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"Say Hello to Our Body!" English

"Say Hello to Our Body!" English

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This is a book about Youth and Sexuality. Written by youth, edit by youth, and present to youth. Published by : Women Journal Foundation, Indonesia. February 2012
This is a book about Youth and Sexuality. Written by youth, edit by youth, and present to youth. Published by : Women Journal Foundation, Indonesia. February 2012

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Published by: Nisrina Nadhifah Rahman on May 09, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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09/20/2014

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Say Hello! To Our Body!

1

ISBN

ii Say Hello! To Our Body! 2

Foreword
Every adult people must have experienced on being young. This is the period when we ask a lot of questions and curious about everything. During adolescence period, we are in growing up process, it is the period in which determine (or is determined by?) us. After we passed this period and being an adult, our memories during our young period will shape our personality. Beside, our maturity in adulthood will also depend on our youth period. Maturity means our insights about the environment, life, even about ourselves. The adolescents’ curiosity has to be responded seriously. The first thing which will occur is the curiosity about their own body. The human being which in growing up phase will experience many changes; physical and mind, or biological and mental. Most of the time, these changes are surprising because during the childhood we are still have limited knowledge about our body so that the imagination transforming boy into taller, bigger, more curious, or other changes will be a shocking one once we have no comprehensive information. Furthermore, these determining phase mainly will be influenced by the Say Hello! To Our Body! 3 iii

environment such as family, school, and peers, or even the number of information access through technology. It is very common if adolescents always want to try, they want to know which one is good or bad for them. This is their time to learn about life until they can decide the life which is good for them. Well, since our very first questions during adolescence is about our changing body, adults often do not provide the answers. Or even, it is often very taboo to talk about it. In this case what we mean is about young people sexuality problems. For example, why do some adolescent girls do not have their breasts growing and enlarging as it should be? Menstruation? Or wet dreams that we often hear from adolescent boys? Or further, how do they know the process of pregnancy and its symtomps? How do the baby born? Ironically, the respond that young people get is mostly is the word “don’t do this” or “don’t do that”, without any explanation about what they have experienced and behave toward these changes. If there are adolescents who are in love, the word which comes out is nothing but “be careful”. Even further, if there are adolescent girls who experience first menstruation, yet the words are “be careful, don’t play too close with boys”. Or if there are young people who become pregnant, they will usually be judged as a result of promiscuity. Eventhough their actions depart from a lot of questions about sexuality: “what’s

actually going on with me?” They only keep most of these questions for themselves because It’s embarrassing to ask the parents, it’s fearful of being scolded if asking the teacher, and it’s useless to ask friends because they don’t understand either. We can see how important it is to answer those questions. Beside, today’s existing technology, science and research will also be able to help more in providing knowledge and information which are important for young people. This book contains a lot of answers of questions about sexuality which is frequently asked by young people. This book is written by young people who already get a lot of information and knowledge about sexuality, and intend to share it with other young people. This youth sexuality book will lead them to know their body, ranging from sexuality to its environment. By getting to know themselves better, they can determine what they have to do in that period. Our hope, young age is no longer referred as the time of losing direction, but the time of certainty about themselves, and the time when they are very powerful to determine the path of their life as they want it to be which is of course very useful for their future. Mariana Amiruddin, Executive Director of Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan

iv Say Hello! To Our Body! 4

CONTENTS
ISBN ii Foreword iii Contents v

Chapter 1: Know Yourself, Understand Your Body 1
Know Yourself, Understand Your Body 2 Penis 4 Vagina 8 Female Internal Reproductive Organs 12 Reproductive Health 16 Sexual and Reproductive Health 17 Cervical Cancer 19 Vaginal Over-Liquid 21 Puberty 22 Hormon 22 Wet Dream 25 Menstruation 26 Menstruation Myths 27 Pregnancy 29 Births 30 Male Reproductive Process 31 Sexual Activity 32 Masturbation 32 Petting 32 Intercourse/Coltus 33 Orgasm 34 Contraception 35 Natural Method 35 Barriers Method 36 Hormonal Contraception Method 37 Settled Contraception 37 Emergency Contraception Method 37 Risks of Unsafe Sexual Activity 38 Syphillis 38 Gonorrhoea 38 Herpes 38 Chlamydia Infection 39 Bakterial Vaginosis 39

Say Hello! To Our Body! 5 v

Candidiasis Vulvovagnitis 39 HIV and AIDS 39 The Spreading of HIV & AIDS 40 Who Owns Your Body 42 Sex and Gender 43 Taboo 46 Gender 51 The Form of Inequality as A Consequence of Gender 55 Double Role 55 Stereotype 55 Marginalization 56 Subordinate 56 Violence 56 Sexual Diversity 57 Sexual Orientation 57 Virginity 59 Gender-Based Violence: The Iceberg Phenomenon 61 Female Circumcision 62 Rape 64 Forms of Gender-Based Violence 67 Violence through Media 70 Dating Violence 72 Types of Dating Violence 73 Myths in a Dating Relationship 73 Stop Dating Violence Now! 75 Living with HIV and AIDS 79 Unintended Pregnancy 81 LGBTIQ? So What? 84

Chapter 2: Who Owns Your Body 41

Chapter 3: Human Rights, for All! 86
Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 87 Sexual Rights 91 Reproductive Rights 95 Comprehensive Sexuality Education 99 What Can You Do to Support CSE? 101

Behind The Scenes 104
vi Say Hello! To Our Body! 6

CHAPTER 1
Know Yourself, Understand Your Body

Say Hello! To Our Body! 1

KNOW YOURSELF, UNDERSTAND YOUR BODY
Our body is the only place we live in this world. Can you imagine if we have a soul but we don’t have a body to live? It must be scary, right?

“Take care of your body. It’s the only place you have to live.” - Jim Rohn
Our life can be messed up if our body is not in a healthy condition. Therefore, taking care of our body is a very important thing. However, if we want to take care of our body, first of all, we have to completely understand with the body itself.

Let’s get familiar with our body!
Cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems → Organism (Body)
Our body is derived from cells. Cells form a tissue, and tissues construct an organ. Then, some organs work together and play a certain role as an organ system. Later, all of the systems will set up an organism which we consider as a body.

2 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Let’s get to know our body!
Human being has ten organ systems, which are: Skeletal System Muscular System Circulatory System Lymphatic/Immune System Respiratory System Nervous System Digestive System Urinary System Endocrine System Reproductive System Have you ever wondered where the sperm comes from? How does it look like? Why do our sex organs feel wet when we are, intentionally or not, watching a sexually arousing movie? Why do we feel aroused?

We should know well all the body systems above in order to take care of them. Reproductive system is one of the systems which are often discussed in the biology book, but the question is: How well do you know that system? You must remember that the reproductive system is the one which produce reproductive cells so that human can have children and grand children. Male reproductive organ produces sperm. Female reproductive system produces egg cell (ovum). That it is, when the ovum is fertilized by the sperm, the pregnancy takes place. In conclusion, we all come from the cells in the reproductive organs, which are why it is so important for us to take care of them!

Many people do not know how their reproductive system work, especially young people. In Indonesia, the right information about the organs, systems, and reproductive health is less popular than the myth which is spreading around. That is why the understanding about reproductive system is very low here. Even, the information about sex and reproduction tends to be cover up where as that information is actually very needed by the Indonesian youth in order to know and take a better care of their body.

So, in order for you to know better about your body, here are the explanations of our reproduction
Male reproductive system consists of penis, prostate gland, scrotum, sperm, epididymis, seminal vesicle, testicles, and vas deference. On the other hand, female reproductive system is cooperation between clitoris, vagina, cervix, fallopian tube, ovaries, and uterus.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 3

Well, are you curious about the shape and the function of each organ?
Let’s take a look at the explanation below and get ready to be amazed at how your reproductive system works!

Hi, I’m Penis!

PENIS

Size Does Matter?

Penis is a male genital organ. Penis has a long round-shaft shape and is bulging between a man’s crotches. Penis has some function such as for sexual activities, as a channel which carried sperm to enter female genital organ (fertilization), and also as a medium for urine to come out of the bladder. In doing its task, penis does not work alone. So, who else are the companions and what are they doing? Let’s take a look at them!

I have a valve which functions to control the sperm and the urine so that they don’t come out simultaneously.

I consist of three cylinder of sponge tissue.

4 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Along my body, there are a lot of small veins which enable me to get smaller and soft or even stiff and upright if I’m sexually aroused. The process of my becoming stiff and upright is called erecting.

My size varies. My average length is about 8cm in normal condition and about 12 cm during erection.

