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Tejas Networks

SDH Alarms

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Organisation of Slides

SDH section hierarchy SDH objects, nomenclature Downstream and Upstream Alarms understanding rules RS alarms MS alarms HP / LP alarms Description of Alarms Alarm Masking and Suppressed Secondary Alarms Alarm propagation examples
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SDH Section Hierarchy

There are four sections Regenerator Section (RS), Multiplex Section (MS), Higher Order Path Section (HP), and Lower Order Path Section (LP) RS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which RSOH part of SDH frame is NOT opened MS is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which MSOH part of SDH frame is NOT opened HP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which higher order VC part of SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting HOPOH) LP is a part (section) of the optical fibre network, within which lower order VC part of SDH frame is NOT opened (it may be opened only for interpreting LOPOH)

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SDH Section Hierarchy (contd.)


Points to Remember:
Without opening RS, one can not do operation with MS and/or open MS Without opening MS, one can not do operation with HP and/or open HP Without opening HP, one can not do operation with LP and/or open LP Consequences So, for Tejas nodes, even if one is making a VC4 level pass-through (an operation with HP without opening it), he/she is opening MS & therefore terminating the MS One can change any HPOH field (e.g., J1 transmitted trace) only when one is opening HP (e.g., VC12 level cross-connect exists on AU4 mapping), but not when HP is not disturbed (e.g., VC4 level pass-through on AU4 mapping)

Points to Remember:
For Tejas nodes, for AU4 mapping, one can make VC4 and VC12/VC11 level and not VC3 level pass-through for E1/DS1 traffic Consequences

If in a STM-1 node, multiple (say, 18) E1/DS1 traffic have to be passed-through with some other traffic added/dropped from that node, one has to make multiple (18) VC12 level pass-through
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Section Hierarchy (examples)


Example 1 RS RS

Reg. ADM 1 MS ADM 2

Example 2 RS
(VC4)

RS

ADM 1 MS

ADM 2
(STM 1)

ADM 3 MS

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Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

Example 3 (for AU4 mapping only)

RS MS
VC12 E1 VC4

RS MS
VC12

RS MS
VC12

B HP

C HP

E1

LP

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Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

Example 4a (for STM1 capacity & AU4 mapping only) F


VC

#1 E1 between A & E #2 E1 between F & H E3 between F & G

E3
V C 3

E1

12

RS A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, F-B, C-G, E-H MS A-B, B-C, C-E, F-B, C-G, E-H

C
VC12

Reg.

E
E1
VC12

E1

A
HP A-B, B-C, C-E LP A-E

LP F-H HP F-B, B-C, C-G LP F-G

VC

HP F-B, B-C, C-E, E-H

E3

E1

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12

C 3

Section Hierarchy (examples) ( contd.)

Example 4b (for STM4 capacity & AU4 mapping only) F


VC

#1 E1 between A & E #2 E1 between F & H E3 between F & G ----- VC 4

E3
V C 3

E1 RS A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, F-B, C-G, E-H MS A-B, B-C, C-E, F-B, C-G, E-H
Within STM # 1

12

STM # 1 VC12

Reg.

E
E1
VC12

E1

A
HP A-E LP A-E

STM # 2

STM # 2

STM # 1

LP F-H HP F-C, C-G LP F-G

VC

HP F-C, C-H

E3

E1

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12

C 3

SDH objects, nomenclature

3 different kinds of objects: STM port (STM-1 / STM-4 / STM-16) AU (AU-3 / AU-4 / AU-4-4c / AU-4-16c) Higher-order object (present even if no HO cross-connect) TU (TU-11 / TU-12 / TU-2 / TU-3) Nomenclature STM-1 chassis slot port (these fields are product specific) AU-4 AU-3 TU-3 TU-2 TU-12 TU-11 chassis slot port STM # 1 chassis slot port STM # K (for AU-3 mapping) chassis slot port STM # chassis slot port STM # chassis slot port STM # chassis slot port STM # K (for AU-4 mapping) KL K L M (M = 1 to 3) K L M (M = 1 to 4) K = 1 to 3, L = 1 to 7 Lower-order object (present only if LO cross-connect exists)

