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To understand the current Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning and Marketing strategy of Vodafone. To study the Macro and Micro Environmental factors affecting it. Analyse its Market presence by studying the strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities and threats. Drafting a future strategy using Product Market Matrix and PLC in order to increase the market share, expand the presence and be prepared for the possible threats.


Vodafone Essar is an Indian subsidiary of Vodafone group and commenced its operations in 1994 when its predecessor Hutchison Telecom acquired the cellular license for Mumbai. The company now has operations across the country with over 78.68 million GSM mobile customers. Over the years, Vodafone Essar, has been named the Most Respected Telecom Company, the Best Mobile Service in the country and the Most Creative and Most Effective Advertiser of the Year. Vodafone is the worlds leading international mobile communications group with approximately 315 million proportionate customers as on 30 June 2009. Vodafone acquired an indirect controlling interest in Vodafone Essar, their local operating company in India, in 2007-08. Vodafone currently has equity interests in 31 countries across five continents and around 40 partner networks worldwide.

Vodafone Essar is now largest operating company for Vodafone when measured by customer numbers and its sheer scale and rapid growth makes it unique. It has nearly 10,000 employees and employs more than 90,000 contractors. The network is rapidly expanding to meet demand and extend telecommunications to more rural areas, with more than 2,500 new base stations deployed each month.

Hutchison Essar (1992-2007)
In 1992, Hutchison Whampoa and its Indian business partner Max Group, established a company that in 1994 was awarded a licence to provide mobile telecommunications services in Bombay (nowMumbai) and launched commercial services as Hutchison Max in November 1995. In Delhi, Uttar Pradesh (East), Rajasthan and Haryana, Essar Group was the major partner. But later Hutch took the majority stake. In February 2007, Hutchison Telecom announced that it had entered into a binding agreement with a subsidiary of Vodafone Group Plc to sell its 67% direct and indirect equity and loan interests in Hutchison Essar Limited for a total cash consideration (before costs, expenses and interests) of approximately $11.1 billion. Hutchison Whampoa was originally two companies founded in 19th century, namely Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock, established in 1863 by British merchant John Duflon Hutchison.

Targeting:Vodafone has full market coverage with differentiated offerings. Market is targeted through many different tariffs, services and propositions for every segment according to specific customer preferences and needs. These often bundle together as: voice, messaging, data and increasing value added services. The various examples for this include:
Home calling cards for the family of those professionals who use to work abroad. Rs.10 recharge for small users Cheap SMS facility for youths Facilities for circle users etc

Vodafone has continued to build brand value by delivering a superior, consistent and differentiated customer experience. Their tagline Where ever you go our network follows gives the customer indication of their vast coverage. They differentiated themselves from other mobile service providers by delivering the promise of helping customers make the most of their time and their communication strategy has always focussed on Happy to help which tends to strike an emotional chord with the customer. The Groups vision is to be the communications leader in an increasingly connected world expanding the Groups category from mobile only to total communications. To enable the consistent use of the Vodafone brand in all customer interactions, a set of detailed guidelines has been developed in areas such as advertising, retail, online and merchandising. In April 2009 a campaign, focusing on the different value added services (VAS) offered by the company was launched, introduced new characters called the Zoozoos who seem to be in between the world of animation and reality. Several advertisements in which the Zoozoos featured were shown on television during the Indian Premier League (IPL) Season 2 and were instant hit among the customers but the conversion of this excitement into revenue is yet to be seen.

Voice services Pre Paid Post Paid Value Added Services Tunes and downloads Entertainment Devotional Sports News and Updates Call Management Services Astrology Finance Travel Mail, Messaging Dial in Services Bill Info

Vodafone Live Vodafone Business Solutions Mail on the move Business application Vodafone Office Vodafone Business Solution


1.33 3.94 0.72 7.09 14.9 32.29

Bharti Airtel Vodafone Essar BSNL Idea Cellular

15.57 24.16

Aircel Reliance GSM MTNL Loop


GSM SUBSCRIBERS base in India as in June 2009

120,000,000 100,000,000 80,000,000 60,000,000 40,000,000 20,000,000 0 SUSCRIBERS

/existingusers/se 0

Vodafone Essar is the second largest GSM operator in India after Airtel from the perspective of market share and subscriber base and is increasingly expanding its share (the detail figures are given in Appendix) . It still is quite far

from Airtel due to Airtels strong presence in rural areas and loyal customer base along with larger reach and first mover advantage.

