EPFL Cours “Mobile Networks”

« First steps toward Wireless data »

Frédéric Michaud Network Development Engineering 14/12/2004

GPRS Part 1 Content
From Theory… From Theory…

Frederic Michaud 14.12.04

EPFL – cours “Mobile network”



General Packet Radio Service:
a way to extend packet transfer up to the mobile station

– Circuit Switch – Circuit Switch architecture architecture – Indirect access to IP – Indirect access to IP network network – Too sensitive – Too sensitive connection for data connection for data (today) (today) – Expensive solution for – Expensive solution for data network (HSCSD) data network (HSCSD) Frederic Michaud 14.12.04
– – – – – – – – – –

Packet Switch architecture Packet Switch architecture End to End IP service (mobile End to End IP service (mobile = IP host) = IP host) Re-use BSS architecture Re-use BSS architecture New core architecture New core architecture Max theoretical rates ~170 Max theoretical rates ~170 kbps kbps

EPFL – cours “Mobile network”

Jobs Auctions Shopping . control.Services NEWS General Headlines Financial & Business Politics Tabloids Culture & Entertainment Sports Lottery BANKING & FINANCIAL SERVICES Stock indexes Stock prices Metal prices Stock alert Currency rates Interest rates Account balance Credit/debit balance Cheque balance Money transfers Bill payments Automatic call Account status flash Stock purchase Financial products purchase LOCAL SERVICES (CITY GUIDE) Taxi Restaurants Cinema Theatres Concerts Exhibitions Night Clubs Emergency services Pharmacies Household assistance Weather Time Directory services ATM Locator BUY & SELL Classifieds . News. E-mail and fax Translation services TOOLS Calculator Dictionary Translator Currency converter MISCELLANEOUS Activating domestic appliances Paying at vending machines Identity verification FAMILY Family VPN Synchronised MUSIC ENTERTAINTMENT Ringtones Short clips (e.…) Public transportation Navigation services Train schedules Flight schedules Hotels Holiday packages Special Interest Mobile telephones Internet sites and services Computers and hardware Automobile INFORMATION SMS COMMUNICATION Send/receive SMS messages SMS to postcard E-MAIL Send/receive e-mails E-mail to voice (IVR) FAX Send/receive fax Special features (delivery and receipt report.Specific promotions Tickets TRAVEL Traffic (traffic jams.Small daily items .g.Cars . etc ORGANIZERS PRODUCTIVITY To do lists Calendar Address book Agenda Reminders PERSONAL ASSISTANT Call management Correspondence management Voice to SMS.Properties . storage for later delivery) BULLETIN BOARDS Groups with common interest Messages.12. MP3) TV Programme schedules Highlights LIFESTYLE Gastronomy Hobbies Fashion Parties FUN Jokes Sayings Dream analysis CHATS Topic specific Private PICTURES Icons Logos Photos Postcards GAMES Puzzles Quizzes “Tamagotchi” Games Gambling/Betting ASTROLOGY Horoscopes Astrolove Biorhythm Specific Horoscopes DATING Chats Dating services Frederic Michaud 14. radar.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 4 .

12.Services Notion of QoS QoS = Quality of Service 5 Classes as specified in ETSI – Service Precedence / Priority – Delay – Mean Throughput – Peak Througput – Reliability FTP (NRT): – Service: minor – Delay: < 7 sec (most likely Best effort) – Mean throughput: 4.4 kbps – Peak throughput: N/A – Reliability: high to medium redundancy Frederic Michaud 14.04 Video Streaming (RT): – Service: medium – Delay: < 7 sec (most likely Best effort) – Mean throughput: 44 kbps – Peak throughput: 64 kbps – Reliability: medium to low (UDP protocol) 5 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” .

12.Architecture Network Diagram NSS ISP .04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” Inter PLMN Backbone 6 .External Network MSC/VLR Gs HLR Gr GPRS Core Network Gc Gi SGSN DNS GGSN A Gn BSS GPRS IP Backbone Gn Ater Um Abis Charging Gateway Gn Gb Transcoder Gn Border Gateway BSC Gp BTS Frederic Michaud 14.

