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1) What did global leaders do in the 1920s and 1930s to prevent war and why did these efforts fail? Leaders in the US tried to stay isolationist and to not get involved in a war. Partly because they lost the money they lent to the Allies in WWI, and also because they wanted to focus on the depression. World leaders also made the Kellogg-Briand Act which abolished war and made it illegal to attack other countries except for in self defense. This failed because no one agreed to dismantle their military. Roosevelt instituted the good neighbor policy also, where he withdrew his forces from Latin America. 2) What were the most important factors leading to World War II in both the Pacific and in Europe? In the Pacific, Japan attacked Manchuria, which broke the Kellogg treaty, and then resigned from the League of Nations. In Europe, Mussolini became a dictator in Italy, and Hitler became a dictator in Germany. And the axis had their march of aggression, Hitler went crazy and attacked a bunch of countries, and that made the allies more inclined to enter the war. 3) Why was isolationism so popular in the United States? Because of the result of WWI and how devastating it was on American forces, the US wanted to stay out of world conflicts. Also, the US lent a lot of money to the allies in WWI and lost their money when those countries defaulted. A final factor was that the US wanted “normalcy” where they would avoid conflicts and instead focus on problems at home, like the Great Depression. 4) How did the United States attempt to maintain neutrality? The US passed the Neutrality Act, prohibiting the sale of munitions to belligerents, and advised against travelling on belligerent ships. The US also refused to lend money, saying that any shipments had to be paid for in cash and transported by their own ships. 5) What was the purpose of and the basic tenets of the Atlantic Charter and the Four Freedoms speech? The Atlantic Charter was between the United States and Britain. It set up an international policy of self-determination, economic cooperation, free seas, and the establishment of a United Nations. This charter represented their goals. The four freedoms speech by Roosevelt outlined the basic four freedoms that he believed everyone should have: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
8) Why was the Bataan Peninsula the venue of so much tragedy for American forces? The Bataan Peninsula forces held out the longest in the Japanese invasion of the Philippines. and buy the time the US rebuilt its western navy it would be too intimidated by Japan to retaliate. Japan thought that they could attack Pearl Harbor. War industries were discriminant against . and big businesses received grants from the government to work on defense projects. 7) Why was the United States called "the arsenal of democracy"? Roosevelt said that the US had to be the arsenal of democracy so it could prevent Britain and Germany from losing.6) Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? Japan attacked Pearl Harbor for many reasons based around the need for resources. important for the US offensive on Japan. and African Americans play in World War II? Women became more involved in the workforce. and travelled west to find new jobs. where they suffered many war crimes and a large percent of them died. Latinos. 10) How did World War II affect the United States economy? The start of WWII ended the Great Depression. 11) What important roles did women. All of the Japanese ships were sunk and only one of the American ships was sunk. It was a central point. The US had set up an embargo to Japan after the Manchuria incident. It had negative impacts on labor unions. so when the message was decoded US sent aircraft carriers to defend Midway. African Americans also became more involved in the workforce. The battle and the war centered on the use of planes and aircraft carriers. The Japanese captured the US forces and made them march to internment camps. so the Japanese suffered a heavy loss when they lost their carriers. Small businesses that did not receive contracts were forced to shut down. The US passed the lend-lease act allowing Roosevelt to send supplies to nations that the President saw as being essential to the national security of the US. Native Americans. Japanese aircraft carriers were going to attack the island. as the nation’s entire workforce was required to produce munitions and supplies for the troops. The war created many jobs. It also caused innovation in technology to speed up. The government controlled manufacturing. The two countries also had imperial rivalries in the Pacific. 9) What circumstances turned the tide in the Pacific Theatre of World War II? The battle of Midway was a major turning point in the Pacific. and they had no source of oil.