Note: STM # = 1 (for STM-1) = 1 to 4 (for STM-4) like that,

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Downstream & Upstream


Downstream direction for a fault condition Along the direction of fault condition received OR Towards the Back-plane of the node receiving fault condition Upstream direction for a fault condition Opposite of the direction of fault condition received OR Away from the Back-plane of the node receiving fault condition Downstream & Upstream direction for a node not fixed Depends on direction of fault condition (abbreviated as FC)
Downstream Upstream
FC 1 FC 2

ADM 1

Downstream Upstream

ADM 2

ADM 3

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Alarm Understanding Rules


Rule 1

Alarms reported are alarms received


FC 1 ex. a

Alarm reported

ADM 1 FC 1 ex. b ADM 1 Rule 2

ADM 2 Alarm reported

ADM 2

Alarms are reported on SDH Objects


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Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 3

3a. No Object => No Alarms reported


ex.
NO TU12 (1-1-1) FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

Note: ADM 2 These two examples are not possible for AU object WHY?

ADM 1

NO Alarm reported for FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

3b. Object Mismatch => No Alarms reported


ex.
TU11 (1-1-1) FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

See slide 9 ADM 2

ADM 1

NO Alarm reported for FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

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Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)


Rule 4

4a. No PT XC => No Alarms pass-through


ex. a ADM 1
NO Alarm pass-through NO VC4 PT (1) FC on AU4 (1)

ADM 2
Alarm reported for FC on AU4 (1)

ADM 3

ex. b ADM 1
NO Alarm pass-through

NO VC12 PT (1-1-1) FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 2
NO Alarm reported for FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 3

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Alarm Understanding Rules (contd.)

4b. Bigger PT XC => No Alarms reported & Alarm pass-through


ex. a ADM 1
Alarm pass-through for FC on TU12 (1-1-1) VC4 FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

STM-1 links

ADM 2
NO Alarm reported for FC on TU12 (1-1-1)

ADM 3

4c. Smaller PT XC => No Alarms reported (always ??) & Alarm pass-through but on smaller object
ex. b ADM 1
Alarm pass-through for FC on TU12 (1-1-1) VC12

STM-1
FC on TU3 (1)

(1-1-1)

links

ADM 2
NO Alarm reported for FC on TU3 (1)

ADM 3

What if Same size PT XC ?

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RS Alarms
RS alarms are those, which can be reported even by a pure Regenerator (who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) only RSOH) LOS (Loss of Signal) based on whole RSOH LOF (Loss of Frame) based on A1, A2 bytes TIM (Trace Identifier Mismatch) based on J0 byte SF (Signal Fail) based on B1 byte SD (Signal Degrade) based on B1 byte
Note: The order in which the alarms are written is important, as we will see later while discussing Alarm masking

RSOH bytes

A1 A2 B1 E1

J0 F1

D1 D2 D3

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MS Alarms
MS alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, irrespective of cross-connect configuration (who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU pointers plus opening HOPOH(s) / TU Pointers / LOPOH(s) depending upon cross-connect configuration) AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) reported based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8 SF (Signal Fail) based on B2 bytes SD (Signal Degrade) based on B2 bytes RDI (Remote Defect Indication) based on K2 byte -- bits 6,7,8

MSOH bytes

B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 S1 M1 E2

Note 1: The order in which the alarms are written is important, we will see later while discussing Alarm masking Note 2: MS-AIS is also called Line-AIS or AIS on STM port MS-RDI is also called Line-RDI or RDI on STM port
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HP / LP Alarms
HP / LP alarms are those, which can be reported by a Add-Drop Multiplexer, having HO / HO & LO object (LO object => LO cross-connect) (who has privilege of opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU Pointers plus at least interpreting HOPOH(s) / opening (interpreting & rewriting) RSOH, MSOH, AU Pointers, HOPOH(s), TU Pointers plus at least interpreting LOPOH(s) depending upon cross-connect configuration)