GPRS data HLR queries for PDP context activation Short Messages exchange Terminal identity check Data transfer Mobility management PDP context activation Data transfer Gp Gr Gs BG – BG SGSN – HLR SGSN – MSC/VLR Inter-operator link Location management GSM/GPRS mobility Management IP SS7 SS7 Protocol type RLC/MAC RLC/MAC LLC/FR (IP)/SS7 Gd Gf Gi Gn SGSN – SMS GMSC SGSN – EIR GGSN – Data Network SGSN – SGSN SGSN .12.Architecture New interfaces Interface Um Abis Gb Gc elements MS – BTS BTS – BSC BSC – SGSN GGSN – HLR Main usage Radio interface Standard GSM if.GGSN SS7 SS7 IP IP Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 7 .

adapted to packet transfer RLC RLC RLC PCU SGSN buffer LLC buffer LLC LLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC buffer Gb Abis Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 8 .Architecture evolution of BSS network New hardware in BSS: Packet Controlling Unit (PCU) – – – – – BTS can be compared to TRAU function in GSM generally located in the BSC heart of the packet transmission in BSS network allow the dynamic traffic allocation Provide the radio resource management mechanism.12.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 9 . Firewalls Frederic Michaud 14. DNS.Architecture New core equipments HLR VLR Charging Gateway PCU GGSN External External IP world IP world PCU SGSN • Packet routing (IP – BSS) IP network GGSN • GPRS Tunneling (PLMN – internet) • Mobility Management • Session Management • Charging • Cyphering and compression • Charging • O&M (Operation & Maintenance) • Lawful interception Other equipment: Border Gateway.12. Charging Gateway.

.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 10 .25 SNDCP GTP UDP / TCP IP GMM/SM Mobility Management Session Management cyphering SNDCP GTP UDP / TCP IP L2 L1 LLC RLC MAC Relay LLC BSSGP Network Service RLC MAC BSSGP Network Service L2 L1 Radio Resource Management (TBF allocation. mobility and session management Um Data traffic Applica tion IP / X.) GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis MS BSS PS/CS paging SGSN GGSN Frederic Michaud 14.25 Relay Gb Gn Gi IP / X. user/timeslot multiplexing. etc.Architecture GPRS Protocol stacks BSS elements manage everything related to radio resource.12.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 11 .Architecture Gb interface Open interface between the BSC and the SGSN. NS-VC DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier (FR address) FR Bearer Channel NSE (=PCU ) Physical Link (= pcm-tsl) NSE Own BVC for each BTS – BVC 0 for signalling Own BVC for each BTS NS-VC BVC 0 for signalling NS-VC DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier (FR address) Load Sharing FR Bearer Channel Physical Link (= pcm-tsl) NS-VC BSC SGSN BVC = BSSGP Virtual Connection BSSGP = Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol NSE = Network Service Entity NS-VC = Network Service Virtual Connection FR = Frame Relay Gb interface will move on IP protocol Frederic Michaud 14. Network Service: set of virtual connections responsible for data transmission. paging support. congestion control. flow control support. Consist of three layers: – – Frame Relay: link layer access between peer entities via a Bearer Channel. load sharing between Network Service Entities.12. BSSGP: Virtual Connection management.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 12 .12.Mobile equipment Three types of Mobile Classes CLASS A: « Rolls Royce » Simultaneous CS/PS Paging Simultaneous CS/PS data transfer PS Core Network (GPRS) CS Core Network (GSM) CLASS B: « Standard » Simultaneous CS/PS Paging CS call or PS data transfer CS Core Network (GSM) PS Core Network (GPRS) CLASS C: « Cheap » CS Core Network (GSM) CS mode (GSM only) or PS mode (GPRS only) PS Core Network (GPRS) Frederic Michaud 14.

Mobility Management Mobile States IDLE – not attached to GPRS MS is not reachable IDLE GPRS Attach STANBY timer expiry GPRS Detach – READY – MS known down to Cell by SGSN May receive/transmit packets No Packet paging required MS remains in READY state until “READY Timer” expires or GPRS Detach – – – READY READY timer expiry Force to STANBY PDU Transmission STANDBY STANDBY – – – – Frederic Michaud 14.04 MS known down to Routing Area by SGSN MS attached to GPRS May receive Packet paging No data reception or transmission 13 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” .12.

