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Rmcref Leed Guide Revised 01-10

Rmcref Leed Guide Revised 01-10

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The Ready Mixed Concrete Industry LEED Reference Guide
Third Edition

Copyright © 2005-2010 by the RMC Research & Education Foundation www.rmc-foundation.org

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Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental 2009 for New Design (LEED®) and NC). researched Associates. CAE and Erin Mack Ashley. LEED AP of the National Ready Mixed architects.S. Beatrix Kerkoff. is an organization cement companies to improve and extend the uses of portland cement and concrete through market development. David Shepherd. Jan Prusinski. research. NRMCA is a leading industry advocate the through and working ready to sustainability. recycling. written Inc.com). mixed conservation. Lionel Lemay. engineering. reader Major This in dedicated to improving the concrete industry through achieving education its mission of promoting projects that will Construction 2009 the Renovations document (LEED will guide and research strengthen and improve an already superior product in an PCA industry committed to of understanding the LEED system and areas where ready mixed concrete can be applied in a project to earn LEED points. RMC Research & Foundation. PE. expand concrete and improve mixed industry education leadership.swinter. is the Inc. 2009. Reference Education Maryland. USA. excellence. October. RMC Research Silver & ensuring that ready mixed concrete building material of choice. SWA. PCA. PhD.This document was underwritten by the express their thanks to the following people for their assistance in the preparation and Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) Research & Education Cement version Steven Foundation Association was Winter and (PCA). Edward R. Herbert III. concrete building offers (www. innovative concrete. The Foundation RMC is Research a non-profit & Education organization maximize credits offered by the U. and NRMCA would like to . David Goss. and public affairs work. (SWA) . in the Concrete Association (NRMCA). The Third Edition was edited and revised by Lionel Lemay. ready Energy factors. Reference: Steven Winter Associates. Ready Mixed Concrete Industry LEED promotion. partnering. Guide. LEED AP. SE. producers industry to contractors. Jennifer LeFevre. and others Ready mixed concrete for designers.. design. and the The Portland original by review of this document: Erin Mack Ashley. enhancing its sustainability. Abstract: opportunities engineers. Education Foundation. Spring. and Martha Van Geem. The project was managed by NRMCA. Keywords: environmental LEED.


Paints And Coatings .Quality Control SS Credit 7.Roof WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping WE Credit 2: Innovative Waste Water Technologies MR Credit 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary Table 1 ..1: Heat Island Effect ..2: Select Low-Emitting Materials .1: Stormwater Design . SS Credit 7. SS Credit 6.Quantity Control.Potential Leed Credits For Ready Mixed Concrete Introduction The LEED Certification Process The Ready Mixed Concrete Industry LEED Reference Guide Using Ready Mixed Concrete To Achieve LEED 2009 NC Credits Sustainable Sites SS Credit 6.Protect Or Restore Habitat. MR Credit 5: Regional Materials MR Credit 7: Certified Wood Innovation In Design Credits ID Credit 1: Exemplary Performance ID Credit 1: Innovation In Design RP Credit 1: Regional Priority Incidental Ready Mixed Concrete Use In Other Credits SS Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment [1] 1 2 4 5 6 8 8 8 8 17 21 21 21 29 29 35 48 50 55 57 60 63 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 66 66 SS Credit 5. Floors And Roof MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials IEQ Credit 4.2: Stormwater Management .1: Building Reuse .Maintain Existing Walls.1: Site Development .2: Heat Island Effect .Nonroof Energy And Atmosphere EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance Materials And Resources Credits MR Credit 2: Construction Waste Management MR Credit 4: Recycled Content.

lEO Credit 4.Sample Letter From Ready Mixed Concrete Producer .Design Other Environmental Issues 66 67 67 68 68 68 69 69 71 Plant Waste Water Disposal On-Site Wash Water Disposal Solid Waste Site Protection Appendix A . lEO Credit 7.3: Low-Emitting Materials .1: Thermal Comfort .Floor Systems lEO Credit 5: Indoor Chemical And Pollutant Source Control.

PCA. 1 . The document Concrete offers several opportunities projects for building also covers plant waste water disposal.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Of all the green building design and construction Unites evaluation the programs Green in the resulting document presents a detailed discussion of the LEED program.S. trade of by extensive and groups. Guide that could developers. sustainability. Public carefully considered concrete to in using ready mixed a building's government enhance agencies. minimizing energy use. and the RMC and the ready mixed concrete LEED points. citations. and what methods issues must be must be States. and reduction in the use of portland cement. for determining a building's degree of information contractor. how material uses and construction documented. and site protection. landscape paving. optimizing energy performance. innovation in design. on-site wash water disposal. U. use of regional materials. how LEED points are assigned. solid waste. A summary clients. and others in the construction industry to determine how the use of ready mixed concrete can contribute to green building. resource websites. Building Council's (USGBC) LEED Rating System is the most widely adopted standard. recycled content. In each of these areas. Recognizing the importance of LEED. managing construction waste. and private companies. suppliers. trade groups. use of certified wood. be used by builders. contributes to LEED 2009 NC is provided in Table 1. supplier designer. NRMCA. Potential LEED points gained through the use of ready mixed concrete are industry have adopted LEED as the standard discussed in the following areas: stormwater management. documents. the Reference useful to Guide the presents the to gain LEED points. and other entities throughout the United States construction sustainability. how other and commissioned the development of a LEED Reference architects. concrete manufacturers. This in achieving Research & Education Foundation information lists of is supplemented references.

2 Credit 4.TABLE 1 .1 Credit 4.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 7.2 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7 Prerequisite Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3.2 Credit 6.2 1 1 Minimum Energy Performance Refrigerant Management Optimize Energy Performance Onsite Renewable Energy Enhanced Commissioning Enhanced Refrigerant Management Measurement Green Power Storage and Collection of Recyclables Building Reuse-Maintain Building Reuse-Maintain Materials Reuse Recycled Content Regional Materials Rapidly Renewable Materials Certified Wood Quality Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Environmental Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increase Ventilation Construction Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Indoor Quality Management and Verification Materials and Resources Construction Waste Management Indoor Environmental Prerequisite 2 2 . Floors and Roof Existing Interior Nonstructural Alternative Transportation-Low-Emitting or Restore Habitat Open Space Control Control Heat Island Effect-Nonroof Heat Island Effect-Roof Light Pollution Reduction Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite 2 Prerequisite 3 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Prerequisite Credit 1.3 Credit 4.4 Credit 5.2 Credit 8 Water Efficiency Prerequisite Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Prerequisite 1 1 Water Use Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction Fundamental Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems Sites 1 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Site Selection Development Density and Community Connectivity Transportation Access Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation-Public Alternative Transportation-Bicycle Alternative Transportation-Parking Site Development-Protect Site Development-Maximize Stormwater Stormwater Design-Quantity Design-Quality Storage and Changing Rooms and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Capacity 26 Possible Points Required 1 5 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 Possible Points Required 2-4 2 2-4 35 Possible Points Required Required Required 1-19 1-7 2 2 3 2 14 Possible Points Required 1-3 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1 1 15 Possible Points Required Required 1 1 Plan-During Construction Occupancy 1 1 Plan-Before Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Elements Existing Walls.1 Credit 6.Potential LEED Credits for Ready Mixed Concrete Concrete contributes to this LEED Credit Incidental concrete use in this LEED Credit Sustainable Prerequisite Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4.1 Credit 5.1 Credit 1.1 Credit 3.

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stimulate green awareness transform competition. Interiors. suitable high-rise multi- of green building the building projects. consensus-based national standard for designing and building high-performance. and Atmosphere. June 27. The number of LEED certified projects reached 3. this number has grown dramatically from 12 registered LEED projects in 1999 to 24.2.0. The LEED 2009 Building Rating System for New Construction (LEED NC) is a voluntary. its 2. design While the LEED NC Rating System was initially designed for commercial high-rise promote practices. as or the laboratory USEPA's Construction 2009 NC) members in November 2008 and officially issued for public use in April 2009. Materials and Resources. LEED 2009 for NC leadership in the building industry. was the last date projects could Management or the for Construction for energy of the standards register under the old LEED NC version 2. standards. While and the includes family requirements residential buildings. LEED for LEED for Existing Commercial 4 . Engineers (ASH RAE}. LEED Indoor Environmental LEED 2009. whole-building recognize environmental office buildings.1. Prerequisites and Credits are based mostly on established governmental. Refrigerating. Water Efficiency. LEED 2009 for New and Major Renovations was approved by (LEED USGBC Design. 2009 must use LEED 2009 NC.2 system. several additional rating created for other project types. NC Rating System divides these credits and prerequisites Sustainable into seven credit categories: Energy Several versions of the LEED rating system have been issued 2. which and Air Conditioning The number satisfying criteria of the of points a project earns by environmental various performance LEED credits the building industry and environmental LEED's mission is to: define determines be certified.789 by June 2009.111 in June 2009 equating to 385 million square feet of LEED certified commercial space. number of registered LEED projects started undergoing HVAC renovation significant interior slowly. Innovation in including recently. significant renovation. integrated. 2009. the system can be used for a wide variety of projects. "Stormwater Activities. raise consumer benefits. and Regional Priority. and major rehabilitation USGBC systems can also use LEED 2009 NC. sustainable buildings. can be achieved at a or Platinum level Gold. the LEED Green LEED certification Certified. based on how many of the 110 LEED 2009 NC Credits are awarded after a project meets eight LEED Prerequisites.INTRODUCTION Established in 1998. since 2. inception and most Sites. institutional projects such as and hotels. June 27. LEED was developed by members of the USGBC representing many segments of the science. Silver. envelope modifications. Existing market. Quality. All new projects registering after efficiency and ventilation effectiveness American Society of Heating." trade such group. the level at which a project can that qualifies as a "green building" by establishing a common standard of measurement.

a special website designed to help project Construction and Major Renovations. budget. commissioning as a LEED project on the Green Building Certification (www. An team members navigate through the project certification process and Credit Interpretation Requests conscious building owner or choose building to to design and (CIR). The process of documenting with LEED criteria design. is directed to design the building to meet a certain Some building level of LEED certification. environmental Representatives architect. This process requires completing an online form that asks for information on the project and the design team. only between because they do not need to make design changes to meet LEED criteria. level LEED of certification environmental Typically is usually the an begin the LEED process by of the various LEED criteria credits and targeting those most compatible with the project goals. The LEED Certification Process LEED is a voluntary environmentally developer construct environmental system quantifies performance owner's as a the for may a rating system. for Retail. LEED LEED for Existing Schools. Project registration is for Schools.gbci. representatives evaluating impact using the LEED rating guide. LEED for Neighborhood LEED and initiated by one of the project team members. who representative. The registration process entitles LEED for Healthcare.Buildings. CIRs are made through LEED Online when the team members deem that compliance with a credit's intent can be met without meeting the letter of a given Informally. and who a building. The registration fee is $450 for USGBC members and $600 for nonmembers. owners have committed to start this process in the early stages of the design process are usually more successful because synergies they can take LEED advantage credits of and having all of their projects LEED certified and others selected have committed For to certifying example. USGBC Institute GBCI (GBCI) was website by (the process of making final to construction and created checks and adjustments building operations) to manage project and personnel may need to continue 5 . Completion. compliance buildings. Several new rating systems are under development including Development. LEED for Core and Shell. most project minimize Credit Requirement. several or public agencies such as city governments federal agencies have declared that all of their new buildings shall be LEED certified. addresses only LEED 2009 This document NC for New the project team access to LEED Online. scope. LEED certification programs. and LEED for Homes.org). Some private companies have built new can begin early in the related to but many of the credits headquarters using LEED certification. for Retail Interiors. A project formally begins the LEED construction activities and building materials that is not available of even the Construction Substantial building require documentation until the final certification process by having it registered stages or While Administration.

This first formal preliminary review will detail which credits are accepted." categories are taken directly from the LEED 2009 NC standard.beyond substantial completion for seasonal or deferred testing. Gold. LEED of construction managers. The application is construction that involves all team members in the project. A fifth section.500 on the for type nonof construction team. by a also LEED Online. "Incidental 6 . which credits need additional documentation.500 for USGBC members members) ($2." and "Materials in and Resources. submitted through documentation several team responsibility although members. "Innovation Design. the final submittal. Once the project representative has submitted the application to GBCI. The document is organized under four categories: "Sustainable Sites. owners. There is also an appeals process if the project team disagrees with GBCI review rulings. is and the depending specification certification and size of the building in square feet. The application includes for LEED certification supporting If upon final review the project meets requirements for certification. includes detailed information on the required format for the LEED it is typically coordinated who LEED-Accredited Professional. The Ready Mixed Concrete Industry LEED Reference Guide This document for presents the best credits opportunities achieving LEED descriptions through the use of ready mixed concrete. writers.750 to $27. a set of LEED Certified. documentation LEED integrated encourages approach and to rewards design an and compliance for all LEED Prerequisites and targeted LEED credits. application. A LEED plaque is then ordered for display on the project. and the responses to GBCI during the review period. a review process begins. The term "ready are mixed used concrete" and documentation materials required. The final review then occurs within 15 "concrete" throughout interchangeably and meant to this publication describe concrete that is delivered to the project site in the plastic state in concrete trucks." These four business days from the date in which the GBCI receives the additional requested materials. cost estimators. product suppliers and manufacturers. The application. provides The preliminary of the review additional The prepares CIRs. project team then has 25 business days to provide the requested materials to the GBCI. The GBCI will issue a preliminary review of the LEED application within 25 business days. others. including the design and accompanied by a certification fee that can range from $2." "Energy and Atmosphere. projects are usually able to assemble all the documentation needed to submit an application for LEED certification to the GBCI at about the same time as Substantial Completion. or Platinum Certificates are issued to the design team in recognition of the LEED Rating earned.250 to $22. Silver.

while ''Trade Contractor and Manufacturer Issues" is concerned with actual construction and close-out. However. In each section. addresses environmental considerations using ready mixed concrete with reference to plant waste water disposal. each group needs to read both portions. 7 . as both groups are often protection. water disposal.Ready Mixed Concrete Use in Other Credits." offers guidance enhance in how the material can for gaining LEED responsible requirements. opportunities issues that must be decided credits in other areas. the discussion of the LEED 2009 NC Credits relevant to ready mixed issues concrete primarily is separated affecting into the those project before the project begins construction. solid on-site wash and site waste. deals with for completing documentation "Design Issues" In general. A final section of the document in designers (in the section "Design Issues") and those primarily affecting the concrete trade professionals Contractor and (in the section "Trade Manufacturer Issues").

BMPs are considered meet these criteria if: They are designed in accordance with prevents post-development standards and specifications local program that has from a state or adopted these discharge the rate and quantity from exceeding peak discharge rate pre-development performance standards.Quantity Control plan Intent· To limit disruption of natural hydrology by reducing impervious cover. erosion. Sites with Existing Imperviousness Greater Than 50% Implement a stormwater management plan that results in a 25% decrease in the volume of stormwater runoff from the 2-year 24-hour design storm. BMPs capable annual solids used to treat runoff must be pollution eliminating contaminants. increasing onsite infiltration. plan The must and stormwater stream control Washington State Department of Ecology) for BMP monitoring.and 2-year 24-hour design storms.g.2: Stormwater Management Quality Control Intent: To limit disruption of natural water Rows by managing storrnwater runoff Requirements SS Credit 6. OR. lots.1: Stormwater Design . Roofs. Sites with Existing Imperviousness 50% or Less OPTION 1 Implement that a stormwater the management plan peak of removing 80% of the average total suspended on existing to post-development (TSS) load based monitoring reports.. filtering 8 . parking and other impervious surfaces prevent water from naturally infiltrating soil. CASE 2. accepted Acceptance protocol Reciprocity Technology [TARP] Partnership that protects receiving stream channels from excessive management channel strategies. streets sidewalks. Requirements CASE 1. OR. There monitoring with the exists data criteria infield performance compliance conform to and quantity for the 1. driveways. OPTION 2 Implement a stormwater management plan demonstrating Data must (e.USING READY MIXED CONCRETE TO ACHIEVE LEED 2009 NC CREDITS Sustainable Sites SS Credit 6. from reducing storrnwater or eliminating runoff and Implement that a stormwater reduces management cover. impervious promotes infiltration and captures and treats the stormwater runoff from 90% of the average annual rainfall using acceptable best management practices (BMPs). Summary of Concrete Applications and include quantity protection Materials Relevant to the Credits LEED includes Stormwater credits runoff to reduce created the by Management effects of negative development.

