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Hartford AP Biology (2) 9 March 2012 Lab: Design a Lab to Measure the Rate of Transpiration Title: The affect of various treatments on the rate of transpiration for a plant. Question: Which various environmental treatments will increase and decrease the rate of transpiration the most? Hypothesis: Wind will increase the rate the most. If the potometer is exposed to wind, the rate of transpiration will increase because with more carbon dioxide going through the stomata, more water and oxygen will be released due to photosynthesis. Darkness will decrease the rate the most. If the potometer is covered, then the rate of transpiration will decrease because the plant will not receive enough light, which it needs to carry out transpiration. Materials Potometer Plant 0.1 mL pipette Plant cutting Ring stand Clamps Clear tubing Petroleum jelly Beaker Refridgerator Procedure 1. Set up the potometer. 2. Used a water bottle to fill the tubing. Added water until it came out of the other end of the tube. Made sure there were no bubbles.
99 .030 2.928 1.09 27 0.039 3.766 15 2.474 1.082 0.58 .061 0. 7.638 9 1.1 0 0 3 0.34 .09 0.0097 m2 Water Information After Treatment Time Interval (minutes) 6 9 12 15 18 0.405 1.909 .967 4.397 1.065 0. Let the potometer equilibrate for 10 minutes before making time zero reading.345 9.724 1.959 6.784 2.072 0.345 4.1mL Surface Area: 0.172 2.830 18 2.172 1.552 2.01 0 21 0.03 0 .207 3.608 3.06 0.09 .99 24 0.149 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .277 12 1.02 . IT WAS ESSENTIAL TO DO THIS VERY QUICKLY!!!! 4.745 24 3.035 3. Inserted potometer in refrigerator to decrease the temperature.345 6.784 2.Mayer 2 3.033 2.86 .61 .34 0.345 7.02 Water Loss (mL/m2) due to Different Treatments Take every 3 Minutes Treatment 0 Control Light Light Temp Temp Humidity Wind TIME (MINUTES) 3 .200 1.86 0.075 0.172 3.515 0 0 .814 3.443 2.413 .655 0.471 3.596 27 4.426 6 .058 0.61 30 0.872 30 4.03 0.148 1. Recorded our results by making pipette readings every 3 minutes for 30 minutes.69 0 .013 1.025 2.345 0.087 0.196 2.028 2.362 3.042 4.476 3.414 0 .4 2.255 21 3. 5.345 5.838 ? 4. 6. Made time zero reading then exposed the plant to coldness.08 0.06 . Data Starting Level: 0. Quickly cut the plant stem and put into the tubing.295 2.379 3.103 0.463 5.58 Water Level after time (mL) Water Loss (mL) Water Loss per m2 0 0.099 6 3.901 1.018 1.07 0.753 1.975 2.
Mayer 3 Graph: The Rate of Transpiration Under Various Environmental Treatments Water Loss due to Different Treatments (mL/m2) Time (Minutes) Calculations Rate of Transpiration = Control: Light: Light: Temp: Temp: = 0.1653 mL/m2 per minute = 0.1413 mL/m2 per minute = 0.12793 mL/m2 per minute = 0.2069 mL/m2 per minute = 0.134 mL/m2 per minute .
The change in water potential in leaves causes a gradient. Since there were no changed factors.0115 mL/m2 per minute = 0. water loss decreases at the leaves’ surfaces because the rate of photosynthesis diminishes. The opposite happened when the plant was placed in the dark. some of the light energy is converted to heat. and so is water loss. As light levels decrease in intensity. causing an overall decrease of .305 mL/m2 per minute Conclusion Transpiration carries moisture through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves. therefore. The room temperature had little or no effect on the water potential because there was no pressure on the plant. which moves water upward from the roots to the leaves. the rate of transpiration increased because the rate that stomata open increases with intense light. Since the stomata are open in light. the stomata on the leaves’ surfaces were open to allow for water evaporation. In this lab. Transpiration in plants is controlled by water potential.Mayer 4 Humidity: Wind: = 0. The rate of transpiration is thus increased. This change in water potential in leaves causes a gradient by which water can be moved upward. where it changes to water vapor and is released into the atmosphere. The plant was exposed to a normal amount of light. altered light intensities affected the rate. therefore. The rate of transpiration increases as temperature increases. therefore more stomata are closed. there is less pressure potential inside the plant. while low light. the rate of transpiration measured for the control was the natural rate of transpiration for our plant. each environmental factor affected the rate of transpiration. Wind and high light intensity increased it. increase and decrease in temperature. For the plant put into an environment of increased light. which increases the rate of photosynthesis. The control was a plant left to transpire in room temperature without any environmental treatments. water did not transpire. As the leaf absorbs light. and humidity all decreased the rate of respiration in comparison to the control’s rate. Next. Transpiration in plants is controlled by water potential.