J1

H1, H2, H3 AU Pointer bytes


Note 1: Same as before Note 2: HP-Alarm is also called AU-Alarm or Alarm on AU LP-Alarm is also called TU-Alarm or Alarm on TU

HP-AIS reported based on H1, H2 bytes HP-LOP (Loss of Pointer) based on H1, H2 bytes HP-UNEQ (unequipped) based on C2 byte HP-TIM based on J1 byte HP-SF based on B3 byte HP-SD based on B3 byte HP-RDI based on G1 byte -- bit 5
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B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

H O P O H b y t e s

HP / LP Alarms (contd.)
LP-AIS reported based on V1, V2 bytes LP-LOP based on V1, V2 bytes LOM (Loss of Multiframe) based on H4 byte bits 7,8
Note 1: Same as before Note 2: Whole of this slide assumes TU2/TU12/TU11 for LP. If there is TU3 with AU4 mapping, then also it is LP but Pointers & POH

HP-PLM / SLM (Payload / Signal Label Mismatch) bytes will be like HO based on C2 byte LP-UNEQ based on V5 byte bits 5,6,7

LOPOH bytes

LP-TIM based on J2 byte LP-SF based on V5 byte bits 1,2 LP-SD based on V5 byte bits 1,2 LP-RDI based on V5 byte -- bit 8 LP-PLM / SLM based on V5 byte bits 5,6,7

V1, V2, V3 TU Pointer bytes

V5 J2 N2 K4

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Description of Alarms
LOS Received power is less than Laser receiver sensitivity (All bits interpreted as 0)
Tx off / misconnectivity Fiber Cut Rx off / misconnectivity Rx Received power is less than Laser receiver sensitivity (Low power transmitted, Span is longer than specified, Fiber gets deformed etc. etc.) Tx

LOS

ex.

Tx Rx

ADM 1

ADM 2

LOS clears when 2 consecutive framing patterns are received & no new LOS condition is detected

LOF Anything other than F6 28 (Hex) in any (?) of the A1 A2 bytes (within a STM frame) -- for consecutive 5 frames (625 Ms) -- for consecutive 24 frames (3 ms) OOF (Out of Frame) clearing 2 frames LOF clearing 24 frames

Note: Prolonged LOS => LOF, but not always LOF => LOS (this fact will be used as one of the Alarm Masking logic later)
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


TIM (J0) Received J0 trace (1/16 byte(s)) != Expected J0 trace (1/16 byte(s))
Exp trace = A to B P1 Tx trace = A to B P2 Rx trace = C to B

A
SF (B1/B2/B3/V5)

Exp trace = C to B Rx trace = A to B

Tx trace = C to B

3 4 5 Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 / 1 in 10 ) SD (B1/B2/B3/V5) 5 9

Equivalent BER exceeds alarm generation threshold ( 1 in 10 to 1 in 10 ) Note: For both SF & SD, alarm clearing threshold is 1 decade lower than generation threshold, e.g., Gen. Thr. is 1 in 1000 or higher => Clg. Thr. is 1 in 10000 or lower
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


Generation of AIS & RDI Upon Receiving traffic affecting RS alarm, a Reg.
generates AIS towards downstream side (all 1 in whole STM frame)

Upon Receiving traffic affecting RS alarm, a ADM


generates MS-AIS towards downstream side (all 1 in whole STM frame minus RSOH) & generates MS-RDI towards upstream side (in K2 byte b6 -- b8 set as 110)

Upon Receiving traffic affecting HP alarm, a ADM


generates AU-AIS towards downstream side (all 1 in whole AU) & generates HP-RDI towards upstream side (in G1 byte b5 set as 1)
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