 

I have a bulbousshaped tip so that I have a pretty round shape. The tip is called Glans Penis and is covered by foreskin. This foreskin is the one which is removed if my owner gets circumcised
Say Hello! To Our Body! 5

?
Testicles

Vas Deferens

• I’m a sperm vessel. • My function is to transport sperm from testicle (the lower end of epididymis) to prostate so that it can mix up with semen.

Epididymis

• I am a place to storage the sperm. • I have a large meander vessel shape. • My function is as a place of maturation process for sperm before it goes to vas deference.

• I produce sperm. • I have a shape like a fruit seed: round and slightly oval. That is why, in Indonesia, I usually called as buah zakar or biji pelir. • I’m able to produce 12 billion sperm throughout life. What is sperm? Well, Sperm is a cell which looks like a tadpole. The sperm I’m producing will later be mixed with semen. • I’m also producing testosterone, male sex hormone. The hormone functions as an enhancer of male sexual desire, energy, immune system, and protection from osteoporosis.

Prostate gland

• I produce fluids for semen. • I’m dense and reddish brown. • I circle the first part of urethra. • My position is below the bladder. • I consist of two parts: The inner part which produces fluids so that the urethra layer will always be moist, and the Outer part which produces semen fluids that facilitate sperm when the penis penetrates into the female genital organ.

6 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Urethra

• My length is about 17-23 cm. I am in the middle of the penis and my shape is like a duct. I channel urine from the bladder because I am linked to the bladder. I also could bring the sperm because I pass through the prostate gland. • I am an estuary canal of the vas deferens, urinary vesicle, and seminal vesicle.

Scrotum

Seminal vesicle

• I consist of two bags which function to produce fluids so that the sperm can be transported. • My position is beside the prostate gland. • My vessel is fused with Vas deference vessel that carries sperm. Then, Vas deference and I together produce semen that functions to ease sperm in continuing its journey. That is why, when sperm out of penis, it is no longer in a form of tadpole but already in a form of fluids.

 

• I’m usually called as testicle sack. • My position is hung under the penis base. • I support two testicles (testes). • My inner part is divided into two; each of them is filled with one testicle. They are separated with a membrane. • I have a thin outer layer and wrinkled skin to cover the tissue, and there are some muscles in the tissue. • My function is to keep the testicle temperature below the body heat. For human being, testicle temperature is about 34 °C. The temperature setting is done by wrinkling or loosening the scrotum, so that the testicles can move close to or away from the body. The testicles will move up close to the body in a cold temperature and move away from the body in a hot temperature. • Because my function is to keep the testicles’ heat, it makes me possible to keep sperm in the right temperature because sperm production needs 3-50C below the body temperature. Say Hello! To Our Body! 7

VAGINA

(Vulva/Genitalia Externa)

When It All Begin

There are many nicknames for female genital organ. It is because most people do not feel comfortable to say the real name although actually, it is not bad nor dirty: Vagina. Yes, vagina is a reproductive organ and a sexual activities device for a woman. Vagina produces egg cells or ovum which later becomes the embryo during the pregnancy.

Hi, I’m Vulva

Let’s get to know and adore it!

Female reproductive organs consist of two parts: internal organs and external organs. Female External Genital Organs (Vulva/Genitalia Externa)

8 Say Hello! To Our Body!

I am the place of all external organs of female reproductive system or also called as genitalia externa.

I consist of mons veneris, labia minor, labia mayora, clitoris, and hymen.

I am the estuary of urethra. Urethra is a vessel for the bladder and has a hole that function as a place for urine to come out.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 9

Mons Veneris

• I am a mound made of fat on the anterior part of vulva. When a girl comes to puberty, I will have some hair which called as pubic hair.

Bibir Kelamin Besar (Labia Mayora)

• I am located in the outer part of genital system. • I am bigger and thicker than labia minor. • I am the one which shapes the side of vulva. • I consist of skin, fat, smooth muscle (involuntary muscle), vein, and nerve fibbers. • I can reach 7, 5 in length.

Clitoris

• I have a lot of nicknames. Some people called me Kelentit or Itil in Indonesian. • I’m a small flesh which covered by thin skin. • I have the size and shape of a pea. • I am located above the urethra hole and between the vagina lips (labia major and minor). • My body contains a lot of blood vessels and nerves. That is why I’m very sensitive to a stimulus and play an important role to woman in having an orgasm (sexual pleasure).

Labia Minor

• I’m considered as two small folds of skin located slightly deeper than labia major. • I contain many blood vessels and nerves, so my color is slightly pink.

10 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Hymen

• I’m so popular for becoming the ‘sign’ of woman’s virginity. • I’m a membrane located near from the mouth of vagina (vagina opening). • I am the separator of the external and internal parts of female genital organ. • One of my functions is to let the menstrual liquid flows out. • I could have a different shape for each woman. I could be so thin and easily torn, or I could be so thick and elastic so that it is not easy to get torn. I could have a crescent shape, a hollow shape, and I could also be different when I already gave birth. • Because my shape and thickness are different, being penetrated by the penis doesn’t necessarily make me torn. If I have a thin shape, I could be easily torn just by riding a bicycle or falling from it.

HYMEN

Say Hello! To Our Body! 11

Female Internal Reproductive Organs (Genitalia Interna)

Hi, I’m vagina

I have muscular walls that contain many blood vessels and nerve fibers. These walls will get stiff when the woman is sexually aroused. The amazing thing is that even a baby can come through me because I have an elastic form.
12 Say Hello! To Our Body!

The menstrual liquid also flows out of my canal.

I could also be called as the intercourse hole.

If all this time you just wondering how I look like, I’ll tell you that actually I have a muscular canal shape.

My length is about 6-10 cm, from outside until the cervix. Yes, I am the one who link the uterus and the external genital organ.

When the woman is having a sexual intercourse or penetration, the penis is put inside me.

I have a natural system to protect my health in a form of acidity. Then, in order to have a balance number of the bacteria (lactobacillus doderlein), I need to stay clean and moist, so you need to change panties and menstrual pads quite often in menstruation period.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 13

Ovaries

• I am the ovaries. There are two of me in one body, one in the left and one in the right side of the uterus. • I’m located in the pelvis cavity. • I am a gland which shape like a walnut and located under the oviduct. • I have a position which look like floating, but actually my back part is tied to a ligament (fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones) called latum uteri. • Every month, I produce egg cells. • I also produce estrogen and progesterone, the hormones which influence woman’s characteristics like breast size, voice, menstrual period, and sexual desire (sex drive). • The release of mature eggs into the ovary is called ovulation. It happens between 16 days after the first day of menstrual period or 14 days before it. In the ovulation time, a woman is in her fertile period until about 48-72 hours after. Therefore, this time is very suitable for a couple to copulate if they expect a pregnancy.

Cervix

• I am the entrance of female internal reproductive organ. • I am considered as a small hole which link vagina and uterus. • I’m also an entrance of sperm in order to get to the uterus.

14 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Uterus

Fallopian tubes

• I’m also called as uterine tubes • I’m located in abdominal cavity. • Just like the ovaries, I’m also created in a pair. • My body is in a form of tube which extends about 10 cm from the top corner of the uterus to the side towards each ovary. • My function is to transpote the egg cells (ovum) from the ovaries (ovarium) to the uterus. I also accommodate a place for the sperm to meet the egg cells and go to fertilization process. It is me who feed the fertilized egg and push it with the contracted muscle so that it can get through the uterus.

• Hi, finally we meet! Yes, I’m the uterus. I have a shape like an avocado. I am thick and muscular. My weight is about 30-50 gram and my length is about 5-8 cm. • I’m located in pelvis cavity, behind the bladder, and in front of the bowel. • My wall consists of some layers. They are peritoneum which covers most of my surface, miometrium which is a muscular layer, and endometrium which is a mucous membrane. In every side of me, there are ovaries and uterine tube (fallopian tube). • My function is as a ‘home’ for the egg cells which later will grow as an embryo and a baby during the pregnancy process. During the times, I will grow bigger in accordance with the age and the size of the embryo. • In delivering process, my muscle will push the baby to come out through the vagina. After giving birth, I will return to my normal size. • If the egg cell inside me is not fertilized, my wall will exuviate and contract to release the egg cell and other tissue which is formed under the influence of the ovaries hormone.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 15

YEAY! our great We have met

friends: The reproductive organs!
All the organs above have already been set to operate on reproductive systems. You can imagine how sperm can go through the tubes, how glans produce fluids to support sperm when ejaculating, or how ovaries could maturate an egg cell, and how the fallopian tube keep the egg cell to go to the right pace. Amazing right? Then, why do these amazing things have to be covered up? While in fact, those whole things are actually about our self, our existence.