A filter concrete for stormwater management include piping. Voids in the aggregate layers act as a storage reservoir for stormwater. Common and well documented uses of over permeable layer of open-graded and crushed stone. and second by removing some of the most important pollutants from the runoff. detergents. specially cement. stormwater sand. filter contaminants recharge groundwater consists of and of aquifers. de-icing salt. substances. It usually contains little or no sand. by controlling the rate and quantity of percolation of liquids through the pavement. that pavement promising technology is rapidly the United gaining States. into Pervious concrete paving example placing pervious screed sewage discharged uniform. It has enough void space to allow rapid strategies to achieve these two credits: first. Expensive infrastructure works are necessary to control the erosion and flooding that occur when Pervious formulated concrete mixtures portland stormwater is concentrated and released into waterways.pollutants and recharging aquifers. perforated pipes can be added near the top of the 9 . Stormwater runoff picks up pollutants such as spilled oil. or is highly treatment. open-graded coarse aggregate. pathogens. fertilizer. The typically pervious placed pavement a highly gravel surface is stormwater runoff. large volumes of sheet runoff must be collected. chemicals. These and directed into volumes of stormwater that and carry sediment and other contaminants compromise water quality. The amount of storage in the stone reservoir beneath the pavement can be varied. Concrete can be an important part of treatment is plant capacity. percolate to the ground. waterways. If the soil has low permeability. and when heavy storms cause flow rates to exceed untreated waterways. and water. These and many are other then pollutants into waterways Some through with concentrated route municipalities sewage treatment facilities. collection This systems and wastewater on a fabric may be placed beneath the gravel and stone layers to screen out fine soil particles. tire particles. concentrated. pervious very report will concentrate made from concrete. popularity throughout vulnerable to freeze-thaw cycles. As a DESIGN ISSUES Pervious Concrete Paving Pervious paving allows water to result. deposited stormwater. pesticides.

and microbiological decomposition benefits that are still being discovered by the industry. rain can be rates for zinc. Maintenance The advantages can only be realized maintained success. areas between 80% and 85% of total nitrogen.MD FFF~~ FFFFF ITSS ~ITN ICOD IMetal 82 65 80 of porous pavement factors (other than aggregate. Maintenance could include vacuum situations. and Prince William studies of between 65% for total indicate County. but the treatment effectiveness properly designed and maintained pervious sweeping or pressure washing on a periodic basis commensurate with the level and type of debris that might come onto the pavement surface. consistently improving technology absorption. The Rockville. 82% and 95% for phosphorus. when puddles will make any clogging obvious. removal if it is designed These to prevent clogging. in the soil. The pavement should be inspected several times during the first few months I IStudY pavement is not in doubt.reservoir to discharge excess stormwater Filtering and Treating Stormwater with after the reservoir has been filled. and strategies site clogging. 10 . There is some question of how closely these results reflect other of and bio-retention added to filter out particles before they flow onto the pavement). Table 2. Pollutant Removal (%) following installation and annually thereafter. lead. pollutant meeting LEED credit requirements. site also indicated high from paving to prevent the flow of dirt and debris into pervious paving (alternatively. prevent of pervious pavement and An estimate of pervious pavement removal efficiency term monitoring is provided by two longstudies conducted in Rockville. Annual inspections should take place after Prince William County. VA. MD. and chemical "pretreatment" gardens borders. Effectiveness pollutant removal (Schueler. Pervious paving has many advantages in addition to It is a with Pervious Concrete Paving Pervious mechanisms pavement include pollutant removal straining. and maintenance) that increase pollutant removal include a drainage time of at least 24 hours and the use of clean-washed These can also serve an educational environmental promotion function. oxygen demand. 1987) Some key building owner. Consider posted signage onsite to identify pervious pavement areas. Provide maintenance guidelines for the devices should also be R~ille. employ design Grade To ensure to help away efficiencies sediment. VA large storms. The condition of adjacent pretreatment inspected. including swales. removal MD.

stations. section groundwater recharge function. the bottom of the stone reservoir should be flat so that infiltrated runoff will be able to infiltrate through the entire surface. Generally. outdoor container storage of liquids. and bio- These areas include commercial auto recycle facilities. vehicle service and maintenance areas. rain gardens. pretreatment and treatment by the pervious paving should reduce the depth of soil above seasonal high groundwater levels. infiltration relatively aggregate practice. the potential for groundwater combination drainage base. One option is to use storm 11 ."Stormwater land use or hot spots" are areas where activities generate highly groundwater recharge (Gburek and Urban. Designs may also require the inclusion of devices to convey to the storm drain system excess water from storms that exceed the design storage capacity of the pervious stormwater This conveyance discusses systems). These data will vary depending design characteristics and underlying soils. retention swales can be used to channel the excess water to holding ponds or marinas. • Consider least 2' placing pervious above the pavement at equipment washing/steam Recharging Groundwater cleaning facilities. its or both. where the in-situ soils of are an rates of low. fueling pipes. and vehicle and • underground storage (French drain). some cases. Below Pervious Concrete Paving Pervious recharge for later paving can be used either to to store stormwater diversion into seasonally at least high 100' groundwater. on 1980). nurseries. contaminated runoff. with concentrations of be designed such that the water stored in the aggregate base reservoir drains In pollutants in excess of those typically found in stormwater. Per the USEPA. and (and/or away from drinking water wells. reuse groundwater table. a at stormwater hot spots due to contamination. systems absorption separation require distances deep that rely on soil pervious soils at of at least 4' between the bottom of the structure and seasonal high groundwater levels. infiltration appropriate Pervious and pavement may is an not be down within 5 days after a storm. Some data suggest that as much as 70% to 80% of annual rainfall will go toward pavement system. hazardous materials generators (if containers are exposed to rainfall). In theory. Pervious pavements allow for groundwater recharging Other criteria include: • The pervious pavement system should while a/so assisting with water pollution removal.

it is not advisable to construct drinking Washington. to provide a delayed Retention systems for technology. For infiltrating of cases). nitrates pavement. and The gravel underlying the paving can be used for the storage for (retention) expensive of or stormwater. such as required would bypass flows that are too large to be treated by the system.drain inlets set slightly above the elevation of the pavement. Benefits and Costs Special As with most stormwater runoff reduction measures. Therefore. 1983. the reservoir to discharge excess stormwater after the reservoir municipalities reservoirs beneath has been filled. have also added stormwater to stone reservoirs) These reservoirs runoff surface. drinking water from a design storm.g. see design criteria from the United States Environmental Water. of pervious paving is an (i. Protection Agency Office of EPA contaminating supplies. but that may be required by municipal or other authorities acceptable Maintenance vacuuming for which pervious alternative costs. Urban. depending on Fuel (2) adding perforated pipes near the top of soil conditions and aquifer susceptibility. Retrofit may require 12 . until more scientific data is available. Two ways of modifying pervious Installer or Craftsman systems level.C. and and porous pavement can retain its (e. Some may leak from vehicles and toxic chemicals may leach from asphalt and/or binder systems. Infiltration-type treatment (in addition the including pervious paving. Retention/Attenuation (or Tanked) Systems paving..e. should be designed to accommodate and chlorides may continue to move through the soil profile possibly and into the groundwater. dated September 1999. it is suggested pervious Pervious preferably concrete Concrete at the can also enable reuse of stormwater be some domestic purposes such as irrigation. permeability Gburek Scofield. Goforth 1980. the pavement systems to function as reservoirs are (1) varying the amount of storage in the stone reservoir beneath the pavement and (the great majority use of pervious pavement does create risk of groundwater contamination. are not designed to treat these pollutants. Limitations Several studies indicate that. For more information. et aI. D. with proper maintenance. require NRMCA Certified. This function of base and subwith standard Hossain pervious paving incorporates base storage in conjunction 1991). detention tanks). the initial incremental costs need to be compared to the costs of infrastructure planning and expertise is necessary for proper placement and design of pervious pavement. substituting land-consuming elsewhere retention structures on the property. should also be considered. porous pavement near groundwater supplies. specifications installers Contractor Therefore. Many pavement lack expertise engineers with this that contractors drainage infrastructure stormwater discharge.. Likewise.. This configuration would allow for some ponding above the surface. document: 832-F-99-023.

technique is the key. If LEED irrigation is required for a project. and or porous paving. Typically. Codes and Standards Any paving must meet requirements material quality. cases.1 (See Heat Island Reduction Credit). Installation The equipment used to place pervious paving. be self explanatory should stormwater with regards to meeting standard civil engineering stormwater control measures pervious may compromise In the these use of the LEED criteria for these credits. Regulatory agencies may require review and approval underground regarding aquifers the recharging or the of concrete is different from that used to place standard concrete. strength. don't do any other finishing.Thaw Concrete provides resistance. The for and pavement stormwater satisfy irrigation. gutters. not caught In NRMCA of for ISSUES Resistance guidance areas up for and with where new technologies. Integration with Other LEED Credits Pervious percolating pervious concrete is also known as into final position. WE Credit helping 1. Do not pull or shovel horizontal movement of water under the paving. it may help satisfy Pervious concrete finishing uses similar equipment as for finishing standard concrete. porosity. the requirement for LEED SS Credit 7. it may of the be three an option for the in achievement addition points: • Because to LEED Credits Stormwater Management concrete is much lighter in color than asphalt. but otherwise. compacting by rolling finishing. After the paving is struck off and compacted. Like porous same as with placing standard concrete and asphalt pavement or porous precast concrete pavers. other new section number.redesigning and rebuilding the sub-base for • The gravel sub-base can for be under used to porous store to no proper drainage. no-fines concrete. Deposit concrete directly into final position since pervious concrete has little or no flowability. when the water may contain undesirable chemicals or pathogens. and is different Personal is completed traditional equipment is the from protective used for placing pervious concrete concrete. Freeze. 13 . rationalization must be prepared and justified with the appropriate agencies. requirements piping curbing. four points may be earned. TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Specifications The specifications will likely include a AND freeze-thaw publication Pervious freeze-thaw codes have resistance.

Concrete. the quality of pervious pavements is assessed by measuring the unit weight of both plastic and cured concrete.Thaw Resistance of Pervious Concrete • 2006 Concrete Technology Forum procedures based on strength. information and on the of resistant gloves. conventional concrete. If the concrete producer has reflectance test results (see SS Credit 7) for the pervious concrete mix used on the project. See NRMCA's Pervious Concrete committed to excellence. Ultra-Thin White Topping and Concrete Paths. if necessary. is the sheets Concrete Association provides application. Of particular relevance are the recent publications: • • Pervious Concrete Pavements Freeze. pervious up-to-date placing recommended Recommended curing method. engineering the environmental performance. mix Pavements for more information. Initial set occurs quickly. Conference Proceedings www.includes: eyewear. MD. See Appendix B for a sample letters. protective and a REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES Resource Websites www. form control (contraction) joints at 20 foot intervals (or shorter) pavement.rmc-foundation.nrmca.org .perviouspavement. Discusses the economic. curing time is seven days. appeal and fast placement Pervious benefits curb of tests. construction.concreteparking.The National Ready Mixed in Silver Spring. properties. he may design and materials. environmental. Required LEED Documentation Data regarding the runoff coefficient will likely be secured by the architect or on pervious concrete details about benefits. maintenance Allow traffic after seven day curing period.org specifically includes This website pavement pavements applications.org provides useful This on website concrete information choose to submit a letter to the contractor (and architect) indicating the results of the paving. hardhat.org The RMC is a non- content and slump control are not applicable to this type of pavement material. chemical resistant knee board. parking lots and parking structures. in about one hour (1. landscape architect prior to the Construction Documents. If random cracks are not desired. maintenance and an FAQ section. This profit organization dedicated to improving the concrete industry through achieving its mission of promoting education and research projects that will strengthen already superior product and improve an in an industry assessment is used to estimate the voids content that influences the storage capacity. 14 . www.5 hours with a set retarding Covering with plastic admixture). Most Research & Education Foundation commonly. www. design. Traditional testing portland cement pavement air to one-fourth the depth of the concrete. White Topping. chemical safety shoes.

org Website from Resource Documents Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). Phone: 410-461-8323 United States Environmental Protection waterproof concrete systems that has proven itself as a fast. In on a series of USEPA BMPs (Best Management Practice) Discharge program.. J. www. CRC Press. Ferguson. Urban. MD. from Office its of Office of Wetlands. Ellicott City.gov/npdes/stormwater/menu ofbmps/index. www. 1997." and This Restoring useful Protection.pdf A 1999 USEPA document Branch. Washington. Resources Bulletin. Porous R. Development Center Rules for in Your characteristics. 9 and discharges/stormwater/manual/CH PP S-6.gov/dep/lib/dep/water regulatin 11 of Galli. Porous Pavements. DC.gov/npdes/pubs/porouspa.gcpa. smart and economical system that can boost the green roof industry. 1980. America's "Protecting Watersheds. Department of Natural Resources. Center for Watershed Protection (CWP)..W. 1982.2. Center for Watershed Guides in its National System Pollutant (NDPES) Elimination Proceedings: Symposium Urban Storm Runoff.. Pavement "An Overview of Municipal Water Technology Management.pdf provides a description permeable pavement as a stormwater BMP.concreteanswers. www. Volume 265-267. 1992. Email: concrete paving is available on this website for the Georgia Concrete and Products Association.epa. 89-97.gov/owow/protecting document. No.. Beiter Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Community. et aI. Lexington. Detailed recommendations for stormwater for porous pavement used control. Watershed durability attributes and many other topics. http://cfpub. Bruce. 8391 Main St.epa." 18.greenrooftops.gov DC 20460.An overview and one of Maryland. and J. Water pp. p. Annapolis. materials including "green" information about the cost. information. FL.org - Information on 21043-4605. 1998. MD.cfm . Field. Gburek. University of Kentucky. including cost Research.ct. W. 2005. http://www. Ellicott City MD 15 . Washington ow-general@epa.www. http://www. Stormwater BMP Design Supplement for Cold Climates.org . NRMCA that provides a variety of concrete resources. Stormwater Detention and Groundwater Recharge Using Porous Asphalt-Experimental International Site. Oceans and Watersheds. 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue N.. www. Preliminary Analysis of the Performance and Longevity of Urban BMPs Installed In Prince George's County.Specifications for pervious Agency. Office of Water. Boca Raton.cwp. Prepared for: USEPA contains information on pervious paving.epa.org Protection. KY.

Planning and Maintenance. Management Operation. Southeastern Commission. Designing Metropolitan 16 . of Best Management Practices: Techniques for Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution in a Coastal Zone. 1983. A Current Assessment Washington State Department of Ecology. G. Wisconsin of Governments. T. USEPA. prepared for the USEPA Office of Water. Department of Transportation. 1981. Skokie. of Institute (WMI). Metropolitan Governments. Stormwater Hydrological Characteristics of Washington Washington.· A Practical Manual for Planning and Designing Urban BMPs. Best Management Practices Phoenix. and Management Practices. and L. An Alternative for Stormwater Road for Control of Highway Runoff. Water Science and Technology32(1):79-84. Rauhut. Management Stormwater Management Systems. Stormwater Management Manual for the Puget Sound Basin. United Agency. Schueler. Management. Washington. OH. Stenmark. 2004. Cincinnati.· A Practical Manual Urban for BMPs. Costs of Urban Nonpoint Control Measures. AZ. Hossain. Research Water Pollution Development. E.. DC. 1987.006. Illinois. Scofield. 1995. Porous Technical Report No..Goforth. Pervious Concrete Pavements. Pavement Arizona 1991. Watershed 1997. 1992. Construction C. Washington Council of 1992. Controlling Runoff.. and J. Controlling Urban Runoff. Council of Urban USEPA. Stormwater Management for Industrial Prevention Metropolitan Governments. Portland Cement Association. Diniz. 31. EPA 833-R-92. Porous and Conventional Paving Systems. States Office Environmental of Protection and Regional Planning 1991. 1992. and Activities: Plans Developing Best Pollution Implementation Manual. Washington 1987. M. Source Council DC.