Upon Receiving traffic affecting LP alarm, a ADM
generates TU-AIS towards downstream side (all 1 in whole TU) & generates LP-RDI towards upstream side (in G1 byte b5 set as 1 for TU3 || in V5 byte b8 set as 1 for TU2/12/11)

Reception of AIS & RDI (condition should persist for consecutive 3 to 5 frames)
Bytes and bits involved in Reception for RDIs remain unchanged Reception for MS-AIS for AU-AIS for TU-AIS in K2 byte b6 -- b8 received as 111 All 1 in H1, H2 bytes (for TU3 AIS also) All 1 in V1, V2 bytes (TU2/12/11)

Note: 1) For generating MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS, the ADM need not be a term. equip. for MS / HP / LP 2) Upon receiving MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS also, the ADM generates MS-AIS / AU-AIS / TU-AIS towards downstream & generates MS-RDI/HP-RDI/LP-RDI towards upstream 3) Some alarms are by default traffic affecting or non traffic affecting, whereas some alarms can be made traffic affecting by user action
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Description of Alarms (contd.)


Example of generation of AIS, RDI TU-AIS AU-AIS (Gen) MS-AIS (Gen) Any traffic affecting RS Alarm or MS-AIS (Rx) LP HP Alarm or TU-AIS (Rx) AU-AIS

LP-RDI HP-RDI MS-RDI Example of reception of TU-AIS, LP-RDI

ADM

TU-AIS (Rx) Any traffic affecting RS/HP/LP Alarm VC12 E1 ADM 1 LP-RDI (Rx) ADM 2 ADM 3 VC12 VC12 E1

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Description of Alarms (contd.)


AU/TU-LOP (AU-LOP is not reported in Tejas nodes, as always valid AU pointer values are sent) 8/9/10 consecutive invalid AU/TU pointers received or 8/9/10 consecutive NDF (New Data Flag) received (other than in a concatenation indicator) (cleared when 3 equal valid pointers received) Ex. VC4 E4 ADM 1 Ex. VC12 E1 ADM 1 TU-LOP ADM 2 ADM 3 VC12 E1 AU-LOP ADM 2 ADM 3 TU-LOP VC4 E4 AU-LOP

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Description of Alarms (contd.)


HP/LP-UNEQ All 0 in C2 byte for at least 5 frames (for AU4/AU3/TU3) 000 in V5 byte, bits 5,6,7 for at least 5 multi-frames (for TU2/12/11) ex. AU has no XC ADM 1 HP-UNEQ
AU Sig. Label UNEQuipped TUG-structured AU Sig. Label AU Sig. Label UNEQuipped

HP-UNEQ AU has no XC ADM 2

ex. E1

AU has VC12 ADM 1 HP-UNEQ


UNEQuipped AU Sig. Label

no XC ADM 2

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Description of Alarms (contd.)


LOM Multiframe information not recovered from H4 byte (bits 7,8) for 1 to 5 ms (i.e., 2 to 10 multi-frames) Note: LOM is an alarm concerning LP, but inferred from HOPOH byte so, it will be reported on a HO object TIM (J1/J2) (Default action is to Ignore TIM) Concept is like TIM (J0), but a) Remember Section Hierarchy Tx trace (J1/J2) can not be edited within a HP/LP
VC12 E1 VC4 VC12 VC12

A
Tx trace can be edited for J0, J1, J2 all

B
Tx trace can be edited for J0 only

C
Tx trace can be edited for J0, J1 only

E1

b) All trace lengths are now 16/64 bytes


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Description of Alarms (contd.)


