6 1.0 *8 " "37 39 a Yem *6 7 6 a 3. St ye at 3 00o o P ssed Strossed at stemy~ ! No* shm 90 a 36..0 6 31 188 *9 158. 22081. Fig.5 a 2.

it=- It-w32 Daefmbn 0 160 loo o ON. kol 220 Mean Endurance Limit vs. UTS of SAE 4340 Steel WADD TR 60-42 160 .

I i 1o0z6 T-U'I-. 345 S-N Curves for SAE 4340 Steel.NNE 6 K .I•• •---Io. 3•I 108 (Sm. Steed(TorIa @• 8o •5o' 4 ./ 16 / 4 // 0 kO I Cycles to failure Fig. 26) WADD TR 60-+2 161 . 26) 201ý. Tested in Torsion 172 ksi UTS (Sone Stresses have been corrected for yielding) (Traced from ref. Tested in Bending Stresses lm been ecorreoted for yieldinG) (Traced frm ief.2.6 10 l ho7 106? Ccles to Ntur 900 Fig.

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43 Tests of SAE 4340 Steel. 68 10 kulO mS 10 -32 o -- ...• "70 3-- _ -"_ 600 5017 C0 145 10 5 106 107 Cyocle to Failwe Fig. UTS 140 ksi Transverse Smooth Specimens R. Moore Rotating Bending Tests (From ref. 30) (Light dash lines show lomgitudinal walues) WADD TR 6o-42 168 . R..3.o Percent ' Prdmebi11ty of Survival It.Cum@ Sb. .12033 S. .

) WADD TR 60-k2 169 . 30) (Ligkt dach ijius sha. to Fatloo Fig. UTS 190 ksi Transverse Smooth Specimens R.150 22 240 32 rwansverse \ S . 44 Tests of SAE 4310 SteelI. lmgituiinl wi1s. R.4120 s-N Cur•es Show P.S11 ) ( Lm ~ t .remA o 90 ) . 50% C0ve. Moore Rotating Bending Tests (Pro ref.

C~cleu to Fa•Dhu. •Transverse *B23TWMS . R. 5 D% (E..23 1.~. Moore Rotating Bending Tests 0-• 8AD (L~ight dash liies show lwigitudiral 'values) 13 a i1a i I i I I D1 I II .W:(Fr 90f. 50) S~Transverse T Tests of SAE 43140 Steel.. 130 S1 3 0 _S-N C-we ShowPai onim Probability of Survive_ _ _ _ Is70 (Lenig 1. UTS 230 ksi Smooth Specimens R..

•" ___ 12 10 joo 5• " 5 10• 7 Cyclesa to Failure Fig. 2 . 30) (Light dash lines show longitudinal values) WADD TR 60-42 171 . Moore Rotating Beam Tests (Fran ref. UTS 260 ksi Transverse Smooth Specimens R. 46 Tests of SAE 4340 Steel.222_____ Sv•3 115022- -V Cams ShowPecn PrdbiltrT of Sarvival :aat L a 0 0 Do\ *10 0 S. R.

49 i-v4 00 & W4 IDID 00 CUU 34 wADD TN 6o-42 172 .

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33) WADD TR 60-42 175 . 50 S-N Curves - 52100 Steel.301 301D Ite 30 300 100- 3mo ~300 300 Item 32 200 100 0 0 qp@18 to ral~bnr e U FI&. Rotating Beam Specimens (Bmas an Bsf.

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2841 ksl UTS (From Ref. '1~~~ __________ 0t 1. 13) . 302. Cycles to Failure S-N Curves for 98840 Steel. 133 '..42001 4)~ecmn 0t1. 57 S-N Curves for 98B40 Steel. l 1 lop10T0 Cycles to Failure S-N Curves for 98B~40 Steel. 13) WADD TR 6o-4~2 179 .6 1.1 UTS (From Ref. 270 knl UTS (From Ref..200 1100 0 0 4i Cycles to Failure o Fig.TI.

0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Cycles to Failure S-N Curves for 98B410 Steel.200 SI.13) WADD TR 6o-42 180 .t 8.0 S100 Spcmn . 2041 kal 15TS (From Ref. 245 kel UTS (frtm Ref..8L 1 105 lob toe Cycles to Failure 010 FIg. 59 S-N Curves for 98BI0 Steel.. 13) 200__ _ *1.

61 Tranav.1 - "8. 300 300 - M• 2601 kenl T1S 270± kei *8 * 100 tin 1 8- iKtin Lo-gut. 0 200 e Kt 1 - Tandv h 5 - - 5- 10 102 10e 1 10 10 2 104~ 106 Cycles to Failure Fig. Ktinl 100 .It K S100 0 3" 8 5 ----.- - - - - - it.34) WADD TR 6o-42 181 . Smooth and Notched (F'~ Ref.. 61 S-N Curves for fricent Steel.

t 04 340 00 100 WADD TR 6o-142 182 .e44 ~~ V4 OPT r.

m3 WADD TR 60-42 183 . S-N Curves for -HY-Tuf 64& Steel. 2M3 kel UTS (From Ftef. 65 ST S-N Curves for Super BY-Tut Steel.0 0 101 c i c5 z• zo7 1o Cycles to Fralure Fist.. 260 ksI (From jBef.23) *200 i Kt .200 Kt = 8.0 0 Cycles to Failure Fix.8.

Not Nitrided.. 66 Approximate S-N Curves for Ferrovac Wi3-4f9 Steel. and Nitrideci (Ftcm ref.160 Kt 1.35) WADD TR 6o-42 184 .6" j80 cycle to Paibn" Fig.2.0 1100' X.

E Cycles to Failure 1o-7 Fig. 36) WADD TR 60-4~2 185 . 67 S-N Curves for UdImet :20g HastelloY R-235. and OMR-235 Heat Resistant Alloys (From Ref.0ecimensf 104 " 10 -.120 80 60 40 6 Spec mens S~pecimens %%.14 8 Specimens Kt 1.L 201 EHaatelloy R-235 Kt S no 4 Kt = 3.

---- I $4 46-44) 4 a') ocu ' " "i ! l I i I WADD TR 6o-42 186 .

wADD TR 6o-42 187 .-E- 0 0 0 04) >.

to f.i to Valime 100 20 cycla.RoomTbtUD1'StuW WADD TR 60-4+2 188 . 70 S-N Curves for Hoat Resistant Alloys UstoG at.ItiWu Fla.60 N-12 Qcl.

D4 0 0 * ~00 r4A *U _ _ _ 1894 _ twm T uA~ WADD R 60-2 18 .

0* .4 I U 0 1•--01-44 0 z bi u- -j - ---- WAPD TR 60-42 190 .

OF'. Lou~qg WADD TR 6o-4~2 191 .340 $0N 03 a /ca 1o %00 1 44 131 0 0 44 44 4 4 44 44 lTOR 0tov am. amu AM 0 0 0 34 in g I.