According to research National conducted Laboratory. sidewalks. but also infrared heat and UV. but Innovation achievement Credits based on exemplary of this credit (see Innovation Credits. gray cement concrete has an initial albedo in the range of 0. be a vegetated roof or be covered energy by that 30% striking a surface is reflected back into the atmosphere." An albedo of 0.35 to 0. Solar reflectance includes not just visible light. Place a minimum of 50% of parking pavement system (at reduction of heat-island than 50% of the non-roof impervious surface paving on a given project or less than 50% when combined with other strategies. Landscaping (trees) must be in place at the time of occupancy.45. the more expensive white 17 . • Provide shade from architectural devices or structures that have a solar The use of light-colored landscaping concrete and good for the are a winning combination effects. by Lawrence ordinary Berkeley offset some nonrenewable resource use. while 70% is absorbed by the solar panels that produce used to surface. courtyards parking lots): • Provide canopy or within 5 years of landscape installation. Exemplary Performance).1: Heat Island Effect . and is measured by the surface's means "albedo. raising its temperature. • Provide shade from structures covered by solar panels that produce energy used to offset some nonrenewable use.3 of all the solar energy spaces under cover. OR. DESIGN ISSUES Details One strategy for achieving this Credit is shade from the existing tree to use concrete instead of asphalt for more for 50% of the site roads.Nonroof Intent· Reduce heat islands to minimize impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitats. • Use hardscape materials with an SRI of at least 29. Any roof used to shade or cover parking must have an SRI of at least 29. resource reflectance index (SRI) of at least 29. Requirements OPTION 1 Use strategies (including a combination of the following hardscape and Summary of Concrete Applications and Materials Relevant to the Credit Ready mixed concrete products can help significantly in gaining not only this credit.SS Credit 7. • Use an open-grid least 50% pervious).

concrete asphalt available of the concrete used Portland existing have option should be roof or concrete roof. In these cases. plazas. secondary the roads. time affect Also.15 over time. By comparison. When using either slag cement or fly ash. Adding on concrete how to construct is widely here. these used on airports. This will require a sample of interstates. or a parking deck within the footprint of a building. parking durability highways.10 to 0. of deteriorated types of approximately 4" in diameter and just 1" thick of the surface and riding quality There in order to fit within the dimensions testing equipment. the albedo of asphalt is from 0. Coined overlays whitetopping have by the industry. Examples with include two story parking decks surface area top with level.8.30. Another strategy involving concrete is to place 50% of the parking spaces on a project undercover. with a rougher finish lowering the value. or under a building. It is recommended to have the albedo the benefit of having a higher albedo.30 LEED been concrete requirement. and makes use of a pre-consumer sometimes recycled material. pavements roadways. Concrete containing slag cement is sometimes naturally lighter than ordinary concrete. under finish affects albedo. Concrete is Whitetopping: overlays (HMA) as a over cement hot-mix been for typically the material of choice for parking structures. weathering to 0. Concrete should be allowed to dry a sufficient time before testing.10 when new. and lots to improve performance.cement concrete has an albedo of 0. concrete albedo can fall just below 0. and sidewalks are used extensively. In rare cases. Fly ash may lower the albedo of the concrete and in other case increase it. the actual Whitetopping is gaining in popularity deteriorating hot-mix asphalt pavements in fixing and includes albedo of the concrete should be verified by testing. an paving and will not be repeated to the concrete concrete coloring mix may underground parking vegetated reduce its albedo. often The albedo exceeds the of ordinary 0. The same finish as will be used on the in-place concrete is recommended. the actual albedo tested.7 to 0. whitetopping: are three 18 . Concrete concrete Pavement: for Portland parking cement areas. deck. including underground. tested by a lab that can perform reflectance tests compliant with ASTM E 903 or ASTM C 1549. the curing and drying albedo.05 to 0. or under roof. drives. The concrete HMA surfaces. Information conventional available. better performance and increased durability over asphaH. pavements rehabilitation roadways and parking areas for many years.

fiber reinforced concrete overlay. Concrete pavement has a service life islands. However. long-lasting pavement surface square underlying road course is sound. Project teams do not need to 19 . may be finished or burlap dragged is then jointed is The UTW concrete using an early entry saw. The reflectance level of applicable materials must be adequately documented to earn this credit. is a relatively down to therefore new issue.00 include concrete per UTW provides an economical. and has not percolated everyday pavement has use. costs $2. and if the per square foot installed excluding preparation. pervious concrete is not considered to meet the requirements of open-grid paving since it construction. or general deterioration." strategies or less if combined for reducing heat The is critical to control random cracking of the concrete surface. Pervious concrete can only contribute high albedo option.• • • Conventional (thickness greater than 8") Thin (thicknesses from four to 8"). broomed. paving this for Green Integration with Other LEED Credits If the concrete used is pervious and has the required albedo. and Ultra-thin . and not on its ability to transmit water. Benefits and Costs UTW costs approximately $1.50 to $2. Joint spacing usually laid out in three-foot proper joint spacing squares. The UTW concrete is placed directly on the milled asphalt surface using a conventional vibratory screed to consolidate ISSUES the concrete and bring the concrete to final grade.UTW (thickness less than 4") Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (UTW) is a several times greater Concrete than that of asphalt pavement is naturally pavement. effect" that led to this credit is generating an interest in light-colored However. The contribution of open grid paving to reducing the heat whitetopping becomes a viable island effect depends upon evaporation from the plant material within the grid. experienced as are existing being is less than 50% pervious. light gray in color. TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Specifications SS Credit 7. durable. and design not However. and can be periodically pressure-washed to remove dirt and stains and to help retain its reflective qualities.00 Conventional to $6. UTW is placed as follows: the existing roadway is milled to a uniform depth and cleaned.50 surface paving foot. at least 0. parking lots and whitetopping widespread roadways resurfaced.3) for 50% of the site's non-roof impervious with other surfaces. It can be used as a road surface course where traditional paving materials have failed due to shoving. rutting.1 requires the use of "light colored/high albedo materials (reflectance of AND to this credit under the option for achieving this credit. it can help meet both this credit and credit SS Credit 6. bonded. The concern about the "heat island Benefits derived highly reflective surfaces and a high level of durability.1. finish. The fresh concrete with a tined.

lab will choose the test method and explain how to prepare test samples.3 or greater. For the concrete portion of the site.pdf Effects of Composition Solar Reflectance and Exposure on the of Portland Cement PavementlTe Pavement fees $200 for ASTM E 903. Alternatively. Existing old concrete cannot be considered in the square footage for high albedo materials.com/Concrete chnical/Fundamentals/Concrete Resurfacing.asp www. it is acceptable to use the reflectivity rate for new concrete for this credit. The 20 . approximately Testing testing labs can lab directory should at be R&T Update #3. paving the SRI values for typical USGBC materials provide in the accordance with ASTM E 903 or ASTM C LEED reference guide which lists new gray concrete as SRI of 35. and documentation is where concrete will be Concrete. weathered concrete. Berkeley.tfhrc.05.provide project-specific values of new gray data measuring or white SRI concrete producer may choose to have concrete. unless its reflectance can be measured to be 0. or Lawrence making sure indicate original source of the research data and the reflectivity category that relates to your concrete mix.org/PDFs/RT3. CA.05. Pressure washing can be a solution for increasing the albedo of dirty.htm http://www. the producer should provide a letter to the contractor and architect stating the mix design was tested in previously used and tested mix is acceptable.secement.whitetopping.org/whitetopping Resource Documents www.org/PDFs/RT3.lbl.asp#iprf www.gov/Heatisland www.secpa. be found using the ASTM www. Alternatively.05. 2001. Concrete Berkeley to Pavement National the Association Laboratory. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.astm. ASTM Test Method C 1549. "Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Reflectometer" Using a Portable Solar The is also recommended.com/news. Include reflectance the American documentation from 1549 and provide the reflectivity values.concreteparking. provided showing this reflectance. In such cases. concrete mixes used for parking areas and plazas pre-tested to determine reflectance Documentation certifying that the concrete is equivalent to a mix used for a project values.pdf American Concrete Pavement Association. Also include a site plan showing used.gov/pubrds/02jul/09. REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES Resource Websites eetd.org. June 2002 www. as this will meet the intent of the credit at the time of construction.pavement.

building performance Standard for rating using 90. this prerequisite will require a 10% building or a whole building project cost savings The minimum energy for each point percentage threshold is as follows: New Buildings Existing Building Renovation 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 22% 24% 26% 28% 30% 32% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 22% 24% 26% 28% 30% 32% 34% 36% 38% 40% 42% 44% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 and Materials Points that the building team demonstrate improvement performance in the proposed rating for new buildings. Requirements In general. using a computer simulation model for the impacts associated with excessive energy use. EA Prerequisite on 2 10% improvement energy 21 .1- G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 2007 (with errata but without amendments). Requirements There are three options for achieving this credit Only Option 1 will be presented here Summary of RMC Applications since this is the only option that incorporates the benefits credit Demonstrate a percentage improvement of concrete in achieving this Relevant to the Prerequisite and Credit There are a number of ready mixed concrete technologies that have an important role in energy requires a saving. EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance tntent: To achieve increasing levels of energy performance standard to beyond reduce the prerequisite and 34% 36% 38% 40% 42% 44% 46% 48% environmental economic impacts associated with excessive energy use.1-2007.ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE in the proposed building performance compared with the baseline rating building EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance Intent" To establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems to reduce environmental performance rating. in the proposed 5% improvement performance existing baseline building to the rating for major renovations compared with buildings. meeting the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA There are other options requirements of this credit but this is the one that will be used in most cases. Calculate the baseline building performance according to Appendix Standard 90.

cores are A 2" thick web and 6"-8" Screen-Grid systems systems the made of rigid insulation. Post-and-Beam are similar to the screen-grid systems but systems. with wider spacing (up to 4' for columns and between 4' and 8' for beams). with wall after resemble without concrete web. in which a layer of insulation wythes of is sandwiched concrete. construction.1-2007. Watne-Grid systems result in a continuous of varying thickness. from four to 12" thick. The great majority of ICF systems utilize EPS (expanded polystyrene. the Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) is outside ICF buildings have long been known to be particularly energy efficient in which the insulation and sandwich concrete. ICF systems ways: By Configuration of Concrete .Panel systems are similar polyisocynurate (polyiso) rarely used. or combinations typical. using insulated wall and roof technologies. concrete wall as in a waffle.Flat systems wall of constant can be classified in two either tilt-up or vertically cast. Insulating Concrete Form Concrete (ICF) Forms: systems Insulating use forms of thickness. By Form Types . or between two conventionally result in a solid concrete insulated wall systems which consist of one layer of concrete with a single layer of insulation on the interior or exterior. by reducing overall energy consumption.performance that meets ASHRAE 90. The mass effect of concrete can also playa role in satisfying the prerequisite and in achieving points under EA Credit 1. while EA Credit 1 provides up to 19 Points for achieving primary better energy performance. mixed concrete The in popularity in commercial construction. either tiltup or vertically cast. waffle insulation and concrete that typically remain in place as part of the finished concrete hardens. with the cores at 12" OC in both directions (although spacing varies from system to system). "beadboard") or XPS (extruded polystyrene). There are a few systems using hollow blocks made of concrete and mineralized foam beads. These in the gaining systems have been used extensively homebuilding industry and are 22 . with a typical grid being 12" OC vertically and 16" OC horizontally. wood chips or role of ready improving energy performance is in reducing and heat loss and gain through foundation building walls and roof. DESIGN ISSUES Details Insulated wall technologies fall into three categories: systems.

Tilt-up walls. and 4' to 8' long. The erected. creating a sandwich wall or single wythe wall in its final upright position. and range in size insulation specially configured to fit over the ties is installed next. economical. ranging in size bed. the most energy efficient systems are those panel configuration. Ties and insulation are either placed into the plastic concrete while the panel is in the horizontal position or reaches adequate strength. the outer or inner layer of concrete is cast face down. usually three to five days after casting. Most are shipped as blocks in their final configuration but some are shipped resulting forming sandwich is then an extremely durable. are rapidly gaining in popularity insulation applied using furring strips or metal framing on the inside face of the wall. tilt-up walls are insulated using fiberglass or other batt used to build large. Block systems resemble large concrete masonry units (eMU's). Ready mixed concrete is then placed into the forms. the outer layer of concrete is cast face down with proprietary metal or plastic ties 1'-3" x 8'-9" to 4'-0" x 12'-0". In both tilt-up and standing form systems. into position once the concrete Using the floor slab as a form bed. For residential buildings. Tilt-up walls can be used in a sandwich panel configuration or conventional single wythe form systems can also be used to construct sandwich panels or single wythe insulated and small commercial walls. from 8" x 16" to 16" x 48". the insulation is held in the center or to one side of ordinary removable standing forms by the special metal or plastic structural ties. A layer of polystyrene systems and plank systems can be shipped flat. Tilt-up construction is otten used to save on energy costs. narrow planks 8" to 12" high. Both panel cast into connect the inner and outer layer of the sandwich panel. For single and well-insulated wythe configuration: wall system. with hinged ties that allow the blocks to be shipped flat. concrete walls are insulated using fiberglass or other batt insulation applied using furring strips or metal framing on the inside face of the wall. Plank systems consist of long. configuration: For sandwich that use plastic ties which do not create "cold bridges" because they do not readily conduct Using the floor slab as a form 23 . over which is cast the inner reinforced structural panel wall layer. Tilt-up Construction: Tilt-up walls are cast horizontally final vertical on-site and lifted. They vary in how they interlock. In many cases. or tilted. long attached to the hardened concrete once the panel is erected.to standard from plywood forms. In many cases. simple buildings such as warehouses. Removable Form Systems: Removable for use in a wide variety of building types.

buildings Comfort-Design. generally between 50° and 60° F. In many milder climates. is wellheat is concrete will typically have somewhat thermal constructed Continuous performance with than a absorbed by constructed mass and released lighter-weight later. In appropriate swings such as are found at high altitudes in the western states. by contributing Optimized Energy Performance. temperature facilitate ranges the for and humidity maintenance IAQ Credit variables and 7. portions of Thermal passive buildings. is easily gained by the ICFs also reduce the Increase Ventilation. energy cases. tilt-up. Gaining points under EA Credit 1. concrete excess of However.heat. The result is an ambient within the wall that shows little tempered using lower cost off-peak electricity or cool nighttime air. assembly. In such climates. excess heat supplied by the sun or gained from internal sources can be released at night to warm the solar concrete exterior walls such as ICFs. the use of ready mixed concrete can help achieve the prerequisite to the mass effect. the mass effect of concrete is taken into account envelope as a way to reduce consumption. In principle. In cold weather. Thermal mass works well in any season or climate where the outdoor temperature varies above and below the balance point of the building. to maximize building. where the stored energy can be used to good effect. all other things being equal. (or Typically. In building these energy can readily be collected regularly alternate with cold nights. Mass Effect of Concrete: The "thermal mass effect" (thermal storage-and-release) both interior and exterior documented. no additional insulation is required for above or below grade concrete walls. which comfort between a maximum the ideal interior solar such and minimum temperature. or removable form systems also save energy by significantly reducing air building. HVAC designer. In warm weather. and released later when it can be that is "neutral.1 swings. The design of the ICF assembly limits the air infiltration resulting in an interior space heat or excess heat from internal sources is temporarily stored in massive construction during hours of expensive on-peak electricity use. with the use of the ICF Indoor Air Quality IAQ Credit 2. EA Prerequisite 2 requires that the as a glazed south-facing to undergo gallery or atrium) are designed substantial temperature building demonstrate the base case 10% improvement over ASHRAE 90. The economic benefit of thermal mass is determined in part by the extent to which the exterior temperature "swings" or oscillates around Therefore. unwanted infiltration. sunny days where solar and stored climates. The mass effect is most pronounced with large temperature in dry climates requires less insulation for mass walls than for frame walls. the benefit of the mass effect. requires that 24 . a building elements in which are the required with structural created conventional better building materials." temperature variance.

000.000. the design case saves 17. and air The walls acoustical in of having continuous concrete excellent and insulating inhibit inside and out. churches.25% and is eligible for three points under EA Credit 1. steel.000 better (all BTUs equipment. However. Suppose insulation 10. wythe of concrete. often higher However. problems discussion have of rot (see which eliminates Limitations for a on the building and commercial applications has been increasing to rapidly because their cost is comparable other types of insulated concrete. wood-frame use in in the design construction. if a massive building of similar design results in 1. and uses 58. Tilt-up concrete or by a continuous but lacking the "energy efficiency measures" (EEMs) that make the design case more systems have long proven to be economical construction retail for "big box" type and energy conserving than the base case.a lightweight frame building. accommodate mass effects. are sealed by finishes. If the base case building is light weight. Sandwich advantage construction also has the of termite concerns).000.be compared with a simulated "base case" . and multifamily residences. Benefits and Costs All insulated wall systems use materials that are non-biodegradable. lighting. case. infiltration applications that require hard surfaces inside 25 . An annual energy such as large warehouse but their use is energy model that simulates buildings. the line is crossed to gain an additional Credit point.000. using a concrete frame and cost-effective Sandwich construction popularity for commercial is gaining in building use. In general.000 BTUs per year. schools. insulation strategies can lower energy costs 15% to 25% depending climate. as compared with the base case. and insulation is 19% of the total usage. and CMUwalis. EEMs) and save primarily been even than their construction. allowable per year lighting.000 BTUs savings per year from equipment.000 BTUs savings per year from the mass effect and the same 10. only these types of models correctly expanding to include other buildings such as offices. automatically The LEED rating system ICF and standing systems residential cost is have form sandwich used though wall for first rewards the mass effect in the following way.the "design case" - the building being systems where through-joints in the forms constructed . allowing it to be used for properties. rapidly types use on an hourly energy basis is required.

Removable form wall construction for below-grade applications are readily available in most parts of the country. and the extent to which other building elements play in its usefulness it is "coupled" to for some manufacturers polystyrene of ICF used also have roles to as a thermal storage The expanded may medium. the more benefit." As noted and industrial should be evaluated carefully with regard to ease of construction. above under Integration with Other LEED Credits Any recycled material used in the stay-inplace formwork.and out. For LEED fraction is recycled windows will significantly delay and moderate energy loads. Heavy objects can be directly attached to the concrete with a variety of concrete anchors. is to MR Credit these Credit 4: Recycled can the value of the mass effect of concrete depends in part upon the extent to which the interior temperature deviate from the set point is allowed to the more Similarly. thus reducing peak load and overall energy consumption. Mass-Effect: "Details. and 80 F for any portion of the day. such as foundations buildings. For example. reliability. its thickness. Availability There are many manufacturers systems distributing directly of ICF consumption will be significantly reduced the outdoor air temperature 0 is between SOD to contractors. its color. contribute Materials. cost. etc. Removable form wall construction for abovegrade applications is at present limited to a with sleeves before pouring. directly in contact with the sun's rays. Installation Utility runs in concrete located in advance. most of the concrete in a 12-inch-thick wall in a space without for the forms waste. Energy of LEED AND boxes. contain post-industrial The concrete mix for the ICF may contain a high percentage of fly ash which is 100% post consumer calculations. and reinforcement . will have a noticeable mass effect. MR applicable systems. the recycled. will always be reduced. electrical small number of contractors. Attachment of casework. Credit 4: Recycled Content. The peak load the energy if determined by weight and then multiplied by the cost of assembly to determine the recycled content value. The distribution of the mass. can contribute Content. and interior trim should be planned in advance. walls are best installed Tilt-up contractors are available in most parts of the country. All systems meet standard specifications efficiency issues in terms 26 . the concrete in a 4" slab without floor covering. TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER SpeCifications Trade contractors should only need to issued. to MR materials 5: deviation (or "swing"). its relation to Regional incoming solar energy. In addition. systems surfaces attachment Some ICF and sandwich panel ISSUES have furring at regular strips or attachment intervals making more convenient. concrete.