Mobility Management Temporary identity Notion of P-TMSI (Packet Temporary Mobile Subs Identifier) – Temporary identifier to differentiate a mobile in a SGSN – associated to a ciphered signature – P-TMSI+ signature transferred at each location update Notion of TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identifier) used between MS and SGSN before attachment randomly selected by MS when uplink request (risk of collision) after attach : TLLI=P-TMSI used to identify MS on the air interface IMSI is never transferred Frederic Michaud 14.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 14 .

Mobility Management Paging enhancement with GPRS Network Mode I HLR MSC/VLR Location update Network Mode II HLR Gr SGSN MSC/VLR Gr SGSN Gs CS paging or SMS A Gb CS paging or SMS A Gb BSC Abis Paging message on: Paging channel Packet data channel BSC Abis Paging message on: Paging channel only Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 15 .12.

Location Update (GSM) 6.12. Authentication 3. Insert Subscriber Data 5. GPRS Attach Request 2. Attach complete GPRS IP Backbone Border Gateway GGSN Inter PLMN Backbone ISP External Network Frederic Michaud 14. Update Location (GPRS) 4.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 16 . GPRS Attach Accept 7.Mobility Management GPRS Attach SMSC BSC MSC/VLR HLR 3 5 1 2 6 GPRS handset 7 2 DNS SGSN 4 Charging Gateway 1.

RA Update Accept Frederic Michaud 14. DNS Query: IP @ for old RAI 3. SGSN Context Request 4.12. SGSN Context Response 5. Update PDP Context Request: IP @ of new RAI 7.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 17 .Mobility Management Routing Area Update DNS BSC GPRS handset SGSN1 5 4 3 2 GPRS IP Backbone BSC GPRS handset SGSN2 GGSN 1 8 6 7 1. Forward Packets 6. RA Update Request (old RAI) 2. Update PDP Context Response 8.

SGSN and GGSN – allow packet data transfer between a certain type of network and the mobile PDP context contains: Main Field type of PDP network Mobile address SGSN address NSAPI QoS Profile Access Point Name Frederic Michaud 14. internet…) EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 18 .12. X25 ….Session Management Notion of PDP context Packet Data Protocol context: – set of information stored in mobile.04 Description IP. IP address or X.121 address for X25 network IP address of the serving SGSN Network Service Access Point Quality of service negociated for this PDP context APN (service) requested by the mobile (ie WAP.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 19 . Create PDP Context Req 4.Session Management PDP Context Activation SMSC BSC MSC/VLR HLR 1 5 GPRS handset 2 SGSN DNS Charging Gateway GPRS IP Backbone 3 4 GGSN 1. Activate PDP Context Req 2. Create PDP Context Rsp 5. DNS Query 3.12. Activate PDP Context Ack Border Gateway Inter PLMN Backbone ISP External Network Frederic Michaud 14.

12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 20 .Session Management Data Transfer SMSC BSC MSC/VLR HLR DNS SNDCP GPRS handset IP SGSN Charging Gateway IP Border Gateway GPRS IP Backbone S-CDR G-CDR GTP IP GGSN IP IP@ src IP@ dst Mobile Server SGSN GGSN Inter PLMN Backbone ISP External Network Frederic Michaud 14.

04 Physical layer Frame Header Frame Check Sequence Block Header Block Check Sequence (When SDCCH coding is used.Radio Resource Management RLC/MAC layer RLC/MAC is the most important layer for communication between MS and BSC: – – RLC/MAC controls the data flow over the air interface and Abis interface. BSS performance are based on RLC block transmissions / retransmission – RLC: Provide controlling function (ack/unack mode) – MAC: Medium Access mode: allows to have dynamic allocation of Mobiles over radio timeslots (pair ofInformation field TBF/USF) LLC frame FCS FH LLC layer RLC blocks BH Info field BCS BH Info field BCS BH Info field BCS Primary block Following block RLC/MAC layer Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst FH = FCS = BH = BCS= Frederic Michaud 14.12. BCS corresponds to the Fire code) EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 21 .

Radio Resource Management Notion of GPRS territory TRX 1 CCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH GSM Territory GPRS Territory TRX 2 TCH Default GPRS Capacity Territory border move based On GSM and GPRS traffic load evolution Frederic Michaud 14.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” Dedicated GPRS Capacity 22 .