100hrm. . ._9 Spleclumm 9Selw . 15 + 30 10*t20 1 -il I - ~~Kt m 2. 5 105 l.. 41) Note: A .3 30 20 • I ! I 25 *k16. 5 105 11 hr.0 5*1 A 2.o6 5 . 201 5 201. 5 IlOhrs.91 1.17 5 10o 100 b..5 to Pa~m" Fig.25 1 11 0 * 0lm 30* 7. 10ko i 5 106 5 107 5 0701. -W 'Kt-..0t15 50 1 12. 35*23. •.5 5 5 *b... wADD TR 60-42 192 .74 1700'F S-N Curves for Inconel 713C at Several Combinations of Steady and AlternatIng Strees (Frm De.7 20 133 t o.ratio of a1tezvotim to cbWt trs. n A20*0.671 1 1- t = j -.5 40 t 10 __ 1 hr. - l0°r-. 3 106 5 io7 10 hr*..

- 7W __ I0 0' N * wADD TR 60-42 193 .

. T6 S-N Curves for M4-10 Steels Re 61-62.ame to Vtm11e Fig.35) WADD TR 6o-42 194 ."2" noo %. Not Nitrided andl Nitridled. (Pum ref. constfant I'rtobabli~ty or Surivyal or Stress at Constant life.

qg wADD TiR 6o-42 195 ..MTp.U% 40 o* * o -43 a0 z ' 00 + + + .gx 'ssuu~g3~~u~ 9mv" u .

40 0 '-4 4a 03 O 4-t .00 .4- b% C#l 0 r44 WAD4 T56-4 9 .

.11. 79 S-N Curves for Refractaloy 26 At Room Temperature WADD TR 60-42 197 .• Flbir 6 Fig.3 6D ---- •o 7yle go t 2.

0 1407Spces 4430 _____ _ SIKt 5 1o5 3.1.4 5 o20 5 io 7 5 Cycles to feilure Flg. 80 S-N Curves for s-816 Alloy (From Ref. ho) WADD TR 6o-42 198 .710 60 ==9 apeofuma It .

wADD TR 6o-4I2 199 .WWI Iiin II--P ODI r4.

• lo'.40 * 50 K1.' o • . 82 1 6 o08 0o cycles to Failure 8-N -Curves tor 34T Stainless Steel.0 " 4. - 110 * 10 0- 1o0 1o3 0o4 0o Fig .. 45) WADD TR 60-42 200 .t 2. Showing Steady PAus Alternatian S aress (Fran Ref.0 330 *30 20*2011 .

120 100 1 10 80±• 1 "° Kt . Cycles t~o Failure Fl•a.0 . 83 s-N curves for 403 stainess Steel. ShowtnM Steady PlUs AIS~ernatlMM Strzes8 wAD TR 6o-42 201 .0 xt x 20 t20 .

6~0 Sii Spspecimen 320 Nt" co I no05 & :o. 0o) WADD TR 60-42 202 .1 5 cycles to Failure 5 17 Fig.-Wamp1loy (From Ref. 40) 80 A50 -_ __ _ S6S icms"N 7 Sp•ecimens 10ý 5 0o 5 1oT cycles to Failure '5 107 15 Fla. 85 s-N curves for 6-M M.i~~ ill IIIL II II II i . 84 S-N Curves for Stellite 31 (X-4o) Alloy (From Ref..

T A Go F ECa * U I .7ý 7.71. IN7 .to- t wD 6o-4 203 - .

. 14000. at Room Temperature. and 160001.12000. for Two Heat . .*100 - Nt. 2 890 *70 ±I.! *60 I -_ _ or : j•_e_ spom en *50 160 * 0 Solutiauued 21501' * Aillh.Treatments. i&6) WADD TR 6o-42 204 . . 0 Aged 1650*v*4 ZeroP a¥Ied A= pc nv It 055 106 Cycles to Psilwae 5 167 2 S-N Curves for Smooth Rene 41 Alloy.w 13th Zeto Steady Loads (A (Ftcin Ref.

~ UADD TB6160020 . 7yoe to Fa6l7 __tW Rt. 2 n e.7ot 2647 i6oh 30*20 Solutlom~d 21501 Aged 16501 20 a 13.

for One Heat Tz~armenrop ar. 5 5 o6 do~ii Cycles to Failure S-I GulTe for' Smooth Rene 4I1 Alloy.aot w 70 1 107 30*t 7. JAWO and 160".25 (F'romRef.p With Steady Loa-ds v(A 0.5 20*± 5. 16) WADD TR 60-42 206 .

go S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 2014 (14S-T).35 OfttdG - ztatifg boom tests* Item 1.. 30 ~20--- is5 .65 17285 - l cpae. Fig. Extruded (Twin ref. to Jr11m. I&7) wADD TE 60-42 207 .

Mean Stress. (DrDR 028) WADD TR 6o-'42 208 . 92 Alternating vs. 91 lop 17 S104 108 Cyclea to Failure S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 2014-T6 (14S-T6). Rolled.410 UA 10 2 p UP• Fig. Rolled. for N = 107 Cycles. "0 10 20 Klan Stress. for 14S-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Wt.. ref. Fig.

0I cm4 0* Tax tW0T o904 TR6-4 ijD 0 .2. -- --.- W A'A o *w I1 IW IC UN 0e 4.

""4POIO Fig. 5.5T3 t .3011 1 C I. 95 S-NCuresfoA Ncha 24ST3. WADD E 60-2 21 .1) 2.Kt d 2 (ftram ref.3etodd mFel0ukiw lbStead Cuvsfo 20rc 20f kid ochdAcid2S-3 t .

Smooth ho[I 1I M vibrating esntllome CY*l80 to ?&Ulwe Fig. 97 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 24S-T. 96 S-N Curves for Alclad and for Bare 24S-T3.Itoc Fig. Extruded WADD TR 60-42 211 ..

60 310 ___ 6 10 9 Cycle. for N for 24s-T4 Aluminum Alloy. Mean Stress. 60 TO 8D"90 30 WADD TR 60-42 212 . Rolled (TwM ref.00 Fig. 98 S-N Curves for 24S-TL Aluminum Alloy. 48) 30 iIt. (7r• ref. Rolled. o0 0 •o 2030 . 99 107 Cycles Alternating vs. to Ftailu Fig.

:4 0 --------------W Uo z A 6. 1 lo- tspot '4o wADD R 6o-2 21 .

101 40 P I N I~ Alternating vs.. kni 20 Flg.5 -0 - -- - 0 A0.5.0.0ou o 2 2 3o o 5o0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Mean Stress. 30 4o05o 20 Moan Stasis.60 6 is 1.AN o oo0 both 14.0.3 20 *0 It .. ki Mean Stress.0 Met o0 10t 20 t0 a1400 .0--- 100 0 5AD T amot -- -1e faboo .20_ 202 10 00 0 0 t -0 -t It Alumlnuu Plat It A11oC -30 46 .1 10 o 2 o ya o 5 30 0 20.. Mean Stress for 24IS-T3 o4 Aluminum Alloy Plate WADD TR 6o-4+2 2141 . kit 60 0 1 2 3 Ymen Stress.r Soob o T N i5 #SOT.. kit . 0 .