12) Why were Japanese Americans forcibly interned? What contributions did they nevertheless make to the United States war effort? The Japanese-Americans were blamed for the attack on Pearl Harbor. Some points include: Roosevelt wanted to start the United Nations and actually join it this time. and first attacked and took over all of North Africa. JapaneseAmericans signed up for the military despite of this. Membership in NAACP skyrocketed. 16) Why was the war against Japan so particularly difficult? . 13) What were the principal Allied strategies in the European Theatre of World War II? The US wanted to attack France. but Britain wanted to attack lesser German-controlled areas before they tried to reconquer France. The conference divided up Germany into British. and Churchill. Russia did most of the work in Europe. The purpose of the conference was to decide what would happen after the war. and their regiment became the most decorated military group in US history. American. and French zones. Stalin wanted to conquer as many territories s possible. At the same time. Their strategy was called “island hopping” where they would destroy the naval and air vehicles at certain Japanese strongholds and then move on. D-Day is when they finally invaded and eventually took over France. Stalin. The allies went with Britain’s approach. 14) What were the principal Allied strategies in the Pacific Theatre of World War II? MacArthur led the army south through the big islands (what is now Indonesia) on the way to Japan. 15) What important decisions were reached at Yalta? The Yalta convention was between Roosevelt. leaving the Japanese stranded in their bases and unable to get more food. fighting on the eastern front and they suffered the most losses. The Navy was very successful despite kamikazes. Native Americans were the most supportive minority of the war. Russian. Racial tension provoked conflict (zoot suit riots). Latinos were hired often by the US to fill the labor shortage. Government action in internment followed a swelling public hate for those of Japanese ancestry. They were attracted by the increase of jobs and patriotism. and the military had segregated units for them. Next they attacked Italy and took it over. They were able to beat U-boats with radar and cryptanalysts and they gained air supremacy.blacks. The main reason that they justified their actions with was that they wanted to protect the US from spies. Nimitz led the navy strait west to Japan. and he wanted Stalin to help fight Japan.
Dates that must be memorized are underlined: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Know the proper order of each of these events. much less than what occurred. 1944 Iwo Jima captured by the United States. 18) What is the structure of the United Nations? What are its powers? 19) How did "containment" become the defining feature of US foreign policy? 20) Why was the Soviet Union unhappy with events in post-war Germany? 21) What were the circumstances of the Berlin Airlift and why was it a US success? 22) In what ways did the late 1940s set the stage for an important civil rights movement? 23) Why was the 1948 presidential election so interesting? 24) Why did Mao Zedong's communists take control of China? 25) What important steps led to the Korean War? 26) Why did Truman fire Douglas MacArthur? 27) Why was (and is) McCarthyism so dangerous? 28) What were important changes and issues in American culture of the period from 1945 to 1960? Dates for Chronology. February 1945 Okinawa captured by the United States. 17) What were/are the principal arguments for and against using atomic weapons against Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Pro: Killing civilians was accepted military practice at the time. They never gave up (honor based in their culture). Projected deaths were only 20.000.They had kamikazes which were very dangerous for US ships. The final battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa were particularly bloody battles where many died. There were many long term effects of radiation. the Allied invasion of Normandy. Autumn 1942 Allies capture Sicily. Spring 1942 Allies attack North Africa. April 1945 . US also gave Japan advanced warning. Summer 1943 D-Day. 1941 Battles of Coral Sea and Midway. June 6. An allied invasion of Japan would lead to many more deaths than one bomb. Con: It killed many people. December 7.
August 9. 1945 Atomic bomb destroys most of Hiroshima. 1945 Atomic bomb destroys much of Nagasaki.War ends in Europe. May 8. August 6. Allwright Sicily Italy Normandy Douglas MacArthur Leyte Gulf Yalta Iwo Jima Okinawa Hiroshima Nagasaki Harry Truman Potsdam Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO . 1945 Fill in the blank in addition to the dates above: Good Neighbor (policy) Manchuria Pearl Harbor Bataan Philippines Coral Sea Midway Winston Churchill Franklin Delano Roosevelt Smith v.
(2 points). . August 14. multiple choice (2 points). 1945 Format: Chronology of five events from WWII. This list for the chronology is at the bottom of this page. 18 points total.Jackie Robinson Fair Deal Joe McCarthy Alger Hiss Japan surrenders. fill in the blank (2 points) Short Answer (4 points). Essay (8 points).
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