Branding, Advertizing,Pricing and Distribution:

Vodafones products and services are available directly, via Vodafone stores and country specific Vodafone websites, and indirectly via third party service providers, independent dealers, distributors and retailers, to both consumer and business customers in the majority of markets under the Vodafone brand. Customer strategy and management
Customer Delight Index:(2008: 73.1,2007: 70.6, 2006: 69.9)

The Vodafone Group has created a Global Customer Value Management team to support operating companies with their aim to engage with customers directly through a data driven approach. Recent examples of this include: rollout of a consistent and innovative store, successful trial of an innovative handset based self service solution and creation of a global training academy for customer facing staff. Vodafone continues to use a customer measurement system called customer delight to monitor and drive customer satisfaction in the Groups controlled markets at a local and global level which identifies areas for improvement and focus. Marketing and brand : 1. 68.8 million Vodafone subscribers across India as at 31 March 2009 (up from 44.1 million as at 31 March 2008)

2 million new subscribers a month on average 18% market share


a new visual identityfrom the deep pink logo of Hutchison-Essar to Vodafones trademark deep red speech mark introduced in 1998. Advertisement: The inaugural TV commercial showed the trademark pug (minus the boy) moving out of a pink kennel into a red one. An energetic version of Hutchs signature You and I tune played towards the end, as the super concluded, Change is good. Hutch is now Vodafone. There were four more commercials featuring Hutchs animated boy and girl, introducing the new brands logo to consumers. Vodafone put in close to Rs 150 crore into the first phase of the rebranding exercisewith Rs 60 crore in mass media and another Rs 90 crore in retail activities. In the second phase, Vodafone ushered in its global straplineMake the most of now, which replaced How are you? in 2001. By then it was apparent, the boy-and-pug chapter would soon be over. In 2008, Vodafone used the platform of cricket when it unveiled the Happy to Help series during the first season of the Indian Premier League (IPL). This season the Zoozoos are all the rage. These characters have virtually hijacked the online media as well as televisionto convey a value added service (VAS) offering in each of the new commercials. In Indian scenario when other major telecom service providers are using celebrities(Airtel-Shahrukh Khan, BSNL-Deepika Padukone, Aircel-Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Idea-Abhishek Bachchan) as their brand ambassadors, Vodafone is standing out proudly with Zoozoos and pug as successful ad campaign.

Products and services in India:

Average cost of calls: 2 US cents per minute Average revenue per customer: US$6.4 per month 853,039 points of sale, covering 65% of the population With more than 3 million Vodafone-branded, affordable handsets sold in 2008/09, Vodafone ranks among the top five handset brands in India

Brand and customer communications

In the BrandZ most powerful brands ranking: Ranked 11th globally. In telecom industry it proudly stands as world no. 2 after China no. 2 GSM service provider in India after Airtel A new Marketing Framework has been developed and implemented across the business, which includes a new vision of expanding the Groups category from mobile only to total communications to be the communications leader in an increasingly connected world. Brand and customer experience continues to implement Vodafones promise of helping customers make the most of their time. The brand function has also developed a methodology to develop competitive local market brand positioning, with local brand positioning projects now implemented in 12 markets. In September 2007, Vodafone welcomed India with the Hutch is now Vodafone campaign. The migration from Hutch to Vodafone was one of the fastest and most comprehensive brand transitions in the history of the Group, with 400,000 multi brand outlets, over 350 Vodafone stores, over 1,000 mini stores, over 35 mobile stores and over 3,000 touchpoints rebranded in two months, with 60% completed within 48 hours of the launch.
Brand Health Tracking:

Vodafone regularly conducts Brand Health Tracking since 2002, which is designed to measure the brand performance against a number of key metrics and generate insights to assist the management of the Vodafone brand across all Vodafone branded operating companies.



