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P. 1

Zolotukhin - Reservoir Engineering4.5

|Views: 3,295|Likes: 144Published by agmyatkyaw77

Great book, everythings about RE are introduced here.

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/9288702/Zolotukhin-Reservoir-Engineering

04/19/2013

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The methods of reserve estimation based on reservoir data are volumetric and can be divided

into* deterministic* and* probabilistic* (stocastic) estimates. The main difﬁculty in a volumetric

estimate of resources/reserves is in the transfer of data obtained at a small scale (core analysis,

lithofacies data, well logs, etc.) into a much larger scale ( i.e. data "upscaling" for interwell

space).

**Deterministic Methods
**

The principle of a deterministic approach to resources/reserve estimates is to "upscale" the

information derived from the wells and supported by seismic survey, into the interwell space

by using an* interpolation technique*.

The main parameters used for a volumetric estimate in this approach are:

• The reservoir "gross" isopach map, which means the bulk thickness of the reservoir rocks

(formation).

• The reservoir "net" isopach map, which means the cumulative thickness of the permeable

rock units only. The Net-to-Gross ratio (N/G) is an important parameter indicating the

productive portion of the reservoir.

**10
**

Chapter 1. Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves

• The reservoir rock porosity (as a volume-based weighed average):

φ = ∑iφi*A*i*h*i

∑i*A*i*h*i

,

whereφ is the local porosity,*A*i is a subarea and*h*i is a subthickness (of permeable rock).

• The permeability and net-thickness product (*kh*N) is important for the estimation of well

production capacity:

(*kh*N) =* h*N

∑i*k*i*h*i

∑i*h*i

=* N
*

*G*∑

i

*k*i*h*i,

where* k*i is the local permeability (other symbols as above).

• Volume-based average saturation of water, gas and oil. For example water saturation:

*S*w = ∑i*S*wiφi*A*i*h*i

∑iφi*A*i*h*i

.

Plotting these parameters as contoured maps (isopachs, isoporosity, isopermeability, etc.)

provides the crucial information on their variation and distribution in the reservoir and makes

it possible to evaluate the reservoir pore volume and its fractions saturated with oil and gas

(hydrocarbon volume). The numerical value of hydrocarbon resources/reserve estimate their

represents an outcome of "integrated" map analysis.

**Stochastic Methods
**

An alternative approach is a probabilistic estimation of resources/reserves, which takes more

account of the estimate uncertainty. Stochastic reservoir description is usually based on the pro-

cedure of random-number generator. This numerical technique assumes that the main reservoir

properties (porosity, permeability, N/G, ect.) all have random, possibly normal, frequency dis-

tributions, with the range of values included by core and well-log data. The maximum and

minimum values are speciﬁed for each of the reservoir parameters and the random number

generator then "drowns data", so to speak, and then simulates their actual density distribution

in the whole reservoir.

In practice, it is necessary to repeat the stochastic simulation for different "seeds" (initial

boundary values) in order to asses and quantify the actual variation of a given parameter. Each

numerical realisation bears an uncertainty for the reservoir characterisation, where the prob-

abilistic rather than deterministic, is an estimate of resources/reserves. Different realisations

lead to different volumetric estimates, with different probabilities attached. The cumulative

frequency distributions of these estimates, that is used to asses their likelihood will be a very

unclear formulation. See Fig.1.2.

In common usage [8] we have:

– An estimate with 90 % or higher probability is the level regarded as a*proven* value.

– An estimate with 50 % or higher probability is the level regarded as a*proven* +* probable
*

value.

1.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation

**11
**

Frequency of cumulative

probability

Value

Min

Max

0.0

1.0

Probability, that a given

value of resources will

be at least as great

as shown

Frequency

Min

Max

Value

Figure 1.2: Example of stochastic volumetric estimate based on a se-

ries of random-number simulations.

– An estimate with 10 % or higher probability is the level regarded as a*proven* +*probable
*+

As more information on the reservoir becomes available, the cumulative frequency graph

may change its shape and the uncertainty of our resource/reserve estimates may decrease, see

Fig.1.3.

More generally, the problem of certainty can be considered in terms of "fuzzy" [61], prob-

abilistic and deterministic estimates based on the data available at a particular time, as seen

in Fig.1.4. A comparison of these estimates may be more revealing that each of them is in

isolation.

At the very early stages of ﬁeld appraisal, the data are usually too limited for using statis-

tical analysis and, hence, a*fuzzy* estimate of the resources/reserves may be best or only option

[22, 28, 56]. The lack or scarsity of data in such cases is compensated by a subjective assess-

ment of the reservoir characteristics (i.e. the shape of the distribution and the maximum and

minimum values of a given reservoir parameter), Based on the knowledge from other reservoirs

or simply a theoretical guess. A rectangular distribution means no preference and a triangular

distribution means that strong preference distributions are used.

When moredata have been collected and statistical analysis becomes possible, a*probabilis-
tic* estimate can be made. The range in the possible values of the reservoir parameters would

then be narrower, compared to a fuzzy assessment. When the data available are abadundant, a

for a particular part (zone, subunit or layer) of the reservoir.

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