(urna ref. 102 S-N Curves for 24S-T4 Aluminum Alloy. 35) WADD TR 60-4~2 215 . Hot Rolled.""t ium~ n 2 toC Cycles to ?ulbuz'e Fig.

NFig. 103 -60-0 JO-30ý -2 -10 0*0 2O*3 050. 3ochd05 onailt40 "(Based 20 of16seies WADD R 6o-+2 21 .

Tim Fig. 105 WADD .4to 00 ME TJLenullmi Tim. Axial Loads.0 (Fwm ref.73 ref WADD TR 6o-~42 217 . on Notched Specimens. 106 Typical Load-Time Curves for Part of S-N Curve on Fig. Fully Reversed at Three Speeds.105 j20104 1 S-N Curve for 24S-T3. Kt = 4. 57) 24 to k8o gM .so T__ zo am Ato• n he INI IU0 and 180•0 6 1 01! 10T Cycles to ra11uro Fig.

107 s-8 curves for 618-J6 Aluminum Alloy. WADD TR 60-42 218 . 12 Specimens -. ii5) 3ross LA -*. -. ( rully ReVeraea5=056U Fla. to Failure Fla. 25*5 - - 5 7 S eemla *20 - - 8 pMim 12*15 *10 - -- 1P213 - K~m.. Pus lernatu (Fran Ref. 108 S-i Curves for For a Aus 1h46 Aluminam Al0oy ern BreOS (Fr 58) Ref.0 - 0 Ktw2. K~.°*2o5 . ( t D 25t"02- 4~15t15 Failure Cycle F1g. Cycles to Failure cycle.110 3o S-i~~~yce 684 tuoe fo lumiu For loySet ear.5 l10 ImI ! 10 0 5 0 107- -0 - 5*.

5 ~~204 *04 210 20 020 Steady Cmpmeneaim.5 (Frca ref.111 Alternating vs..5 VADD TR 6o-4i 2 219 ... Notched. ... Kt = 2. . . ... kal. Notched.. 7-~ -~W- I' (35 _ _ _ _ _ St~y ap Cyclas to Fali~m' pi-g.75S-T6. 1 1 0 S-N Curves for Aiclad 75S-T6. Steady Stress for Alciad. Kt (Fro fef. . 0200 Steady Tension.. . kul Fig.. 51) 30 =2. .. .

to Failure Fig.112 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy 75S-T. Item 2. Smooth Specimens (From ref. I cyc1. 47) WADD TR 6o-42 220 .."5 * U3~jU rotating beem tests. Extruded.

ref. WADDAV TR604222 .5 j35 - w___ w_____ ____ Cyclesto F~aiure 45g ~ S-N~ ~ 113 t ~~~ Curve lly7 (Fr.6.5 30 2. 1i7)ow Coalmiu nt6. Ca¾ vr--'r 3.Roled Plate.

innnmiLCm\ mnmnnnnnnnu =a Si ~ WA•DD TR 60-412 222 .j2 U'\ -4a. 6e/ a . oat n i)4.

04 Ln 0 q4J -~~ - g 1u~I33.48ZV~lzL.141 00 4..qS 2 - - W 'Ue.~!TM 2 * A tri 2lollJj It. WADD TR 60-42 223 .

11-6 S-N Curves for 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloy.50 -- _ _ _ hol Cyc2as to Fe13w Fig. Hot Rolled (Frm re. 55 ) WADD TR 6o-42 224 .

Smooth and Notched rf59) (7iam NX X 20fmi I(r I wsf [ i) VADD 10 225 2671 1 .40- 0ig 11 S-N Curve. 75S-T6 Rolled and Drawn Rod.

Fig.3 Aumi tnA Alo ! WADD TR 60-•I2 226 . 23) 1 F2g. 120 Log-Probability Diagram Showing Fatigue Lif~e. and Scatter Band (Vim st. of Dferent 8ressesa 30 A ! or •-T ! %.-Times. ShowIng Mean. 119 S-N Curve for 753S-T Aluminum Alloy.

122 S-N Curve for 755-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Kt .. 12 7 ~~S-N Curve for s Aluminum frAllLas 5§S-T6 Alloy. 1. Flit. 121 S-N Curves for 75•-T6 Aluminum Alloy.Fi.. -l to p ? WI Fig. on Notched Specimens.4.. L100 mi 18T0 opi (ft 110 sit. for Axial Loads. for Various Probabilities of Failure. do) T 160 _ _J• _ _27 00 c~cua to ftu2.0 Fully Reversed. WADD TR 60-42 227 .

o dSS 44 WADD R 60-2 22 .

) WADD TR 6o-4i2 229 .7. S16 Zr a 1 ke ~10 9 70l&15 66l 718 o Cycles to Nailure Fig. 30(7rca Ref. (Fr ref.1 ho Zero 12 kid 120 18 h30 01 60 kul. 61)______ ______ __ v e4 25__ *20 E-. Cycles to FaiU.l2 4 S-N Curves for 76S-T61 Aluminum Alloy-Alternating Bending Stress Superimposed on the Indicated Steady Bending Stress. 125 S-N Curves for T6S-T61 Aluminum Alloy-Alternating Torsion Stress Superimposed on Steadý Torsion Stress.V *.r Fig.

6" 10- IM as imminmmin to aSlquare 1Ig. (F•r 321 30 ref.4 ____M . 127 ~~ ~ 0lnl S-N Curvesllml~m~ Vibratory K Reversed Bending of X76S-T Aluminum Alloy for WADlD TR 60-•42 230 .62) Romid ~26 •~x j212 .t r-2.ItI0 30 .6 1 10 C700e9 to Failuro Fig.20 •).1. Rotating Bending Tests.126 S-N Curves for Aluminum Alloy X76S-T.

CO 35 (?mrt. for 3. . ~ m ~ m ~ mmmmm ~ ~ Amm Alo Ite 23.6 Kt Notched X76S-T Aluminum Alloy..* 77 10 X% 0 *10 0 Steady StrA"n. (Fwi ref .n 22) WADDC) TR6oW2 3 mmm ~ • ~ m.. Steady Stress.128 Alternating Stress vs. kl Fig.

0 * 00 oc 0 1 con a 04 I % 1 II '4 ii$Ba wADD R 6o-2 3-i--0-4 Ix lei T 24L 23 .

-4 43 M W4 q-4 Cl) 02 WADD TR 60-42 233 .

Smooth Sheet.132) WADD TR 6o-42 234 . for N = lOT Cycles.Cyclos to ftl. (Derived from Fig. kmi 20 40 Fig.bwe Fig. Smooth. 13 S-N-R Curves for Magnesium Alloy FS-Ih. 20 0 o 10 30 Steady Strese. 133 Steady Stress vs. Alternating Stress for Magnesium Alloy FS-Ih.