HP/LP-PLM (SLM) (Default action is to Report PLM, but no Downstream AIS) Mismatch in own and received signal label in C2 byte for at least 5 frames (for AU4/AU3/TU3) in V5 byte, bits 5,6,7 for at least 5 multi-frames (for TU2/12/11)
AU Sig. Label TUG-ST TUG-structured TUG-ST UNEQ UNEQuipped AU Sig. Label Asynch. C4

HP-PLM (SLM) AU has no XC ADM 2

ex. E1

VC12
UNEQ

ADM 1

HP-PLM (SLM)
TUG ST TUG ST

Asynch. C4

ex. E1

VC12 ADM 1
Asynch. C4 Asynch. C4

VC4 ADM 2
TUG ST TUG ST

VC12 E1 ADM 3

HP-PLM (SLM) on all ports


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Masking of Alarms
Why? Do not want to crowd the alarm reporting page ( and thereby confuse the user) with those alarms, not required for unearthing the root cause When? (The logics) Logic 1 (when the alarms are related) if ( FC1 ==> FC2 but FC2 =/=> FC1 ) then ( Mask FC2 in presence of FC1 ) ex. 1a) LOS ==> LOF but LOF =/=> LOS
Note: When FC1 clears, FC2 may or may not clear in the later case FC2 will be reported now

1b) LOS ==> HP-UNEQ but HP-UNEQ =/=> LOS

2) AU-AIS reported because of MS/AU-AIS generated ==> HP-RDI and TU-AIS & LP-RDI(s) reported (if TU object(s) are there) 3) HP-UNEQ because of no XC at other end ==> TU-LOP(s) (if TU object(s) are there) 4) AU/TU-AIS reported ==> AU/TU-LOP but not vice-versa but not vice-versa but not vice-versa

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Masking of Alarms (contd.)


Logic 2 (when the alarms are not related) if ( FC1 has higher priority than FC2 ) then ( Mask FC2 in presence of FC1 ) ex. 1) AU/TU-LOP has higher priority than HP/LP-UNEQ (if one is not getting the starting location of VC, how to look at what is happening within VC) 2) HP/LP-TIM, if action is chosen as Report TIM, Downstream AIS (i.e. traffic affecting) has higher priority than HP/LP-RDI (first correct received problem, then only look for problem in other direction) 3) HP/LP-TIM has higher priority than HP/LP-PLM (first correct mis-connection, then see signal label problem within correct correction) 4) HP/LP-UNEQ has higher priority than HP/LP-TIM (even if traffic affecting) (what to gain by correcting mis-connection, if even after that traffic can not be carried)
Note: When FC1 clears, FC2 will be reported

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Secondary Suppressed Alarms (SSA)


AIS and RDI are secondary alarms they are indications, not root causes These alarms on a pass-through node is normally not reported in the main alarm page, they are reported in a separate page called suppressed secondary alarms page These alarms on a path terminating node is reported in the main alarm page as terminating alarms AU-AIS and HP-RDI are not suppressed, even for pass-through nodes, for Tejas products Traffic affecting FC ex. E1 ADM 1 ADM 2 LP-RDI (terminating) LP-RDI (SSA) ADM 3 VC12 VC12 TU-AIS (terminating)

VC12 E1

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Alarm Propagation Examples

For every example,


Assumption(s) is/are stated Root Cause(s) is/are stated Diagrammatic representation is made (OFCs are shown in cyan) Alarm(s) generated / condition(s) generated for reporting alarms is/are shown in black Alarm(s) existing at a port is/are shown in red Alarm(s) masked at a port is/are covered with Alarm(s) reported at secondary supprressed alarm page is/are shown in pink, italicised Note(s), whenever required is/are mentioned in green
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 1 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports
AU4 Signal Label Unequipped HP-RDI HP- UNEQ HP-RDI

Root Cause: NO XConnect on both ports

HP- UNEQ

HP-RDI HP-RDI AU4 Signal Label Unequipped

Note: 1) if AU-3 mapping, then what happens? 2) In newer version of Tejas software, UNEQ is not reported for this root cause

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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 2 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports, HP-SLM default action is report SLM, no downstream AIS
Signal Label TUG-structure HP-RDI LP-RDI HP-RDI HP-SLM

Root Cause: NO XConnect on the port of B

VC12
E1 HP- UNEQ

TU-LOP

AU4 Signal Label Unequipped Invalid TU Pointer value

Note: LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)


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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 3 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on both ports of A & C Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B
MS-AIS AIS LOS VC-12
E1

AU-AIS TU-AIS VC-12

MS-RDI

E1

HP-RDI LP-RDI

B (Reg.)