Sexual and Reproductive Health
After knowing deeper about your body parts, you also have to know how to take care of them. We often pay less attention to our sexual and reproductive health. It is because parents and teacher do not consider reproductive health as an important thing to discuss. They tend to think that children will automatically understand about those things while, in fact, young people need them to take a better care of their genital organ.

So, let’s fill our self with knowledge by reading some paragraph below.

Reproductive Health

According to the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994, Reproductive Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. The state of complete physical, mental and social well-being is not merely the absence of disease, but it should also include a condition where: 1. People have a responsible, satisfying, and safe sex life. 2. People have a capability to reproduce.

3. People have a freedom to decide when and how often to do a sexual activities. 4. Men and women have the same right to get information and access to a safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable method of birth control of their choice. 5. They also have a right to get proper health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and child birth. 6. Couples are provided by any services to get a chance of having a healthy child.

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Sexual and Reproduction Health

According to World Health Organizatiom (WHO), sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. Sexual health servicesaccording to the UN- must be able to

increase personal life and relationship. The services should include counseling and other services regarding reproduction and sexually transmited deseases. We must take care of our reproductive organs if we want them to be well function and prevented from diseases. if we didn’t take a good care of them, later, it could harm our body. Beside it will be potentially infected by veneral diseases, unwell-treated reproduction organs could give a bad impact for the quality of human reproduction.

So, how is it to take a good care of our reproductive organs? Let’s take a look at these suggestions! For Male and Female
• Before touching your genital organ, make sure that your hand is clean. If your hand is dirty, the germ in your hand could be transfered to your genital, and that germ could be the source of disease for your genital organ! • Change your underwear at minimum twice a day. Not changing your underwear regularly could bring germs, bacteria, and fungy to your sex organ. • Avoid using tight pants because it will make the vagina and penis difficult to get the air cilculation. For men, loose pants like boxer is better to use than tight pants because it can disrupt sperm production. • When using public toilet –especially sitting toilet- use tissue paper to cover the part where we will sit on because it’s likely that the toilet seat contains many germs. Remember, The toilet you are using was previousely used by other people, and we can not be sure whether the people keep it hygienic or not. • Avoid stress. A bad psycological condition can decrease the quality of sperm and ovum. Stress could cause metabolic disroption which will influence all organs including reproductive organ. • Avoid unhealthy lifestyle like smoking and using drugs. Do a lot of exercise and consuming healthy food. Our lifestyle will also influence the quality of our sex organs, so let’s start to live a healthy life from now! Say Hello! To Our Body! 17

Female

• Clean vagina in the correct way, in one dirrection, from vagina towards anus, not vice versa. The purpose is that so the germs in anus do not go to the vagina. • Always bring smooth paper tissue wherever you go to keep your vagina dry after going to the toilet. If your vagina is humid, it can grow bacteria. • Do not wash your vagina with soap or other chemical liquid too often because it can kill the good bacteria. If you do not pay attention to the balance of bacteria, it will easily bring fungy.

• When you are in menstrual period, change your pads after urinating. Also change it everytime it feels humid or every three hours. It is important to wash your vagina before changing pads in order to prevent the germs in vagina to contaminate the new pads. • Before disposing the menstrual pads, it is better if you wash and wraped it with paper before throwing it to the disposal.

Male

• Clean the penis thoroughly everytime you are done urinating. If you are not circumsized, clean the penis by pulling back the foreskin first so that you can clean the urin which is left over there. • Avoid using soap to clean the penis. Same as vagina, the good bacteria in the penis could die if you wash it with soap too often. • Fungy could also grow in penis if the condition is humid. Therefore, always

bring paper tissue to keep it dry after urinating. • Avoid placing laptop on your lap. The heat of the laptop is not good for penis and testicles. Testicles only function well if the temperature is below the other part of the body. The negative impacts of getting to much heat is low sperm count, sperm death, and imperfect sperm form. The impact will be last in months. Moreover, if the testicles temperature is increased up to 980C, the sperm production will be stopped.

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Cervical Cancer and Vaginal Over-Liquid? Cervical Cancer
Female genital organ is vulnerable to variouse diseases. One of those is cervical cancer. The disease appears in a form of malignant tumor (neoplasm) in the cervix uteri. The tumor can spread to another organs and lead to death.

What is

Cause: • Cervical cancer is caused by Human Papiloma Virus (HPV). At first, the virus just causes infection in cervix. However, If the HPV infection is occured in a long period of time without proper treatment, it will grow to cervical cancer. • Firstly, the cancer cells grow from a cervix infection which located at the bottom of uterus where it joints with the top of vagina. Then, low immune system make the infection worst and lead to cancer. • This virus can spread troughout touching. For example, if your hand is contaminated with HPV, and you touch your vagina after that, you’ll be infected by cervical cancer. That is why, the spreading of this virus can easily occur in a public toilet.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 19

Some Factors that can multiply the risk of having cervical cancer (cited from:

HYPERLINK “http://www.kankerserviks. org” www.kankerserviks.org) are:

• Women over 40 years old are the ones who are more vulnerable to infected by cervical cancer). • Not taking a good clean of the genital organ. • Having sexual intercourse at an early age ( above 20 years old), often changing sex partners, or having sexual intercourse with the man who often changing sex partners. HPV virus can spread throughout sexual intercourse. For example, if a man was having sex with other woman who is infected by cervical cancer and after that he is having sex with you, you could possibly infected by the HPV.

• Having so many children (more than five). When a woman is giving birth naturally, the baby will come through cervix and cause a trauma which could trigger the cancer cell to be active. The more often a baby pass through it, the more often the trauma happened as well as the risk of having cervical cancer. • Vaginal disease which happened for a long time without having proper treatment. • Using menstrual pads which contain dioxin (chemical liquid which used to whithened recycled material that is used in the pads). • Weak immune system, lack of vitamin C, E, and folic acid, and Other unhealthy behaviour like smoking habit.

Let’s take Pap Smear test!

Cervical cancer can be detected by taking pap smear test. Pap Smear is a method which detect the changing in the cervix which cause by Human Papiloma Virus. The purpose of this test is to find cells which can potentially turn to cancer cells in the cervix, so we can take the precaustion if we are about to get infected.

When taking pap smear test, a speculum will be inserted into the vagina to take cell sample from the cervix. Speculum is a metal device which used to widen the vagina wall and to see the vagina and cervix directly.

Pap smear could detect more than 90% of early cervical cancer which is still curable.

20 Say Hello! To Our Body!

In Indonesia, if you want to take pap smear test usually you will be asked whether you are already married or not?
Why? Because pap smear test can tear up hymen. In Indonesia, hymen is considered as a sign of virginity, and virginity, here, is considered as a very

important thing that many doctor. (Discussion about virginity will be explained in the chapter) The choice is yours: health or virginity? However, if you want to take pap smear test, it’s better for you to get the information about which clinic provide youth friendly services.

Vaginal Over-Liquid
Everyday, vagina is secreting liquids. In the vagina of adult women, there are good bacteria called lactobacillus doderlein. In a normal condition, the amount of the bacteria is pretty dominant and gives an acid condition for the vagina so that it has a pretty strong protection. Besides, the vagina also produce clear and un-odor liquid to protect it from the infection. Indonesia, this secretion of liquid is called as keputihan (whitish), and in normal condition it happens in ovulating time (when the egg cell is mature and ready to get fertilized) or 12-14 days after menstrual period. The normal vaginal liquid which is usually occur in the middle of the period is in a form of lumpy liquid, and then turn to thin mucus and soppy in the middle of ovulate period. After the fertile period, the vaginal liquid is

turn to white pasta form. In un-normal condition, the vaginal liquid will turn to dark colour (yellowish, brownish, or grey) and is itchy. This is happened because of the presence of bad bacteria usually is Hemophilus vaginalis.

The cause of white vaginal discharge:

• In a normal condition vaginal liquid is appear in ovulate period, when a woman is sexually aroused, or when a woman is emotionally stress. • In un-normal condition, whitish occur because instable hormone, high/low blood sugar, low immune system, unclean vagina, or infected by sexually transmitted diseases. To control the normal vaginal liquid, you should consume a healthy food which contains a lot of fiber and vitamin c Say Hello! To Our Body! 21

Puberty

Let’s find out about the main actor of our puberty!
We Changed because of Hormone “There are so many hormones that are stored in our body. It is them, the hormone, which works behind the scenes to keep us ‘alive’.” Prof.DR.Dr.Ketut Suastika, Sp.PDKEMD –Internist Doctor Hormones are chemical substances produced by endocrine glands or clogged gland. Endocrine glands do not have a channel. That is why the substance produced by these glands goes into the blood stream and follows the circulation of blood throughout the body. Then, when the hormone is arrived at the targetted organ, it will stimulate changes. The changes which are controlled by Hormones are usually need lengthy time, for example sexual growth. Hormones have a certain effect on the activity of organs in the body. The function of hormones is sending signals between cells in the body, ranging from blood pressure, the process of growth, cell repair, appetite, fertility, metabolism, reproduction, regulation of pain, until the hour of sleep. In the reproductive system, we have the primary sexual hormones. Those are testosterone for man and estrogens for woman. Actually, both hormones exist in both man and woman but

Change a lot, Feel a lot!
As we grow up, we can’t resist form physical changes. In the changing process from a child to adult, our body is experiencing puberty period which consist of many dramatic changes. The appearance of soft hair around your genital, voice changes, changes of breast size, menstruation and wet dreams are some things which occur when we are in puberty period. Why does it occur? Why does our body change? Is it possible if we don’t want it to occur in our body? The answer of those questions is only one:

HORMON.