Vodafone majorly sponsors the following teams and events, apart from various regional and timely sponsorship: Kshitij, Annual Techno-management festival of IIT Kharagpur, Strategic Partner 2008

Indian Premier League (Cricket), Associate sponsor England cricket team Vodafone McLaren Mercedes Formula One team, title sponsor Triple 8 Race Engineering, V8 Supercars team, primary sponsor (since 2007)

Direct distribution-Number of directly owned stores - 1150

Vodafone directly owns and manages over 1,150 stores. These stores sell services to new customers, renew or upgrade services for existing customers, and in many cases also provide customer support. A standard store format, which was tested in 2006, was rolled out in 11 markets during the 2008 financial year. All stores in India were rebranded as Vodafone and over 40 stores were refurbished to the Groups standard format. The Group also has 6,500 Vodafone branded stores, which sell Vodafone products and services exclusively, by way of franchise and exclusive dealer arrangements. The internet is a key channel to promote and sell Vodafones products and services and to provide customers with an easy, user friendly and accessible way to manage their Vodafone services and access support. Additionally, in most operating companies, sales forces are in place to sell directly to business customers and some consumer segments.
Indirect distribution

The extent of indirect distribution varies between markets but may include using third party service providers, independent dealers, distributors and retailers.

The Group hosts MVNOs in a number of markets. These are operators who buy access to existing networks and resell that access to customers under a different brand name and proposition. Where appropriate, Vodafone seeks to enter mutually profitable relationships with MVNO partners as an additional route to market. Presence in India: Presence in all 23 Indian telecom circles (up from 16 in 2007/08) Over 78,000 base stations across India Around 2,600 new base stations deployed each month Network deployment and maintenance of 56,933 base stations in 16 circles outsourced to Indus Towers, of which Vodafone Essar has a 42% shareholding 8,163 base stations directly managed by Vodafone Essar in the remaining seven circles A further 13,225 base stations shared with other operators


SWOT analysis:

Strong international presence and brand recognition Well-defined cost reduction initiatives,managed outsourcing Stable operating profit The India operations is backed by its huge expertise and diversified geographical portfolio. Sharing of network infrastructure Leading presence in India Brand value built by delivering a superior, consistent and differentiated customer experience. Vodafones customer strategy endeavours to ensure that customers needs are at the core of all products and services.


Benefits of investment in technology are not realized Little penetration in rural market Have not entered broadband services,smart phones segment Advertising campaigns do not have the emotional connect to the lower income classes and rural customers Perception of customers in lower segment that Vodafone is a costly brand


Focus on capturing rural sector through cost reductions improving returns Research and development of new mobile technologies Mobile Broadband Improve accessibility to wide range of customers Vodafone can offer voice, messaging, data and fixed broadband services through multiple solutions and supporting technologies to deliver on its total communications strategy. The advancements in 3G networks and download speeds, handset capabilities and the mobilisation of internet services, could contribut to an acceleration of data services usage growth.


Existing competitive market Entry of many new players in immediate future Government regulations Change in technology Change in consumer preference Adverse macroeconomic conditions like recession and economic slow down non-supply of equipment and support services by a major supplier emergencies like war, terrorism, natural calamity etc.



4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0




Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage

Rapid increase in sales if product has acceptance:

The current perception of Vodafone in india is that of a brand that provides high quality customer service at reasonable prices. Even though Vodafone has not hired a known face to endorse itself, it has still managed to establish a very high emotional connect with its customers through its brilliantly conceived marketing strategies. Excellent examples of this would be the recent Zoozoo campaign and the well received Vodafone Pug campaign. In the case of the Pug campaign, Vodafone managed to project itself as a service provider which would always be following the customer through the tagline Wherever you go, our network follows.. And in the case of the Zoozoo campaign, Vodafone further strengthened their image among their customer base and the market in general.
New competition enters as opportunity presents itself:

Vodafone currently faces stiff competition since new players have also entered the fray recently. Players like Loop, Hash10, MTS etc are set to roll out their services due to which Vodafone may find it difficult to maintain its current share of customer base in india. Expansion, further focusing on its current

segments, implementation of a revised business model and intensive marketing would be the key features Vodafone should be concentrating on in order to retain its current position in india.
Introduce new product features:

Vodafone is currently in the process of adding further verticals to its market portfolio in order to increase its presence and expand its customer base. 3G services are currently in the pipeline. Also Vodafone can venture into providing broadband and WiMAX services which have a very high potential for revenue generation. M2M or Machine to Machine platform is also present on Vodafones strategy for market diversification. The platform, which is an enterprise solution designed by Vodafone for providing automation and wireless controlling is still under the process of patenting. But once patented, it can be a key factor in vodafones enterprise market expansion.