0 pm 'momq ftrmuzsnT WADD TR 60-42 235 .E('I N 1- :3 r4.

a. 66 ) WADD TR 6o-42 236 . I. 7 cyam. kel Fig. 135 Alternating Stress vs. for N = 107 and 105 Cycles (rrm r'f. 0 I 60 Steady Strup. _ _ _ _ p 2. __ . kv. Steady Strtess. 70 020- __ *10 KaJ -3. Steady Stress for Extruded Magnesium Alloy ZK6OA-T5...ja •20 " - 1 .

20 - i I - It - - I% koEL Steady Stress. x~iso• Ols - 3A N -bs Strein.i SI 34K. 136 Alternating Stress vs. Steady Stress for Extruded Magnesium Alloy ZK6OA-T5. kel Fla. 66) VAD TR 60-42 237 . for N = 104 and 5(103) Cycles (r sitz-.

4-- - 0 WADD TI 60-42 238 .- a- - - - - - - -I4 i .

S 18 04 111 10 S00 3(103) 0e 10' cycle to Failure 107 *30 Plate BIeadi 22 18 0 10 3(103) 1o0 10 Cycles to Fallure Fig. 67) 16 o7 wADD TR 6o-42 239 .30 26 26 Axial Lceai. 138 S-N Plot of fatigue Tests of PS-la (AZ31A-0) Magnesium Alloy (Frau Ref.

67) WADD TE 60-42 24I0 . 139 S-N plot Or Patigue Tests of J-1 (Az61A-F) Yamnesluiu Alloy (Frim Reft.30 26 ___________ Plate Bd~b~m 18 0 00 I 0 30 26 0 00 300 300 Itotatift BeNdi 0 00 42 18 1.0cycles to Failure M~.

a66 22 18 0 10 30 0 3 26 22 22 10 30 26 _ _ _ _ 2 0__00 Retatina Bendiug 0 22 0 0 2 18 10 Cycles to Failure Pig.7 7.67) WADD TR 6o-412 2411 .. l14o S-N Plot of Fatigue Tests of-0-1 (AZ8OA-2) maADDlTm Allay. (Fran Ref.

.. I I0 _ _ _ / fi4f P* I UXDD'• 0-.. mumm nm i W ""t 6m tv"! I!• mmn i ..= -.m=m= mm .% .

::l~ I I0 I 9. Go - A. r4 A 33 Ii _ _ _ IM .11 7 -111M M CmMc-r 0.Sx~~ ~ ~ vo Suz0tvrvI~ WADD R 6o-2 24 ..q4 II UN 0 VI r43 .

8?eady LOadS (A *.". 11.310 j 10 I-.) lra Ret. 70) WADD TR 60-42 244 ..5 1 Cycles to Failure S-N 1uz'ves 5or Smooth Magrecium A11o• HM-21 po at corn Te erature.00U) an3 W:Lou..and t50 an bOF thread Lods (A .

00 0 vs -E 0) 0) m IM&M WAD TR6-4 4 .00 .

u~ mzqgnv R .l .S48 $iK "tTL' *Iy Tint 2 £&2 2 16E-4 m4 -wu -m WO. 'maridc WADD 6c-2 24 0 .8 .69 o 0m 3 .4 g I 0_ x Q x V sz A 004 0 0 j x oo A -se m -4T 'U NO.

A* cml Ch 0 H r'4 E-40 * f*4 ___ __ 20 IW Ii 'FIR see _t~m WADD R 6o-2 24 .(n 'i.

I0 E-1 L 0) 4 CD.4.~C+.10 D2 Ts~ 'SsZ!4 3w.4 WADD0 TR44'~ .

OD.0 C. 4c b 4-^ to 0 'U~ 0 WADD TR 6o-4+2 24f9 .4 43 .3 4 '44 344 0 en 64 00 0 022 .

A0 04- 44 4434 00 wADD R 6o-2 25 .

UM b". S-14 (. 0 90 0 60 ow*lr 5 specimens V4 0 60 solution Tresled 10007 .w=.0 br.Urves at 750. (Froff Ref.%%wwwMwftý 4 spools*" 0 150 0 * 100 0 90 mop 4 spectsew 0 80 0 70 weir 6 speci RES 0 60 3 5 Cýrcus to paijure svec J cimms 5 107 5 0 50 3..ero Stead 8000. 4000. 1. 100 to b2s. 6000.. 79) 251 WADD TR 60-42 .. with 147.04 5 105 Titanium kIIOY& Smooth r A1-3 141 Load (A = dp-w iýll!"illiid and for" 11ý11 and Ann' 100001F.

.ec x.0 3_ _5 _ _ 1880±80 7 1 60 0 * g dI ' S 30 * 30 Cycles pig. ~ f 6153 70rc *e 79) 6oD TE6 04o5 .got60 1. l.010110 h II 8 .

10 * - - -0 hr~r 24 12 WADD TR 6o-42 253 .

29) 150 - 10% 50% ~35 3010 2 90_ i Cycles to Failure Fig. 29) WADD TR 60-42 254 . Moore Tests or Beryllium Copoer (From Ref . t Conta~nt Lire. 107 2' Cycles to Failure S-N Curves of Constant Probabilit of Survival of Stress at Conarlnz L:e.I I i__I__i____ . H. n'~ 3-N Curves of Constant Probability of Survival of Stress R.t' RK 21 Moors Tests or A1-N1 on8m (Fr Ref.

157 S-Ni Curves tar (]Pass-Fber-Reinfoc 1lastlc teminates WADD TR 60-'•2 255 ..- - -z 30 Item 8 Polyester Resin 112 Glass Fabric 10 5 - - l- 3. . -.- 20 5 Iyle 30 to KtFailre .35 30 - - Item 7 - - - - Polyester Resin - 181 Glass Fabric 25 - -- - 9 Specimens 15 - - - - - ".

so~etar Resin 35 P8J& Gleam Fabric 1 30 -- --- - - - - 25 250 itaem 1a3nte (F9 WADDv~e ReT 80) 1.0o1225 .

35 - - - - I I - Heat Resistant Polyester Resin 181 Glass Fabric 4Z roM an S res Speci1. 80)' Plao-lyer-Rei orResi 3.5iupsdManSrs 15 TR 60- ec 257 .0 Kt 1. 258 20 1~ 5 - IIi Spczg-L 9 Ittem 21 1I18 Gas abi ___ ~ 0 30 N CuvsfraHeat Ný Plastic Lainte M(ern Resistant Mitean Withoust Ref.

•Mnate. S15 N 8 Specimens 10 Kt 1. Glas Fabric "Is8 Specimens 25 433 10 1o 555 1o5 5 1o5 0o7 5 o8 Cycles to Failure Fig. at 450 w1trh the Warp (FnCa Ref.80) WADD TR 60-4+2 258 .20 SatGlaess Fabric rlf Resistant Polyester lesin * &5 vith item••. Cycles to Failure S-N Curves of a Heat Resistant 0Gass-flbrio Reinforced Plastic .•. 161' S-N Curves for a Heat Resistant Glass-FabricReinforced Plastic Laminate (From Ref.. 80) 35 1 ltaa 26 8 Specimens pat Resistant I•t~ie Basin M.