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 23 .615 ms 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 GPRS multiframe = 52 TDMA frame=240 ms Block 0 0 Block 1 4 Block 2 T Block 3 8 13 Block 4 17 Block 5 i Block 6 21 26 Block 7 30 Block 8 i Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 i 34 39 43 47 51 12 blocks of 4 radio burst each Each block can transfer one GPRS logical channel information Frederic Michaud 14.12.Radio Resource Management Physical Layer TDMA frame=4.

PTCCH Packet Timing Control Channel. Frederic Michaud 14. one channel can be shared by several active users.Radio Resource Management Logical Signalling for GPRS GPRS Air Interface Logical Channels CCH Common Channels DCH Dedicated Channels BCH Broadcast Channels DOWNLINK ONLY PCCCH Packet Common Control Channels (can be combined with CCCH) PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control CH (can be combined with BCCH) MS CONTINUOUSLY MONITORS PPCH Packet Paging CH BSS WANTS TO CONTACT MS PAGCH Packet Access Grant CH PDCH IS ALLOCATED TO MS PRACH Packet Random Access CH MS ASKS FOR PDCHs. GPRS: DCH 'Dedicated' Channels DCCH Dedicated Control Channels TCH Traffic Channels PACCH Packet Associated Control CH Allocated to the opposite direction than the PDTCH to which it is associated. PDTCH Packet Data TCH.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 24 .

Radio Resource Management Timeslot sharing GPRS data transfer = discontinuous series of Temporary Block Flows.PCH) (GPRS . USF) – 1 TBF can be transferred onto several radio timeslots TBF4 TBF3 TBF3 TSL 0 BCCH TSL 1 TCH TSL 2 TCH TSL 3 TCH TSL 4 PDCH TBF1 TSL 5 PDCH TBF2 TBF1 TSL 6 PDCH TBF2 TBF1 TSL 7 PDCH TDMA frame Data transfer = Uplink / Downlink TBF (Temporary Block Flow) Assignment – – Timeslots allocation GSM CCCH channels (RACH .04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 25 . – 1 TBF = 1 user (with a given TFI.phase 1) GPRS phase 2: dedicated common control channels (PBCCH/PCCCH) Frederic Michaud 14.AGCH .12. TLLI.

27. network identify each user with TFI and TLLI Number of retransmission linked to C/I ratio Retransmissions will decrease real user data throughput Frederic Michaud 14. each time data needs to be sent TFI=14 TFI=14 TFI=14 TFI=14 TFI=14 TFI=14 BSN=24 Block 7 30 TFI=14 BSN=26 Downlink Data transfer RLC header Block 0 0 BSN=24 BSN=25 Block 1 4 BSN=26 BSN=27 BSN=28 Block 4 17 Block 5 i Block 6 21 26 TFI=14 Ack: 25.26 Block 2 T Block 3 8 13 Block 8 i Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 i 34 39 43 TFI=14 Ack: 24.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 26 .28 Nack: 24.26 47 51 Uplink MS receive on TFI 14 TBF dynamically managed by the network To avoid collisions.Radio Resource Management Notion of Data flow RLC layer create a Temporary Block Flow.

26 TFI=14 RRBP= i+1 RRBP= RRBP= RRBP= i+4 i+3 i+2 Block 1 4 Block 2 T Block 3 8 13 Block 4 17 Block 5 i Block 6 21 26 Block 8 i Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 i 34 39 43 TFI=14 Ack: 24.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 27 .26 47 51 MS receive on TFI 14 Mobile knows on which block to ack/nack received PDU Mobile use these control blocks to transfer other information (measurement reports. uplink resource request. etc…) Frederic Michaud 14.28 Nack: 24.Radio Resource Management Multi user radio sharing MAC layer handle resource sharing between mobiles Downlink Data transfer MAC header Block 0 0 SP=0 SP=0 SP=1 SP=1 SP=1 SP=1 RRBP= i+2 Block 7 30 TFI=14 Ack: 25.27.12.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 28 .Radio Resource Management Dynamic uplink sharing Several mobiles can share the same radio timeslot MAC layer indicates each mobile which block it can use for uplink transfer Downlink Data transfer MAC header Block 0 0 USF=4 USF=4 USF=1 USF=5 USF=5 USF=4 USF=1 USF=1 USF=5 Block 1 4 Block 2 T Block 3 8 13 Block 3 Block 4 17 Block 5 i Block 6 21 26 Block 7 30 Block 7 Block 8 i Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 i 34 Block 8 39 43 47 51 MS USF 1 Block 1 MS USF 4 Block 4 MS USF 5 Uplink State Flag definition only local to a physical channel (i.12.e. 1 radio timeslot in the TDMA frame) Block 5 Block 9 Block 2 Block 6 Frederic Michaud 14.