transpiration would still occur. This could be due to the initial closing of stomata to prevent water loss. if not at a faster rate from increased pressure. This causes water to transpire as it moves from high to low water potential when light is increased. According to the data collected. the water potential inside would still be greater in relation to the water potential of the surrounding atmosphere and because water travels from areas of high water potential to low. This value. while wind increased the rate the most. The water escapes also because the stomata are open. If left to transpire.Mayer 5 water potential within the plant. high temperatures would increase the rate of transpiration by increasing the entropy of water inside the leaves. Humidity decreased . I think that if left to transpire in high heat for a longer period of time. The data collected did not reflect this logic. This could be due to the initial closing of stomata to prevent water loss due to the heat. Temperature also affects the rate of transpiration. then the rate would slowly increase. The low temperature adjusted the rate of transpiration as hypothesized. the plant would have increased the rate of transpiration. the water potential within the plant is still greater. Since water travels from areas of high to low water potential. Low temperature would decrease the rate of transpiration by decreasing the entropy of the water and therefore making evaporation more difficult. The low temperature decreased as it should have because the entropy of the water decreased. Even with more closed stomata. this would increase the pressure potential in the plant. Even with more closed stomata. however. transpiration would still occur. The next conditions the plant incurred were humidity and wind. High and low temperatures also affected the rate of transpiration in the plant. making evaporation and transpiration more difficult. relative to the water potential of the atmosphere. Humidity decreased the rate of transpiration the most. however. However. would still be greater in relation to the water potential of the surrounding atmosphere. In the ideal situation. this would increase the pressure potential within the plant. the rate decreased. Ideally. usually at a faster rate. high temperatures would actually increase the rate of transpiration by increasing the entropy of water within the leaves. However.
they would just ask for the data from Mariana and me . Contributions I do not believe the contributions of our team were equal. on the other hand.Mayer 6 the rate because the area outside the plant began to have a higher water concentration. While collecting the data. the temperature of the refrigerator was not controllable so we could not get the temperature as low as we hoped. which could have. Afterwards. This is because the humidity or lack thereof influences water potential the most. The stand on which the potometer and the plant were attached to was too tall to stand up straight in the fridge so it had to be placed at an angle. Due to time constraints from having to come up with the refrigerator idea after the ice slurry did not work out. Water is less likely to transpire into the atmosphere when air is humid because water does not travel against the concentration gradient. decreasing the water potential of the air and making the air more likely to transpire. The wind. We got this information from another group. thus affecting the rate of transpiration more than any of the other treatments. Weak Areas The slurry approach did not work as intended so we utilized a refrigerator instead. carried humidity away and replaced it with drier air. but I was incorrect about darkness creating the highest decrease in the rate. and probably did. This did not affect the water potential of the plant. This continually moved the potometer. skewed the results. Humidity decreases the rate of transpiration the most. I was correct about the wind creating the highest increase in the rate of transpiration. it seemed like two of our team members were not really doing much besides talk about offtopic subjects and eat. Darkness did not have the lowest rate of transpiration because the closed stomata were merely closed “windows” that did not let the water escape. therefore our readings were slightly inaccurate. My hypothesis was half correct. Also. we did not have time to measure the surface area of our plant.
it was difficult to secure the potometer on the ring stand. . air bubbles settled in. skewing the results. I question the accuracy of all of our values because of the illegibility.Mayer 7 without looking at the actual experiment. One contributed later. by helping with the calculations. the potometer values were very difficult to discern. the results of the lab would be easier to obtain and more accurate. With a more precise reading and more secured potometer. Suggestions In this lab. Also. and because we had to keep tilting and maneuvering the potometer. however.
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