Q. Ans.

What are the methods of fabric formation? Weaving, knitting, non woven

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What is the principle of manufacturing woven fabric? Weaving is the interlacing of two sets of (warp & weft) yarns at right angles in a prede-termined pattern.

Q. Ans.

What is warp yarn (ends)? Yarns that run lengths of the loom.

Q. Ans.

What is weft yarn (picks)? Yarns that are woven across the loom.

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What is the objective of warp preparation process? To transfer yarns from cone packages to weaver’s beam

Q. Ans.

What does beam preparation process consist of? Creeling and warping


What is creeling in warp preparation process?

Ans. Putting required number of yarn packages in the creels, in desired order, in order to make warper’s beam. Figure shows a creel.

Fig. A Creel

How many types of creeling are done in warp preparation process? Magazine creel. reversible creel. What are the types of warping systems? Direct or beam warping. What are warper’s beam and weaver’s beam? Warper’s beam: A beam on which yarn is wound on the warping machine. Ans. Ans. Weaver’s beam: A roller on which large flanges are usually fixed so that a warp may be wound on it in readiness for weaving. Truck creel Q. Magazine creel Fig. Fig.Q. Reversible creel Fig. and Thread by thread warping Q. Duplicate creel Fig. Indirect or sectional warping. . duplicate creel and truck creel. Ans.

number of warp yarns = creel capacity = Number of warp beams = 3360 560 totoal number of warp yarns/creel capacity = 3360/560 = 6 Q. Fig. Drop wire is a metal piece that falls and hits an electrode bar in case warp yarn breaks and stops the loom. Drop wires Heald eye is a part of heald through which each warp yarn is threaded. What is direct or beam warping system? Ans. The winding of the total number of warp ends in full width in a single operation from creeled bobbins. In this warping system several sections are wound in sequence and parallel to each other on a drum. For example. This allows the movement of each warp yarn to be controlled during weaving. Reed dent is the opening in the reed.Q. What is indirect or sectional warping system? Ans. heald eye and reed dent? Ans. Heald frames and healds . either onto a weaver’s beam. Describe the drop wire. or on to a sectional beam. Reed beats the newly laid weft yarns into the body of the cloth. Fig. Q.

Q. What are warp protectors? Ans. . Shedding Picking Beating-up Q. such as a shuttle or a projectline. What is drawing-in? Ans. Let-off Take-up Weft selection Q. They stop the loom before beat-up can occur if the media fails to be arrested in the correct position after it has traversed the loom. The number of dents per unit width of reed. 2. Ans. After preparation. Ans. 2.Q. 3. the warp yarn is “drawn in” through the eyes of the heald mounted on the required shafts (harnesses). What are primary motions? Every loom requires three primary motions to produce woven fabric : 1. What are secondary motions? 1. Q. 3. 2. What is the reed count or reed number? Ans. Like: The number of dents per inch The number of dents per 2 inch The number of groups of 20 dents per 36 inches The number of dents per 10 cm The recommended unit is dents/cm. Warp protectors are only necessary in looms which use a free flying media to insert the weft. Warp stop motions Warp protectors Weft stop motions Weft relenishment Q. 3. What are ancillary motions? 1. Ans. 4.

Fig. Ans. Yarns that pass through the heald eyes in those harnesses are raised above that are not controlled by the raised harnesses. It is the mechanism that raises certain harnesses above the others. semi open shedding and closed shedding methods? Ans. The difference between them is that the terms ‘bottom’ and ‘centre’ indicate the position of the warp threads when at rest. What are open shedding. a sheet of warp yarns is up. Bottom closed Fig.e. according to pattern. the only warp threads moved are those that are required to change position from the upper to the lower line of the shed. bottom closed and centre closed sheddings. Fig.Q.. Centre closed . They are of two types i. between the insertion of one weft pick and the next. Open-shedding Semi open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which threads. and a sheet of yarns is down. are lowered a short distance and then raised again. In this way. What are the four fundamental operations in weaving? • • • • Shedding Picking Beating up Take up and let off Q. What is shedding process? Ans. Q. The space between two yarn sheets is called “shed”. Semi Open-shedding Closed shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which all warp threads are brought to the same level after the insertion of each pick of weft. to allow for weft insertion or picking prior to beating. The other threads are raised and lowered as in open shedding. Open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which. Fig. which are to remain in the top shed line for the next pick. It is a primary motion in weaving that does separation of warp threads. or vice versa.

This is the motion which delivers warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at a suitable constant tension by unwinding it from a flanged tube known as the weaver’s beam. The fell of the cloth is the edge which is nearest to the reed as the cloth is being woven. What is temple? It is a device used in weaving to hold fabric at the fell as near as possible to the width of the warp in the Q. What is fell of the cloth? Ans. Ans. Fig.). reed. Q. What is beating up? Ans. What is let -off (warpcontrol) motion? Ans. .Q. beating-up occurs when the reed pushes the newly inserted weft against the fell of the cloth (Refer fig. Fell of the cloth and other important functions Q. Beating-up is the third operation of the weaving cycle. Q. Picking is the second operation of the weaving process. the reed pushes or beats-up the weft to the fell of the cloth. As soon as a weft yarn is inserted. What is picking (weft insertion)? Ans. the length of weft is inserted through the shed. In other words. After the shed has been formed.

