Khan, Mohammed Minhajuddin

Stegosaurus: a covered lizard (but not a type of cryptography)   . audio.What is Steganography? Greek Words: STEGANOS – “Covered” GRAPHIE – “Writing”  Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. image. etc. video. This can be achieve by concealing the existence of information within seemingly harmless carriers or cover Carrier: text.

Steganography. Cryptography involves various methods and implementations. and Watermarking There are two major branches of information hiding. Any attempt to remove or invalidate the embedded content renders the host useless. Cryptography:     Doesn’t conceal the communication. Steganography and Watermarking Watermarking:    Communication in watermarking is the host signal. The existence of a watermark is often declared openly. the purpose of steganography is defeated. May be considered complementary and orthogonal (unrelated). . Scrambles the data to prevent eavesdroppers understanding the content. Once the presence of hidden information is revealed or even suspected. Cryptography. with the embedded data providing copyright protection.

by taking the second letter in each word the following message emerges: Pershing sails from NY June 1. Since the microdot could be placed at the end of a sentence or above a j or an i. who shaved the head of his most trusted slave and tattooed a message on it. Microdot Technology Shrinking messages down to the size of a dot became a popular method.History of Steganography Steganography ancient origins can be traced back to 440 BC. Histiaeus. Blockade issue affects pretext for embargo on by products. from the Histories of Herodotus Demeratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it on a wooden panel and covering it in wax. After his hair had grown the message was hidden. World War II Invincible inks Null ciphers (unencrypted messages): Apparently neutral's protest is thoroughly discounted and ignored. . Isman hard hit. Sent by a German Spy in WWII. ejecting suets and vegetable oils. The purpose was to instigate a revolt against the Persians.

Algorithms and Transformations: This technique hides data in mathematical functions that are often used in compression algorithms. The idea of this method is to hide the secret message in the data bits in the least significant coefficients. This technique works best when the image file is larger then the message file and if the image is grayscale. The purpose is different from traditional steganography since it is adding an attribute to the cover image thus extending the amount of information presented. Least Significant Bit Insertion: The most common and popular method of modern day steganography is to make use of the LSB of a picture’s pixel information. ownership. or licenses. .Modern Steganography Techniques Masking and Filtering: Is where information is hidden inside of a image using digital watermarks that include information such as copyright. Thus the overall image distortion is kept to a minimum while the message is spaced out over the pixels in the images.

Basics of Modern Steganography fE: steganographic function "embedding" fE-1: steganographic function "extracting" cover: cover data in which emb will be hidden emb: message to be hidden key: parameter of fE stego: cover data with the hidden message .

Important Requirement for Steganographic System  Security of the hidden communication size of the payload   Robustness against malicious and unintentional attacks .

Steganography Tools .

Detection of Steganographic Content/Countermeasures The detection of steganographically encoded packages is called Steganalysis. either with the naked eye or with the assistance of a computer.  Visual Analysis tries to reveal the presence of secret communication through inspection.   The nominally universal methods developed to detect embedded stego-data are generally less effective than the steganalytic methods aimed at specific types of embedding. Statistical (Algorithmic) Analysis reveals tiny alterations in an image's statistical behavior caused by steganographic embedding. .

Steganography Sample Website  Here is the link for Sample Steganographic tool Website: .

But please submit by 12/12. Robertson of CIS 5371.My Questions 1. The Florida Society of Math and Cryptography is proud to present you with an small exam for qualification into our society. Salutations. . The key for passing is studying. Mr. Cryptography is rigorous and only those with patience in themselves pass. We have an exam PO Box in Tallahassee.

The Cryptography exam key is in PO Box 1212. We have an exam PO Box in Tallahassee. Robertson of CIS 5371.Answer Salutations. Mr. The Florida Society of Math and Cryptography is proud to present you with an small exam for qualification into our society. Cryptography is rigorous and only those with patience in themselves pass. . But please submit by 12/12. The key for passing is studying.

Name three methods by which Modern day Steganography is accomplished? Answer:  Masking and Filtering  Algorithms and Transformations  Least Significant Bit Insertion .My Questions 2.

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