HP/HT well construction, well control issues and risk management

How can a Research Institute contribute ?

Presented by Rolv Rommetveit, Rogaland Research

• • • • • Background R&D highlights within HPHT The HPHT Laboratory HPHT Integrated Studies How can an R&D Institute contribute ?

HPHT Drilling Research at RF-Rogaland Researc Background
• Prospects and Discoveries in Central Graben

• Serious Well Control Problems during drilling of HPHT Wells • Need for understanding dynamic Pressures as well as Temperature effects in HPHT wells • HPHT Fields under development require solutions to production and reservoir related problems as well

HPHT Research Activities at RF-Rogaland Research

From 1990 R&D within drilling and well technology start at RF • 1991 - 93

“Accurate Pressure Conditions in Deep, Hot Wells” JIP with 5 participants Development of an Advanced Model for Accurate Pressure a Temperature Calculations

• 1991 - 94
Strategic Technology Programme from NFR “Well Technology in Deep, Hot Wells • Productions Problems related to HPHT reservoirs • Drilling related problems was further studied • Needs for Laboratories to study these phenomena was

HPHT Drilling Research at RF-Rogaland Researc

1990 - 94: “Understanding Pressures and Temperatures during drilling under extreme conditions” (DEA-E-33 project)

Focus on:
– – – – Field Measurements of P and T from 2 HPHT Wells Fluid Properties at HPHT (Rheology and Density) Verification of Pressure and Temperature models Development of recommendations for safer Tripping and Drilling

HPHT field data
• Time based surface data • Time based downhole data
– Near BOP – Top and bottom of BHA – 1000 m above BHA – Gel tests – Surge and swab – Circulation sweeps –…

• The data cover detailed tests in cased holes

Laboratory experiments
• 10 HPHT mud samples collected and analysed • Mud density at HPHT • Mud rheology at HPHT • Correlation based models developed

Case 1:
• 2.1 s.g. WBM • Vertical, 5000 m • Gel tests inside 9 5/8” casing Tests at bottom inside 7” liner

Case 2:
• • • • 2.2 s.g. OBM Deviated, up to 27° 5100 m MD Tests inside 9 7/8” casing

Pressure (bar) 1000 1100 1200 400 15 Gel tests w. rotation Gel tests w.o. rotation 20 Reaming cement Pressure test Dress off cement plug 25 Time (hours) 30 35 Circ. and cond. mud Surge and swab Circulation sweeps, 200-1000 l/min Static period 500 600 700 800 900

Bottom hole pressure, WBM

Pressure, gel test w.o. rot., WBM
860 850 Pressure (bar) 840 830 820 810 800



18.5 18.6 Time (hours)



Pressure, swab/surge, WBM
1250 1200 Pressure (bar) 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 600 l/min No circ.



27.6 Time (hours)



Temperature, Transient p,T-model, OBM
165 160 155 Temperature (C) 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 35 40 45 Measured data Calculation

Operational recommendations developed for :
• Pressure transmission • Drilling
– Swab in critical zones
• Recommended procedure for critical zones

– Surge in critical zones – Gelling

• Mud properties
– Rheology and gel strength are very temperature dependent – HPHT laboratory measurements are recommended

• Use of thermo-hydraulic analysis

HPHT Research Activities at RF-Rogaland Research

ELF HPHT Drilling and Production Programme
A Major Research Co-operation Based on Elgyn / Franklin needs

1992 - 1995
– Drilling Programme – Production Programme – HPHT Laboratory

Dynamic Barite Sag in Drilling Fluids
Research funded by Elf and ENI / Norsk Agip

Dynamic Barite Sag
Dynamic barite sagging: When weight material in drilling fluid precipitates during circulation. • All drilling fluids show dynamic sagging during laminar shear flow. • Large differences in different drilling fluids with respect to rate of dynamic sagging.

Dynamic Barite Sag
2.50E-05 2.00E-05 1.50E-05 1.00E-05 5.00E-06 0.00E+00 Agip oil Agip water based: based: Glydril: Versa Vert 80/20: Nova Plus 60/40: CMC: Xanthan:

Summary of sagging properties of drilling muds

Dynamic Barite Sag

• A method to measure dynamic sagging in drilling fluids has been developed.