Expand distribution:

The current distribution model of Vodafone has been very successful in penetration of the urban segment. It has a presence in all the 23 Indian telecom circles and has set up 78,000 base stations spread across India. And Vodafone is still deploying 2,600 base stations each month. Even in Mumbai, Vodafone has a total of 25,000 distribution outlets, out of which 35 are Vodafone Stores. Even though the presence is considerable, Vodafone needs to focus on a more intensive distributional model in order to keep up with competitors like Airtel etc.


Vodafone India is barely two years old. Can you see the direction in which it is heading? Vodafone has experienced a fairly good run in the past few years. It has emerged as one of the premium players in the telecom. Within a short period being second in the industry is a tremendous achievement. It is one of the few players which has a pan-India presence and it caters to not only the Premium segment but also to the rural segments as well. Plus, Vodafone is at the forefront of ushering in new technology e.g. 3G and Wi-max is about to roll out within the next few months so Vodafone is on solid-turf. What are your strategies for penetrating rural market? For entry into any sector, say rural or urban, there should be focus on network coverage and distribution. In addition to that, the affordability and penetration also comes into picture. Considerable effort is being put in from our side to increase our network coverage, customer satisfaction. We have one of the best and largest customer support service which Is twice the size of our nearest competitor. The telecom sector already is experiencing cut-throat competition. With DOCOMO introducing second-based call rates how difficult will it be for other players? It is very difficult already for the existing players as profit margins are reducing with increase in number of players. The profits have reduced due to the slashing of call rates. However, the profits realized are due to increasing usage rates. Docomo is a very good launch and I believe it will change the rules of the game altogether. What are your future strategies? Our strategies are more towards customer service, value added services etc rather than changing tariffs frequently. For instance, Vodafone India has 35 owned stores in Mumbai to provide help and customer services. This I believe has made Vodafone the leading player in Mumbai. Our next competitor does not have half the number of service centers that we have.

How are your strategies in India different from those of other countries? Strategies are very different not only from country to country but also from region to region. Our strategy for Europe which is a mature market is different from that for India and Africa which are developing markets. While Europe market is important in terms of revenues, Indian market is promising in terms of growth. What are the new products that are in the pipeline? Scope of 3G in India? We have an Enterprise Fund that invests regularly to develop better products and services. A whole lot of services can be delivered to our customers if 3G materializes soon. What effect will Airtel-MTN deal have on Vodafone? Vodafone has better expertise and technology than Airtel/MTN and even though it will benefit them mutually the effect would not be much on Vodafone and Airtel in India. Airtel is already a leader in India and it will remain the same for some time. Our strategy is focused on how to be a market leader. Can you say something about the effect of Zoo-Zoo campaign on the customers? It has almost created a wave and impact has been very encouraging. Existing customers loved the campaign and many responded to the campaign through phone and internet. The Zoo-Zoos effect has caught the publics imagination so much that there were Zoo-Zoo Ganapati and rakhis selling. We also captured the attention of the public through our pug dog advertisements. Advertising is something which differentiates Vodafone from others. While the rates of all the service providers are almost same, you need to do something so that the customer chooses your service over your competitors while opting for a mobile connection. In your opinion which are the major hindrances, in the way of regulations and government policies, faced by the telecom sector ? There are many blocks affecting our growth because of government regulations.