Positive let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric forming machine where the beam is driven mechanically. What are positive and negative let -off (warp control) motions? Ans. and then winds it onto the cloth roller. Negative let-off motion Fig. Q. Positive take-up motion . It ensures that the required pick spacing is maintained. Position of sensing roller in an automatic positive let off motion Q. so determining the pick spacing. Fig. What is take up (cloth control) motion? Ans. Positive take up motion: It is the motion in which the take up roller is gear driven. a change wheel or variable-throw pawl and ratchet being provided to allow the required rate to be obtained. Negative let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric forming machine where the beam is pulled round by warp against a braking force applied to beam. This is the motion that withdraws fabric from the weaving area at a constant rate.Q. Fig. What are positive take up and negative take up motions? Ans.

by varying the relative positions of the fell and the reed. Negative take-up motion Q.Negative take up motion: It is the motion in which the take up roller is rotated by means of a weight or spring. A warp pile fabric in which loops are created. Q. without positive assistance. What is woven terry fabric? Ans. Major systems of loom . Fig. A high tension is applied to the ground warp and a very low tension to the pile warp. The take up rate is controlled by the size of the force applied by the weight or spring and/or the warp tension. Show major systems of loom ? Fig. It is the form of weaving in which two adjacent warp yarns cross each other between the picks. this roller only rotates when the force applied by the weight or spring is greater than the warp lay tension in the fabric. What is leno weaving? Ans. Q.

Ans. simple twills and simple sateen and satin weaves. How many types of shedding motions are available? Ans. shows tappet shedding with roller reversing. Fig. This limits to the weaving of plain weaves. Incase. Q. Tappet. The tapping shedding system is a motion of tappets and cams that cause shafts to be raised to form the shed. The mechanical arrangement of this system occupies so much of space that it can accomodate maximum of eight shafts and that is why its eight shafts represent maximum size of its weave repeat. then a dobby loom has to be used. What is tappet shedding system? Ans. Fig. Tappet shedding with roller reversing . the repeat of the desired design require more than eight shafts. dobby and jacquard Q.

2 :Double lift jacquard shedding . This shedding system has no shafts. each warp can weave independently of all the others. It is required when the number of heald shafts or the number of picks in repeat of pattern or both are beyond the capacity of tappet shedding This is a shedding system capable of having upto 32 shafts.4 show single lift jacquard shedding. A mechanism for controlling the heald shafts of a loom. What is dobby shedding system? Ans.Q.2.3 and 1. double lift jacquard shedding formation and electronic jacquard respectively. 1.1. a much greater weave repeat and complicated design is possible.1.1. the greatest weave repeat is possible . Fig. double lift jacquard shedding. Q. Fig. What is jacquard shedding system? Ans. Therefore.1 : Single lift jacquard shedding Fig. A harness consisting of as many cords as there are ends in the warp sheet connects each end individually to the Jacquard machine situated high above the loom.1. Since each warp yarn can be controlled individually. Being able to accomodate up to 32 shafts. This enables most intricate designs to be woven. 1.

3 : Double lift jacquard shedding formation Fig.Fig.1.4 : Electronic jacquard .1.

Rapier loom 3. Power loom Shuttleless loom: 1. Shuttle system of weft insertion . Single shed loom: Shuttle loom: 1. Hand loom 2. Show the shuttle system of weft insertion ? Healds Shuttle Warp sheet Fig. Water jet loom Q. Ans. Projectile or gripper loom 2.Q. What are the types of looms? Ans. Air jet loom 4.

which is then propelled through the shed. A rapier machine may have a single rapier to carry the weft across the full width or a single rapier operating bilaterally with a centrally located bilateral weft supply. Gripper shuttle (projectile) weaving Q. Describe the rapier loom ? Ans. Describe the projectile or gripper loom ? Ans. or two rapiers operatiing opposites sides of the machines. this being positively driven. A weaving machine in which the weft thread is gripped by jaw(s) fitted in a projectile. . It has a small hook like device that grips the end of the filling yarn. Machines in which the means of carrying the weft through the shed is fixed in the end of a rigid rod or in a flexible ribbon.Q. Fig.

Sometimes there is sysytem of single rapier that takes the filling yarn across the fabric and then empty rapier returns back leaving the new filling yarn in place. Different rapier systems are shown in figure.Fig. one end of which takes the filling yarn half the width of the fabric to the centre of the shed where a second rapier picks up the yarn and takes it the remaining half of the fabric across the shed. Double rapier system Rapier is a flexible steel tape. Fig. Different rapier systems .

