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Multimedia Theory Assignment

Multimedia Theory Assignment

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Published by Vivek Kalra

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Published by: Vivek Kalra on May 08, 2012
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Q 1) What is extended Huffman coding?

Sol 1) Huffman coding is used to compress written text messages or audio or video signals by reducing
the redundancy in the signal. For example English has nearly 50% redundancy in it. If all the redundancy is removed from a written text, it is possible to reduce the size of the text by half (e.g. by omitting all the vowels, books can be half their normal sizes but terrible to read). It is done by first statistically analyzing the text. The Huffman algorithm has been extended, for the following reasons: 1) The basic Huffman coding algorithms require the statistical knowledge which is often not available (e.g., live audio, video). (b) Even when it is available, it could be a heavy overhead especially when many tables had to be sent when a non-order0 model is used, i.e. taking into account the impact of the previous symbol to the probability of the current symbol (e.g., "qu" often come together, ...). Q 2) What are advantages of adaptive Huffman coding as compared to basic Huffman coding? Sol 2) Adaptive Huffman coding (also called Dynamic Huffman coding) is an adaptive coding technique based on Huffman coding. It permits building the code as the symbols are being transmitted, having no initial knowledge of source distribution, that allows one-pass encoding and adaptation to changing conditions in data.The benefit of one-pass procedure is that the source can be encoded in real time, though it becomes more sensitive to transmission errors, since just a single loss ruins the whole code. Q 3) You are given a computer picture and a cartoon picture, which compression, either JPEG or GIF, for which case and why? Sol 3) JPEG is not going to displace GIF entirely. For some types of images, GIF is superior in image quality, file size, or both. One of the first things to learn about JPEG is which kinds of images to apply it to. Generally speaking, JPEG is superior to GIF for storing full-color or grey-scale images of "realistic" scenes; that means scanned photographs and similar material. Any continuous variation in color, such as occurs in highlighted or shaded areas, will be represented more faithfully and in less space by JPEG than by GIF. GIF does significantly better on images with only a few distinct colors, such as line drawings and simple cartoons. Not only is GIF lossless for such images, but it often compresses them more than JPEG can. For example, large areas of pixels that are all exactly the same color are compressed very efficiently indeed by GIF. JPEG can't squeeze such data as much as GIF does without introducing visible defects. (One implication of this is that large single-color borders are quite cheap in GIF files, while they are best avoided in JPEG files.) Computer-drawn images (ray-traced scenes, for instance) usually fall between photographs and cartoons in terms of complexity. The more complex and subtly rendered the image, the more likely that JPEG will do well on it. The same goes for semi-realistic artwork (fantasy drawings and such). JPEG has a hard time with very sharp edges: a row of pure-black pixels adjacent to a row of pure-white pixels, for example. Sharp edges tend to come out blurred unless you use a very high quality setting. Edges this sharp are rare in scanned photographs, but are fairly common in GIF files: borders, overlaid text, etc. The blurriness is particularly objectionable with text that's only a few pixels high. If you have a GIF with a lot of small-size overlaid text, don't JPEG it.

top-to-bottom scan.g.... Progressive) . Successive approximation: Instead of gradually encoding spectral bands. • Similar to Progressive JPEG.g. 256 × 256). • Progressive Mode. 4. Bits 7. 6. 2.measured in bytes per msg b. It should also be noted that GIF is lossless for grey-scale images of up to 256 levels. Scan 2: Encode a few more AC components.g. e. Scan 1: Encode the first few MSBs. 5.. . they violate all of the conditions given above.. AC61. Encoder for a Three-level Hierarchical JPEG 1. • Hierarchical Mode. AC5. e. Hierarchical Mode • The encoded image at the lowest resolution is basically a compressed low-pass filtered image. implicitly assumed in the discussions so far. Scan 2: Encode a few more less significant bits. followed by higher quality passes. R. AC2. You need at least about 16 grey levels before JPEG is useful for grey-scale images. Reduction of image resolution: Reduce resolution of the input image f (e.g. Scan 1: Encode DC and first few AC components. measure in msgs per second c. AC63.Plain black-and-white (two level) images should never be converted to JPEG. Sequential. Scan m: Encode the least significant bit (LSB). Scan k: Encode the last few ACs. Repeat this to obtain f4 (e. e.g. all DCT coefficients are encoded simultaneously but with their most significant bits (MSBs) first.. AC4. Each graylevel image or color image component is encoded in a single left-to-right. e. Bit 0..g. Q 4) What is LBAP model? Sol 4) LBAP model is a message arrival process at a resource defined by three parameters : a. 128 × 128). .. while JPEG is not.. 1. Maximum burstiness B measured in messages Q 5) What are different modes of JPEG? Discuss Sol 5) Four Commonly Used JPEG Modes • Sequential Mode — the default JPEG mode. whereas the images at successively higher resolutions provide additional details (differences from the lower resolution images). Spectral selection: Takes advantage of the ―spectral‖ (spatial frequency spectrum) characteristics of the DCT coefficients: higher AC components provide detail information.. the Hierarchical JPEG images can be transmitted in multiple passes progressively improving quality.g. Maximum message size... • Lossless Mode Progressive Mode Progressive JPEG delivers low quality versions of the image quickly. AC3.g. Bit 3. Compress low-resolution image f4: Encode f4 using any other JPEG method (e. AC1. Maximum message rate. 512×512) by a factor of 2 in each dimension to obtain f2 (e. 2.. e.g. M . AC62.

3. Progressive) to generate D1. 4. Decoder for a Three-level Hierarchical JPEG 1. What is JBIG? JBIG is a lossless image compression standard from the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group The main features of JBIG are:    Lossless compression of one-bit-per-pixel image data Ability to encode individual bitplanes of multiple-bit pixels Progressive or sequential encoding of image data What are benefits offered by compression schemes in designing multimedia systems? . (b) Encode difference d2 = f2 − E( ˜ f4) using any other JPEG method (e. Progressive) to generate D2. Restore image ˜ f at the original resolution: – Use E( ˜ f2)+ ˜ d1 to obtain ˜ f. Decompress the encoded low-resolution image F4: – Decode F4 using the same JPEG method as in the encoder to obtain ˜ f4. 2.g.. Compress difference image d2: (a) Decode F4 to obtain ˜ f4. add it to E( ˜ f4) to get ˜ f2 = E( ˜ f4)+ ˜ d2 which is a version of f2 after compression and decompression.. Sequential. (b) Encode difference d1 = f−E( ˜ f2) using any other JPEG method (e. Sequential. Restore image ˜ f2 at the intermediate resolution: – Use E( ˜ f4)+ ˜ d2 to obtain ˜ f2. Use any interpolation method to expand ˜ f4 to be of the same resolution as f2 and call it E( ˜ f4). 3. Compress difference image d1: (a) Decode D2 to obtain ˜ d2.g.to obtain F4.

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