They are: 1.Delay of licensing 3G services 2.Change in licensing methodology First it was for CDMA, later it was for GSM and now they have planned to offer an unified license. 3.Increase in number of licenses offered and increase in number of operators who can operate in a circle has created a huge competition. What measures do you take to measure customer satisfaction? We maintain a very good relation with customers through our customer satisfaction surveys, customer delight studies. The sample drawn is random sampling and not done only for Vodafone customers. Can you throw some light on the distribution network of Vodafone India? Vodafone India has a very good distribution network. We have 25000 operators functioning now. We also undertake special programs to drive better distribution in every circle. Since we have better distribution network in the country we are the benchmark of the Indian telecom sector. What are the other external factors that you feel had affected the telecom sector in the recent past? Every national event affects the industry as a whole. The drought in India affected the disposable income in rural India. Naturally the spending on these services will decrease. The sector is not immune to terrorist attacks or even Swine flu scare as it affects the movement of tourists and in turn adverse affects our revenues from roaming charges. Why did you choose to enter India through Hutchinson Essar rather than entering directly? It is a strategical move by Vodafone. It is a way of faster routing. For instance, for DOCOMO it took them 2 years after getting license to start their operations. It involved building of newer infrastructure whereas we chose to cut costs by operating through Hutchinson Essar.

The Five Components of Porters Five Forces Model are Listed Below:

Intensity of existing rivalry (external): This is usually the most important determination of competitive forces. It gauges the level of competition between rivals that compete directly on prices and quality. Examples include: low exit barriers and low storage cots. Threat of substitutes (external): The availability of substitute products increases the chances that a business will lose customers; thus, substitution risk lowers profitability. Examples include: limited number of substitutes and high cost of switching to substitutes. Threat of new competitors (external): New competitors are often drawn to an industry because of the opportunity to make profits. When new competitors enter markets, they become rivals to existing market participants, which tends to lower the profitability of all market participants. An increase in competition lowers profits with all else staying the same. Examples of the external component include: patents limiting new competition and industry requires economies of scale. Bargaining power of suppliers (internal): The more pressure suppliers can exert on a company, the more bargaining power they have over that company. Bargaining power generally increases profitability for the party that exerts it. Examples that affect bargaining power to suppliers


include: volume is critical to suppliers and there are diverse distribution channels.

Bargaining power of customers (internal): The more pressure customers can exert on a company, the more bargaining power they have over that company. Bargaining power generally increases profitability for the party that exerts it. Example that affect bargaining power to customers include: limited buyer choice and large number of customers.


Business-Level Strategy
By using the five forces model of competition, competitor analysis takes place by understanding how the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitute products, and the rivalry among competing firms will effect competitors in an industry. These five forces have a direct effect on Vodafone's strategic competitiveness and above average returns.

1. Rivalry with Existing Competitors

Vodafone's position as cost leader, competitors have a hard time competing on basis of price because the competitors will fall on their face if any aspect of the logistics or operations are inferior.

2. Bargaining Power of Buyers

The buyers in the mobile telephony industry are strong. These powerful buyers can reduce the cost leaders prices, but not past the level of their closest competitor. This ensures Vodafone will continue to profit at above average returns compared to its closest competitor.

3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Suppliers of the mobile telephony industry are strong. Vodafone, by being a cost leader, operates with margins greater than its competitors, which, in turn, allows them to absorb price increases from its suppliers easier than its competitors. By being a large, focused player of the mobile telephony industry, Vodafone could hold suppliers costs down, and it could make a profit even if its competitors are making only average returns.

4. Potential Entrants
While the threat of new entrants is weak, Vodafone must continue to reduce costs below that of its competitors. By maintaining high levels of efficiency, Vodafone can help make the entrance into the mobile telephony industry unattractive to its potential competitors.

5. Product Substitutes
Vodafone faces a low threat of product substitutes. The focused cost leadership strategy that Vodafone operates under makes it difficult for a comparable substitute to be produced at a lower rate by their excellent use of economies of scale, their buying power, and their absorption of temporary price increases that come from suppliers that don't need to be passed on to the consumer.