• A formalism to analyse the results have bee established

HPHT Fluids Laboratory
Testing of fluids at: Pressures up to 1500 bar Temperatures up to 200º C

The RF rig area

• • • • • • Phase behaviour of fluid mixtures Retrograde condensate evaluation Dew point determination Formation blocking Emulsion stability Foam properties

• • • • • • • Scale formation studies and inhibition Wax and asphaltene formation Corrosion evaluation Chemical stability Emulsion stability Supercritical properties of gases Solvent properties in fluids

• • • • • • • • • Well control Completion fluid characterization Gas / condensate solubility in completion fluids Thermal properties of packer fluids Salt solubility in brines Kill pill stability Fluid compatibilities Precipitation in the formation Emulsion stability

• Well control • Kick control
– Gas, condensate and oil influx in oil and water based mud

• ECD management • Drilling fluid characterization
– Emulsion stability under HPHT conditions – Rheology stability under HPHT conditions – Static barite sagging under HPHT conditions – Thermophysical properties in fluids

The HPHT Mud Cell
Principle •Piston cell with piston controlled by hydraulic pressure inside a heating cabinet •The cell volume (e.g. Position of the piston) is read by a linear encoder mounted on the side

Technical data •Position encoder for volu measurements

•Robust tubing and valves allow handling fluids weig with solid agents

•Well for temperature pro the cell body

•Computer interfaced dat acquisition

Technical data •Pressure range: 0 to 1.370 bar •Temperature limit: 200 C •Volume: 500 ml ( + 0.2% ) •Material: Solid Hastelloy

Applications •Thermal expansion of fluid •Compressibility of fluid

•Temperature and pressure effects of fluid components

HPHT-laboratory PVT-cell
•Similar to two big yolumetric pumps placed vertically within a large thermostat; with the pump cylinders utilized as cells •Pistons can compress sample or displace it back and forth to display interesting phenomena in windows

•Advanced PVT-apparatus

•Two interconnected variabl volume chambers with moto driven pistons working direc into cells

•Fully computer-interfaced control and data acquisition

Technical data
•1.500 bar maximum working pressure (20.000 psi) •-30 to 230o C temperature range •Volume: 700 cc (cell1), 100 cc (cell 2) Accuracy: γL-Level Solid Hastelloy Vespel (seals) Al2O3 (windows)

•Interchangable end-sections a variety of sapphire window video-monitor or fiber-optic interface detection •Applications •All standard PVT with unprecedented accuracy


•Direct dewpoint measuremen

•Minimal dead volumes (valves integrated in cell bodies) •Flush-mounted pressure transducers

•Visual (full-view colour vide monitor) and quantitative stud all phase transition phenomen L1,L2, Solid precipitation,...)


• HPHT Fluids laboratory is highly relevant for drilling ,completion and reservoir related studies • Application in
– Drilling and completion fluid characterization – Well control / kick control – Gas / condensate solubility – Baryte sag – Fluid stability – Fluid properties vs. Pressure and Temperature

HPHT Drilling Research: Kick Modelling and Control • A GENERAL TOOL FOR WELL CONTROL ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS – A JIP for development of RF Kick Simulator

• Activities related to HPHT well control:
– Extended PVT model – Special aspects of kicks in HPHT wells – Surface gas separation and flaring capabilities

Design tool for work station (DEA-E-5)

Full scale kick tests in OBM (DEA-E-9)

Kick development in horizontal wells

Dissolved gas transport PVT-experiments in OBM Multilateral well control Blow-out kill model Shallow gas kicks Special kill procedures

Verification v.s. kick tests

Full scale kick experime in horizontal wells (DEA-E-50) HPHT Condensate kicks Gas slip analysis Full scale kick tests for SHD (DEA-E-55) Deep water kick module

Kick with lost circulation Kill of underground flow

General EOS-based PVT-module

Gas rise in highly gelled m Kick for slim hole drilling

Multiple kicks from multiple zones

Undetected connection kick Ile
1m3 kick, OBM, circ 1200 l/min

Uniqueness of RF Kick
• Can model gas, condensate and oil kicks (advanced PVT module) • Well suited for HPHT conditions • Verified for ultra-deep conditions • Can model complex scenarios (with lost circulstion etc.) • Realistic gas transport model enable degasser design evaluations • Less conservative (more realistic) than other models • Special wellsite version for kick tolerance evaluations on critical wells available • A necessary tool in the operator’s tool-kit for special wells and operations

HPHT R&D Thermo-hydraulic Thermo-hydraulic modelling (PRESMOD)
• Coupled pressure and temperature simulator • Radial and axial discretization • Dynamic simulations for studies of operational effects on pressure and temperature profiles • State of the art rheology and density models with possibilities to input of fluid lab. data