Yes, it is hormone which control a person’s puberty.

22 Say Hello! To Our Body!

with different amount. Man has more number of testosterone, and Woman has more number of estrogens. We can find those hormones in man’s testicles and woman’s ovaries. Sex hormones are responsible for

determining the sex of the fetus and the development of sex organs that correspond to the normal pattern. They also determine puberty and our sexual behaviour.

Let’s see their task more specifically!
Hormones and Its Role in the Period of Puberty

Estrogens is a sex hormone

produced by the uterus to stimulate the growth of female sex organs. The functions of estrogens for woman include: • Stimulate the growth of woman’s sexual organs such as breast enlargement, growth of fine hair around the genitals, and hip enlargement which are considered as secondary sex characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics are attribute that are not directly related to reproduction, but can be used to distinguish male and female. • Regulate the menstrual cycle. • Maintaining the condition and elasticity of the vaginal wall • Produce vaginal lubrication • Keeping the female breast texture and function Man also have estrogens, but the number is relatively few. High levels

of estrogen in man can cause a reduction of sexual arousal, hard to erect (aroused), and even breast enlargement. The triggers which increase the estrogen number in man are the consumption of drugs, liver disease and Klinefelter’s syndrome (excess number of X chromosomes). Moreover, obesity can also lead to increased levels of estrogen, because the fat converts into estrogen by the body system.. Say Hello! To Our Body! 23

hormone. Progesterone is produced by endocrine glands remaining after ovulation. Progesterone influences the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and embryogenesis (formation processes and embryonic development). Progesterone also functions to thicken the wall of the uterus after ovulation.

Progesterone is a female sex

which becomes more severe, penis enlargement, and muscle growth. • After Puberty, Testosterone functions to regulate sex desire.

Norepinephrine is a hormone

Over Oxytocin is a hormone

Prostaglandin is a hormone

in woman that works to stimulate uterine contractions in pushing the baby out when giving birth. Oxytocin is also useful to help the uterus shrink to its normal size after childbirth and stimulate milk production during lactation.

Vasopressin is a hormone that
regulates urine to come out of the bladder.

that gives a sense of excitement in the body, giving a natural shot of adrenaline that causes the heart to beat faster and the blood pressure to increase.

Testosterone is a sex hormone normally produced by the testicles of man. However, the hormone is also produced in small amounts by the uterus of woman and the adrenal glands of both man and woman. • Testosterone helps initiate the development of the testicles and penis in the male fetus. • Testosterone affects the changes in secondary sex characteristics of males, such as: growth of beard and moustache, change of voice

which is responsible for stimulating the pregnancy. Woman produce this hormone when the fetus is ready for birth. Moreover, the Semen which is secreted when man ejaculate also contains prostaglandin hormone.

Serotonin is a hormone produced in the digestive tract. This hormone controls mood, appetite and sleep. Excess serotonin can cause anxiety, confusion, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, loss of muscle coordination, sweating, diarrhea, headache, chills, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, high fever, irregular heartbeat, uncontrolled movements, and loss of consciousness. Serotonin deficiency can cause anxiety, depression, phobias (excess of fear), pessimistic, anxious, lack of confidence, irritability, sleep disturbances, Pre Menstrual Syndrome, headaches, and backaches.

24 Say Hello! To Our Body!

“Wet”

Dream

One sign of boys entering puberty is having a ‘wet’ dream. “Wet” dream is an erotic dream which is commonly experienced by men. Usually the man dreams of kissing, cuddling, and having sexual intercourse until it achieves orgasm (sexual satisfaction) which is characterized by ejaculating. It is called as ‘wet’ dream because the secretion of semen and sperm when the man ejaculating causes the area around his genitals wet. The official term of wet dream is spontaneous orgasm. Wet dream in the medical world is known as nocturnal emission, which is an expenditure of semen mixed with sperm while sleeping.

Not only men, women could also experience erotic dreams in his sleep, but there are only a few women who could recall the chronologic. Most of them even forget altogether. That is why people assume that women can not have a nocturnal emissions a.k.a wet dream. Generally, people experienced a wet dream since the age of 14 or 15 years old until age 50 years old, so it’s not just teenagers who experience wet dreams. At the age of 17-18 years old, about 2 of 3 men will experience a wet dream. Wet dreams occur because the bladder is full, and then the existence of sexual activity in mind, and stimulation of the mattress or pillow. Those things stimulate the penis and cause the sperm out of the penis. The findings of research at the University of Montreal stated that 40 percent of women have wet dreams before they were in the age of 45 years old. Say Hello! To Our Body! 25

Menstruation
Female puberty starts with menstruation. In Indonesia, Menstruation has many names, including haid and datang bulan (coming months) Each month, the ovary will produce an egg cell (the baby). To prepare for pregnancy, the uterine lining will thicken because of the blood layer. If the egg is not fertilized by sperm cells, the uterine wall will disintegrate and menstruation occurs. • The first menstruation (menarche) in women usually occurs at age 1015 years old and women who have experience menstruation are able to have pregnancy. • Some women experience abdominal pain during menstruation. This symptom is normal because in this period the uterus contracts and decays its walls.

Beside menstruation, one of the characters of female puberty is the appearance of sexual desire.
Women’s sexual arousal in puberty period usually tends to be expressed by telling or discussing erotic things. For example when you imagine of making love with someone, and then have sexual activities with him/her.
( HYPERLINK “http://kosmo.vivanews.com/ news/read/217305-delapan-fakta-seputar-gairahbercinta” http://kosmo.vivanews.com/news/ read/217305-delapan-fakta-seputar-gairahbercinta)

CAUTION!
It is better to avoid sexual activity in the form of penetration while menstruating because: 1. Walls of the uterus which decay could develop into the medium of various diseases. 2. Menstrual fluid is an effective medium for the spread of sexually transmitted infections. 3. The vagina is in a very sensitive condition, so it is dangerous if penetration occur.

Another feature of girls in puberty which is seen easily is when you feel upset when your crush has a partner, or when you feel very happy when you are close to someone you love.
( HYPERLINK “http://ceria.bkkbn.go.id/referensi/ media/download/5-kie.pdf ” http://ceria.bkkbn. go.id/referensi/media/download/5-kie.pdf)

26 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Menstruation myths are still haunting and it is internalized in young people!
Only myths? Of course not! We’d love to tell you the fact, so please read these paragraphs below!

Myth 1: “Soft drinks can speed up the completion of menstruation.” FACT:
Menstruation is a process due to the uterus contraction and this is natural. Soft drinks do not shown to accelerate the completion of the process of menstruation, because whether it is fast or slow is also influenced by psychological and physical factors. Anyway, is that important to finish your period of menstruation? Hmm you can spend your time of waiting with reading this book until the last page. Agree?

Myth 2: “Drinking ice during the period, can make a clogged! “ Fact:
The cold water do not have any effect if taken during menstruation. Except, if you devour the freezer and refrigerator, of course it would be very dangerous.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 27

Myth 3: “Menstruation makes body become limp. “ Fact:
The study mentions that menstrual blood is removed the body ranged from 50-150 milliliters, or about four to six tablespoons. In contrast to the time of blood donation. So, it is not true that the body will become weak because of bleeding during menstruation. Don’t be mad, please!

Myth 5: “Wearing pads during menstruation causing infertility” Fact:
Big wrong! Medically, using pads during menstruation is a method to keep vagina clean and dry. Essentially all of the pads is healthy, although there are also some women who suffer from allergies and irritation. It depends on the sensitivity of the female genital organs of different individuals. It is recommended that during menstruation for as often as possible change your pads (ideally every 3-4 hours), especially when you’re overbleeding, and after using toilets. Anyway, if woman sanitary pads could make barren, why does the assorted brand products still growing up until this moment?

Myth 4: “Do not wash your hair during menstruation! “ Fact:
In fact, menstruation makes sweat gland production increased compared to the normal day. To that end, during menstruation it is advisable to clean up yourself often, including shampooing.