Flg.|ho SHeat 35 Resistant Phenolic Resin 181 Glass Fabric 25 20 15 10 7 Spcio Kt f 3. ý7Specimens Kt____1 0Kt 15Igel 30 SSpecimesK .5 5 ' 30 Heat Resistant Silicone Resin 181 Glass Fabric •4 25 ~20 15 .. 3. 80) WADD TR 6o-42 259 . 162 5 107 5 108 S-N Curves of Heat Resistant Glass-Fabric Reintorced Plastic Laminates (From Ref.5 0 10 10 5 10 5 105 5 3o6 Cycles to Failun..

30 25 j20S20Itels 313 . 42) WADD TR 60-42 260 .o0 - 1 log lo3 5iO( 5 1o5 Fig.• Kt 1. 161 51 Cycles to Failure 5 o7 5 1o8 S-N Curves for a Glass Fabric Laminate Plastic (Plotted fran Table XI of Ref.

w. I _0 Umw Deffs content 50% Compabed 1 Cycles to Ys11.08K mole 5 Hard reela GOOM 10 ey"to Fallsre W 1 oT& lols 120 5 _ ___0__ 10 lo. Oontstl cycles to Failgme Fig.Nowial ea 9 ellow D±Tgh !Ktul. -Hr a 108 ~1534ai N10 It - 2.. 164i 11* Deeals S-N Curves ror Natural and Laminated Wood (From Ref. to fLe3m. 20 10 0o10 Oyal. 81) WADD TR 6o-42 2 61 .600 (on MO-oIrse aI I I t 2.

.41 0 pal 4003 ImmIaI 8 8 6t_-UK.50 " . 8 W22 50~l WADD TR 60-4+2 262 ..! --.

t- Is- -7 TOX on sswuSUMUI-S a WADD R 6o-2 26 .

iii - - - p __ I I I 0 '4 I __ I I 1 '4 / a ___ I -1-I I ___ '4 U Ih ___ ___ I __ I/ / - ill S __ - - -'0 ___ I I_ 1 I 0 -- 0* is' U U / ______ / 02 0 6 I * o o - '0 *0 r4 O i0 * Tg "3ZIS TWTXV WADD TR 6o-k2 26'I .- - - - - - - -.

1L r ii 604226 R -- m R _m 4 eAD .

02 I 0 04 I lxIsauBT4nv f' PN4 0 WADD R 6o-2 26 .

9.6042926 .041 03 -~~~~ -t- IB 0 I 0 2 04) 0~02 4)03 WAD .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. 2.

Cuilnga, Harold N., Qualitative Aspects or Fatigue or Metals. TR 59-230, 1959.

WADC

Anon., A Tentative Guide for Fatigue Testing and the Statistical Analysis of Fatigue Dava. ASTM 5TF NO* 91-As 195!). Lipaitts L.A., and Horne$ 0.T.,, The Fatigue Behavior of Decarburized Steel. Proc. ASYM, Vol. 57, 1957-. Demer, L.J., Interrelation of Fatige Cracig, Sensitivity, A.T 64UMrh 97 Mappng and Notch

3.
4.

5.
6, 7.

Evans, E.B., Ebert,, L.J., and Brines, C W. Fatigue Prouerties of Comparable east and Wrought Steels. Proc. AST,&; Vol.* 5b, 195b Almon,, J.0.,, and Boegehold., A.L.,, Rear Axle Gears: Factors Which Influence Their Life. Proc. ASYM, Vol. 35j, II, 1935. Neuber, H., Der Raumlich Spanunzuatand In Umderhungskerben. Archly., Vol. bs p. 133, 1935. Ingenieur

8. 9.

Corten, H.T.,, Dimoff, T., and Dolan, T.J.,, An Appraisal of the Prot Method of Fatigue Testing. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 54,, 1954. Grover, H.J.,, Bishop,, S.M,, and Jackson, L.R., Fatl~e Sigeths or Aircraft Materials - Axial-Load Fatigue Tests on Notche phet ecimens of 24-T and T-T Auminum AZoE and or SA 1O ee wihsress concentration Factors or 2.0 and 41.0. NAGA TN 23059, 1951. Grover,, HJ.,, Hyler, Aircraft Materials of 24-T and T-T Concentration Factor W.S.,, and Jackson, L.R.,p Fatigue Strengths of Axial-L~oad Fatigue Tests on Notched Sheet specimens Auminum Aloy and of SAE 43Ste ntress or 1.5. NAGA TN 2639, February, 1952.

10.

11. 12. 13.

Rooney,, R.J., Fatigue Tests of Welded and Unwelded SAE 4ý20 Steel. Wright Field Memorandum Report,, Serial No. XC7MCrE-590-6- , January 14,1948. Anon., Rotati.'i Beam Fatfigue Test. Unpublished Report EML 803, JuneJuly 194y7, Curt iss-Wright Propeller Division. Sachs, 0.,g Muvdi, B.B., and Klier,, E.P.,, Design Properties of High Strength Steels in the Presence of stress Concentrations. WADC R 55-103, January, 1955. Starkey, W.L.,, Marco, S.M., and Gatta, R.R., Statistical Evaluation of Variation in Endurance Limit Among Several HfeatFs -o( ro-pelle-r Type Ste-el. WACTR 55-45S3# August, 195b. Epremian, E., and Mehl, R.F.0 Investigation of Statistical Nature of Fatigue Properties. NAGA TN 2719, June, 195r. Dieter, G.E., Horne,, G.T.,, and Mehl# R.F., Statistical Study of OverStressinig in Steel. MACA TN 3211, April,, 1154-. Dolan, T.J., and Hanley, B.C., The Effect of Size of Specimen on the Fatige Streag o AE440 Steel. Final Report, may, 19118, Engr-. Expriensation, U.or11

14.

15. 16. 17.

WADD TR 60-42

268

BIBLIOGRAPHY (Continued)

18.
19. 20. 21.

Poster H W. and Cox, R.J., Static and Fatigue Notch Tests of High Heat SAE J43 0 and Hy-Tuf Steel Bar. LocUKheed Aircraft Corp., Report No. TT744U January 309 L95l.. Wells, N.J., and Ward, M.V., Critical Design Factors for High Strength Steel. Machine Design, Vol. 25, No. 10, October, 1953, PP. 149-15T. Melcon, M..A., Ultra High Strength Steel tor Aircraft Structures. Engineering, Vol. XXIV, No. 10, October, 1953, pp. 129-141. Product

Ransom, J.T., and Mehl, R.F.,, The-Statistical Nature of the Fatigue Properties of SAE 4~340 Steel Forgings. Symposiu-mi onF7aitigue with Emphasis on statistical Approach - II. A5TKh STP No. 137', June, 1952. Trapp,, W.J., Elevated Temperature Fatigue Properties of SAE 4f340 Steel. December, 1952. WADC TR 52-325-,Part I,, Dolan, T.J., Richart, F.E., Jr., and Work, C.E., The Influence of Fluctuations in Stress Amplitude on the Fatigue of Metals. Proc. AsTm, Vol. 49, 1949, p-. BTb. Oberg, T.T., and Ward, E.J. Fatigue of Alloy Steels at High Stress Levels. WADC TR 53-256, October, 1953. Ward,, E.J., Schwartz,, R.T.,, and Schwartz, D.C., An Investigation of the Prot Accelerated FatigueTest. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 53, 1953, P. 08t5. Findley, W.N., Mergen, P.C., and Rosenberg, A.H., The Effect of Range of Stress on Fatigue Strength of Notched and Unnotched SAE 4340 Steel In Bending and Torsion. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 535, 1953,, p. 700i. Cummings, H.N., Stulen, F.B., and Schulte, W.Ci. Investigation of Materials Fatigue Problems Applicable to Propeller Design. WD TR 5~4-531, Cummings, H.N., Stulen, F.B.,, and Schulte, W.C. Inesigation of
Deign.WAD1 TH 54-531,

22. 23.