04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 30 .Implementation Constraints Upgrade of GSM network New Core Network – GPRS backbone is an IP network – New approach in Mobile Telecommunication – First interaction between IT and mobile telecom network dept. – Mobile and network compatibility over the air interface is another source of problems – Different mobiles = different performances Frederic Michaud 14.12. Gr are standardised by ETSI but multi-vendor solution always leads to complexity. Gs. Multi-supplier solution – Interoperability problems – Interface Gb.

Implementation Constraints Hardware & Software Releases HW & SW Release management – Network is often heterogeneous – Different generation of base stations.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 31 . BSC and MSC – Software Releases are delivered at different times Incomplete GPRS features – QoS not fully implemented – Radio enhancement (PBCCH) not fully implemented immature ETSI specifications – Suppliers follow different versions Frederic Michaud 14.12.

BSS Network Supplier B GPRS handset GPRS handset Problem of uniform Quality of Service (different SW/HW. new feature cannot be implemented country wide) Frederic Michaud 14.Implementation Constraints Heterogeneous BSS Network GPRS Core Network South region .12. different problems) Complex network evolution (i.BSS Network Supplier A North region .e.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 32 .

Implementation Constraints Handsets & Services Limitation in mutlislot & coding scheme capability: – First handsets: 2+1 (i.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 33 . 2 TSL DL / 1 TSL UL) 24 kbps DL / 12 kbps UL – Current handsets: 4+1 48 kbps DL / 12 kbps UL ETSI specifications problems – Lots of change request – PBCCH not supported by network and first GPRS mobiles Poor content for GPRS Services – Lack of «adapted» phones – Lack of «killer» applications Frederic Michaud 14.e.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 34 .GPRS Dimensioning Network Dimensioning Number of GPRS users Paquet transfer per users Quality of Service Coverage area Peak hours Radio Dimensioning GPRS Territory size Number of cells TRX upgrade Signalling increase Transmission capacity (Abis/Gb) Bearer size Number of PCU New hardware requirements New hardware requirements Frederic Michaud 14.12.

Network Planning Reuse existing GSM coverage Reuse of GSM signalling and traffic plan New core network planning New Routing Area Planning Frederic Michaud 14.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 35 .

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 36 .Network Performance Radio constraints Cell reselections – GPRS phase 1: – Network doesn’t control cell re-selection process – Based on GSM cell re-selection of MS in idle mode Risk of ping-pong effect Critical decrease of user data throughput C/I (carrier/interference) criteria – GPRS is very sensible to interferences Data throughput drops quickly with interferences Capacity – GSM traffic has priority over GPRS – « Best effort » mode Low throughput in peak hours Frederic Michaud 14.12.

88% 57.15% 298 81.Analysis and optimisation Performance Analysis – Access to Network resource 1123 32.26% Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 37 .12.

Analysis and optimisation Performance Analysis – Session success 13% 2446 45.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 38 .3% Frederic Michaud 14.4% 623 87% 53.12.

Analysis and optimisation Tools for GPRS
Protocol analyser
» In depth signalling study

Frederic Michaud 14.12.04

EPFL – cours “Mobile network”


Analysis and optimisation Tools for GPRS
Probe System
» Data capture across all GPRS network interfaces


Gr Gc Gi




internet internet




GGSN Foreign Foreign PLNM PLNM


1. Data capture

2. Data data storage

3. Data analysis

Frederic Michaud 14.12.04

EPFL – cours “Mobile network”


Analysis and optimisation Benefit of Gb analysis
Full network supervision Access to QoS information Information that can be shared accross mainy actors:
– – – – Radio optimisation team Maintenance team Quality team Traffic team

High level of detail
– – – – Info per session Info per user Info per cell/PCU Info per network area

Frederic Michaud 14.12.04

EPFL – cours “Mobile network”


Philippe Godlewski. 1 Gunnar Heine Frederic Michaud 14.Documentation Réseaux GSM (ISBN 2-7462-0153-4) Xavier Lagrange.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 42 .Mobile Packet Data Services (ISBN 0-470-84855-3) Peter Stuckmann GPRS Signalling & Protocol Analysis – Vol. Sami Tabbane Ingénierie des réseaux cellulaires (ISBN 2-7462-0550-5) Sami Tabbane The GSM Evolution .12.