Required LEED Documentation The project A&E team typically the document particular required producer required creates No be Tilt-up Concrete Association 113 First Street West P.nrmca. (1997). Washington. Stephen J.. Lionel A. Insulating Concrete Form Association. American and Air2004.org www. Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road Skokie.org Books and Publications Advanced Buildings: Energy Benchmark for High Performance Buildings. Society for Heating. Greenview.org www.O. IL 60025 Phone: 888-864-4232 Fax: 847-657-9728 www. National Ready Mixed Concrete Association 900 Spring Street Silver Spring. MD 20910 301-587-1400 888-846-7622 Fax: 301-585-4219 www.5. Atlanta. Chammas.concretebuildings.org Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Savings Buildings: Over Achieving 30% Energy ASHRAE 90.ashrae. VanderWerf. should or LEED of the documentation contractors concrete Energy See Material in reference to Optimize Performance Documentation Requirements.concretehomes. 2003.org for this credit. REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES Associations Insulating Concrete Forms Association 1730 Dewes Street. IA 52314 319-895-6911 Fax: 320-213-5555 www. IL 60077-1083 847-966-6200 www. and Lemay. Paula. 2006. New Buildings Institute.org www. Engineers.. 1.performance modeled requirements project will A&E have team been and Publications 800-868-6733 by the specified accordingly. Requirements for Concrete Foundations Association 113 First Street West P. IA 52314 319-895-6940 Fax: 320-213-5556 and Resources Credits 4. IL. Box 204 Mount Vernon. Conditioning www.O. ICFs Point to LEED NC. New 27 .newbuildings.forms.com A.cement. Feige. White Salmon. Suite #2 Glenview.. and 7.org www. New York. Concrete Forms for Residential Pieter Design and Construction. Box 204 Mount Vernon.cfawalls. McGraw-Hili York.tilt-up.org Insulating Refrigerating.

Portland Concrete Successful Vanderwerf Forms. Concrete Craftsman and Book and Acoustic Performance. HBA Publications. (1974). University Thermal Performance. (1999). Hanley Wood. Portland Cement Association. Inc. Resource Videos Tilt Up Concrete Structures. (2003). Farkas and Johnson. Tilt-Up Concrete Association. Cement and Portland Cement Association. Rockville. Skokie. Tilt-Up Building: Methods and Marketing.W. (1996). of British Peurifoy. D. 28 . John Roller. Insulating Concrete Forms: Installed Cost Editors of Concrete Construction magazine. R. MD. HUDUSER. Tilt-Up Design & Construction Manual. Oberlender. Van Geem. Insulating Concrete Forms: Comparative LEED NC. HUDUSER. The Tilt-Up Design and Construction Manual. Love. Tilt-up Site Cast Concrete: An Architect's Viewpoint.forms. Keisling and Carter. NAHB Research Center. Columbia (1979). Hugh Brooks. Anderson. 1992. Hanley Wood. 2005. by Farkas and Pesce. Insulating Manual. Concrete Association. (1996). Techniques. NAHB Research Center (1999). Joe Nasvik. Professional. L. Construction Formwork. G. 6th Construction and Munsell. PCA. IL. (1988).www. edition. Marceau and Martha G. Investigation of Wind Projectile Resistance of Insulating Concrete Form Homes. article from: Concrete Construction [HTMLJ. 3rd edition (1995). Inc. Portland Cement Association." Concrete Institute. Formwork For Concrete Structures. (2000). Methods and Cement Association Company. (1997). R. Design of Tilt-Up Concrete Wall Panels. (1973) Using Concrete to Obtain Energy Points for Available through PCA and McGraw-HilI. American Building tips on With Insulating Concrete Contact Forms Portland Video Training Series "Tilt-up choosing concrete materials construction: for tilt-up Cement Association panels. CTL. Texas Tech University. Manual· T.. Bill Palmer. McGraw-Hili Gerald Joseph Weiler. (Material Selection Guide). Design Criteria for Insulating Concrete Form Wall Systems.org. (1999). Medgar L.


MR Credit 2: Construction Waste Management Intent· Divert construction and demolition debris from disposal facilities. resources in landfills and

incineration recovered

Redirect back

recyclable to the
Concrete taken from demolition sites may be recycled by crushing and reuse as backfill or as a base for road construction.

manufacturing process. Redirect reusable materials to appropriate sites. Requirements

landfills, which is the intent of MR Credit 2, Develop and implement a construction Construction Waste Management. In waste management plan that, at a minimum,

addition, concrete producers recycle returned concrete, aggregate the construction and wash water during process which can

identifies the materials to be diverted from disposal and whether the materials will be

sorted on site or comingled. Calculations can be done by weight or volume, consistent throughout. but must be soil and

contribute to this credit. DESIGN ISSUES Details Concrete is an easy material on-site, or to to keep from


land clearing debris do not contribute to this credit. This credit is worth recycles and/or and 1 point if the project at least 50% of debris. The




combined site construction site recycler. Demolition

waste by an offwaste concrete is



credit is worth 2 points if the project recycles or salvages at least 75% of construction and demolition debris. Remember that salvage to

recycled by crushing it and, when necessary, removing rebar. Typically, this material is

employed as clean fill for backfill applications or road base applications. In a few areas

may include

the donation

of materials

charitable organizations Humanity.

such as Habitat for

there might even be a market for the use of recycled concrete as aggregate in the

Summary of Concrete Applications and Materials Relevant to the Credit The construction USEPA and has demolition estimated (C&D) that debris

production of new concrete (see discussion of concrete aggregate under MR Credit 4,

Recycled Content). When used as clean fill, crushed concrete may be combined on-site

with other crushed demolition debris such as brick, mortar, and concrete masonry units. It is important to note that C&D waste

accounts for 23% of all municipal solid waste. By crushing and recycling concrete waste

material, this diverts usable resources from


materials reused on-site as clean fill or other applications will count towards this credit only and not towards Content Material the or Reuse, Material Regional Recycled Reuse, Materials Content

noted above. crushed

If, on the other hand, waste from another project is


purchased and used as clean fill on a LEED project, the material value of the fill can be applied towards the Recycled Content and

Recycled Credits.

and Regional Materials Credits are all based on cost, and thus materials must be

Regional Materials Credit. It does not count toward MR Credit 4, Recycled Content, a

purchased for the project to apply to these credits. LEED does not consider fresh concrete that is returned from the job site to be in more

which is aimed in part toward developing market for recycled products.


concrete aggregate or backfill material meets the criteria for recycled content only if it is purchased at an off-site location. Technically, it is possible for this material to gain credit for recycled content in the


(this issue is discussed "Other

detail in the section


Issues"). However, if returned concrete is not credited to the project (that is, subtracted

following way. Waste concrete from the site is sent to a recycler, who crushes it and sells it back for use as backfill or concrete

from the cost of delivered concrete), then it can be added to the quantity of concrete

diverted from landfills under this credit. Benefits and Costs In some areas of the country where

aggregate. While the material is now counted toward both MR Credit 2 and MR Credit 4, it is very unlikely the particular pieces of

concrete from the site would be segregated from other waste concrete. Instead, both the diverted waste concrete from the site and the recycled crushed concrete become part of a market for recycled materials, which is the intent of the USGBC.

tipping fees are high or where C&D waste has to be hauled great distances, there could be some savings due to reduced tipping fees. However, in these parts of the country,

recycling has become standard practice. There is some cost to segregating waste, but pieces of broken concrete site are

If this same process occurs entirely onsite - that is, there is a crushing plant on-site that makes aggregate from waste concrete, and this aggregate material credit, is used for backfill - the toward this the

likely to be set aside in a separate pile in any case, so additional cost is unlikely. Integration with Other LEED Credits Waste crushed concrete reused on-site

can only be counted MR Credit 2, and

not toward

or off-site counts toward this credit, because it is diverted from a landfill. However, waste concrete towards Content reused the on-site does Reuse, not count

Recycled Content credit, MR Credit 4, as it never becomes part of the recycled material market.


Recycled Credits as

or Regional



TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Specifications To achieve this


placed incorrectly or otherwise fails to pass acceptance break-out tests, it may be necessary to


the concrete from the rebar and The

dispose of them in separate containers. credit, the project ready mixed concrete the amounts producer specifications will typically include a section

must track and the

of returned


in the front end or general conditions called Construction section will Waste either Waste Management. contain This

individual amounts (volume and/or weight) of the coarse aggregate, sand and water that is recycled rather than landfilled. Integration with Other LEED Credits This credit does not generally integrate with other credits. that waste A common material misconception on-site is can

a job-specific Plan, or



will require the construction manager (CM) or general contractor (GC) to prepare one.

Individual sections that generate C&D waste then reference this section in an article


entitled "Related Work in Other Sections" or a similar title. Projects environments separation circumstance, dispose of located will and the waste in dense employ In urban off-site this will

contribute towards Material Reuse, Recycled Content, or Regional Materials credits.

However those credits are all based on cost. Therefore, if a material is not purchased from a market source, then it cannot be applied to those credits. Waste or salvaged materials


recycling. concrete materials

contractor in a


from a project site that are reused either on or off the project site count only towards the Construction Waste Management Credit. Required LEED Documentation A project's construction plan should, waste management identify the

container which is then taken to an off-site facility where are the concrete and and type other to

recyclables appropriate

separated This

sent of



waste management concrete contractors.

has the least impact on

at a minimum,

diversion goals, relevant construction


Job sites with more area may employ on-site separation. containers clearly In this will circumstance, multiple be of

and materials to be diverted, implementation protocols and parties responsible for

be on-site according

and should to the type

implementing the plan. LEED template will require the completion of a or


material in which a contractor dispose of waste material. be paid to specifications

is allowed to

that includes

the total weight

Attention should requiring on-site

volume of construction

waste and a list of

materials diverted from the landfill, measured by weight or volume. Typically, this table is completed by the party responsible for the

separation as they may require attendance at training sessions and there may be penalties for non-compliance. concrete In situations where new

project's C&D waste management plan. If the concrete contractor was responsible for any

must be removed because it was


waste disposal or reuse, data on the weight or volume will need to be provided to the party responsible for the overall project C&D waste management plan. The concrete


fine aggregate,

and water that B

was diverted from landfills. See Appendix for a sample letter. The following is an example of such


producer should provide a letter stating the amounts of returned concrete and individual amounts (volume and/or weight) of coarse



33 . Solid Waste Agency of Lake County.Waste Management Plan for Demolition Debris DESTINATION OF WASTE Type of Material Wood Dimensional Lumber Salva Recycled Landfilled Project Name: Name of Destination Address Telephone # _ Finished Millwork 0 0 Metals Structural Steel Miscellaneous Metals 0 0 Concrete/Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Bricks/Blocks 0 Other Landscaping Material Roofing Gypsum Board Windows/Glass Carpeting Plumbing Fixtures Electrical Devices Debris/Non-Recyclable 0 0 0 Source: Demolition Waste Management Plan Specification Guide for Engineers. III.

sustainablenc.php 34 . Publication 219.edu/ Recycling Concrete and Other Materials for Design Guide.org/thewaytogo/main/cd. ACI Symposium pp. MD 20910 301-587-1400 888-846-7622 Fax: 301-585-4219 www. University of Guide to preventing Waste and .wbdg.cdrecycling.164 Construction Waste Management www.REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES Trade Associations Construction Materials Recycling Association The Way to Go. 2004.org Resource Websites The Whole Building Design Guide's Database: Sustainable Development. Construction and Demolition Debris Management: www.org/publications.www. htm Resource Documents Contractor's Recycling: www.org/tools/cwm.htm Sustainable Minnesota: http://www.nrmca.resourceventure.org National Ready Mixed Concrete Association 900 Spring Street Silver Spring.sustainabledesignguide.umn.

* Percentages are calculated in terms of total dollar value for materials. See the "Intent" on formwork. used for non-rented recycled SCMs qualify for this LEED credit. and labor costs. for large-scale Concrete specifications see the discussion LEED ID Credit 1 on the reduction in use of portland cement. portland reduces cement Replacing part of the with SCMs "supplementary cementitious materials" SCMs. Using SCM's and recycled aggregate as a way to contribute to achieving this LEED credit will affect project design and concrete trade professionals. LEED documentation content plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes at least 10%* of the total value of materials in the project for one point. steel reinforcement. 20%* of the total value of materials on the project for 2 points. engineers. or silica fume that have recycled content. the emission gas a primary only aggregate. GHGs. all mechanical Exclusions: labor Crushing concrete and then using the material for aggregate is an opportunity to qualify for recycled and electrical material and requirements from content credit. Other natural SCMs such as calcined clay and shale do not qualify for this LEED credit despite above. As the System grows in use. slag cement. However. Requirements for MR Credit 4 Use materials with recycled content such that the sum of post-consumer recycled to recycled mixes.5% of C02 generation in the United States as a directly contribute in the achievement Recycled Content Credit. About one ton of C02 is released in the Materials Relevant to the Credits Ready contains mixed concrete nearly always that can of the include or production of one ton of portland cement. design Regardless of who develops the design mix specifications. contractors and producers familiarity content with in will need to increase issues concrete related their resulting from the extraction and processing of virgin materials. Summary of Concrete Applications will require new submittal data contractors and concrete and manufacturers. commercial LEED buildings 35 . wood products and recycled wood greenhouse (GHG).MR Credit 4: Recycled Content Intent· Increase the demand for building products content that have incorporated recycled material reducing the impacts are typically developed by the LEED project Rating structural engineer. such as fly ash. costs. recycled in concrete of C02. reducing In addition. and project overhead fees. one or more materials Cement production constitutes about 1. These result of an aggressive effort by the industry to reduce emissions.

iron slag. This recycled content the cement can count toward the achievement manufacturer publishes cement of this credit if the a recycled itself. a plastic materials called hydraulic cement. This technology is a dynamic area. A hydraulic cement (such as portland 36 .Cement consumer producers recycled incorporate materials." the product with more than 5% of is called "blended (SCMs) with Recycled Content The most common There is a large amount of information regarding clarity.. it is heated to 800·C -900·C ("calcined") then burnt at temperatures 1. In the kiln. Supplementary Cementitious Materials in some cases. contribute this section into some detail in an or blended about cement and concrete chemistry properties of the hardened concrete activity or attempt to clarify how SCMs are best used in concrete. portland cement is combined bottle from a soft drink). silica fume. DESIGN ISSUES A. content materials are ground together and either fed into a rotary kiln dry (dry process). cement. as they become available. bauxite (for alumina) and iron ore (for iron oxide) are also used. These as bottom ash. and clay and shale to provide silica." When cool. alumina.. The raw materials most commonly used in making portland cement are limestone to provide calcium oxide. tailings.500·C (approximately fuse the components to drive off C02. are combined cement with portland cement by the during the grinding manufacturer phase. Post-Consumer to materials Recycled Content refers products that have ceramic-like material called "clinker. when and used SCMs are fly ash. However. from 1. producers to make SCMs to materials such as scrap. hydraulic the in conjunction cement. Sand (for silica). goes For slag cement. etc. If combined SCMs. and iron oxide.300·C to for the portland Many also materials replace fossil fuels with recycled such as used tires and spent solvents that are used in the cement manufacturing 2. foundry sand.g. Typically.500·F) to partially into hard balls of process (these materials are not included in the recycled content calculation for LEED). A basic through hydraulic or pozzolanic both. with new SCMs in the offing. presuch understanding of the underlying chemistry content will help in evaluating the use of these new products. SCMs with recycled content. material sent to the landfills cases reduces energy required to pyro-process clinker. or waste by-products from industrial sources that have been traded through the market. or in a slurry (wet process). Pre-consumer Recycled Content refers with SCMs by concrete concrete. These with to materials. to replace conventional to produce reduces in some materials used as raw materials This process and portland cement. the clinker is mixed with a small amount of gypsum (calcium sulfate) and ground to a fine powder called portland cement and is the most common of the broad category of or finished been recovered after they have served their intended discarded consumer use and have been by the consumer (e.