28 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Female Reproductive Process:

Pregnancy
“Where did the baby come from? Why is, if you are pregnant, your tummy so fat? “ That question must have occurred when we were a little kid. Various stories are given to us about the origin of babies, ranging from cranes which send the baby through the chimney, the flour dough which is cooked, until the story about human who comes from the leaves before it is born into the world. Ridiculous? Obviously! Actually, we have the right to know the truth about where we originally came from. As mentioned earlier, people come from the reproductive cells of the egg and sperm. Sperm fertilization of egg creates the pregnancy. From the pregnancy, the baby is born. Pregnancy can occur usually when a woman is in the fertile period which is 14 days after the first period of the month. However, it is possible that women may experience pregnancy outside the fertile period. Advanced technology makes the pregnancy can not only be created because of sexual relations, but also through methods such as artificial insemination.

The process of pregnancy
At the time of penetration, the sperm will look for the presence of egg. From the millions of sperm released during male ejaculation, only one sperm cell which could fertilize the egg.

 

The fertilized egg develops into an embryo and attaches to the wall of the uterus to develop into a zygote and grows into a fetus.

The fetus will grow in the uterus for approximately 280 days (nine months and ten days) before finally born.

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What are the signs of pregnancy?
• Not menstruating • abdominal bloating • Nausea and vomiting in the morning • A little bleeding in the vagina • Enlarged breasts • Frequent urination • Some women feel tired and sensitive to smells

Births

Birth is the process of baby coming out of a woman’s womb. At the time of pregnancy estrogen production is increased. The older the pregnancy, the higher production of estrogen is needed. Estrogen is useful for uterine contractions during the birth process. Besides, oxytocin and prostaglandins are also produced to help the birth process. Beside the hormones which are useful

for helping the contraction, the uterus also produce relaxin hormone for relaxation. It used to soften the cervix and loosen the pelvis to facilitate the delivery process. Contraction and relaxation are taking place simultaneously. The existence of relaxation of the muscles around the uterus causes contractions. Wow, it’s really amazing, isn’t it?

30 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Male Process: Reproductive
Spermatogenesis (sperm formation process)
Sperm cells are sex cells (gametes) produced by the male. Sperm are produced by the testes. Male testicle capable of producing millions of sperm cells every day and secreting about 2 million sperm each time a man ejaculates. The process of formation of sperm is called spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis occurs through several phases, which are:

Cleavage that occurs is a Meiosis division, the cleavage that occurs in the formation of gametes which aims to reduce the number of chromosomes. The primary spermatocyte undergoes Meiosis division to form two secondary spermatocytes. The number of secondary spermatocyte chromosomes is half of the primary spermatocyte cells. Furthermore secondary speratosit will experience splitting into four spermatids. These spermatids are the cells that will become sperm cells.

3. Differentiation phase

1. Growth phase

In this phase, the prospective sperm cells are grown, enlarged, and duplicated. The addition of core material, DNA synthesis and synthesis of cell organelles is also occurred. This phase is also called as the phase of preparation before cleavage. End of growth phase is the formation of spermatogonia (sperm stem cells) that are ready to cleave.

2. Cleavage phase

Spermatids which are formed on the phase of division must be transformed in order to be able to swim to find the location of the egg. Its initial form, a sphere-shaped, seems to not be able to reach the egg. Therefore, spermatids must have to transform to be the sperm cells that are ready to fertilize an egg. After the transformation, it forms four active sperm cells whose structure has changed. Now the sperm is shaped like a tadpole, with a head shape like an arrowhead and a length tail. This form is intended so that sperm cells could easily swim to reach the egg.

Spermatogonia that are formed will undergo a process of division. Spermatogonia which are formed later will be the primary spermatocytes. These Primary spermatocytes are the one which will undergo cleavage. Say Hello! To Our Body! 31

Sexual Activity Most Rarely Discussed,
Practiced!
Here are some common sexual activities performed by people:

stimulate the sexual organs themselves or can be done with the help of others by rubbing or using tools to achieve orgasm or sexual satisfaction. Masturbation is the safest and un-risky sexual activity. Masturbation tends to be a conversation that is no longer taboo among men, but among women, masturbation is rarely the subject of conversation and rarely performed. In fact, masturbation is beneficial for women. Even the sex therapists recommend masturbation for women who have difficulty reaching orgasm. Masturbation can indeed help us to know our body better. (You can read the myths about masturbation in the next section!)

Masturbation
Do you know the term masturbation? Have you ever heard of or ever done it? Lol :D Masturbation is the local stimulation to the genitals which are deliberately made to achieve sexual pleasure or sexual gratification without having intercourse. Beside masturbation, In Indonesia, it is also developing other terms such as “rancap”, “coli”, “kocok (shake)”, which essentially remains as activities to

Many people usually feel guilty after masturbating because many considered it as a sexual deviation. This is clearly wrong. Masturbation is a sexual activity that is natural and good for health if done correctly

Petting

Petting was activity of rubbing your genitals to your partner without penetrating. Petting can be done by using clothes or not. In this activity, couple fondle and stimulate each other.

Although the penis does not enter the vagina and only swiped around the vagina, if the male ejaculate and release sperm, the pregnancy still can be occurred.

32 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Intercourse/ Coitus

Intercourse (also known as copulation or coitus) is a sexual act performed by merging / touching the genitals with the other genitals. Intercourse is the most important part in the reproduction process. Through these activities, sperm can fertilize the ovum.

Not only as a process of reproduction, sexual intercourse is also the oldest recreational activity in human history.

1. Sexual activities through vagina This kind of sexual activities is the one which most commonly performed. In this activity, the penis enters the vagina. Both sides engaged each other until it reaches the climax of sexual pleasure which is marked with an orgasm. 2. Sexual activities through the anus (anal sex) In this activity, Penis is directed to enter the anus. Before engaging in anal sex, it needs an adequate preparation so that the activity which will occur does not injure the anus. This is because the anus is not designed to be a sexual organ. Therefore, penetration through anal sex should be done slowly. The anus does not secrete lubrication fluid like the vagina. That is why it is important to use enough lubricant so that the sexual activity does not injure the anus and penis. You must pay attention to the cleanliness of the penis and anus. That is why the use of condoms is recommended for anal sex.

3. Sexual activities through mouth (oral sex) Mouth can also be a sexual organ. Touching the genitals by mouth is called oral sex. In this activity, the penis or vagina is making contact with the mouth. However, genital and oral hygiene should be maintained if you want to do this activity because it is easy to exchange the bacteria and disease if it is not done safely.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 33

Orgasms what are these?
According to Webster dictionary, ‘orgasm’ is taken from the Greek word “orgasmos” from the word “Orgon” which means “to be mature” and “passionate” or “full of desire”. Has anybody ever had an orgasm? Like a bow and arrows that are released right on target on target, that was the beginning of orgasm. Orgasm is the climax of sexual activity of human being. At the moment of orgasm, the body will feel the sensation of pleasure like flying! The mind will be empty for a while, the muscles begin to relax, and then it spreads throughout the body. In males, orgasm is generally characterized by the discharge of sperm and semen. In women, orgasm can not be seen by naked eye. On average, women can experience orgasm for 13-51 seconds. When experiencing orgasm, women release the oxytocin hormone which gives the feeling of relaxed, happy and away from stress, so that orgasm can often become a drug to treat nervous tension or migraine.

When men experience orgasm, their bodies will release a number of hormones such as norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, vasopressin and prolactin. The release of these hormones will make men feel sluggish and making it difficult for them to not feel sleepy after having orgasm.

Orgasm in women can be achieved by stimulation of the clitoris. Do you know that the effectiveness of clitoris stimulation could reach 95%? Why is this very effective? It is because there are a lot of blood vessels and nerves in the clitoris. That is why it is very sensitive to stimulation. Women have the ability to achieve orgasm more than once within a short time (multiple orgasms) without the need to perform recovery of physical condition. On the other hand, While male is having an orgasm, they will experience a recovery phase called the refractory period (dissolution / deflection), which at this time men more difficult to reach ejaculation After ejaculating, man was always exhausted. Why? The semen which is secreted, about 5 ml per ejaculate, contains zinc, selenium, protein, vitamins A, C, E, and sugar. The excretion of that variety of nutrients causes premature fatigue, weakness, and prolonged hunger, and the energy which is wasted during sexual intercourse is about 36 calories or equivalent with 1, 5 km running.

34 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Contraception The unknown saviour of life.
What’s on your mind when hearing the word ‘contraceptives’? Do you know that various types of contraceptive methods and tools are available on the market? Well, which ones do you know more?