6. Summary
Vodafone is pursuing a focused cost leadership business-level strategy through their exclusive focus on the mobile telephony industry. Because Vodafone did not have the distractions that faced their competitors (such as fixed-line telephony) they are able to save money and pass the savings to their customers or maintain a profit even when their closest


competitor is only achieving average returns. Vodafone maintained a broad competitive scope and focused on cost for their competitive advantage. Before telling you about the Vodafone five force model, you have to understand that what do you mean by Porters Five Force Model

Analysis to Vodafone's Porter's 5 Forces

The Porter's Five Forces model is a simple tool that supports strategic understanding where power lies in a business situation. It also helps to understand both the strength of a firm's current competitive position, and the strength of a position a company is looking to move into. Despite the fact that the Five Force framework focuses on business concerns rather than public policy, it also emphasizes extended competition for value rather than just competition among existing rivals, and the simpleness of its application inspired numerous companies as well as business schools to adopt its use (Wheelen and Hunger, 1998). With a clear understanding of where power lies, it will enable a company to take fair advantage of its strengths, improve weaknesses, and avoid taking wrong steps. Therefore, to apply this planning tool effectively, it is important to understand the situation and to look at each of the forces individually. In conducting an analysis of Porter's Five Forces, it is required to brainstorm all relevant factors for the company's market situation, and then check against the factors presented for each force in the diagram above. The next step is to highlight the key factors on a diagram, and summarize the size and the scale of the force on the diagram. It is suggested to use signs, as for instance, + and --" signs for the forces moderately in company's favor, or for a force strongly against. After identifying favourable and unfavourable forces for the company's performance and industry's attractiveness, it is important to analyse the situation and examine the impacts of the forces. One of the critical comments made of the Five Forces framework is its static nature, whereas the competitive environment is changing turbulently. Are the five forces able to foresee industry expansion? Is it the corporate strategist's goal to find a position in the industry where his or her company can best defend itself against these forces or can influence them in its favour, or is the goal to become part of the ongoing commerce with the intention to produce innovative ideas that will expand the size of the industry? Is it true that the environment poses a threat to the organisation, leading to the consideration of suppliers and buyers as threats that need to be tackled, or does it offer the ground for a constitutive industry player co-operation? By thinking through how each force affects a company, and by identifying the strength and direction of each force, it provides with an opportunity to identify the strength of the position and the ability to make a sustained profit in the industry.


Vodafone must seek to understand the nature of its competitive environment if it is to be successful in achieving its objectives and in establishing appropriate strategies. If it fully understands the nature of the Porter's five forces, and particularly appreciates which one is the most important, it will be in a stronger position to defend itself against any threats and to influence the forces with its strategy. The situation is fluid, and the nature and relative power of the forces will change. Consequently, the need to monitor and stay aware is continuous. Some issues during the implementation of these Five Forces are crucially important for organizations to build long-term business strategy and sustaining competitive advantages rather than simply list the forces. Successful use of the Porter Model Analysis includes identifying the sources of competition, the strength and likelihood of that competition existing, and strategic recommendations for the action a company should take to in order to develop barriers to competition. Recommendations By virtue of its connectivity and advertising strategy Vodafone is successful in grabbing the highest market share in India, but there are still some recommendations from my study point of view is that Vodafone needs to make its network service more stronger than other service providers to dominate the market in future too. Vodafone should introduce cheaper recharge cards than the other because its competitor IDEA had introduced it. Vodafone should sign more celebrities from cricket and Bollywood.


Vodafone Essar Indirectly Listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange Vodafone's Indian subsidiary, Vodafone Essar now has an indirect listing on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) after the Essar group notified the stock exchange that it will carry out the merger of its listed company, India Securities with Essar Teleholdings, which owns 11% in Vodafone Essar Ltd. The merger now means that Vodafone Essar has an indirect exposure to the Bombay stock market. Vodafone has already agreed to buy out the Essar Group's 33% stake in Vodafone Essar Ltd. for US$5 billion - and has already made a $1.9 billion payment to Essar for the 22% held by the offshore entity. The remaining 11% held by the local subsidiary is still waiting for approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), who have to approve the sale to a foreign company. If approved, then the stake would be removed from the Bombay Stock Exchange again.


Service revenue growth (%)(*) EBITDA margin (%) Operating free cash flow (m)

16.2 25.6 433

Revenue growth improved through the year as the customer base increased and price declines slowed. Fourth successive year of gaining revenue market share. Commenced 3G services in February 2011 with 1.5 million customers by 31 March.