Fly ash typically decreases the in that it hydrates cement. It is removed dosages. in hydroxide to form in by the which strength results and quartz in electric arc furnaces. powder are then ground are often high-calcium (>20% to similar to portland hydraulic material cement. is In the Fly ash is also used to mitigate expansive cracking of concrete hydroxide produced. deleterious or can even decrease sulfate essential binding material that contributes to strength process.silicafume. A pozzolan material is a that due to alkali silica reactions. the slowly than portland some CSH from by the It also forms hydroxide of portland calcium permeability of the concrete and allows lower water contents. thus improving overall generated hydration cement and. Silica collection system as a fine particulate residue from the combustion gases before they are examples Association website (www. Class F LEED references. Slag cement also enhances durability of performance for concrete subjected to harsh 37 . used cited in in low the Silica fume Two Fume are plants. while Class C fly ash has no effect.org) discharged into the atmosphere. high-pressure material which to and suddenly cooling it with the materials than 15% low-calcium a residual than 10%. and durability calcium of concrete. behaves like a pozzolan. such as freeze-thaw F fly ash and sulfate improves cementitious in the calcium-silicate of water. Silica fume: A pozzolan by-product of the production created of silicon and ferrosilicon reduction of high metals quality or aluminosiliceous reacts with the calcium additional improvements CSH. which does not contribute to the strength and durability siliceous of the concrete. Class granules. resistance. There are two classes of fly ash defined by ASTM C 618: Class F and Class C. permeability. increasing strength in the long run. glassy to a fine content sometimes materials typically as 5%. herein referred to as uslag cement"): Formed by diverting the hot slag that forms on top of molten iron leaving a blast furnace. It is a "latent" more 30% CaO). ASTM C 618 characterizes fly ash into the C and F classes based on the sum of (Si02 + AI02 are + Fe02) generally with less high as content. has been found to improve Silica fume compressive durability properties of the concrete. and abrasion reduce protect resistance. reinforcing is typically It also can significantly thus helping to in thermal by the dust steel from corrosion. each available in various types with special a parking garage with 6% silica fume and a high-rise with 13%. hydrate (CSH) CSH is the Class greatly presence sulfate resistance. Types of SCMs Fly ash: A pozzolanic combustion power of pulverized by-product coal of the strength and bond strength. Ground Granulated (Iron) Blast Fumace Slag (frequently abbreviated GGBFS in properties. This causes form small. in this respect. (less carbon but C CaO) water jets.cement) is one that directly forms conditions attack. with a carbon content less than 2%.

Slow strength gain can set an economic limit on the percentage of slag cement or fly ash that can be used. Slow Setting and Strength Gain: Early setting and strength gain speeds up slab cement can result in related material amount Many of the SCMs concrete. Some silica fumes may give concrete a slightly bluish or dark gray tint and tan fly ash may impart a tan color to concrete when used in large quantities. many harden portland cement. Class C fly ash and slag cement improve strength more than Class F fly ash. Although cement substitutes often create stronger and more durable concrete more slowly than in the end. resemble the color of portland cement and therefore have little effect on color of the strengths of 15. In applications where high strength is critical (such as high-rise buildings) a combination of SCMs (slag cement. and require careful Ten percent to 25% Class F fly ash. Higher carbon content in the fly allows ash will increase the amount of air-entraining 38 . Durabilitydurability Several types either of concrete or finishing and form removal. Slag cement and metakaolin (a clay SCM without recycled content) can make concrete lighter. related to reduced heat of and percentages of SCMs (60% or more) without excessively slow strength gain. Slag cement can initially impart a bluish or greenish undertone that disappears over time as concrete is allowed to dry. Rice hull ash: This material offers mixes are uncommon. positively cement. As with any been limited to SCM. Where (footings. quality cementitious materials combinations) tend to produce a practical balance between recycled content and strength gain. slag cement.000 psi and hardened concrete. although its use in the United States has typically laboratories. Color: SCMs may slightly alter the color of hardened to the used concrete. The use of silica fume does not create a delay in strength gain. quality control. and silica fume) with portland compressive higher. color in Color and effects are cement.concrete hydration. in water along with the to cementitious water-reducing use of high freeze-thaw materials admixtures. and Class F fly ash. 15% to 25% Class C fly ash. but strongly affects the amount of water needed in the mix. Reducing the water ratio strength to negatively. In order from fast to slow rank: portland strength gain. but such reduced permeability improved sulfate resistance and deterioration from alkali silica reactions. Concrete Properties and SCMs Strength: Strength substitution of some is improved SCMs for by the portland high early strength is unimportant for example). higher percentages used. by the use of SCMs: Freeze-Thaw entraining concrete resistance. can be control of the material is important. fly ash. A admixtures mix to reduction ratio. Class C fly ash. Resistance: are improve Chemical added to airthe cementitious compensates drastic materials for slow partly gain. they generally are affected. or 30% to 60% slag cement (or by weight of promise as an SCM.

could moisture rapidly increase the amount of air-entraining admixture required. A number of ASTM tests evaluate ASR. air SCMs are desirable bridges. Permeability: SCMs combine The constituents of some in materials for deicer concrete mixtures is provided in ACI 201. sulfate resistance Guidance in for designed. and marine However. needed to obtain a specific fineness. Class C fly ash varies in this ability. De-leer Scaling: Chemicals used for snow Sulfate Attack: Concrete made with 60% or more slag cement is very effective in and ice removal on horizontal surfaces such as a parking lot or the top deck of a parking garage scaling can in cause concrete or aggravate surface air- mitigating attack by sulfates. alkali content. The use of silica fume will in the concrete and in the can create that ASR. the effectiveness of being exposed to temperatures Admixtures amounts below 32·F. loss on ignition. placed. scaling resistance ASTM C 1012 evaluates sulfate resistance of cementitious evaluating materials.admixtures content. ACI 318 building code allows up to 10% silica fume. and presence influence of impurities the amount in the fly ash also of air-entraining Reaction (ASR): Reactive forms can react with of silica in some aggregates alkali hydroxides presence causing potentially of admixture required for a certain air content in the concrete. 25% fly ash. Cold-Weather Concreting: Concrete strength must before internal expansion lead to cracking of the concrete. The with inadequate pozzolanic action of fly ash also contributes to sulfate resistance. The United States entrainment. ASTM C 441. Benefits and Costs of Using SCMs All replacing SCMs have the dual benefit of concrete to reduce its permeability ability for harmful chloride through concrete and the ions to migrate corrosion of energy-intensive portland cement and cause Concrete steel reinforcement. test for supplementary not affect cementing materials of should properly The developing a new purpose. and 50% slag cement as part of the cementing exposures. seawater and waste water. slag cement. Alkali-Silica parking for use in roadways. structures. air-entrained for many Properly designed and placed deicers of concrete will withstand years. tie up the SCMs. found in some arid soils. Normal Bureau of Reclamation wet-dry sulfate publishes a test for and ASTM this is dosages resistance. and cured concrete. structures organic material content. Chloride Ion Penetration: Properly designed and cured concrete with high percentages of SCM will have an exceptionally high with calcium hydroxide resistance to chloride ion penetration. especially reach 500 psi compressive alkalis in the concrete. made with and of using material that may otherwise be 39 . C 1567 and C 1293 can be used to determine SCMs in inhibiting ASR. while Class F fly ash is very effective. are available to insure that high the of an SCM do not increase likelihood of freezing damage at the time of concreting.

Rice hull are ash not pump-ability. so the percentage of fly ash may be higher than the replacement Specification for Hydraulic Cement" is a performance specification covering percentage. and low reactivity with alkalireactive aggregates. The primary ASTM Standards for SCMs and blended cement are: • ASTM C618 "Standard Coal Fly Ash and Specification or for ash or slag cement or both. waterreducing admixtures and more precise Mixtures. Detailed evidence may be required to show that the design mix meets the desired performance standards." 40 . slag pozzolan or both. These testing to include restrictions cement on the composition or its constituents." control begin to raise the cost. Availability of SCMs Most concrete suppliers stock either fly Some codes set an upper limit on the use of SCMs of various types for concrete exposed to de-icing salts. However. Also available are blended cements specific percentage (ASTM C595) with a of portland cement and SCM. somewhat reducing its • ASTM C 595 "Standard Specification for Blended the three Hydraulic portland Cements" cement is one of standards. up to 1. covering five classes of blended portland cements for both general using and special cement. even with higher levels of SCM. strength. Blended cements are often designed to be used with locally available pozzolans or slag cements to keep flexibility in mix design. positive energy impact. Small percentages will reduce of fly ash or cost by • ASTM C989 "Standard Specification for and slag cement concrete Slag Cement for Use in Concrete Mortars. substitutes use. Typical replacement percentage certification) (which is the criterion for LEED ranges from 15% to 25% for fly applications.landfilled. of the The properties to ensure durability. Rice hull ash is not commercially available as Raw Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. All SCMs used in higher than portland cements for both general and special applications. As the percentage of substitutes rise and water ASTM C1240 "Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious content falls to control strength gain. • ASTM C1157 "Standard Performance ash although there are special cases where this may go higher.5 units of fly ash may be used to replace a unit of portland cement." • replacing higher-cost portland cement. with portland cement or portland cement clinker or slag cement with lime. Limitations of SCMs In the case of slag cement. and set time. and yet other being specification based general on classifies cements by type specific high requirements early for potential marketed. some waste product is imported. resistance to attack by sulfates. There are no common dosages (above 25% fly ash or 60% slag) would require pre-qualification verify quality concrete. heat of hydration.

Survey The reveals United that States blended and pavements. and others. paving concrete in colder climates is likely to contain de-icing salts. sintered sludge pellets. chlorides. This applies to crushed concrete from existing structures be used as a sand substitute in concrete for 41 . waste paper and materials. Recycled Content. gypsum board. if any. into a material for credit specified size and quality. crushed recycled concrete is by far the most commonly used aggregate using only coarse aggregate similar to that of concrete replacement using natural be substitute. paper. DESIGN ISSUES B. Recyclers do not separate paving concrete from other concrete. must be taken to prevent such as Construction Management. durability. must be removed. Recycled Aggregate Many materials are being examined as has a lower specific higher water absorption aggregate. glass. which can cause premature is the material replacement (see above). along with glass cullet (in specialty applications). Crushed Recycled Concrete Aggregate Recycling requires existing concrete for aggregate and crushing with a corrosion of rebar. plaster. wood granulated products and wastes. and resistance to saturated freezethaw action. and not MR Credit 4. Rebar and other embedded and care items. Also. These resources are two different forms of slag that cannot be used interchangeably. This material will not have contamination Crushed generally like construction debris. recycled concrete aggregate gravity and cement usage is less than 2% of the total portland cement used." that is. Another source of crushed concrete would be from returned concrete to concrete plants. ground Water-cooled granulated used [rapidly concentrations that could alter the hydration blast-furnace as a cement and bond of the cement paste. Concrete strength is concrete: air-cooled blast furnace entirely different material from slag cement). and roofing materials. Fine recycled aggregate should only be used in very limited quantities. Use of recycled fine crushed concrete will increase drying shrinkage and creep and decrease the modulus of elasticity. soil and clay balls. Recycled concrete must "clean. without absorbed chemicals. concrete removing. or other fine materials in cementitious quenched] slag value. However. sealants. Note that crushed concrete aggregate on-site under concrete MR Credit qualifies 2. fiberglass plastics. because of alkali-silica reactions. Glass may wood. aggregate New concrete typically has candidates to replace the sand and/or gravel or crushed aggregates in conventional slag (an than natural stone made with such good workability. It is much safer to crush concrete from a known source specifically for use in the project. made from points Waste breaking. Crushed and Screened Waste Glass Glass is generally not recommended contamination by other materials asphalt. used as Air cooled blast-furnace slag is an aggregate and has no aggregates. clay coatings.a cement Geological substitute.

in that is found on-site CANNOT be used to obtain MR Credit 4. restrict the codes use of window glass or fluorescent bulbs with (small amounts glass of) contaminants. guidance as ACI on the recycled Materials (size limitations) for the project-by-project 555 provides crushed The aggregate and local availability. Integration with Other LEED Credits Aggregate made by crushing concrete and durability. State address the use of for example. on a aggregate. joint sealants. further research is needed before glass cullet can be used as aggregate structural applications. or available for other uses. An alkali-silica paste and glass long-term strength reaction between cement aggregate can decrease Research available than recycled concrete. such as clear in ordinary use and structural applications. ASTM C33. and is not usually sold as aggregate. To count as recycled by LEED.edu/). footpaths. the material must be obtained from outside sources.non-structural applications such as bike any Codes and Standards for Recycled Aggregate There are no standards use of alternative engineered For concrete regulating aggregate the for paths. board. Crushed glass is less widely chlorides. recycled including glass that cannot be ways. The installation of concrete using recycled concrete or glass is basically concrete. Limitations of Recycled Aggregate Testing variations is required to account for Committee use of concrete aggregate. information (www. the of one-half the cost of non-recycled used for construction on the specifications purposes Department Verify applicable regulations basis. but aggregate in a particular size range may command a price premium. glass.unh. Research Hampshire Recycled Center at the University of New is a good resource for in the aggregate properties. Some state and local codes specifically alternative Washington Transportation. On-site concrete that is reused for a purpose other than that for which it 42 . can Some types of concrete non-structural do not generally aggregate aggregate improve that has no known deleterious durability by arresting cracks. Availability of Recycled Aggregate Crushed recycled concrete is widely gravity compared to conventional Recycled aggregates with asphalt. be used Nearly in concrete applications. However.rmrc. is progressing the alkali-silica on ways to stop or decrease reaction by using additives and by restricting the types of glass used. recognizes crushed concrete as a viable coarse aggregate. gypsum lightweight brick and concrete. waste glass can and gutters. Benefits and Costs of Recycled Aggregate Recycled concrete aggregate is about aggregate depending the same as for conventional effects on the finished concrete properties. applications. may be contaminated soil and clay balls. such as its higher absorption and lower specific aggregate. Specification for Concrete Aggregates.

Wood formwork that is specified to be FSC Certified under MR Credit 7 may be available as recycled material at the higher than this.4 within the building envelope). Although uncommon. In content is on this project. Composite wood without formwork that is constructed for the project. approaching in some cases. the actual recycled substantially content. If the project is seeking site-wide an Innovation in Design credit for as a recycled content material. post-consumer More likely would be the use of a composite wood material such as ass that has recycled most cases. TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Trade AND even if it is used again. It is 90% post-consumer nearly always advantageous to include rebar discretion of the project team. and reused as as because it has been diverted from a landfill. information each section However. would qualify recycled materials. neglect 43 . for fencing or temporary formwork structures). Non-Rented Wood Formwork As explained rented" formwork under MR Credit 7. experienced include Generally. previous job and reused on this job.was originally intended (for example. crushed and used either for backfill or for concrete aggregate) can contribute to MR Credit 2. Reinforcement LEED consumer allows a default of 25% postrecycled content for all steel. and excludes any that was constructed as formwork for a ISSUES providing ready professionals mixed concrete for LEED projects should be required in the project specifications to provide submittal information to demonstrate the amount of recycled content for a given design mix and for related design steel teams will this reinforcement. with the LEED process for submittal in requirements specification is specified. DESIGN ISSUES D. DESIGN ISSUES c. added UF resins is available with recycled content. "nonincludes any wood vac reduction. any dimension lumber or plywood previously used for another purpose on another project (for example. it may be desirable to specify that any composite wood formwork be free of added urea-formaldehyde resins (as required for IEQ Credit 4. where the materials design teams new to the LEED process often include Rebar steel usage is an excellent opportunity for gaining a recycled content credit the submittal specification or requirements covering to in a Division LEED include documentation.

Materials Cost Since the LEED Recycled Content Credit is based on cost. the concrete trade contractor will need to provide need to provide the cost breakdown for the design mix constituents aggregate and water). Percentage of Recycled Content Typically. standard design mix submittals will include percentage breakdowns of design mix constituents. any recycled content in that to associated with labor or equipment included. If recycled aggregate is used. rebar. that percentage included design in addition mix will need to be on the concrete construction manager or another member of the design team with a "materials only" cost for the concrete. information on the material cost and recycled content for materials provided. This value if not stated The submittal.e. standard design mix submittal should suffice providing it indicates. are have very different percentages content. contractor will need to provide a letter from the steel reinforcement manufacturer that represent the cost of the concrete without any costs materials installed explicitly states the amount of post-consumer and pre-consumer material. The concrete producer should document and provide a letter to the contractor indicating the amount of recycled content and/or costs of materials in each concrete mixture used on the project. the percentage of fly ash. because they will formwork. It will be necessary to separate the cost of the steel reinforcement (rebar) and non- This requirement wood used also applies for recycled non-rented rented formwork from the cost of the rest of the concrete design mix. SCMs.documentation requirements at all. the concrete should be prepared to provide contractor either the replacement portland cement. cement. and non-rented wood formwork should (see MR Credit 7). for example. Sample Spreadsheets: 44 . use recycled For design mixes that only content of materials for the the (i. Often the concrete of recycled producer will Regardless of how well the specifications developed on a given LEED job.