1) (1.12.0) EDGE Modulation 8-PSK. 3bit/sym Symbol rate 270.2 kbps GSM GMSK.0.0) Frederic Michaud 14.1.0) ( (1.0) (0.1.1) (1.0.833 ksps Payload/burst 346 bits Gross rate/time slot 69. 1 bit/sym 270.833 ksps 114 bits 22.1) ( kbps (0.EDGE – evolution of GSM air interface 8PSK modulation to replace GMSK (0.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 44 .

75G 3GPP (GERAN) 3G GSM GPRS ETSI (BSS) EDGE GERAN UMTS/UTRAN 3GPP (UTRAN) Frederic Michaud 14.From GSM to GERAN evolution of specifications 2G 2.12.5G 2.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 45 .

chat. from Release 99 Technical aspects EDGE is a mature product (all vendors NEs & features are ready since mid’2004) EGPRS only (ECSD not implemented by suppliers) Available for all bands (850/900/1800/1900) Ensure the backward compatibility with GPRS mobiles Performances 2 to 4 times higher data throughput than GPRS Interactive and Background classes*.… at high data rate.EDGE as a GERAN feature Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution. Rel 99: Web browsing.12. Frederic Michaud 14. Rel 4: Audio & Video streaming Video on-demand. ecommerce. Rel 5 & Rel 6: Videotelephony (*) EDGE has been standardised to enhance the data rate but not to enhance QoS service ( still best effort service) other features of GERAN will do it Objective: a higher data throughput thanks to a better spectral efficiency. mail attachment. Streaming with mobility QoS*. 2005 2006/2007 Now Conversational for data services*. file transfer.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 46 .

Theoretical performance of EDGE kbps 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 EGPRS (8-PSK) EGPRS (GMSK) GPRS (GMSK) EDGE can provide data services with maximum radio throughput of 235kbps using 4 TS.12. Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 47 .

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 48 .12.Network impact of EDGE implementation New BSC Release 2106 B T BTS S B T S B T S ABIS P C U A BSC BSC Gb GMSC MSC/ MSC VLR Gs Gr HLR HLR Gi (IP) Um AUC mobiles BTS Upgrade SGSN SGSN GGSN GGSN Gn PDN Gn EIR Other PLMN IP-Backbone Network Gp HW or SW Upgrade No Upgrade New Mobiles Frederic Michaud 14.

especially at the cells’ border Frederic Michaud 14.12. Upgrade of GSM network with EDGE will influence the radio conditions There is a need for carefull radio optimisation EDGE throughput is highly dependent on interferences (C/I).04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 49 .Radio performances impact of EDGE implementation EDGE is main influence on GSM is on the radio interface.

12. Throughput (kbps) Power limitation 320 UMTS 200 EDGE 900 Link adaptation BTS-MS distance (m) 500 Frederic Michaud 14.04 1200 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 50 .EDGE vs UMTS for indoor coverage Robustness of Edge : – Compensation of radio propagation fluctuation thanks to Link Adaptation Instability of UMTS : – Throughput Drop due to building penetration and the mobile « Power rise » phenomenon.

average of 30kbps/TS) Frederic Michaud 14. Small PS traffic (1 to 5 TS) BCCH If BCCH and non BCCH TRX have always slightly the same C/I distribution put EDGE on non BCCH with synthesized SFH (EDGE performances could not reach expected values. i. put EDGE on non BCCH with synthesized SFH EDGE performances could not reach expected values (i.e.12.Dimensioning principles: radio Deploy EDGE on BCCH TRX (beacon channel) or not? Preferred configuration C/I mostly > 15dB For all values of C/I Choose the TRX that have the best C/I distribution If BCCH and non BCCH TRX have same C/I distribution try to optimize the network to increase the C/I. Important PS traffic (more than 5 TS) non BCCH If non BCCH TRX have always slightly the same C/I distribution. average of 30kbps/TS) Try to optimize the network to increase the C/I of non BCCH TRX.e.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 51 .