24I.
25.

26.
27.

28.

Materials Fatigue Problems Applicable to Propeller
S-upplement 1, October, 1955.

29.

Cummings, H.N., Stulen, F.B.,, and Schulte, W.C., Investigation of Materials Fatigue Problems. WADC TR 56-611a mar-,a1?957. Cummings, H.N., Stulen, F.B., and Schulte, W.c., Research on Ferrous
Material Fatigue* WADC TE

30. 31.
32.

58-43,

August,

1958.

Starkey, W.L., Marco, S.M., and Gatts, R.R., Statistical Evaluation of arpeller Tye Variation in Endurance Limit Amo2 Several Heats af Tarasovp L.P., and Grover, H.J.., Effects of GriLnding and Other Finishing Processes on the Fatigue Strengh or Htardened steel. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 50o 1950a p.76697 Styri,, H., Patiu Strenoth of Ball Bearing Races and Heat Treated 521.00 Steel Specimens. Prod. ASTX# Vol. 51, 1L951,o P. 062. Muvdi, L.B., Sachs, G., and 111cr, E.P.,, Axial Load Patiu u High Strength Steels. Proc. ASTN,, Vol. 5T# 1957; Prpriso rpriso

33. 34.

wADD TR

60-42

269

BIBLIOGRAPHY (Continued)

35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
410. 41l.

Cummings, H.N., Stulen, F.B., and Schulte, W.C., Invest Aation of Fatigue

Vitovec, F.H., Fatigue, Creep
Udimet 500, Has~ei o_ y
-5

and Ru ture Progerties 3f the Alloy
and GX-j-.
A T 5-34, Ocober,

1958.

Sachs$ G0. Sell, R., and Brown, W.F., Jr. , insion, Compression, and Fatigue Properties or Several Steels for Ai ~craft Nearing Application. Paper presented to ASTM Annual Meeting, Ju~ne, 1959. Fairbairn, G.,A., An Appraisal of the Fatigue Characteristics of Materials for High Performance Air Vehicles. Proceedings, WADC Symposium on Fatiu oAircrart Structures, sponsored by ARDCO WADC TR 59-507j, August,, 1959. Lazan, B.J., and Demers L.J., Dam~ng Elasticitz and Fatigue Properties of Temperature-Resistant materials. Poc. AT, Vol. 5, 91 Vitovec, F.H., and Lazan, B.J., Fatigue , Creep, and Rupture Properties of Heat Resistant Materials. WADC Tfl !50-101 August, 1950S. Vitovec, F.H., Fatigue, Creep, and Rupture Properties or the Alloy Inconel 11713CI'. Status Report 56i-j, Third quarter 1956 U. orMinIs.o Techi7 Mechanics and Materials Dept., Appendix 94d. inIs*o Podnick~s, E.R., and Lazan, B.J., Damping, Elasticity, and Fatigue Properties of Titanium Alloys, Hi10 Temperature Alloys, stainless Steels, and Glass Laminate at Room and Elevated Temperatures.* WADC TR 56-37, March,. 195b7. Demers L.J., and Lazan, B.J., Damping, Elasticity, and Fatigue Properties of Unnotohed and Notched N-155 Alloy at Room and Elevated T~emperatures. Proc. ASTM,, Vol. 53,71953. Toolins P.R., The Influence of Test Temperature and Grain Size on the Fatigue Notch Sensitivit-y or Rerractaloy 26. Proc. ASTM,, Vol. 511, 195 4. Hardrath, H.F,, Landers, C.B., and Utley, E.C., Jr., Axa-od aiu Tests on Notched and Unnotched Sheet Specimens of 6lS 7 -T6Mum~nUM Aj~IoY Annealed 347 stainless STeel, and Heat-Treated 403 Stainess Steel, NACA TN 3011, October, 1953. Rooney, R.J., Fatigue Properties of Heat Resistant Nickel Base Alloy Rene 411. WADC Report WCLT L58z-73, 2b August 1956S. Oberg, T.T., and Rooney, R.J., Reversed Bendin Fatigue Characteristics of

4&2.

43.

441. 415.

416. 247.

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Lazan, B.J., and Blatherwick, A.A.,s Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloy at Various Direct Stress Ratios.. Part I - Rolled Alloys. WADC TH 52-307 Part Is December, 1952. 49. Wag. TY. Axial Loadip Fatigue Properties of 7072-T6, 701-T6 and

50.

Cliet, C.B., Flexural Fatigue Strength of Anodized 2315-T Aluminum Alloy Sheet. Aeronautical Engineering Review, Vol. 11, No. 12,' December, 1952. 270

WADD TR 6o-42

BIBLIOORAPHY (Uontinued)

51. 52.

and Howard, D.M., Effect of Mean Stress on the Fatigue Life Wilks, I.E WADC TR 53-40, June, 1953. of Alclad 2AS-T3 and 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Smith, P.C., Brueggeman, W.x., and Harwell, R.H., Comparison of Fatigue Strengths of Bare and Alclad 24S-T3 Aluminum-Alloy Sheet Specimens NACA TN 2231, December, 1950. Tested at 12 and 1,000 Cycles per Minute. Grover, H.J., Bishop, S.M., and Jackson, L.R., Fatigue Strengths of Aircraft Materials - Axial-Load Fatigue Tests on Unnotched Sheet SpeciNACA mens of 24S-T3 and 75S-Tb Aluminum Alloys and of SAE 4130 Steel.

53.