--4"-'.8.272 $3'6.90. OOOi h.o.oi $0 .'00/6 1.5----:7. methods exist for the when are the costs of concrete FSC materials. ash $21 )51 0'.0%'1 40.FSC.onn in very ~fiusuaL.Comb Rel<ycled 'SIReg Mfr.0% r Fine ag_grega.0% 40.0% %Of concreteiMater.ia'l .d. Regional Materials (MR Credit 5).4% 3'.0:10 30. These data are then transferred to the first spreadsheet.097 Recycled Content Reg:iOrHll Manufac'J' Regional Harvest !. ~--~----------~------~~ Other concrete materials $790.6% Reg Hat Weight P_:We:ig..4+0' ._oo/ccc'-° J-I ·. S.2661' 00%1 0.'00. 68: 7~. .097 $1'4 ~.0.81.00/0 ~O.r~s a--..o%i $0' $790. aggregate IFlyash' ._. and FSC Certified Wood (MR Credit 7). The first is the standard 45 .8+ $21 )51 9504 .00.o%1 9Z.0.0% co~crete 50.$21?.0% rmiteti(lls $.. ~total other concr. 400%': 40.~t Tlltel Yardag.0% sz..0 e~.7%60.0'% 0'00/0 ~.4:.. .5n% ~O.·cases. $9"0..000 $'0 IS90. $~f4-".-'-$·0 .zse. Stag [Silica Fume $38.·29 '1' :_.o2 $38.0/0! $0 OO'%! $0 r 'I . .0% 100.9 0. first one is used to establish recycled.'OO. S $0 ~~-------~-~--~~-'+~~---+----~~--_-1~--~h-I----~I~ %: IFst I Description Cost !% PC !% PI % . ~~~~~--l__~-~--~--+_----~-~l__~~----~+_----~~ -.$1.i.DO/O 0"00/01.tG. It establishes the percentage of each material in each mix design by weight.cy_t.0 $'2'25.00/01$753:6881 ·OO%! £:_e.-Oo/c.~------------_l_----+_--~-~~+------~--l---~+_----__+------~.0""%+1-. Two calculation Recycled supplementary used..'6% Mix Designfl:1 Mix Designfl:2 in 1 .0% 1000:'10 10.7.tl!_ T"tal Yardag~iweight 400%600. j.O.-J~'~ll.--.OO%..'0% 60.0% :1:500 (300! 400 'i'50! bYWe:ig.o0! }501 150. O(Mix of Mill I' Material rpo-rtl~ndcemetit500.nOD $300.0% 9.o 0. regional.~--------------~----+-----~--------~----+-----~---------+--------~----~+-----~. and distributes them according to the yardage of each mix used in the project.554 0.1'99.% 0.0%1 .0'% 1.arume Total The above is a spreadsheet most of the calculations that might be involved that covers The second spreadsheet calculate regional the percentage shows how to and and record-keeping in pursuing LEED of recycled content for the concrete materials Credits for Recycled Content (MR Credit 4).00 .st (lost.g...554 $4.0 .9% 8.81-g+-----0-:"0-·%-'-01-1 ------$~D+------O-O-·%-'-"o!l-----$~O '$250.0% 60.0% 0.-''O~O.1.9jU7 $'2.Reg Har S IFSC 0.0% 2..00/01 $0 00% 1 $4.. 2 :.0%1 40. Except Wood.7% jWater ~ixtures.907 $92.O t---·-:-$$7 o/c-"-c9 8 1 0 7g6 Fly..00. and The alone. it is easy to derive the percentages necessary for the final Content cementitious method Credit materials calculations for those Credits. There are two spreadsheets.0. Certified IWood.0% I 5. for concrete materials.oO.5 7.2:% 3·.~'Oo/c~.8+_---.. formwork'$7. 136%j 22.998 $21~.0+-_50--..0%1 100'0'%1 0.0%1 '$0' '$300:'OOO~%! '$Oi 111..--oe"-'..Combined o'fMix in 60.0. From this.S Reg Har %.c-.~. eo~ven~ional coars.@0 $7.t..te -'" 31.8% 3.~ Mix j% of 146% 36:610 .J.0 $'0 $0 0.o·. I------------------+-------.-"g_(e-=-g'a~t--'te ~".00.t-I----:-o_.Q%I O.'-o+-I __ $---..ilic..coarse.eaggregate :01 (2.512 $305..0% 500%1 67-5% OO%! 31.409 % 10.~et~e_· ----+_------+-------__+----+_------+-----------jl__------__+--~-'-'-'--_+--~m_t_~ls4" jRecycled .o Recycled Total ..._1 a_.. 0:'0.c..of ready mix~d are regibnally"rila·nufa'ctured. 120.'0% 60.. $135._~?c'-8.6%' 9..0%1 1--:-:0 O_.

Colorado 80014-3988 720-870-7897 Fax: 720-870-7889 www. The provides the results in a single page letter which can be provided to the LEED Accredited Professional.org. The calculator allows input on project information. concrete where mix. 46 .com Headwaters. the second calculation a larger recycled content provides Farmington Hills. 13750 Sunrise Valley Drive Herndon. specifically. project manager or is available website: National Concrete Masonry Association. The Recycled Content and Regional Material Calculator for the Concrete Industry (LEED calculator) is an Excel-based program which calculates the concrete's contribution to the LEED Recycled Content Material credits. the information.Regional Materials.org building owner. Content both Recycled quantifies credit. calculator calculation in the recycled method and provides the results which yields the highest program method content value. Inc. Inc.Recycled Content and MR 5 . VT 05301 802-257 -7300 Fax: 802-257-7304 www. Suite 30 Brattleboro. (Low carbon fly ash) Corporate Offices 10653 S River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan. than in the entire materials only. and Regional LEED credits MR 4 .nrmca. The second calculation method allows for the recycled content value to be based on the mass of the cementitious rather Typically.concrete.acaa-usa.ncma. the concrete mixes recycled content is limited to supplementary cementitious method value. for purchase The calculator on NRMCA's www.hdwtrs. Suite 3050 Aurora. 122 Birge Street. Michigan 48331 248-848-3700 Fax: 248-848-3701 www.org American Concrete Institute 38800 Country Club Drive calculated as a fraction of the total concrete mix.com calculator which aids the concrete producer or designer in the MR Credit 4 and MR Credit 5 calculations.org Environmental Building News: Building Green. Inc. VA 20171 703-713-1900 Fax: 703-713-1910 www.calculation where the recycled content is REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES American Coal Ash Association 15200 Girard Avenue. concrete producer For MR and other applicable Credit the 4. NRMCA has developed a LEED material.buildinggreen. UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.

org Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road Skokie. IL 60077 847-966-6200 www.edu/ Silica Fume Association 38860 Sierra Lane Lovettsville. MD 20910 301-587-1400 888-846-7622 Fax: 301-585-4219 www.org 47 .slagcement.org 603.rmrc.O.cement.silicafume. Box 2615 Sugar Land.org Recycled Materials Research Center University of New Hampshire Durham. Texas 77487-2615 281-494-0782 Fax: 281-494-0784 www. VA 20180 (540) 822.nrmca. NH 03824 Slag Cement Association P.unh.National Ready Mixed Concrete Association 900 Spring Street Silver Spring.9455 www.862-4334 www.

Requirements Use a minimum of 10% for one point. if the hardware the lumber from in Dallas. and supporting the local economy. cement. For example. SCM. fabricated (cut and bent) at a remote location might also be an exception.. Because of this. formwork wood. The USGBC percentage (by weight) must contribute to the regional value. Washington. unhardened ready mixed concrete is building sources required for 5 are fairly like aggregate obvious for some materials and sand (quarry considered a regionally manufactured material location). However. projects with large amounts of concrete typically can achieve both Regional 20% for two points. or recovered then only and that For this credit LEED defines the term "Manufactured" assembly product as the place where the final into the building installed from the by the of components furnished and tradesmen. and it is Application Review process. and may and Design Credit qualify for an Innovation for exemplary performance. locally. stone where it is manufactured case. Exceptions such as form oils or curing agents manufactured at a remote location quarried.MR Credit 5: Regional Materials are usually too small a component to break out as a separate cost." The raw material MR Credit Fresh. etc. then the location of the final assembly is Kent. is assembled Kent. If only a fraction of a product or material is extracted. Summary of Concrete Applications and Materials Relevant to the Credit Ready regionally mixed concrete in materials almost are every reviews issues like this on a case-by-case basis via the Credit Interpretation However. as Materials Credit points. DESIGN ISSUES Details well as manufactured within a radius of 500 miles of the project site. Rebar that is Intent" Increase demand for building products that are extracted and manufactured thereby resources impacts supporting locally. harvested or recovered. wood where it is harvested. ". LEED 2009 Reference comes from Guide.. and the joist Vancouver. manufactured harvested. materials Exceptions special are regionally Most concrete harvested. generally understood that raw resource point of origin for steel is where it is smelted. of building materials that are extracted. Washington. 48 . or admixtures. other materials like steel may be more difficult to define in terms of the origins of the raw resources. the use of indigenous the environmental their transportation and reducing resulting from might be rebar.

A record of the manufacturer's product costs. With regard to rebar. if applicable. request for information (RFI) be issued to that the may be additional cost for specifying harvested materials material for some spell out the LEED requirements contractor will be responsible concrete for and must although the amount depends on document prior to submitting bids. the Construction Manager or the Architect specifying locally extracted materials. between the project and the extraction site. Essentially. insulation. it is the for the invoice cost to the subcontractor material. dated and on the manufacturer's company letterhead.Benefits and Costs There associated manufactured is typically with no additional cost locally There locally contractor is bidding on a LEED job. Of on will likely request the following information to determine overall compliance with this credit: • The material value for each material. Alternately. if material product data follow same lines. but the local manufactured threshold can usually be cost. there may be incremental costs associated with projects pursuing the two points available in the Regional Material Credit (MR Credit 5). this determination will depend where a project is located. formwork. Since it is based on cost. met with little or no incremental course. 49 . and distances 1 of each relevant specification 2-10. equipment or included. comply with LEED requirements. • A letter from the product indicating the location manufacturer may only include the In not in a Division 1 Specification. the between requirements Performance under LEED Building Requirements article in Section in Divisions project and manufacturer. to which LEED Documentation are included along in the the project The extent requirements needs to be signed. but there is an article stating that the contractor is required to and. are not clearly stated in it is recommended that a specifying materials for concrete. Project professionals with experience on LEED jobs will likely a include the names. projects need the material value for all materials that TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Specifications LEED Materials Requirements credits may for the appear Regional in several • AND contribute towards this credit. product may be extraction required. the requirements are of manufacture of a given The letter explicitly stated at all. distances places. and the LEED requirements the specifications. Required LEED Documentation Whether or not the specifications the documentation requirements indicate the region of the country and the availability of quality aggregate. and other materials for LEED associated with ready mixed concrete. Other projects requirements some cases. The specifications When a letter also needs to reference the project. The ISSUES material cost is the cost of the material without overhead any labor.

the the content. and the location where the constituent materials were extracted and their proximity to the project site. The Recycled Content and certified in accordance Council's with the Forest and Stewardship Principles 50 . The calculator has both recycled and is manufactured within 500 miles of the project. and Regional one credit. The calculator is available for purchase on NRMCA's website: www. For example.org. It should be noted that a single letter from a manufacturer more than material can certify compliance with if a contribution to the LEED Recycled Content Material credits. where concrete was manufactured and proximity to the project site.nrmca.Recycled Content and MR 5 . project is comprised of 95% of which 45% is 50% is PostPre-consumer is content and content. they may be used instead of a letter.Regional Materials. The program provides the results in a single page letter which LEED Accredited can be provided Professional. 5% of this material manufactured in Soggy 250 PA which is approximately miles from the project site. and responsible forest management Requirements Use a minimum of 50% (based on cost) of wood-based materials and products. then the manufacturer letter to demonstrate need only provide one compliance with both allows input on project information. This letter is to certify that the steel manager or building owner. Concrete producers should document and provide a letter to the contractor and the A&E design team that includes the amounts of constituent recycled materials the in each location mix. A sample letter is provided in Appendix B. specifically. content LEED credits MR 4 . MR Credit 7: Certified Wood Intent: Encourage environmentally reinforcement the produced by ZuBor Steel for Industries World Moneymaker Headquarters recycled Consumer recycled extracted Bottom. to the project credits. concrete producer and other applicable information.sheets clearly indicate the location of Regional Material Calculator for the Concrete Industry (LEED calculator) is an Excel-based program which calculates the concrete's manufacture and extraction. The following text is a sample of what an acceptable letter would say: To whom it may concern. Wood usage in LEED construction projects must meet NRMCA has developed a LEED guidelines set forth by the Forest Stewardship Council calculator which aids the concrete producer or designer in the MR Credit 4 and MR Credit 5 calculations.

The long of management. and comply with all FSC Principles and Criteria. chain and of management their social and environmental 9) MAINTENANCE CONSER VATION Management activities VALUE use. 2) TENURE AND USE RIGHTS AND AND ASSESSMENT: Monitoring shall be conducted -. ecosystems conserve biological water fragile by so and its associated soils. bracing. and manage and resources shall in high conservation lands. framing flooring. yields of forest products. OF HIGH FORESTS. in which they occur. Background: the Forest Stewardship (FSC) The profit. dimensional wood doors WORKER'S RIGHTS: Forest operations shall maintain management the or enhance and finishes. legally established. rights of indigenous their be documented and management -. and international and agreements treaties is a objectives means of achieving stated. and and. maintain the ecological functions and the integrity of the forest. scaffolding. 3) INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' RIGHTS: The legal and customary peoples to own. 8) MONITORING them. and and values. formwork. 51 . trademark services interested in and 1993 (originally in Oaxaca. guard rails) may sidewalk protection and be included in the calculations at the project team's discretion. include at a minimum.Criteria. It was founded Mexico). custody. FSC is an independent. 6) ENVIRONMENTAL shall IMPACT: Forest and social non-government. provides standard and unique assurance for companies in accreditation landscapes. 4) COMMUNITY RELA TIONS AND These components structural framing. territories. and organizations forestry. setting..g. recognized and respected. and the respect all applicable laws of the country.to assess the condition of the forest. not-forCouncil efficient use of the forest's multiple products and services to ensure economic viability and a wide range of environmental benefits. shall be clearly to which the country signatory. term and kept up to date.appropriate to the scale and intensity of the operations -shall be written. and general sub-flooring.appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest RESPONSIBILITIES: Long-term tenure and use rights to the land and forest resources shall be clearly defined. responsible standards are based on its 10 Principles and Criteria of Responsible Forest Management: 1) COMPLIANCE WITH LA WS AND FSC PRINCIPLES: Forest management shall 7) MANAGEMENT PLAN: A management plan -. management diversity resources. Its doing. Wood products purchased for long-term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities. international organization based in Bonn. activities impacts. Germany. 5) BENEFITS FROM THE FOREST: Forest management operations shall encourage the temporary use on the project (e. for wood building components. implemented.

When a forest owner. The process is 52 . The FSC International framework maintenance sub-national for the Center sets the and and are also exempt development national of international.9. Over the past 10 years. While plantations can provide an array of social and economic benefits. and can contribute to satisfying the world's needs for forest products.value forests shall maintain or enhance the attributes which define such forests. over 100 million hectares in 79 countries have been certified according to FSC standards while several required purchased materials only this project including concrete formwork barriers when demonstrating and temporary compliance. program is based on international standards. the cost of FSC Certified formwork {plywood} has been dropping steadily as to more manufacturers services to and market. The level of difficulty used on depends the to for on the amount LEED all on of wood are restoration job. manager. formwork materials accreditation purchased for use on a project need to be applied to this credit. Incremental management consumers. is certified as their details company. interested {"participatory"}. costs are currently higher for these materials than they are for finished wood materials. FSC standards. recycled substrates Reclaimed wood wood. Only wood bring this material bodies. value in the clear balances and accessible {"transparent"}. reduce the pressures on. Rented or previously used forms are exempt. the interests of all stakeholders to involve all Decisions regarding high conservation forests shall always be considered {"independent"}. they should complement the management and promote of. and materials used on the project be attributable to FSC Certified wood materials. thousand products carry the FSC trademark. and Principle 10 and its Criteria. and strives people and groups context of a precautionary approach. The initiatives. Monthly updates on the certificates issued by FSC accredited certification bodies. post-consumer board millwork from this credit. town or community complying with FSC standards. and wheat- accessible via a link on the FSC website. 10) PLANTA TlONS: planned and managed Plantations shall be with DESIGN ISSUES Details Compliance with this credit requires that 50% of the material value of all wood in accordance Principles and Criteria 1 . include use applicants wood conservation of natural forests. national standards. FSC provides certification national accreditation however. are listed in a database. The FSC uses a chain of custody system that connects practices responsible and products forest with Projects that do not have a lot of finish casework or wood paneling usually have to specify plywood FSC Certified wood doors and concrete formwork.

TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER Specifications Requirements for ISSUES The additional costs for all wood materials on a given job can range from anywhere from 5% to 35%. there are many wheatavailable without that do not need to invoice cost to the subcontractor material. specifying Certified a and product free that of is both FSC urea timberlands erosion are preserved. and added mitigated formaldehyde may be cost prohibitive. the Construction Manager or the Architect acceptable cost.4 (LowEmitting Agrifiber Materials . the 53 . Also. Availability The number of companies that offer FSC Certified plywood is limited. it is the for the 4. the rough carpentry section. the contractor should issue an RFI and determine if this credit is being pursued before issuing a bid. material The the contractor's cost Materials). based millwork substrates added urea formaldehyde Note: This credit is often audited by the USGBC. However. Costs and availability of FSC Certified wood formwork is likely to be found in one or more of three places: a Division 1 LEED Section. Essentially. impacts the Virgin from social be included in the total wood value. Incremental costs range widely depending on the type of wood materials used on a job. Integration with Other LEED Credits Achieving the FSC Certified credit may will likely request the following information to determine a project's overall compliance with this credit: involve a trade-off with lEa Credit 4. Constructing the building sections of Division 3 specifications envelope out of concrete (ICF/Tilt Up) results in a reduction in the amount of total wood. in the performance requirements or Products or within Certified Wood continues to be an issue for LEED projects. equipment or overhead included. if the project has many solid core wood doors. The first step in seeking this credit when using FSC Certified wood formwork is to insure that a reliable source is available at an for FSC Certified formwork on a given LEED job. the total wood value for the job will increase. Required LEED Documentation Whether or not the specifications the documentation requirements indicate for LEED projects pursuing the Certified Wood Credit.4. In the audit process.Benefits and Costs The environmental FSC Certified are wood benefits of employing are many. If there are no specifications that clearly state requirements thus making it easier and more economical to meet the 50% Certified Wood requirement to obtain the LEED point. project material is the cost of the substantial amount of MDF specified without added urea formaldehyde to meet lEa Credit material without any labor. AND conditions of laborers and indigenous people living in or near FSC forests are respected.Composite If a Wood and uses a • The material within value for each wood scope. but growing.

certifiedwood.fsccanada.org/en/ Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Boulevard Toronto.org on an actual certificate provided by the FSC. Switzerland Telephone +41 2274901 www. Ontario. NW. The chain of custody certificate number is available from the or vender and is printed Washington. rue de Varernbe. DC 20036 manufacturer www. should either submit wood materials when available or keep on hand in the event of an audit.csa.USGBC has asked to see contractor material value The contractor their invoice for Forest Stewardship Council of Canada 1 Eva Road. • Invoices indicating materials costs.certifiedwood.shtml invoices to substantiate and FSC Certification. there is little to distinguish FSC and non-FSC Certified wood materials. Case postale 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20.afandpa.Founded in 1997.org 11 53113 Bonn Germany Phone: ++ 49 (228) 367 66 0 www. and Regulatory Groups International Organization for Standard Trade Associations Forest Stewardship Council FSC International Center Charles-de-Gaulle 5 1. Otherwise. Canada Tel: 416-747-4000 1-866-797 -4272 www. ON M9C 4Z5. Code.ca 54 . material data sheet businesses wishing to conserve. Suite 800 certificate number. Suite 205 Toronto.iso. Canada 416-778-5568 1-877-571-1133 www. M9W 1R3.org/boreal/index.org/search- have a green stamp or tag with the FSC logo. It is recommended that you Metafore . • The vendor's Stewardship or manufacturer's Council Forest Chain-of-Custody American Forest & Paper Association 1111 Nineteenth Street. Metafore is a non-profit marketing organization assistance that to provides responsible provide a copy of the actual certificate with the standard submittal. It maintains a "Certification Resource Center" that includes a comprehensive list of FSC Certified What to Look for During Installation FSC Certified wood products usually products as well as those certified by other competing groups that are not recognized by LEED at this time.fsc. REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES modules/SearchProducts. The Center is available at: www. protect and restore the world's forests.aspx Standard.

research Innovation Credits are the vehicle by which LEED recognizes and awards such date scientific design influences purpose strategies. in commercial the evolving building and USGBC design. ID Credit in products. It is important to stay abreast of current developments and incorporate that in sustainable building strategies built and those optimize improving." The Credit Interpretation and ruling process to Request (CIR) to allow and LEED Program Credits is awarded principal participant of the project team is a LEED Accredited Professional. is constantly Exemplary Performance: Exceeding the 55 . They also Credit 2. related it is important impacts to the 1 and ID 1 is to the occupant well-being. New technologies introduced are continually and up to building of this products spaces. is designed obtain on Project Teams technical how administrative GENERAL DISCUSSION The System LEED was Green Building Rating current requirements Requirements. devised to address pertain to their projects. as with all sustainable design strategies to consider environment and the and LEED category is to recognize projects for innovative building features and sustainable building practices and strategies. as it only records those innovations that have a track that is not addressed credits. For by the current LEED 1. one point is ID Credit awarded for each innovation achieved for a maximum of 5 points. or they were required LEEO streamline by the USGBC upon submittal application and certification Credit 2. guidance including Minimum and Prerequisites. available on the Existing CIRs are website. Several potential 10 Credits have been identified that relate to ready mixed concrete. The intent of ID Credit provide design to above the teams and projects opportunity performance provided innovative in achieve and LEED exceptional what is caution that some measure be provided as to the cost-effectiveness recommending of the proposed beyond credits andlor building innovation.introducing INNOVATION IN DESIGN CREDITS Sustainable measures are design constantly strategies evolving and and new sustainable strategies and measures. The USGBC goes on to note that. the use of life- performance in green cycle costing where appropriate. one point process. two Innovation Design credits exist. The intent of ID Credit 2 is to support and encourage by the design to integration the record: either they have been successfully used on a previous encouraged project. to the marketplace. For LEED NC 2009. and to assure that other building aspects are not adversely impacted by the proposed innovation. sustainable building industry issues involved However. The accomplishments. This is by no means a complete list. For 10 if one as a "Credit Interpretation Request.

56 .requirements significant of existing Several credits relevant by a How to Submit for 10 Credits Provide the proposal(s} within the LEED Letter Template. effect that improves the building's sustainability. achieve Structure: of Either taking in the to project and/or implement environmental benefits beyond the requirements set forth by the LEED and/or areas. Use of High Percentage of Cement Substitute: Moving beyond the usual modest percentage of fly ash. Green Building Rating in System other innovative performance advantage concrete Track development exceptional and implantation and innovative or using "high-tech" an exception concrete of the specific strategies used. slag cement. Innovative unusual structure. or silica fume. which develop the Document the process by team has worked to margin. credits are discussed.

SS Credit 7. a program the applicant tailored to the amount. Stormwater Design - Nonroof: As noted in the discussion under of Quality Control: An Innovation credit would involve exceeding TSS and TP removal.epa. there are several combinations measures that will achieve one or more plus removing other commonly pollute Innovation Credits.1 and 6. 57 .2. ready mixed concrete can help achieve the credit point. Heat Island Effect - achieve a reduction in flow rate and quantity of 25% over the existing one. Multiple credit points can be obtained by satisfying the Credit's A CIR would be necessary to requirements ways. but for SS Credits 6. when the existing site is less than 50% impervious requires that the design imperviousness not exceed that may help contribute Credit. that point for this the rates of this Credit. but there are exceptions.2. It is not obvious what the next step would be to achieve an Innovation Credit for exemplary performance. SS Credit 6.gov/owow/nps/lid/ Impact Integrated although Development Approach" directed Strategies. in two or more independent confirm higher limits with the USGBC. in that Credit. One possibility is to project that covers exemplary performance not only for this credit. DESIGN ISSUES Details Each Credit will be examined in turn. toward gaining an Innovation Using these should devise documents. Stormwater implementing techniques such as using light-colored walkways and landscaping Design . Achieving SS Credit 6.1.ID Credit 1: Exemplary Performance Summary of Concrete Applications and Materials Relevant to the Credit For some of the LEED credits where One possible is to (LID) route adopt to a exemplary Low-Impact USEPA performance Development documents strategy. exemplary as reaching the performance next logical is defined step in a which sequence. compounds groundwater.Quantity Control. Typically.1. relating to LID can be found at "Low An http://www. It is conceivable that such a strategy might gain more than one Innovation Credit point. but this must be checked with the USGBC through the CIR process. Increasing the amount of high-albedo non-roof heat-island materials and reduction concrete for citing the limit or limits in each case that will achieve an Innovation Credit. to residential primarily subdivisions. it is possible to go beyond the target set by the USGBC and achieve what is generically called "exemplary performance" is highly informative. are noted below.

As this level is not realistic. Presumably. to paving that was shaded to cement. MR Credit credit provides performance for this number. Based on this number.5%. by paving with a combination of highly reflective pavers or white ready mixed concrete for pedestrian ways. Refer to "Potential Innovation and Design Credit: 40% Reduction in the Use of Portland Cement" for an extended use of substantial cement. This logic would apply. Optimize Exemplary Performance: Innovation Credit for MR Credit 5. past CIRs have indicated that the target is an average albedo over all non-roof impervious surfaces of performance for EA Credit However.). the average albedo the increased use of ready mixed concrete for walls and floors. and should help contribute to achieving at least MR Credit 4. so that the average albedo of all non-roof impervious surfaces is 25% or greater. concrete ready mixed concrete for roadways). The next logical step in the credit requirement content concrete to achieve with would be 30% recycled 50%. All of these products are recycled.05. if not an Innovation Credit for exemplary performance under MR Credit achieve the credit. involving 1. This number is derived by assuming that the low-albedo areas are asphalt with an albedo of 0. It is important not to double count. a previous CIR ruling under MR credit 2 dated 1/11/05 sets the limit at 95%. EA Prerequisite and 3. or other discussion of the parking garage.30. The requirements exemplary the Credits.5%. However. Energy EA Credit 1.With regard to albedo. MR Credit 5: Regional achieve Materials: To this credit. the project must have 10% regional materials for 1 point and 20% for 2 points. Aggregates. MR Credit 2: Construction Waste derives from the formula 70% at 0. plus grey an ID point. if the opportunity should arise (for example. The shaded portion of the paving would have to be excluded from the paving counted as having an average albedo of 12. would be difficult to achieve. We are unsure whether the USGBC would award a second Credit point for increasing Innovation to are the same as for 4. Thus. slag substitutes for portland count the top level of the garage as a lowalbedo pavement. or perhaps for doubling it again to recycled content and 2 points for 20 percent recycled content. energy could strategies involve passive solar thermal mass 12. By using high recycled exceptionally content (SCMs. The example used is a partially underground could contribute to an ID credit here. Minimum Energy 4. which gains the credit point because it is more than 50% shaded. the total 58 . Recycled 1 point for Content: 10 This this number percent 37. etc. to achieve an Performance.5%. The USGBC would not let the applicant also to amounts of fly ash. for example. the question is worth asking through a CIR.05 plus 30% at 0. it is possible to achieve doubling an Innovation Credit by at least Management: The next logical step after the 50% and 75% limits for the two Credits is 100%.

MR Credit 7. 59 . The proposed submittals to demonstrate compliance.percentage manufactured of regionally extracted and TRADE CONTRACTOR MANUFACTURER AND materials must be at least 30% ISSUES of the total materials cost. Wood formwork reused from a approach will reflect that used to achieve the Credit. Certified Wood: Exemplary performance under this Credit would require Required LEED Documentation The Credit Requirements ask the applicant to specify four items: • The intent of the proposed credit. the impact on concrete would be that all "non-rented" wood formwork would have to be FSC Certified. In both cases. previous job is exempt. note that wood might be used to meet the requirements. differs from achieving MR • • compliance. and The design approach (strategies) that This requirement Credit 7 only with regard to the extent of FSC wood. Both the submittals and the design formwork purchased for this job but also reused on other projects are subject to the requirement. this requirement While achieving is possible. • The proposed requirements for innovation that 100% of the wood used on the project (discounting miscellaneous blocking) would have to be FSC Certified.

and well below the maximum for slag cement. or by any combination of these strategies that results Because in a net 40% these SCM's reduction are also in C02. From left to right.ID Credit 1: Innovation In Design portland cement. careful reduction When more cement is used. and calcined shale. This issue is fully discussed in the section of LEED MR Credit 4. • The proportions of the mixture have to be optimized for higher early-age strength by adjusting different parameters such as the cementitious proportion Supplementary cementitious materials. materials SCMs. the of the water-to- cementitious materials ratio. metakaolin superplasticizer • and accelerator. This reduction can be accomplished by redesigning the mix to by • reduce the quantity of portland cement. The Summary of Concrete Applications and Materials Relevant to the Credit conclusion that can be drawn from that article is that a 40% reduction in the use of portland cement is feasible at the high end of the Forty Percent Reduction in the Use of Portland Cement This proposed Innovation Credit rewards a 40% reduction in the C02 emissions normal percentage range of fly ash. silica fume. by the contractor on a particular application. and a 40% 60 . (calcined clay). slag cement and silica fume. suggested to adjust required to produce the concrete needed for EcoSmart Foundation. Set time can be reduced by adding more cement to the mix or with accelerating this products. DESIGN ISSUES Details The primary factor limiting the use of high percentages of SCMs is that many of these admixtures. slag. Ryash (Class F). they can contribute to achieving MR Credit 4. Some changes the may be necessary as or desirable by to in the the construction. recycled concrete strength with higher SCM mixtures may be extended to 56 or 90 days instead of the standard 28 days to accommodate credit. Be aware that acceptance times for portland cement with SCMs such as fly ash. replacing The in situ concrete strength may need to be measured more precisely by using in situ tests. The design stripping strength may need to be re-evaluated the project. the use of Ryash (Class C). lengthened hardening time: • The schedule of stripping may need to be adjusted. content. be the required 40% not to confuse in portland materials delay strength gain compared with cement.

day strength regional mix designs. If more used • Pozzolans allowed for displacement portland cement are fly ash.see discussion under MR Credit 4. etc. An Innovation reducing total Point will be awarded for cement To content obtain the of this designs from the concrete accordance with ACI portland concrete. 3. following requirements must be met: A minimum of 40% reduction of C02 by weight for all cast-in-place demonstrated mixes. and rice hull ash. each cast-in-place Innovation concrete mix required for project (2. • Temperature range shall be accounted Documentation for • Calculation demonstrating that a 28The reduction of port/and cement usage maya/so contribute to the eaming of LEED credits. Temperature on day of pour if cold place concrete makes up a significant portion of the work on the project . for and documented. Applicant must demonstrate that cast-in• against concrete must be standard baseline • quantity of portland cement for each mix in pounds per cubic yard.].a point will not be awarded for negligible quantities in relation to the total work. For purposes of this credit. • Baseline mixes shall be standard. of slag cementitious materials being overall. the 60% portland cement fraction will constitute less than a 40% reduction relative to a standard mix. cold weather mix designs shall include temperature on day of pour. silica fume. minimum 40% average reduction [in the amount achieved of portland over cement] has been mix standard concrete 61 .000 psi. Required Documentation: • Total cubic yards of cast-in-place SCM in the mix must rise to insure a 40% reduction in portland cement. 301. [Note: The USGBC incorrectly lists GBBFS as a pozzolan . and the percentage of cement. equivalent to one pound of C02. 5. for mix in spelled out in a past CIR.500 psi.000 psi. Standard 28-day strength concrete producer. the following must be applied: • One pound of portland cement is weather mix is used. Requirements and Documentation The requirements for this Credit are • concrete for project.fraction of SCMs in the are mix. Quantity of portland cement reduced and/or replaced for each mix in pounds per cubic yard.) and Credit point.

A noncan also REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES EcoSmart ™ Foundation Inc. 501-402 West Pender Street Vancouver.ca 62 . The four SCMs listed in the above CIR Ruling are all recycled products. C4: Phone: 604-689-4021 Fax: 604-689-4043 information@ecosmart.designs for the total of all cast-in-place concrete.ecosmart. Canada V6B 1T6 In addition to those listed under Credit MR- recycled SCM such as metakaolin be used. British Columbia. but more portland cement must be removed from the mix to compensate for the added C02 used in the production of the nonrecycled SCM.ca www.

