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Zolotukhin - Reservoir Engineering

Zolotukhin - Reservoir Engineering

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Published by agmyatkyaw77
Great book, everythings about RE are introduced here.
Great book, everythings about RE are introduced here.

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Published by: agmyatkyaw77 on Dec 22, 2008
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04/19/2013

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Chemical Deposits

Some sedimentary rocks contain little or no clastic particles. Such a sediment, formed by the
precipitation of minerals from solution in water, is achemical sediment. It forms by means of
either biochemical or purely chemical (inorganic) reactions [51]. The primary porosity of such
rocks is practically zero, and their possible porosity is totally dependent on the development of
secondary porosity, chiefly in the form of microfractures.

Biogenic Deposits

Sedimentary rocks commonly contain fossils, the remains of plants and animals that died and
were buried and preserved in the sediment as it accumulated. A sediment composed mainly
or entirely of fossil remains is called a biogenic sediment. If the fossil debris has not been
homogenised by chemical processes, the deposit can be regarded as a bioclastic sediment [51].
Main nonclastic rocks are: limestone, dolomite, salt, gypsum, chert, and coal. Chalk is a
special type of biogenic limestone, composed of the sheletal parts of pleagic coccolithophorid
algea, called coccoliths. The main types of sedimentary rocks and their chemical compositions
are shown in list below, containing main sedimentary rock types and their chemical composi-
tion of categories [37].

Sandstone a siliciclastic rock formed of sand, commonly quartzose or arhosic, cemented with
silica, calcium carbonate, iron oxide or clay.

Chemical composition: SiO2. Density: ∼2.65 g/cm3
.

Shale a fissile rock, commonly with a laminated structure, formed by consolidation of clay or
mud ( mainly siliciclastic)

Argillite (mud rock) – any compact sedimentary rock composed mainly of siliciclastic mud.

Chemical composition: SiO2 .

Dolomite a carbonate rock, consisting largely of the mineral dolomite (calcium magnesium
carbonate
)

Chemical composition: CaMg(CO3)2. Density: ∼2.87 g/cm3
.

Limestone a carbonate rock consisting wholly or mainly of the mineral calcite.

Chemical composition: CaCO3. Density:∼2.71 g/cm3
.

Calcarenite asandstone composed of carbonate grains, typically aclastic variety of limestone.

Chemical composition: CaCO3. Density:∼2.70 g/cm3
.

Marl a friable rock consisting of calcium carbonate and siliciclastic mud/clay.

Chemical composition: SiO2 +CaCO3. Density:∼2.68 g/cm3
.

Salt (rock salt) – a chemical rock composed of the mineralhalite.

Chemical composition: NaCl.

20

Chapter 2. Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology

Gypsum a chemical, evaporitic rock composed of the mineralgypsum

Chemical composition: CaSO42H2O.

Anhydrite a chemical, evaporitic rock composed of the mineralanhydrite.

Chemical composition: CaSO4.

Some of the typical reservoir rocks are shown in Fig.2.2

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