TN 2324, 1951. 54. Grover, H.J., Bishop, S.M., and Jackson, L.R., Fatigue Strengths of Aircraft Materials - Axial-Load Fatigue Tests on Notched Sheet Specimens of 24S-T3 and 75S-Tb Aluminum Alloys and or SAE MO Steel with stress Concentration Factor of 5.0. NACA TN 2390, 1951. MacGregor, C.W., and Grossman, N., Effects of Cyclic Loadins on Mechanical NACA Behavior of 24S-T4 and 75S--T6 Aluminum Alloys and SAE 4130 Steel. TN 2U12, October, 1952. Wallgren, G., Direct Fatigue Tests with Tensile and Compressive Mean Stresses on 24"-T Aluminum Plain Specimens and Specimens Notched by a Drilled Hole. -Stockholm, 1953, Report No. 40 of the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. Hardrath, H.F., and Illg, W., Fatigue Tests at Stresses Producing Failure 24S-T3 and 75S-Tb Aluminum-Alloy Sheet Specimens in 2 to 10,000 Cycles. NACA TN 3132, with Kt - 4.0, Subjected to Completely Reversed Axial Load. January 1954. Rosenthal, D., and Sines, G., Effect of Residual Stress on the Fatigue Proc. ASTM, Vol. 51, 1951, p. 593 et seq. Strength of Notched Specimens. Stickley, G.W., and Howell, F.M., Effects of Anodic Coatings on the Proc. ASTM, Vol. 50, 1950. Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Alloys. Sinclair, G.M., and Dolan, T.J., Effect of Stress Amplitude on Statistical Trans. ASIfE, Vol. Variability in Fatigue Life of 75S-Tb Aluminum Alloy. 75, No. 5, July, 1953, PP. Ob7-b72. Findley, W.N., Combined-Stress Fatigue Strength of 76S-T61 Aluminum Alloy NACA TN With Superimposed Mean Stresses and Correction for Yielding. 2924p, May, 1953. Dolan, T.J., Effects of Range of Stress and of Special Notches on Fatigue NACA TN Properties of Aluminum Alloys Suitable for Airplane Propellers. 052, June, 1942. Bennett, J.A., Effect of an Anodic (HAE) coating on the Fatigue Strength Proc. ASTM, Vol. 55, 1955. of Magnesium Alloy Specimens. Found, G.H., The Notch Sensitivity in Fatigue Loading of Some MagnesiumProc. ASTM, Vol. 4b, 194b. Base and Aluminum-Base Alloys. Jackson, L.R., and Grover, H.J., The Fatigue Strength of Some Magnesium Sheet Alloys. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 46, 194b.

55.
56.

57.

58. 59.
60.

61.

62.

63. 64. 65.

WADD TR 60-42

271

BIBLIOORAPHY (continued)

66.

Blatherwick, A.A., and Lazan, B.J,, FatguePrper~ties ofExtruded Ualposium Alloy 2K6O Under Various Cormbnatons or Alenating an7 mean AalStresses. WADC TH 53-l15l, August, 1953. Hyler, W.S.., and Lyons, F.H., Material-Progerty-Des sn criteria for Metals.

67. 68. 69.

Harmsworth,, C.L.,1 Fatigue Properties of AZ8l-T~4 Cast Magnesium Alloy. WADC Report No. WcRT L5t-13,, 31 January 195b. Harusworth, C.L.s, and Stewart, J.M., Fatigue Properties of HM-31 Magnesium Alloy at Room and Elevated Temperatures. WADc Report NO. WCRT L5t-b9, 14 may 195bw' Harmsvorth, C.L.,, and Beutel, E.., Fatigue Properties of HM-21 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures. WADC Report NfO. WURT L5b 112, ?3 October, 1950. Romualdi, JP., and D'Appolonia, E.,* The Effect of Geometry of Notch and Speed of Testing on the Fatigue Prourtles of Titanium. Carnegie I-naTITute or Technology and Office or Chief or Ordnance. Contract No. DA-36-061ORD-259. WAL Report No. '401/68-22. March, 1953. Adenstedt, H.K.p Binna, F.R., and Rooney, R.J., A Preliminary Inves~igation on the Effects of Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength Or Titanium Alloys TI-150A and RC -130B * WADC TR 52-202, February 1953. Harmsworth, C.L., Invest Wtion of the Statistical Nature of Fatisue of RC130B Titanium Allo-y.WADC Report WCRT L5)4-3b, Project 591-bO kS-A), 7 July 1954. Demmlers, A.W., Jr., Sinnottj, N.J., and Thomassen, L., The Fatigue Properties of Some Titanium Alloys.. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 55, 1955, p.7-71-Demmier, A.W.s, Jr.., Sinnotts, M.J., and Thomassen, L., The Fatigue Properties of Some Titanium Alloys. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 56, 1956, P. 1051. Repeated Load. Proc. ASTM, Vol. 55_, 195.

TO.

71.

72.

73. 7'4, 75.

76, Crum, R.G., and D'Appolonia, E., Behavior of Ti-T5A Titanium Alloy Under 77. 78. 79.
Ogden, H.R.s, Holdens, P.C., and Jaffee, R.I., Mechanical Properties of TiCr-Mo Alloys as Affected by Grain Size and Grain Shape. Trans. ASM, Vol.' 50s, 2950. Sherman R G. and Kessler, H.D., Investigation of the Heat Treatability of the t% ilu'minum-'4% Vanadium Titanium-Base Alloy. Tr-ans. ASm, Vol.* 49 195b. Coer, A.E. Fatigue, Rupture and Creep Properties of 7 Al-3 Mo Titanium Ally. Status Report 59-2, Second quarter 1959, U. of Minn., In~stf. of Teen., Mechanics and Materials Dept., Appendix 6'4g. (Air Force Contract

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Boiler, K.H., Fatjgue Properties of Various Glass-Fiber-Reinforeed Plastic La.minates. WAINC TR 55-30i9.

WADD TR 6o-4~2

272

Appendix 72h. Forest Repeated and Reversed Bending Stresses. Kommers. 1955. WADD TR 6o-42 273 . No. Damping. of MRUm. 82. P. bervice. T. 84.B. 3. and Fatigue Properties of Brush QNV Berylliu. S.. Stresa-Rupture Data for Beryllium.. WADD. LamInated Woods. Fatigue of Beryllium. 85. 83.. and Oberg.BIBLIOGRAPHY (Continued) 81. Forest Products La oratory Report No. Second Quarter 1959. 10. Vol. F.. The Fatiue Behavior of Wood and Plyood Subjected to U. Inst.. Sclences. Torvik. Status Report 59-2. W. U. Elasticity. March. Dept. Materials Laboratory. or Agriculture.J.T. 1943.J. 1327. Compressed. March. Fuller. Materials Laboratory. WADD. Fatigue Characteristics of Natural and Journal of the Aeronautical Resin-Impregnated. of (Air Force Contract Tech )-chanics and Materials Dept..

