WELCOME

TO THE PATH OF SUCCESS

Subnet in your head in 90 minutes!
Todd Lammle
Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

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About Todd Lammle
• Sybex author
– More than 40 titles published on Cisco; Microsoft; and,
soon, wireless certification.

• President, GlobalNet Training Inc.
– Cisco, Microsoft, Security and Wireless certification
hands-on courses. www.globalnettraining.com.

• CEO, RouterSim, LLC
– Cisco and Microsoft certification software products.
www.routersim.com.
Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

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I Promise…..You can subnet in your head…..

Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

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GLOBALNETTRAINING.COM .IP Addressing and Subnetting WWW.

• The Hierarchical advantage is increased ability of addresses.IP Addressing • Hierarchical Addressing Framework. • Network. 32 bits (four bytes).node addressing. . Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 5 .

Octet = Always eight bits.Binary Numbering Defining basic IP addressing terms: Bit = One digit (one or a zero). Globalnet Training Inc. . Byte = Seven or eight bits (depends on parity).CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 6 .

Binary to Decimal Conversion
Converting binary to decimal examples:

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1: Bit values
0
1
0
0
1
0

0
1
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0

0 0
1 1
0 1
1 0
0 0
1 0

0
1
1
1
0
1

0
1
1
0
1
1

Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

0
1
1
1
1
0

=0
= 255
= 15
= 85
= 131
= 22
7

Binary (Cont.)
Bits
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Binary
00000000
10000000
11000000
11100000
11110000
11111000
11111100
11111110
11111111

Decimal
0
128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

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Math to Memorize!
Subnet mask
256-192
256-224
256-240
256-248
256-252

First Subnet
64
32
16
8
4

Globalnet Training Inc. - CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003

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Powers of 2 21=2 22=4 23=8 24=16 25=32 26=64 27=128 28=256 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 10 . .

.IP Addressing 32 bits Network 255 255 1 byte 1 byte Host 255 255 1 byte 1 byte Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 11 .

.IP Addressing 32 bits Network 255 1 Host 255 255 8 9 16 17 255 24 25 32 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 12 .

.IP Address Classes Class A: Class B: Class C: 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits Network Host Host Host Host Host Network Network Network Network Network Class D: Multicast Class E: Research Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 Host 13 .

.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 14 .IP Address Classes Class A: Class B: Range (1-126) 10NNNNNN Range (128-191) Class C: 00000000 = 0 0NNNNNNN 01111111 = 127 10000000 =128 10111111 = 191 110NNNNN Range (192-223) 11000000 = 192 11011111 = 223 Note: Class D range is 224-239 Globalnet Training Inc.

16.0 10.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 15 .0.1 192.168.255 172.168.0.255.16.0.255 Network Address First valid host Last valid host Broadcast Address 192.168. .254 192.255.255.10.255.255.16.0.0.254 10.0.10.255.1 172.0 192.IP Address Ranges 10.10.16.254 172.10.0 172.1 10.168.255 Globalnet Training Inc.

.Addressing Without Subnets 172.16.2 172.16.0.16.16.255.0.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 16 .0.254 Network 172.1 172.0 Globalnet Training Inc.

0 172.16.16.0 Network 172.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 17 .0 172.16.16.16.10.0 172.30. .Addressing With Subnets 172.0.20.40.0 Globalnet Training Inc.

.0 Class B default 255.255.0 Class C default 255.0.0 Globalnet Training Inc.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 18 .Subnet Masks Class A default 255.0.255.0.

. Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 19 .How Do You Determine the Mask? • Count the number of subnets in the network and remember to think about growth. • Count the number of hosts in each subnet and remember to think about growth.

CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 20 . How many subnets? 2. What’s the first valid host address? 6. What’s the last valid host address? Globalnet Training Inc. What’s the broadcast address? 5. How many hosts per subnet? 3. What are the subnets? 4.After You Choose a Subnet Mask… Just ask Six Questions! 1. .

(Valid hosts must not be all 0s or all 1s). Broadcast address = next subnet –1. 2. 3. 2host bits-2 = amount of hosts per subnet. . 2subnet bits -2= amount of subnets. First valid host = subnet + 1. 6.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 21 . 5. Get Six Answers! 1.Now. Globalnet Training Inc. 256-subnet mask = base number. Last valid host = broadcast – 1. 4.

.255.255.10.192 22-2=2 26-2=62 256-192= 64 65 126 127 128 129 190 191 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 22 .168.Easy Subnetting 192.0 255.