1. Natural Method
Interrupted intercourse (coitus interuptus): The way this is done is by pulling out the penis from the vagina during ejaculation. As a result, the sperm can not enter the vagina. Rhythm / calendar method: Through this method, pregnancy is prevented by setting the time of sexual intercourse based on the computation time of female fertility. Through this method, the woman’s fertile period of fourteen days before the next menstrual period is the time it is inevitable to have sexual intercourse. Basal temperature methods: When women’s temperature is higher than normal, at this time, women are in her fertile period. The measurement of body temperature is done after waking up in the morning with a thermometer. Cervical mucus method: by taking fluids from the vagina, we could know whether a woman is in a fertile period or not. If there are more fluids than usual, or it feels more wet and humid, it means that the woman is in her fertile period and likely to be pregnant if she is having sex.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 35

2. Barriers method
The male condom: a tool used at the time of going to engage in sexual intercourse by placing on the penis so that semen can not enter into the female uterus and prevent pregnancy. The female condom: The shape is flat. It could be inserted into the vagina because it is soft and elastic. ( siapin gambar ya) Diaphragm: It was done by closing the cervix from the incoming sperm. Flexible rubber circle will close the mouth of the uterus if it is installed in the vagina six hours before intercourse. The effectiveness of these contraceptives may decrease if it is pulled too fast (less than eight hours after intercourse). (siapin gambar ya) IUDs / IUD (intra-uterine device): This tool is made of plastic and copper in T-shaped (that is why it is called Cuper T). This tool is used to put into the uterus. This tool serves to prevent the egg to be fertilized in the uterus. This is an effective tool with capabilities of success up to 97-98% in preventing pregnancy. The duration of usage can be up to four or five years, but after that it must be replaced with the new one. ( siapin gambar ya)

36 Say Hello! To Our Body!

3. Hormonal contraception method
Birth control pills: The advantage of this pill is women still have regular menstruation and reducing cramps or pain during menstruation. Fertility can be recovered by simply stopping the use of these pills. Injectable birth control: This type of contraception is basically has the same function as the pills. Implants birth control: Implants birth control is inserted under the women’s rm skin and done by a doctor. The doctor will insert a small tube containing hormones that are released in small increments, thus preventing pregnancy.

4. Settled Contraception
Tubectomy: cutting or binding of the Fallopian tubes so that sperm and egg cells can not be met and fertilized. (ada skemanya) Vasectomy: cutting or fastening the vas deferens (vas deferens) so that sperm can not get out of the penis and can not get into the uterus and cause pregnancy.

5. Emergency contraception method
Emergency contraception commonly referred to the Special Pill to Prevent Pregnancy consumed by women only. Emergency contraception works by blocking the fertilization of an egg. Emergency contraception is effective if taken as soon as possible after sexual intercourse in maximum time of seventy two hours.

Say Hello! To Our Body! 37

Risks of Unsafe

Sexual Activity
Talking about sexual and reproductive health can not be parted away from talking various diseases that may result from risky and unsafe sexual activity.

Syphilis

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) is a disease or infection caused by sexual activity contacts. The disease is caused by the entrance and the breeding of germs in the reproductive organs. Germs that cause infection can be in forms of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites.
Behavior which is at risk of having STIs: • Often changing sexual partners and having sex without condoms. • Having sexual intercourse at young age (under 20 years old Types of STIs The diseases of the reproductive organs was different, the following are some examples of common STIs.

Can occur in men and women Cause: the Treponema pallidum bacteria Symptoms: Chronic Infections in 3 stages: Primary: single wound to the genitals, but no pain. Secondary: pimples / red spots on the body, enlarged regional lymph nodes without signs of inflammation, asymptomatic latent period. Tertiary: abnormalities of the heart, nerves, skin and blood vessels.

Gonorrhoea

Can occur in men and women Cause: The Neisseria Gonorrhoeae bacteria Symptoms: pain and burning feeling when urinating with thick yellowish discharge and smell. Further result: pregnancy outside the uterus (molar pregnancies), infertility, and infection in the baby’s eyes.

Herpes

Can occur in men and women Cause: The Genital Herpes Virus (HSV2) Symptoms: small red bumps and pain appear in the genital area (genital herpes) or mouth (oral herpes)

38 Say Hello! To Our Body!

HIV and AIDS Chlamydia Infection
Can occur in men and women Cause: The Chlamydia Trachomatis bacteria Symptoms: watery vaginal discharge and yellowish white, pain in the pelvic cavity, and bleeding after intercourse. In men, it causes a burning sensation while urinating. In women, it can disrupt the menstrual period. I believe that you must have heard about this disease. Yup! HIV and AIDS are popular as a deathly disease. According to the data from Choice; for youth and sexuality Netherlands (HYPERLINK “http://choiceforyouth. org”http://choiceforyouth.org) every minute, in the world, six people are infected by HIV, and 50% of them are youth. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease that attacks human’s immune system. Someone who is infected by it will be easy to get infection and tumour. Though, there is a medication to slower the growth of the virus, but this disease is not really remediable. Initially, AIDS come from the infection of HIV. When someone got AIDS, his/her body will be easily got some diseases like TBC, pneumonia, or cancer which are end with death.

Bakterial Vaginosis

Occur in women Cause: Gardnerella vaginalis and Anaerobic bacteria Symptoms: Grayish and smells fishy vaginal fluid after intercourse, itching.

Candidiasis vulvovaginitis

Occur in women Cause: Candida Albicans (a type of fungus) Symptoms: white vaginal discharge like sour milk and clotted, vaginal itching, redness, and swelling

The development of HIV to AIDS

Infected
WINDOW PERIOD
 

Months

Years

Years

Say Hello! To Our Body! 39

The spreading of

HIV & AIDS:
HIV can be spread through the exchange of body liquid; blood, semen (not sperm), vaginal liquid and breast milk.
• Unsafe sex, neither with vagina, anus or mouth. • Without a special therapy, a baby can be infected by her mom when he/she still in the womb or through milk that he/she gets from her mom. • The using of unsterile hypodermic needle. • Blood transfusion

• Using a sterile hypodermic needle • Giving an Anti Retroviral medicine, Caesar surgical operation, and giving a formula’s food too decrease the spreading of HIV from mom to the children

The Handling for someone who has already infected by HIV:
• Check the HIV status whether it is positive or negative by blood checking in the laboratory or hospital • The ARV (Anti retroviral) is given for elongates life expectancy and hamper the rate of the virus. The medicine should be consumed everyday with a tight schedule in a lifetime • ARV can be accessed by anyone and the government also subsidizing it.

HIV and AIDS are not spreading through:
• Tidur bersama di satu tempat • Bersentuhan, berjabat tangan, berciuman, atau berpelukan. • Alat makan: sendok, piring, gelas, garpu • Gigitan nyamuk, serangga, atau binatang peliharaan. • Pakaian • Batuk dan bersin. • Kolam renang

The patient of HIV and AIDS could have a healthy and productive life as long as consuming the medicine continuously, be healthy, and get supported by the surroundings.

Prevention:
• Never do an unsafe sex and always using condom when you decide to have sex

40 Say Hello! To Our Body!

CHAPTER 2
Who Owns our Body?

Say Hello! To Our Body! 41

Who Owns our Body?
Dirty, porn, bawdy, guilty and sort of those words are the words coming out from mind or even spoken out when we conduct a conversation about sex, aren’t they? It is certainly a taboo to talk about sex. Moreover, it is embarrassing, isn’t it? It is not only about sexual activities, but also our genital organ that being improper to be explicitly talked – even more in public places that could be heard by many people. As a consequence, we used to mention our own genital as “kemaluan (shyness)” or “anu (‘that’)”. Genitalia? Why is genital called genitalia? Is it embarrassing of having penis or vagina? Whereas our genital is one of the most important parts of our body –as well as eyes or hand –right? So, why do we often discriminate penis or vagina rather than other parts of the body? Why it is so disgusting when we discuss genital organ as like it is inferior to others and forbidden to be spoken out? Finally, the answer is only one: taboo! Are you curious why we feel discomfort if we have started talking about human bodies? The causes are the doctrine of culture and social environment saying that genitals are pamali (forbidden) to discuss, even by teenager. It is taboo, guilt, disgusting, and dirt. We are immature to understand those things. It seems that genital is only about adult’s secret affair as like key answer sheet of test. Moreover, parents often lie and conceal it when their children ask for body’s reproductive system and shift it into different topic of conversation. Talking about reproductive system and sexuality is not only related to biological matters, but also how this aspect is connected with our society. Reproductive system and human sexuality have a tendency to be considered as taboo and avoided topic in conversation.