Describe the air jet loom ? Ans. Describe the multiphase loom ? Ans. a water jet is propelled across the shed with the force. . In air jet loom. a jet of air is projected across the shed with the force. that takes the filling yarn to the other side. Describe water jet loom? Ans. that takes the filling yarn to the other side. In water jet loom. Relay air-jet system Q. The multiphase loom can form many different sheds at different places. Q.Q. one behind the other. Fig. thereby enabling insertion of number of filling yarns.

and beating them up together with it. Usually the selvedge has an increased number of ends per inch. Fig.Q. It is a firmer construction than rest of the fabric that provides neat edge and a secure grip for fininshing machines. What types of selvedges can be formed? Ans. Selvedges may contain special effects or brand names or fabric descriptions woven into them. alongside the new pick. Q. What is selvedge? Ans. Tuck-in selvedge Double-pick interwoven selvedge Fused selvedge Helical selvedge Inserted selvedge Leno selvedge Traditional selvedge Q. Tuck selvedge . Selvedge is the woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp edge. Tuck-in selvedge is formed by tucking-in protruding portions of each pick into the next warp shed. How is tuck in selvedge formed? Ans.

Helical selvedge is formed by nipping each pick between two strong. highly tensioned ends which interwine continuously.Q. How is fused selvedge formed? Fused selvedge is the thermoplastic warp and weft that are welded together by heat and pressure. Fig. each end having a helical configuration. How is leno selvedge obtained? Ans. Ans. How is helical selvedge formed? Ans. Q. Helical selvedge . Warp threads are crossed and interwoven into the edges of the fabric. Leno selvedge Q. highly tensioned ends that interface with the weft on the leno principle. Fig. Leno selvedge is formed by one or more pairs of strong.

Q. full bobbin into the same shuttle. using a small reciprocating shuttle. What is the normal weight range of woven fabric? Very heavy > 13 oz/yd2 Heavy > 6 . the weaver is restricted to one shuttle and one colour warp yarn ( called battery type). Double-pick interwoven selvedge is formed by interweaving a strong selvedge end with the legs of the protruding loops. The floats are not long and the patterns are usually geometric. Inserted selvedgeis formed by inserting additional short double picks of strong fine yarn by means of a reciprocating needle.13 oz/yd2 Medium > 4 . This is the type of automatic loom in which the loom takes the empty bobbin from the shuttle and automatically relpaces it with a new. 54.36” Very narrow = < 12” Q. . In this case. How inserted selvedge is formed? Ans. zigzag stripes in white yarn on a coloured plain weave ground. This exchange is made without stopping the loom. 60.e.6 oz/yd2 Light > 2 . What is the normal width range of woven fabric? Ans. Another new type can use four colours in the warp. How is double-pick interwoven selvedge formed? Ans. How traditional selvedge is formed? Traditional selvedge is formed without making special provision on a shuttle loom weaving plain cloth. This is the type of weave in which floating threads are carried on the surface of the fabric and introduced at intervals to form the patterns. Ans. Q.4 oz/yd2 Very light < 2 oz/yd2 Q. Ans. Q. What is lappet weave? Ans. What is magazine loom? Ans. 72” Narrow = 27 . i. Q.Q. Broadloom = 108” Medium or average = 45.

plain. What is novelty weave? Any weave which varies or combines the basic weaves. This is the type of loom meant for narrow fabric such as ribbons and tapes. Rotating the tablets controls the rise and fall of the warp yarns. the picking being done by a special type of small shuttle controlled by a swivel.Q. A loom having two or more shuttles used for weaving fabrics containing weft yarns different as to size. Q. The figuring yarn is fed from a series of shuttles mounted over the top of the weaving surface. cardboard. Q. e. What is swivel weaving ? Ans. Tablets are usually about 5 to 10 cm square. Q. triangles. What is needle loom? Ans. Q. where warp is controlled by tablets made of thin. What is box loom ? Ans. are also used. hexagons. e.g. Q. The weft is retained at the opposite selvedge by the action of knittting or by the introduction of a locking thread from a separate supply. Ans. Q. satin and twill. etc. Each tablet has a hole at each corner through the warp yarns are threaded. This is the type of any textile fabric made by interlacing fibres or yarns which does not exceed 45 cm ( in the U. What is swivel loom? Ans. Narrow fabrics are characterised by the edges. This is the type of shuttleless weaving machine in which the weft is drawn from a stationary supply and introduced into the shed in the form of a double-pick by a weft inserter needle. although other shapes. bone. What is narrow fabric? Ans. twist or colour. Q. What is tablet weaving ? Ans. A. stiff material. etc. which are the essential feature. What is ribbon loom? This is the type of loom used for making narrow fabrics. and other counries). A fabric in which figure is achieved by the introduction of additional weft threads into base fabric to produce small clipped woven-in-spot effects. plastic. . S. It is a method of making woven plain or patterned narrow fabrics. Ans.) and does not exceed 30 cm ( in the U. K.g.

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