C
MS-RDI HP-RDI LP-RDI

Note: The Reg. can not generate any RDI

Actually at C, AU-AIS & TU-AIS conditions are also received


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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 4 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports ADM B VC-12 PT Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B

MS-AIS LOS VC-12


E1

TU AIS VC-12 VC-12 LP RDI


E1

MS-RDI

HP-RDI LP RDI MS-RDI HP-RDI

B
LP RDI

Note: Only TU-AIS is reported on Node C (See Rule 4c) LP-RDI on B is SSA
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 5 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports ADM B VC-4 PT Root Cause: Fiber cut in the link from A to B

MS-AIS AU AIS LOS VC-12


E1

TU AIS VC-4 VC-12


E1

MS-RDI

HP-RDI LP RDI MS-RDI HP-RDI

B
LP RDI

Note: Only AU-AIS is reported on Node C (See Rule 4c) LP-RDI on B is not reported (See Rule 3b)
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 6 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
E1 (1)

Root cause: NO XConnect on B, C & D for (1-1-2)


E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1) LP RDI (1-1-2)

E1 (2)

VC-12 (1-1-2) TU-LOP (1-1-2)

B
Invalid TU Pointers (1-1-2)

Note: Why E1(1) is shown? LP-RDI is not reported on B (See Rule 3a)
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 7 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
E1 (1)

Root cause: NO XConnect on C & D for (1-1-2)


E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1) LP RDI (1-1-2) LP-RDI (1-1-2) E1 (2) VC-12 (1-1-2) TU-AIS (1-1-2) VC-12 (1-1-2) TU-LOP (1-1-2) LP RDI (1-1-2)

C
Invalid TU Pointers (1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

Note: LP-RDI at node B is secondary suppressed TU-AIS at node A is reported as terminating alarm
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 8 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports
E1 (1)

Root cause: NO XConnect on C for (1-1-2)


E1 (1)

VC-12 (1-1-1) LP RDI (1-1-2) LP-RDI (1-1-2) E1 (2) VC-12 (1-1-2) TU-AIS (1-1-2) VC-12 (1-1-2) TU-LOP (1-1-2) LP RDI (1-1-2) Invalid TU Pointers (1-1-2) TU-LOP (1-1-2) VC12(1-1-2) E1 (2)

C
Invalid TU Pointers (1-1-2)

D
LP RDI (1-1-2)

TU AIS (1-1-2)

Note: K-L-M value need not remain same throughout a particular LP, alarms will be reported accordingly on different objects
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 9 Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports, VC4 PT at node B, For each port, HP-SLM default action is ignore SLM
LP-RDI (1-1-1)

Root cause: NO XConnect on C for (1-1-1)

VC-12(1-1-1)

E1 (1) E1 (2)

VC-12(1-1-2)

VC-4 TU-LOP

VC-12(1-1-2) E1(2)

(1-1-1)

B
(1-1-1)

C
Invalid TU Pointers

Note: LP-RDI from A is not reported on B (See Rule 3b). Why assumption on SLM?
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Alarm Propagation Examples (contd.)


Example 10 (with SNCP) Assumption: AU-4 Mapping on all ports W A-B-C, P A-D-C
LOS
E1

Root cause: Fiber-cut in the link from A to B


MS-AIS TU AIS VC-12

VC-12
MS-RDI HP-RDI

VC-12
LP RDI

E1

LP RDI

MS-RDI HP-RDI

LP RDI

Note: SNCP is always uni-directional & for Tejas, it is 1+1 D


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Thank You

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