42 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Before we learn more about social aspect, firstly, we will discuss about sex and gender.
If we discuss sex matter, there must be a misunderstanding and confusion regarding the terms. Moreover in Indonesia, we have been thinking negatively even sex only spoken out a little, and most people think only about ‘having sex’ when talking about sex. It is dirty, inappropriate, nasty, and taboo. While, in fact, finding out about our own body is obviously not a crime. Let’s discuss it together, so it won’t raise confusion, disturbance, or furrows in face! Sexuality matters include not only the body of woman and man, but also power, interests in society, and another complexity. Why are we predisposed to consider sexuality as worthless topic compared to poverty, economy, corruption, education, or environment? Isn’t it heartbreaking when a girl “sold” by her parents because the family cannot afford paying debts? Isn’t it miserable when a teacher sexually assaulted his student and when the student is asked why she did not fight back, the answer is because she is afraid of the teacher and her teacher more “powerful”, therefore the teacher deserves to do anything to her? Are we willing to look more mothers died because they consciously do not access to contraception in order to obey they husband to continue pregnancy even with improbably health condition? Therefore, it is necessary to discuss sexuality. Because from understanding our sexuality and recognizing body well, we can take control over our body, claim our rights, and avoid other people from ruling and regulating our body. According to Michael Foucault, well-known as France philosopher, sexuality is not only a matter of body or satisfaction, but also how the power acts beneath it. Besides political power that we commonly heard, we will introduce you to the power who has ruled our body!

Say Hello! To Our Body! 43

Have you ever asked curiously?

Why ever since they born, women are considered as property of men? a woman is a responsibility of her father before married, and her husband’s after married (clearly depicted in Get Married, the Indonesian movie)

Why is sexual conversation considered as a sin? Isn’t God already invented all organ and sexual desire accordance with its functions for us?

Why do men only can love with women and women can pairs with men only? Heart-feeling is something natural and cannot be ruled, isn’t it? Why is transgender perceived as a guilty person and deserves to get unpleasant behaviour? Does transgender corrupting our money as what the corruptor does?
44 Say Hello! To Our Body!

Why is only woman be blamed when she decide to do an abortion? Whereas that is not only her decision. Moreover, it is her owns body, isn’t it? Why it is a common thing when people generally think that women who clothed in mini dress will be easily get raped? Why are not many rape cases finished to be investigated with reason that the rapist is their own family, so law justice cannot be applied?

Why does women have to cover her genitals, while men have never been asked to stop thinking “porn” every time they see women?

Why is masturbation regarded as disgusting behaviour? It isn’t damaging anyone, right?

Say Hello! To Our Body! 45

In this case, who owns the power of our body? They are: • State • Traditional law or religion • Education institute: school, university. • Mass media • Family

It is important for us to know who they are that they claim to ‘own’ our body and understanding deeper our body. Knowledge of the body will rule ourselves and it helps us how to make a decision responsibly.

TABOO of causes vulnerability
teenager!
We have known that youth is a period fulfilled by curiosity of many things and seeking answer of it is not enough. We need answer, knowledge and information as accurate and as clear as possible, don’t we? Sex perceived as taboo can be seen by unavailability of access concerning Comprehensive Sexual Education (sexual education which gives explanation explicitly and clearly). Because of it, teenager knowledge about reproductive organ, sexual intercourse, and sexuality is limited. Furthermore, when they finally get more information, it is often from unreliable source. For example, there is a boy who tries consuming drugs

to stimulate sexual desire, yet he overdoses the drugs and died. Some youth may control their curiosity and prefer to be abstinence and remain silent. However, most of them choose to find out through many sources such as internet, magazine, newspapers, porn video, and other sources which are not 100 % valid. What is the effect to young people? Misinterpretation, patchy knowledge and false step! So dangerous! Notice carefully the data from Panduan Pengelolaan Pusat Konseling Remaja BKKBN (Indonesian Planned Parenthood Body) year 2009 and Pedoman Pelayanan Kesehatan Peduli Remaja (Guidance in Youth Friendly Health Services) in PUSKESMAS by Indonesian Ministry of Health year 2005 below...

46 Say Hello! To Our Body!

49,6% 97% 42% 60% 27%

of HIV/AIDS sufferers are young people

of young people watch porn film

of young people have had sexual intercourse

Inaccessibly knowledge, limited information, the system of ineffective censor, the ban of some sex books and websites, the rules to forbid young people’s body are the forms of process of refusing sexuality. Instead of rescuing young people, such kind of ban have plunged young people in confusion. It is a wrong to know, and more wrong to be naive of sexuality. That is why young people need openness in speaking sexuality, don’t we?

of young people having sex without condom of people who commit abortion from the total of 2,5 million women are young women

Young people needs comprehensive sexual education!

During the quarter of month (January-March) 2011
sexual violence faced by children in Jakarta has happened 57 cases (National Child Protection Commission of Indonesia)

How? Isn’t it surprising, no?
From the data above, it can be concluded that the process refusing sexuality or the amelioration is: “the restriction of information” about sexuality for adolescent is intended to prevent them not to do forbidden things such as sexual intercourse or having unintended pregnancy, in fact it has trapped teenager into more dangerous “cliff ”.

Openness to comprehend and talk about sexuality can be depicted through comprehensive sexual education which can inform obvious, well-defined information concerning reproductive and sexuality matters. The most important thing is there is no disgusting comment of sexuality. Comprehensive sexuality education must be followed by explanation that they have rights in choosing decision, and responsible of the decision they have made. Its purpose is to help young people recognize their own body. Do you remember the saying, “We will not love something if we are not acquainted with it”? If we are not acquainted with our body, how can we love them? For example, we sacrifices to change our body image by hurting ourselves due to a demand from our boyfriend/ girlfriend, even we do not really want and need it. Say Hello! To Our Body! 47

Sex education is necessary → to ensure individual rights in obtaining accurate information of the body
If it is compared to a thing, comprehensive sexual education for young people is a seat-belt which is made not to make people racing on the road, but to prevent an accident. Comprehensive sexuality education taught to young people is not to inspire us having sexual intercourse at that time. Actually, that knowledge is to prevent disadvantages because we do not recognize our body and do not utilize private authority as a determiner how to employ this body.

Now, let’s fix up this annoying taboo!
We start from penis and vagina which is constructed socially... What comes to your mind when you heard the word ‘woman’ and ‘man’? Woman: feminine, gently, beautiful, and her job is cooking in kitchen, taking care of children and husband at home, flowery, embroidering and sewing clothes. Man: masculine, sturdy body, louder voice, charismatic, muscular muscle similar to the male model in

drinking product or man perfume advertisements. His job is related to heavy work such as lifting goods, becoming car driver, and he has huge burden of responsibility to earn a living. Children period: boys and girls are given different toys. Boy’s toys are cars, guns, and everything which is identically boyish, but girl’s toys are dolls, flowers, cooking equipment and etc. Adult period: man will be a leader, while woman will be a housewife. Man has been taught to be brave and has bigger confidence because he will be

48 Say Hello! To Our Body!

the head of family and community leader. The fact often contrasts with that general thought. There are also muscular, low-pitched voices, charismatic women who earn a living for the family. On the other hand, there are also men who capable to lead and more skilful to take care of the house and become like a ‘mother’ for his children and always giving advice like close friend.

Man and woman were born and already have biological characteristic, having penis and vagina, yet after they were born, they acquire different “social sex type” usually called gender.

Before we move on, let’s discuss the concepts we have already used before!
Sex- biological identity Sex is the word meant human genitals. When we talk about sex, it means we are discussing human body biologically. Sex is a human biological identity including sex chromosome, hormone, internal reproduction organ, external sex organ (as we have discussed in previous chapter) Human consists of different types of sex: • Man: individual who biologically has penis as external sex organ, and testicle as internal reproduction organ. • Woman: individual who biologically have vagina as external sex organ, and uterus and ovaries as internal reproduction organ. • Intersex: individual is called intersex when someone biologically have

external and internal sex organ which cannot be categorized as man and woman. Intersex can possess both vagina and penis.

Sexual

Each person has a life experience involves sex or genitals, such as: • First attraction to girl or boy, or even both of them • First menstruation • Kissing • Sexual intercourse, penetration • Masturbation

Sexuality

Sexuality is a discussion of the matter of human body that comes from human sex experiences. It also discusses a matter related to social, religion, politic and culture such as: • Sex • Identity and role of gender: how someone identify her/his gender Say Hello! To Our Body! 49

including her/his role. For example when you were born with penis but you feel that you actually a female, then you might identify yourself as transgender. • Sexual orientation: how someone is sexually attracted with other and is oriented to them because he/she is her/his type of lover. For example, when a girl sexually attracted with other girl for some reasons then she feel that she’s a lesbian. • Eroticism: concrete sexual illustration through mass media such as movies, books, music containing elements that encourage sexual desire. For instance: kissing scene between Edward and Bella in Twilight Saga the movie.