Re-dimensioning of the interface according to the traffic growth.12.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 52 . old BTS might have to be changed.Dimensioning principles: transmission Objective: a higher data throughput thanks to a better spectral efficiency. BSC/PCU shall support EDGE capability. Frederic Michaud 14. More capacity needed in interfaces BTS Abis BSC Gb SGSN GGSN Gr EDGE TRX GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network Abis A EDGE TRX BTS BSC EDGE functionality in network elements Internet Abis MSC BTS EDGE handset EDGE TRX EDGE capable TRX need to be added.

12.Dynamic Abis principle PCM transmission frames = permanent time slots for the CS traffic and signalling + Dynamic Abis Pool for the data (DAP) Dynamic Abis common for multiple Pool GSM/EDGE TRXs located under the same BTS. Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 53 .

multiservice Generic access A/Gb: Technology convergence EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 54 .04 FLO: Conversational PS. ECSD: EDGE for CS (not yet adopted) SAIC: Increase spectral efficiency NACC: Reduce cell reselection Delayed TBF release: Reduce GPRS delays DTM: Simultaneous CS+PS PFC: QoS service differentiation Frederic Michaud 14.… and services evolution New services… Broadband video Digital video Location services Videostreaming.12.? 2004 R’99 2005 Release 4 2006 Release 5 2007 Release 6 2008 Release 7 …and major performances & QoS enhancements to support it. ftp (big files) Videotelephony Other killer app.

BSS feature to enable highest data throughput (proven technology) 38 devices are currently Edge compatible GSM Wireless Industry entirely committed to Edge 111 networks deploying Edge currently 35 commercially available Edge networks Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 55 .EDGE Status Worldwide Edge is a GSM .12.

Continuity of Service Without EDGE Data Speed 384kbps Data Speed 384kbps With EDGE UMTS No Service Continuity 200kbps UMTS Service Continuity with reduced throughput and latency Edge Underlay 40kbps GPRS legacy 40kbps GPRS legacy Edge Introduction -> Bridging the Broadband Services gap Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 56 .12.

2 Enabler technology Premium technology EPFL – cours “Mobile network” Not possible Best Fitted technology Frederic Michaud 14.04 57 .EDGE Service Portfolio Services • MMS • Orange World • Audio/Video Streaming • Video Messaging • File Downloads • Video Telephony FTP (kbps) RTT (sec) GPRS EDGE UMTS Best Effort >16 >128 >64 64-384 >64 N/A 1-5 <1 N/A N/A <0.12.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 58 .HSDPA as the next evolution after EDGE HSDPA is to UMTS what EDGE is to GPRS – New radio modulation offering higher bandwidth Data Speed 2Mbps UMTS to HSDPA is a factor 5 HSDPA x5 EDGE to UMTS is a factor 2 GPRS to EDGE is a factor 5 384kbps UMTS 200kbps x2 x5 EDGE 40kbps GPRS Frederic Michaud 14.12.

04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 59 .Access Network Logical Layers GSM (EDGE) WAN UMTS (HSDPA) MAN Wi-MAX Wi-Fi Bluetooth UWB LAN PAN Frederic Michaud 14.12.

12.16e Backhaul Wi-Fi 802.16d IP Core Wi-Max 802.Mobile Broadband Technology map IP Based Convergence Wi-Max 802.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 60 .11 Rural Sub-Urban Urban In-Building Hotspots PICO Access MACRO MICRO Cellular Mobility GSM (EDGE) & UMTS (HSDPA) Frederic Michaud 14.

Conclusion EDGE deemed as a mature/stable/robust technology– Edge as a key technology for in building coverage – Edge terminals are cheaper and more robust than UMTS (batteries…) – Complementary to UMTS in rural and suburban areas – International roaming with American/Asian operators that will transit to EDGE in Europe For usual radio conditions: – RLC throughputs around 40 kbps may be expected per timeslot (x4 for class 10 MS) – FTP throughputs around 35 kbps may be expected per timeslot (x4 for class 10 MS) This performance greatly depends on – The link adaptation algorithm of the manufacturer and parameter settings – The engineering solution chosen for EGPRS implementation Frederic Michaud 14.04 EPFL – cours “Mobile network” 61 .12.

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