Now Implement It….129 Globalnet Training Inc.130 .CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 . . .67 .132 192.128 23 .10.66 .10.64 .168.68 192.65 .131 .168.

168.10.224 23-2=6 25-2=30 256-224= 32 64 33 65 62 94 63 95 96 97 126 127 128 129 158 159 Globalnet Training Inc.Easy Subnetting 192.0 255.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 160 161 190 191 192 193 222 223 24 .255. .

168.Now Implement It….33 .10. .132 192. .168.32 .168.99 .128 .98 192.130 .100 .36 Globalnet Training Inc.96 .131 .64 .65 192.66 .35 192.10.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 25 .10.10.34 .129 .168.97 .

CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast 26 .0 255.240 24-2=14 24-2=14 256-240= 16 32 17 33 30 46 31 47 48 49 62 63 64… 224 65… 225 78… 238 79… 239 Globalnet Training Inc. .Easy Subnetting 192.255.255.168.10.

248 25-2=30 23-2=6 256-248= 8 16 9 17 14 22 15 23 24 25 30 31 32… 240 Network 33… 241 First Host 38… 242 Last Host 39… 247 Broadcast Globalnet Training Inc.255.255.10.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 27 .Easy Subnetting 192. .0 255.168.

255.255.0 255.168.252 26-2=62 22-2=2 256-252= 4 8 5 9 6 10 7 11 12 13 14 15 16… 248 Network 17… 249 First Host 18… 250 Last Host 19… 251 Broadcast Globalnet Training Inc. .CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 28 .10.Easy Subnetting 192.

13 .10.8 Globalnet Training Inc.12 .5 .4 .10. .17 .16 .CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 29 .168.14 192.10.10 .9 192.Now Implement It….168. .6 192.10.168.168.18 192.

168.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 30 .192 When viewing an IP address and subnet mask.68 255. just answer three easy questions: What’s the valid subnet? What’s the broadcast address? What’s the valid host range? Globalnet Training Inc. .10.255.Very Easy Subnetting 192.255.

CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 31 . .Answer 256-192= 64 128 Subnet 65 129 First Host 126 190 Last Host 127 191 Broadcast Globalnet Training Inc.

255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 32 . .168.255.224 Globalnet Training Inc. 65 255.Very Easy Subnetting 192.10.

255. 96 Subnet = 64 Broadcast = 95 Globalnet Training Inc. 65 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 33 .10. 64.168.Answer 192.255.224 256-224=32. .

10.Very Easy Subnetting 192.240 Globalnet Training Inc. .255.168.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 34 .255.38 255.

255.Answer: 192.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 35 . 48 Subnet = 32 Broadcast = 47 Globalnet Training Inc. 32. .240 256-240=16.255.10.38 255.168.

168. 26 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 36 .Very Easy Subnetting 192.255. .255.10.248 Globalnet Training Inc.

. 24. 26 255.10.168.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 37 . 32 Subnet = 24 Broadcast = 31 Globalnet Training Inc.Answer: 192.255.248 256-248=8. 16.

255.255.13 255. .252 Globalnet Training Inc.Very Easy Subnetting 192.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 38 .168.10.

252 256-252=4.10.Answer: 192. . 12.255.13 255.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 39 . 8. 16 Subnet = 12 Broadcast = 15 Globalnet Training Inc.168.

168.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 40 .10.255.255.248 Globalnet Training Inc.99 255.Very Easy Subnetting 192. .

192 Globalnet Training Inc.255. .Very Easy Subnetting 192.10.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 41 .168.99 255.

.10.255.224 Globalnet Training Inc.Very Easy Subnetting 192.69 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 42 .168.255.

CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 43 .255.168.Very Easy Subnetting 192. .10.255.25 255.252 Globalnet Training Inc.

CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 44 .Subnetting Question • Which mask would you assign if you had a class C address with a maximum of 35 hosts per network? Globalnet Training Inc. .

255.224=30 hosts per subnet 255.255.248=6 hosts per subnet 255.192=62 hosts per subnet 255.255.255.240=14 hosts per subnet 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 45 .Answer: • • • • • 255. .255.255.255.255.252=2 hosts per subnet Globalnet Training Inc.255.255.

168.10.0/26 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 46 . .Question How many subnets and hosts? • 192.