• JIP on HPHT Hydraul Modeling since 1990
• Elf Transient Wellbore Temperature Model Belzeb

• Results from DEA-E-3 tests improved Model • Extensive verification
• HPHT wells • Extended Reach Wells • Deep Water wells

Presmod Value and uniqueness
• Presmod is a unique tool to optimize drilling procedures in wells with small margins • Presmod takes into full account the impact of operations-driven T and P changes on the ECDs • Casing running can be optimized
• •

Pressure loss 81/2” section CsFK m Kristin well case

HPHT Research ; Critical pressure effects • Transient surge and swab pressure
– Compressibility – Friction – Hole and casing elasticity

• Transient gel breaking pressure
– Pump start-up and surge/swab when drilling

Critical Pressure Effects
Research activities 1. Fluid characterization 2. Pressure transmission laboratory experiments 3. Flow start-up lab. experiments 4. Transient flow modeling 5. HPHT field tests Transient flow model with gel build-up and gel breaking Computer software

Gel breaking pressure near bottom
845 840 Pressure (bar) 835 830 825 820 815 18.74 18.75 18.76 18.77 18.78 18.79 18.8 Time (hours) Pressure at gauge A2 (DEA-E-33 WBM) Measured data No GEL With gelling

HTHP surge and swab calculation
1350 1300 1250 Pressure (bar) 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 27.38 27.39 27.4 27.41 Time (hours) 27.42 27.43 Pressure at gauge A2 (DEA-E-33 WBM) Measured data Dynamic calculation Steady state

KickRisk – project goals
Develop a tool that:
• • • • • Quantifies uncertainty to kick and blowout Reflects risk related to different design alternatives Highlights critical factors Assists identification of risk reducing measures Is a basis for cost-benefit studies of alternate measures

KickRisk Overview
Norsk Agip Oljedirektoratet Statoil (upgrade) Norsk Agip Norsk Hydro Norsk Agip Norsk Hydro Oljedirektoratet

Kick Analysis
Completed In use Evaluation Further development

Loss of well control
Completed Qualification Pilot study Further development

Blowout flow module
In progress

KickRisk Kvitebjørn Study
• Objectives:
– Quantify overall kick probabilities – Identify critical factors – Compare OBM and CsKF in terms of kick probability – Quantify fracturing probabilites – Sensitivity analysis on mudweight

• Methodology:
– Data gathering via expert team Interviews – Analysis using KickRisk: Risk Analysis module

KickRisk Kvitebjørn Study
• Analysis of fracturing probabilities for CsKF

Example of application

KickRisk study on the Kristin field

HPHT well studies in Rogaland Research Group
• • • Numerous HPHT wells drilled in Norway including 2/4-14 & 16
• Pre- and post analysis of well control

BP Baku Shah Deniz wells

BP UK Marnock
• Post analysis of well control problems

BP UK Devonick
• theoretical evaluations • laboratory investigations • computer simulations and scenario developments with advanced modeling tools; drilling & completions • implementing learning's in procedures and operations • training • operational support

• Well control & transient hydraulics evaluations • Gas diffusion • Operational support

Kvitebjørn ; Statoil

• Computer simulations and scenar developments; advanced hydraul • Kick Risk studies

Kristin ; Statoil

• theoretical evaluations; gas diffus • computer simulations and scenar developments with advanced modeling tools; drilling & complet • implementing learning's in proced and operations • training • Kick Risk studies

Topics for a Well Control Study

– Hydraulic calculations (ECD, swab pressures, temperature effects) – Kick Tolerances (swabbed, drilled and pressured fault kicks) – Undetected Kicks (in oil based Mud) – Gas Migration (free gas migration in brine) – Gas diffusion – Kill Methods – Surface Flow parameters/ Mud Gas Separator – Comparing kick behavior in brine vs. oil based Mud.

Value of advanced computer modelin
• Advanced computer models can be very valuable both the planning and training phase:
– – – – – Identify specific well control risks Input to Well Control Procedures (verify vs. improve) Contribute to optimization of well design Develop new procedures Realistic training

– Improve knowledge of HPHT wells – Improve kick tolerance calculations

Future contribution from RF Group in orde to unlock the HPHT Challenge

• Well control and hydraulic studies using advanced transient modelling tools
• Planning, operation, and training • Development of procedures

• Operational support • QRA analysis
– Kick probability using KickRisk – Operational risks

• Utilize HPHT Laboratory
• Drilling, Completion, Production and reservoir studies

• Understand fully fluid properties ( barite-sag, stability, gas diffusion)

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