E. Ransom. wADD TR 60-142 274 .75 62 16 8 8.54. J. Corten. R. Findley.T. Howard.31 84. Found. Rooney.J.I. Demer.57 71 Hanley#. Lazan.F.N.I. D'Appolonla. Demler.8 Cox. D. Howell. R.M.12 AUTHOR Harusworth.R.H. R. . Rosenberg. Harwell. Klier.. H. Melcon. H. 37 52 Jackson.H. 63 70 72 9g53 54 66 6 Horne.81 26#61 77 14.C. oatta.29.T7 26 58 Hardrath. 73 52 Bennett.70. G.C. K.H.32. Cliet.LIST OF AUTOM (W MEMMRENCS AUTHOR Adenstedt. 30. 80 5 Ing.T. 11.J. Muvdi. N. C.34 82 45 39. 77 16 51 59 10. Kessler. Neuber. H.16. Lipsitt. Richart. Briggs. Jr. E. R.M.J. S.K.M.H.69.35 71. Mergen.W.1 40. F. D.E. Lyon. P. J.M. Oberg.85 15. C. E.43 78 13. L. Podnicks. Brown. F.0.J.B.T. Marco. H. 65 77 79 50 18 76 1. H.R.T. Fuller. Anon.17. Hyler.P. Almen.F. B. Evans. F. H.Jr.W. F. MaoGregor. REFERENCES 72 6 2. B. Foster. A. Bishop.B.A. 55 42 21 23 Grover.W. H. "48. H.J. Brueggeman.10.66 3 67 55 74. B. L.. W. F. Grossman.J. Holden. C.47. Kommers. T. Binns.G. Blatherwick.42.67 57 Boller..R.60. 14. T.53.34 Ebert.W.46.A. A.21 20 26 13.C. F.E.R.53. Dlmoff.B.H. Jaffee.e.A. S. J.N.A.J.D. L. W. Cummings. Landers. C. O. WADD Mehl.L. Cers. Rosenthal.L.E. H.P. G. A.C. Fairbairn. V. H. A.A.23.B. Beutel. T. Ogden. R.65 17 145.28. W.31 9 10. A. J.76 4 39.43. W. Materials Laboratory. Crum.E. C.27. E. Romualdi. E. E. 9..68. W. Epremlan. Dolan. 54. 5 15 5 38 18 64 81 7 24. Dieter.B. R. G. Boegehold.J. REFEEINCES 49.Jr. R.

0.E. O.L. D.R.C.25 19 19 51 23 WADD TR 60-42 275 . 0.C. Wallgren.E. Styrij. Wang.T.M. G. Sinnott. W.37 27. N.41 56 49 24.32 74.C.V. 35 33 23. P. Sines. R.Y. Torvik. Toolin. Sherman.28. N. R. H. F.29.C..B. Stewart. Work. C. Jr. L.J. Sell.30.M.J. 35 25 Schwartz.G. Tarasov. F. I. Ward. 13. 25 3• 7o 60 58 74.W.75 44 83 22 45 36.H.LIST OF AUTHORS OF REFERENCES (Continued) AUTHOR REFERENCES Sachas. Wilks. E.J. Schwartz.30. R.P. Starkey. N. D. Wells. 0. J. Sinclair. Smith. Trapps W. Stulen.J. W.34. Thomassen.29. F.J. E.75 52 14.31 69 59 27.28. Vitovec. Utley. Stickley.40. P. Ward. Schulte. L.

2 " " 70 79 87 88.-- 1040 1330 1340 23 20-23 2315 2330 4230 4N0 41'I 5 4320 4330 "1 It " 24-33 34• 37 38-39 404 4130 45-48 "--"T If if If 0 49-52 53-59 60-73 74-T77 1-85 86-95 1-32 33-36 37-140 41-42 43-52 10-11 -" 16 17-21 4335 4340 4350 52100 8630 8640 14B50 9840" cruc.2.3 22-46 48-50 51-52 53-54 56-60 55 62 IV 2.-45 91-102 2.1 "1-7 If " " 2 38-10 11-12 13 -15 . 78 "46-63 64-67 68-70 71-77 "36-37 38-39 " Stellite V IV (See X-40) 9.2.71 72 75 76 61 IV V " 7 8-9 14-15 17-26 13-14 15-16 27 28 30-33 See Tricent 29 34-35 40.2.2 "47 2. 81 62 70 75.4 3.4 I " 65 63 276 .2.2. 70 75.2.MATERIAL Steels and otant Alloys MITeat 1008 1020 TABLE ITEWS PARAGRAPH FPIS.74 70.16-17 12-13 2. UHS-260 1I I III " 2.4 Ferrovac (WB-49) OR-235 H-1 H-23 Halmo Hastalloy H•-Tut Inoonel 713C Inoonel X Inoonel X-550 Lapalloy X-1 M-10 K-30C MV-" X-155 Refractalloy Rene 41 S-816 Sandv'ik StaWnleas 347 StaWnless 403 Stainless 17-7 PHt Staless PH-15-7 No Super HY-Tuf Super TH-2 WADD TR 60-42 V " 1-4 5-6 10-11 12 3. 1 f4-5 1-3 6-13 14-19 2.2 " " 66 67 68 69 67 64 73.

2 138 131 --141 " " " " " C-AC C-HT C-HTA C-HTS n" " " " " " " --138 142 143 142 137 139 140 134-136 PS-la HM-21 'S-1 PS-lh HK-31 1FS--h " 44-48 132.43 32.37.2 78-80 70 70 67 85 66 84 Aluminum Alloys 2014 2024 6061 VII VIII VI IX 1-10 1-24 1-7 1-4 4.40.34.2 2.2.39 31.6 110-123 124-129 130 Magnesium Alloys AZ-31A-0 AZ31X AZ6lA-F AZ8OA-" AZ81-T4 XII See PS-la 1-19 See J-1 33.35.55 See AZ31X 67-69 70-74 64-66 52. TP-2-B TP-2-R Udimet 500 Waspalloy WB-49 V IV V " x-4o 84 85 86-87 88-90 See Ferrovac 81-83 1-8 3.4 4.3 7075 7076 7079 X xi 1-31 1-23 4.LIST OF MATERIALS (Continued) MATERIAL Steels and Heat Resistant Alloys IContinued j Timken 16-25-6 Trioent TABLE ITEMS PARAGRAPH FIGS.36.2.2.2.41 30.2.56-58 59-61 49-51 See 0-1 62.53.38 27-29 20-26.2 4.63 5.4 86 61 3.5 94 -106 107-109 90-93 4.2.133 HM-31 J-1 0-1 ZK6OA-T5 " " Titanium Alloys "Commerolal" Ro-A-30314 wADD TR 60-42 XIII 45-50 35-40 277 6.54.42.1 4.2.2 --- .

Ingot Iron Wood and Plywood 7-31 3-4 157-163 154 " 164-165 1-2 32-49 WADD TR 60-42 278 .41-44 7-12 55-62 51-54 63-66 67-86 6.5 go 6 A1-4 Va 7 A1-3 Mo 13-15. Ro-130D Ro-55 XIII TI-75A Ti-150A Ti-2.5 Cr-7.LMi8 O ORM•Ah (COUUMOd) MATERIAL Titanium Alloys (Continued) TABLE TITEM PARAGRAPH FIGS.5 Cr-2.2 145-146 144 147 145 148 148 149-151 152-153 Miscellaneous Materials Al-Ni Bronze Beryllium Gray Iron Beryllium Copper XIv " " 5 50-63 6 7.24-34 1-6 1 16-23.2 "166-170 155 156 Glass Fiber Plastic Lam.5 No Ti-7.

I I I'I Is IIjJ ( I I '1 I J . t"• S) ! A -1~ I . uil I J I . I . 'm I I'lI I II I S.

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