255.255.192 /27 = 255.10.255.255.255.0 255.Answer: /24 = 255.255.248 /30 = 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 47 .128 /26 = 255.255.255.240 /29 = 255.255.252 192.255.255.224 /28 = 255.255.0 /25 = 255.255.255.255.168.192 • Two subnets with 62 hosts each Globalnet Training Inc. .255.

254 191.255 Globalnet Training Inc.382 256-192= 64. .0 22-2=2 214-2=16.Class B Subnetting 172.0.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast 48 .255.0 255.1 127.255 128.16.0 64.192.254 127.0 128.1 191.

254… 47.0 255.255.1 First Host 239.1… 47.240.Class B Subnetting 172.0 16.255… Globalnet Training Inc.254 Last Host 239.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 224.0 Network 224.255 32.1 31.0 24-2=14 212-2=4094 256-240= 16. .254 31.255 Broadcast 49 .0.0… 32.16.

0.254 247.255 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast 50 .254… 23.248.0 255.1 15.0 8.1… 23.0 240.254 15.1 247.Class B Subnetting 172.16.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 240.255 16. .0 25-2=30 211-2=2046 256-248= 8.255… Globalnet Training Inc.0… 16.255.

0 2.254… 17.Class B Subnetting 172.0 252.1 253.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 252. .254 253.0.0 27-2=126 29-2=510 256-254= 2.255… Globalnet Training Inc.1… 17.16.1 3.255.255 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast 51 .0 255.254.254 3.0… 16.255 16.

0… 2.255.254 254.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 254.1 1.0 1.255 2.1… 2.255.254… 2.0 255. .Class B Subnetting 172.255… Globalnet Training Inc.1 254.16.254 1.255 Network First Host Last Host Broadcast 52 .0 28-2=254 28-2=254 256-255= 1.0.0 254.

192 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 53 .10.Very Easy Subnetting 172.90 255.255.16. .255.

255.192 256-192= 10.Answer 172.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 54 .128 Subnet = 10.64 10.90 255.255.127 Globalnet Training Inc.16. .10.64 Broadcast = 10.

Very Easy Subnetting 172.16.66 255.224 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 55 .10. .255.255.

224 256-224= 32. 96 Subnet = 10.16.66 255.64 Broadcast = 10.95 Globalnet Training Inc.10.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 56 . . 64.Answer 172.255.255.

240 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 57 . .33 255.255.10.255.Very Easy Subnetting 172.16.

32.32 Broadcast = 10.33 255.10. .16.255. 48 Subnet = 10.255.240 256-240= 16.47 Globalnet Training Inc.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 58 .Answer 172.

10.16.255.Very Easy Subnetting 172.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 59 . .248 Globalnet Training Inc.255.33 255.

40 Subnet = 10.Answer 172.32 Broadcast = 10.255.255.33 255. .CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 60 .16.10.39 Globalnet Training Inc.248 256-248= 8. 16. 24. 32.

Very Easy Subnetting 172.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 61 .13 255.10.255. .255.16.252 Globalnet Training Inc.

12 Broadcast = 10.10.16.13 255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 62 .15 Globalnet Training Inc. 8. 16 Subnet = 10.255.252 256-252= 4. .255. 12.Answer 172.

.0. which mask would you use to provide a maximum of 100 hosts with more than 300 subnets? Globalnet Training Inc.0.Subnet Question • If you had a class B address of 172.16.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 63 .

128 =510 subnets. 254 hosts Start at 255.255.0 = 254 subnet.255. Then move right if you need more subnets.255. . In this example. or left if you need more hosts. each with 254 hosts.255.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 64 . 62 hosts • 255.255.255.255.Answer: • 255.0.192=1022 subnets. 126 hosts • 255. which provides 254 subnets.255. we move right with the subnet bits because we need more subnets. Globalnet Training Inc.

Question • The network 172. .16.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 65 .0. What is your mask? Globalnet Training Inc.0 needs to be divided into subnet where you have over 400 hosts in each subnet.

Answer: 172. each with 510 hosts Globalnet Training Inc.0 126 subnets.254. • 255. . Start at 255.16.255.0. In this example. Then move right if you need more subnets.0 with over 400 hosts per subnet.255.255. or left if you need more hosts.0. we move left with the subnet bits because we need more hosts.CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 66 . each with 254 hosts. which provides 254 subnets.

com Globalnet Training Inc.Questions? Please see: • www.lammleprep.routersim.lammle.globalnettraining.com • www.com • www. .CCNA/DA Copyright 2002/2003 67 .com • www.