1-4 points are available for this credit Summary of Concrete Applications and For example. 63 . in a region where urban heat island reduction is identified as an important goal. and potentially give additional credits for projects that meet criteria in existing credit Requirements: Priority credits Earn 1-4 of the 6 Regional identified by the USGBC categories. This allows for the "regional authority" to designate targeted geographically-specific priorities. many Since concrete it contributes will play to a credit categories regional councils and chapters. the USGBC Chapter could increase the Materials Relevant to the Credit These regional bonus credits are identified points available for Sustainable Sites Credit by USGBC Chapters and Regional Councils for each "environmental of four points teams to pursue zone" and a for 7.RP Credit 1: Regional Priority of which one may pursue a maximum of four. significant role in achieving Regional Priority credits.1 and 7. environmental credits that are of particular importance for a region. credit category. This is a new category of credits available Intent" To provide an incentive for the achievement of credits that address under LEED 2009. Each USGBC Region will have the authority to create six potential bonus credits.2 to 2 points each instead of 1 point thus creating greater incentive for maximum project are available in this design teams to employ heat island reduction strategies of these credits.

placing concrete with a boom pump or using self-compacting concrete effectively remediate site contamination. in some stormwater commonly the of fields) that require additional staging areas in order to limit compaction in the to achieve some aspect In other may concrete constructed area. walkways and main utility branch and 25' application has a direct impact on a project's ability to earn a particular LEED credit (see summaries materials cases. concrete capacity cases. the disturbance around construction For example. remediation reduce for projects purchased designer in achieving the SS Credit 5. of concrete applications and curbs and main branch trenches. beyond constructed surfaces areas with permeable paving areas. surface parking and utilities less than 12" in diameter. On previously developed sites. 15' beyond primary roadway curbs. achieving the Credit may be made easier because of some characteristic of concrete. earthwork to 40' and beyond clearing the of building 10' beyond surface walkways. restore a minimum of 50% of the site area (excluding the building footprint) or 20% of the total site influence the choice of materials to fulfill the Credit requirements. In some cases. on (by a site means II documented of an [1] as area (including building footprint) by replacing impervious surfaces with native or adapted vegetation.1. as is this section will used credit. Incidental concrete concrete applications application: Special ASTM Site Phase Environmental are possible to limit areas. On a site classified as a brownfield by a local. Bracing for the ICF wall is often erected on the interior of the 64 . construction site.1: Site Development . or. the type of concrete or method of patios. SS Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment Develop contaminated E 1903-97 Assessment) OR.Protect or Restore Habitat On greenfield sites. The use of ICF construction may aid the contaminated concentrations. achievement of many LEED credits. In other (such as pervious detention facilities summarize. ICF construction may reduce the impact on a through a ready mixed concrete producer. OR.INCIDENTAL READY MIXED CONCRETE USE IN OTHER CREDITS SS Credit 5. and playing relevant to the credits). eliminating the need for a transit-mix truck to drive around the pour area. state or federal government agency. Incidental concrete application: Cement can be used to soils solidify and Cement may be and stabilize leaching small (SCC) which is fluid enough that large slab areas can be placed from one point. limit site disturbance DESIGN ISSUES Concrete plays a role in the including vegetation perimeter.

wall/structure. 75% for 2 points and 95% for 3 points. WE Credit 2: Innovative Waste Water Technologies Reduce the use of municipally provided potable water for building sewage index (SRI) of 78 or higher for roofs with less than 2:12 slope and SRI of 29 or higher for roofs with greater than 2:12 slope. roof for at conveyance by a minimum of 50%. Floors and Roof Maintain the existing building structure calculated baseline potable case for two points. for smaller Lightweight concrete topping can be used to create system. Treat 50% of waste tertiary standards. OR. consumption for (including structural floor and roof decking) and envelope (the exterior skin and framing. Incidental concrete application: An lower embodied energy than a plastic tank. and with discussion is likely to have lower embodied than a plastic tank.Maintain Existing Walls.2: Heat Island Effect . Concrete energy volumes. Concrete is likely to have structure for 1 point. Integrate with other WE Credits and with Low Impact Development (see discussion under Innovation Credits - existing building with a concrete structure or 65 .1 and 6. often the sloping Concrete deck of a green structured the systems heavy roof are loads Integrate Low with other WE Credits Development (see - used to support Impact caused by soil needed for green roofs.2).Roof Use reflectance roofing materials with solar 6. Incidental concrete application: water on-site to OR. and for the storage of treated or untreated sewage. MR Credit 1. therefore.1 and activity on the perimeter of the site.2). limiting construction Exemplary Performance -SS Credit 6. Incidental concrete application: Concrete is a suitable material for the construction of excluding window assemblies and nonstructural roofing materials). A combination of high albedo and vegetated roof. OR. Install a green (vegetated) least 50% of the roof area. water irrigation for an additional two points. for smaller volumes. Incidental concrete application: Concrete is a likely material to form the large storage tanks needed for the storage of stormwater or greywater for reuse.1: Building Reuse . 55 Credit 7. WE Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping Reduce potable water consumption irrigation midsummer Eliminate by 50% from a for under Innovation Credits Exemplary Performance (SS Credit 6. Maintain at least 55% of the existing cisterns used for the collection of rainwater or greywater.

skin is more likely than many others to be re-usable. for one point.1: Low-Emitting Materials Adhesives and Sealants Adhesives vac limits of must meet or exceed Coast Air the toward earning comfort and well being of the occupants.5% of the total value of all building materials and products used in the project. Site-Wide vac Reduction" lEO Credit 4. of South Coast Air District rules Rule 1113. 2004. must All hard surface flooring with the FloorScore third party.Paints and Coatings vac coatings Use lightweight fill in existing buildings to level floors without adding much weight. by an independent wood. Incidental concrete application: There exposed to the inside of the building. Incidental concrete application: Low- paints and coatings must be used in with any concrete work that is conjunction typically harvested within a ten-year cycle or shorter) for 2. rapeseed. Incidental vac concrete application: must meet the requirements IEQ Credit 4.2: Select Low-Emitting Investigate attaching new concrete to Materials . All carpet of South Quality Management District Rule # 1168. "Inside" is defined as all areas within the outer air/moisture barrier. lEO Credit 4. stain and finish must meet the requirement Quality Management Coatings. based on cost. See "Potential Innovation and Design Credit: Site-Wide vac Reduction" are many bio-based form release agents on the market that are not only 10w-VaC.3: Low-Emitting MaterialsFloor Systems The intent of this credit is to reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants odorous. floor plates. MR Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials Use rapidly renewable building materials and products (made from plants that are vac emissions from interior paints and must not exceed the vac and existing walls. carpet and carpet cushion installed in the building must meet the testing and product requirements of the Carpet and Rug Institute Green adhesive LowLabel Plus program. chemical component limits of Green Seal's Standard GS-11 requirements. on Architectural In effect January 1. but also derived from vegetable.1. columns. "Inside" is defined as all areas within the outer air/moisture barrier. soy lEO Credit 4. bamboo with any concrete work that is and cork floor exposed to the inside of the building. to allow leaving existing structure in place. irritating and/or harmful that are to the All or other rapidly renewable materials that can make a small contribution this Credit. adhesives and sealants (used as fillers must be used in be compliant as opposed to coatings) conjunction Standard Concrete. 66 . See "Potential Innovation and Design Credit: finishes such as sealer.

IEQ Credit using small scale environmental Filtration should be applied to process both return and outside air that is delivered supply air. However. IEQ Credit 7. etc.50 cubic feet per minute per square foot. avoid conditions which create condensation problems. housekeeping copyinglprinting each space to when the doors areas with to deck rooms) sufficiently create negative exhaust pressure 2004 for thermal established standards climate are closed. Practice for the Testing of Volatile Organic Emissions chambers.1: Thermal Comfort . 67 .004" of water gauge) at a minimum when the doors to the rooms remain closed. particulates. of regularly occupied areas: of liquid waste and chemical in spaces where mixing concentrate Incidental 1) Employ permanent entryway systems of at least 10 foot long (grills. from entering concrete application: The likely involvement this Credit of concrete need to in achieving cast in the walk-off is the recesses necessary for installing the building at all high volume entryways. Incidental naturally concrete application: building.02" of water gauge) on average and 1 Pa (0.Design Comply with ASH RAE comfort per Standard 55within zone. no air re-circulation and ventilated internal concrete and other high-mass materials may provide important forms of thermal storage.) to capture dirt. filters must provide value a minimum requirements of Health California Standard efficiency Department Services reporting (MERV) of 13 or higher. etc. grates. 2) Where chemical areas use occurs and (including grilles at important entrances. the design must be careful to maintaining a negative pressure of at least 5 PA (0. Provide segregated self closing doors and deck ranges Humidity control is no longer required. as 5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant 4) Provide containment for appropriate Source Control Design contamination to minimize pollutant cross- disposal water occurs. install new air filtration media in regularly These meet the testing of the occupied areas prior to occupancy.A second option for achieving this credit is to have all flooring elements the building product interior installed in and 3) In mechanically ventilated buildings. In a partitions with separate outside exhaust at a rate of at least 0.

The of process allows Water Used in the Production Cement Concrete. Despite local controls (which tend to be more stringent in larger cities). consensus The result environmental specified controls can and should constitutes attainable for wash density of in any "green" project. environmental criteria concrete water consciousness beyond LEED mixed C 1602/C can specify supplier that the ready 1602M-06 "Standard Specification for Mixing be up-to-date include on waste water control and waste recycling in MR Credit 2 calculations. existing Water settling basins separate solids from water and allow for the recycling of waste and wash water at concrete plants." By standards." for As water with a pH up to 9. who wish to expand stringent new were requirements. ready 2005 edition of Concrete inFocus magazine. cycle considerations Even so. among addresses impacts most of ISSUES of the mixed explained by NRMCA's Colin Lobo. protection. After considerable formulate more two These effort from NRMCA to and standards ASTM updated were be of particular interest for projects pursuing LEED certification. which may be toxic to fish and wildlife if it enters streams and lakes. Plant Waste Water Disposal The costs of water combined water proposed for use. On-site Wash Water Disposal The ASTM standards make it possible to reuse not only water generated within the plant." and ASTM Test in of Hydraulic C 1603/C Method Water. United States standards for on-site control of equipment USEPA washdown the waste discharge are lax. project stakeholders Using these standards.0. but scavenged wash water collected at the job site during the washdown of equipment. once placed.OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL LEED environmental concrete. procurement and with following these badly needed an up-to-date zero plant can operate of polluted may virtually discharge disposal have precipitated great progress in water. NRMCA USEPA is working wash closely with the water treatment 1603M-05a Measurement "Standard of Solids to improve 68 . "The major source of contention approval testing water of the standard frequencies for use the in best in gaining and. developed. These life-cycle considerations curbing waste water discharge. there are lifefor concrete where be for the qualification concrete. solid waste. Categories and site within ASTM. Testing frequencies water are governed by the include waste water. Senior in the Winter Vice President of Engineering. the material is the most environmentally benign was establishing of products available.

69 .through practices. when the pit is "emptied" the residual solids and the plastic are waste. but residual highly alkaline water is usually left to soak into the ground. material is demolition waste . As noted in the article on Incidental LEED SS impossible. Even so. future use with a reactivation admixture. Second. On collected stored cooperation and improved job site Solid Waste LEED directly rewards reduction of C&D some job sites where water is waste. including concrete contractors. retaining wall blocks.newly placed concrete generates very little construction First. An improvement over direct dumping. and recycle on-site waste water from concrete increasingly attachable operations. they are typically emptied of alkaline water. or flow into waterways untreated. can be Special added set to with results similar to the washout pits. devices that collect the wash water and return it to the drum for disposal at the ready mixed concrete plant for recycling. this technique is still problematic. analysis job sites found that C&D waste is as much as two-thirds concrete by weight and over half by volume. Unset disposed of. Transit mix trucks coarse aggregate for reuse in new concrete mixes. Ready mixed concrete producers can consider if the reclaimer Several is appropriate producers for have are equipped with easy to use. Producers reclaimers that can make recover use of concrete water. One conscious solution for environmentally returned concrete which temporarily halts the hydration process to allow for storage and builders is to engage one of the who collect. According to estimates in the AlA of rather than dumped. some equipment cannot be washed out into the pit. At a minimum. site crews should designate a wash area where any runoff that occurs will not pollute aquifers. When full. the industry has developed several creative ways to handle material from returned returned utilitarian loads and partial loads. Site Protection Protecting a building site's natural the best waste way from to ready minimize mixed vegetation. Collecting the water used to wash away cement and fine aggregate from the concrete's surface is difficult or features should be the responsibility of every building trade. Fivecubic-yard containers) steel sludge boxes (waste concrete products can be used to make or like jersey barriers lined with plastic are also used. damage surrounding their operations. sand and growing number of contractors treat. in a 12-foot-square it is typically "washout pit" by a Environmental Resource Guide. However. Perhaps construction concrete carefully. and they tend to leak. or it can be washed to recycle retarding the coarse admixtures aggregate. found that a use of a reclaimer reduces disposal costs and can be a profit center. Situations where designers have is to estimate concrete quantities specified exposed aggregate present another area of concern. the great bulk of this consisting of a plastic liner supported ring of hay bales.

70 . March/April 1993.1.Credit 5. Number 2. especially over tree roots. Reduced Site Disturbance-to Arranging truck access to minimize the need for trucks to reposition also help protect the site." News. Considerations. the area under tree drip lines should be fenced and made off-limits to all foot and vehicular traffic. it is advantageous avoid compacting the building and disturbing soil around soil at the job site. In addition. REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES "Cement and Concrete: Environmental Building or turn around will Protect Open Space. Volume Environmental 2. and tree trunks and exposed branches should be well protected with strong wood barriers.

PCP040 (Conventional Concrete Parking Area) has been previously tested in accordance with ASTM E 903 and has a reflectance value of 0.APPENDIX A . The first option provides exact mix designs and price information for all materials and The second option is available when the and provides a summary of the allows the LEED AP to perform the credit calculations.40. and costs related to the SS Credit 7. concrete producer has completed the requisite calculations information needed by the LEED AP to verify the credit. Of that amount.1 Landscape and Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Island Effect Mix 1 . project has the properties.35. 100% was diverted from landfills by collecting wash water and aggregate for reuse in concrete for this and other projects. MRCredit4 Recycled Content Mix 1 PRV030 (Pervious Concrete Parking Areas) 71 . Option 1: The following is a sample letter a concrete producer could use to submit to a contractor and the architect/engineer. The letter provides details needed to complete LEED documentation. MR Credit 2 Construction Waste Management Three percent by volume of all concrete for this project was returned to the ready mixed concrete production facilities used for this project.Sample Letter from Ready Mixed Concrete Producer Two Options Exist for Sample Letters provided by the ready mixed concrete producer for a LEED project. quantities.PRV030 (Pervious Concrete Parking Areas) has been previously tested in accordance with ASTM E 903 and has a reflectance value of 0. Mix 2 . To whom it may concern: This letter is to certify that the concrete supplied by Super Rock Concrete for the Moneymaker Industries World Headquarters following LEED credits.

025 0.0005 0.045 0.035 0.045 0.025 0.0005 0.035 0.005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 10 0 0 MR Credit 5 Regional Materials Mix 1 PRV030 (Pervious Concrete Parking Areas) Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/Ib) Manufacturing Location/ Distance Harvesting Distance Location/ 72 .0005 0.045 0.0075 Mix 2 PCP040 (Conventional Concrete Parking Areas) Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/Ib) Recycled Content (%) Post-Consumer Pre-consumer Portland Cement Slag Water Fine Aggregate Large Aggregate 400 200 300 1000 2000 0.0075 0.005 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 10 0 0 Mix 3 STR040 (Concrete Structure) Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/Ib) Recycled Content (%) Post-Consumer Pre-consumer Portland Cement Slag Fly Ash Water Fine Aggregate Large Aggregate 350 150 100 300 1000 2000 0.Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/Ib) Recycled Content (%) Post-Consumer 0 0 0 0 Pre-consumer 0 100 10 0 Portland Cement Fly Ash Water Large Aggregate 500 150 200 2500 0.0075 0.

Rocktown/10 mi. Mix 3 STR040 (Concrete Structure) Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/lb) 0. mi. Electro/450 mi. Rocktown/10 mi.0005 0.0075 Rocktown/10 mi.025 0. 200 300 1000 0. Rocktown/10 mi. Quarrytown/40 mi. Harvesting Distance Locationl Portland Cement Slag Water Fine Aggregate Large Aggregate 400 Rockville/200 mi. 2000 0.045 Rocktown/10 mi. Rocktown/10 mi.005 Rocktown/10 mi. Steeltown/800 mi.025 0.0075 Rocktown/10 mi.005 Rocktown/10 mi. Best Regards. Quarrytown/40 mi. Rocktown/10 mi.045 Manufacturing Locationl Distance Rocktown/10 mi. Mix 2 PCP040 (Conventional Concrete Parking Areas) Material Quantity (lbs/yd3) Cost ($/lb) 0. Rocktown/10 mi. Rocktown/10 mi. 2000 0.035 0.0075 Rocktown/10 mi. Harvesting Distance Locationl Portland Cement Slag Fly Ash Water Fine Aggregate Large Aggregate 350 Rockville/200 mi.045 Manufacturing Locationl Distance Rocktown/10 mi.0005 0.0005 0. 150 200 2500 0. Rocktown/10 mi. Quarrytown/40 mi. Robert Rock III President Super Rock Concrete 73 . Rocktown/10 mi.035 0. Quarrytown/40 mi. Rocktown/10 mi.Portland Cement Fly Ash Water Large Aggregate 500 0. Steeltown/800 Electro/450 mi. Quarrytown/40 mi. 150 100 300 1000 0. Rockville/200 mi.

org. NRMCA has software to help perform the calculations call the NRMCA LEED Calculator available at www.This sample letter was provided as an output by the NRMCA LEED Calculator.nrmca. the ready mixed concrete producer performs the calculations and provides a summary letter to the contractor or LEED AP on the project.} 74 .Option 2: In this case.

MR Credit 5 Regional Materials The concrete provided for this project was manufactured 25 miles from the project site and contributes to the regional materials credit. 2009 Bob Smith Bob's Construction 456 Smith Ave. Information on individual mix designs can be Best Regards.00.000. MRCredit4 Recycled Content The total cost of concrete supplied to this project is $600. and costs related to the following LEED credits. The total value of the concrete contributing to the regional materials credit is $543. 90.000. Robert Rock III Super Rock Concrete 75 . DC 12345 To whom it may concern: This letter is to certify that the concrete supplied by Super Rock Concrete for the Bob's Construction Project has the properties.600. MD 12345 (123) 456-7890 January 1. quantities. More information on the concrete components can be provided as needed. found on the following page(s).000. Washington. 0. The total value of the concrete provided is $600. recycled The total recycled content value of the concrete on this project is $25.33% of the concrete is pre-consumer content (by weight). Rockville.00.Super Rock Concrete 123 Oak Ave.6% of which was extracted regionally.00% of the concrete is postconsumer recycled content (by weight) and 8.

Notes 76 .

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