• Pleasurable: the emerging of sensation because of sexual activity, such as orgasm. • Romance: intimacy among people which is represented by act or activities, for example spoon-feeding your partner. • Reproduction: step of process to produce human using reproductive organ

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So, this is the illustration:
Sex is when you wake up and realize that you are a human. You see your genital as penis and/or vagina. Sexual is when you know what your genital is, then you seeing or do the sexual activity such as sexual intercourse or masturbation. Sexuality is when you have obviously understood what your genital is, how to do sexual activity, then you find out other people who have varies gender identity and sexual orientation at school, campus, office, bus station, shopping places or gym, where in those places you show off your gender identity to the world.

Gender between us, sex,

personality, and people outside
Gender can be meant as role which emerges behavioural differences between man and woman that are socially constructed. These differences are not natural, but human-made. The personality associated to man or woman is socially and culturally made. Gender is not permanent, but changeable, and exchangeable. Gender can be different from one place to another because of different places, races, classes, and era and is also determined by social situation, tradition or culture within the society. Gender identity is different from biological identity. Biological identity is related to physical appearances, while gender identity is emotional or psychological feeling felt by individual. Person, who was born as a boy or girl biologically, can identify themselves differently. Nowadays, fact has shown that gender identity is no longer boy and girl only!

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The Research of Margaret Mead towards three communities in New Guinea (Macionis, 1996) shows: • In Arapesh, the personality of man and woman is cooperative and sensitive (feminine tendencies) • In Mundugumor, the personality of man and woman is independent and aggressive (masculine tendencies) • In Tchambuli, the personality of man and woman is different. Woman is dominant and rationale, while man is submissive, emotional and takes care of children. • In Bugis culture (Indonesia), gender is divided into: 1. Orowane → Man 2. Makkunrai → Woman 3. Calabai → Man who acts, looks and lives like a woman 4. Calalai → Woman who acts, looks and lives like a man 5. Bissu → the group that neither man nor woman usually called androgyny. They have very important position in Bugis custom as priests or traditional leader. Moreover, they wear special traditional clothing as a sign of their high position. The duty of Bissu is to keep and preserve value of culture and Bugis original custom not to vanish.

Below are some gender identity and its example:
• Transgender is a concept of third gender identity when someone feels that his/her sex does not match with their inner self. For instance, when his biological identity is man, but he feels that he should be born as woman or on the contrary, her biological identity is woman, but she feels that he should be born as man. • Transsexual is an individual who identifies him/herself as an opposite gender and needs physical appearance to match opposite gender. Transsexual is an individual who has changes the physical appearance through medical surgery. For instance, person who has vagina feels more comfortable if she has penis, so she can complement the needs of other who has vagina. Therefore, she did medical surgery to change her genitals from vagina to penis. • Transvestite (cross dresser) is a person who often feels comfortable when wearing opposite gender clothes. For instance: man who loves wearing bra and gown and feel confidence wearing it.

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What’s up with

GENDER?
Misinterpretation toward someone’s sex identity that has to possess exact role and habit like some examples above raises disadvantage, discrimination or isolation to man and much more to woman or they who are neither man nor woman. This view points out that femininity attached to woman, while masculinity attached to man. However, femininity and masculinity are relative. Pay attention to some examples below:

That perspective also will be implemented by individual to other generation. This is why then negative stereotypes born and have strongly attached to certain sex. The superiority of patriarchy ideology (ideology that man is superior or powerful, while woman is inferior or weak. Woman is usually positioned inferior than man.) For example: most of chairperson is man, while woman can only become vice chair person, secretary, or treasurer.

At school:

When there is a flag ceremony, man is usually chosen as the ceremony leader because they have loud voice rather than woman. School books teach student about domestic, public, and social role. Cooking is always attached to woman, while driving car, leading, heavy work are attached to man.

Another Sampel:

Professions such as driver, scientist, or military are still attached to man. Whereas nurse, teacher, dancer are attached to woman. In fact, man and woman have equal potential for those professions.

Women have never absent to be measured from point of view of man and woman have to reach out ideal criterion determined by man. For instance: when man determines the ideal criterion of woman is highly educated and responsible wife-to be. On the contrary, the reality is many women are not prioritized to study highly because the most important is how she can be a perfect wife in serving husband.

Woman as secondary human or women have to submissive to men. “The fate of woman is taking care a husband and children and taking care a household. Woman is not proper to lead and even earn a living!” Say Hello! To Our Body! 53

In fact, there are many women who really enjoy her life as breadwinner. Even in working place, there are always women who have a big potentiality to be the leader.

“The fate of man is working, earning a living, giving money to family, wife and children”

In fact… there are some men who are more comfortable to work at home, nurturing children, cooking, and even managing family finance.

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The Form of inequality as a consequence of

GENDER
1. Double role

Concept of gender or social sex type which is firstly intended to divide role between man and woman is harmful particularly for woman! Below are the forms of inequality that emerge: Segmentation of role public and domestic role (household) towards men and women leads women to face double burden. Double burden means two or more jobs must be done by woman. General gender concept puts man to play role in public space and woman in domestic space. But when woman also earn a living, she bears double role in those two spaces that she also has to finish household task. It happens because a belief that household task is the real woman duty and cannot be left

Man: Public

Woman: Domestic

woman who works: public + domestic = double burdens

2. Stereotype

Stereotype is negative labels of woman given by society. Stereotype can be called stigma, primary image, or labelling towards individual or groups. This labelling is often negative and inappropriate to reality then finally causes inequality. From here we can understand that gender stereotyping sourced from inequality labelling to certain sex. This stereotyping is harming because stereotype leads people to believe more and accustomed to it.

Man: strong Woman: weak

Gay: coquettish lesbian: cool

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3. Marginalization

Marginalization is process of economically marginalizing which causes poverty, usually happens to women and certain groups. Marginalization happens in working place, house, society and even country. Women and certain group’s movement are confined in public space, so they are marginalized. They cannot access all stuff or opportunity in many fields unlike man who can.

Transgender is often to be Woman is forbidden to rejected while applying for be a leader because of a job, sometimes being a sex woman is considered as worker is the only choice left emotional and they become vulnerable to HIV AIDS.

4. Subordinate

Woman is usually positioned inferior rather than man in society. They are placed at second position after man because woman existence is not important. Example: ➢ There are still few women who work and have significant role as decision maker and policy maker in government cabinet or in a company’s board of director. ➢ In labour system, women who have married are paid lower than man because of the assumption that every woman will get money from her husband

5. Violence

Violence is physical or psychological assault towards certain gender, usually toward woman and LGBTIQ. Gender-based violence is caused by inequality of gender power between man and woman. Power is more dominated by man because an assumption that the biggest power holder is man.

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Sexual diversity is a God’s gift which

considered as immorality
Human sexuality is very complex and fluid. Have you ever heard the term like transgender, transsexual, intersex, two-spirit to abbreviation LGBTIQ which means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersexual and queer? The varieties of this term also show how varied human sexuality is. Human sexuality, especially sexual orientation and gender identity is very fluid and is not static. Human sexual orientation is gradually developing and changing as person grows up. So, we can say that there is no person who is 100% heterosexual 100% homosexual. You can be a heterosexual for today, but several years later you can be a homosexual.

World Health Organization or WHO abolished Homosexuality from the list of mental disorder in May 17, 1990 and admitted acknowledged both homosexuality and heterosexuality are kinds of sexual diversity.

Are you doubt it?

Sexual Orientation

Check directly to the source :) :

http://www.iub.edu/kinsey/ research/ak-hhscale. html#what

A lot of researches around the issue of sexual orientation have been conducted every year, the study of background of sexual orientation usually become the headline news and lead to pros and cons. It’s better for us to look at some explanation why human have different sexual orientation instead of debate it with full of prejudice

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Biological factor

Biologically, sex chromosome structure in DNA, hormone effects, and brain structure have strong influence toward person’s sexual orientation. Generally, human may have sex chromosome either XX or XY Woman: XX, man: XY Some variations of sex chromosome of human: • Super female Syndrome: XXX. In some cases there are also gonosom which is XXXX, XXXXX. It happens to woman. • Super male syndrome: XYY. It happens to man.

Sexual Orientation

Sexual Orientation of course is different with school orientation! Sexual orientation is a term which determines with whom someone is sexually attracted. Sexual attraction of human consists of: • Asexual, individual who is attracted neither to others, neither same gender nor opposite. • Bisexual, individual who is attracted to both same and opposite gender. For example a boy who loves another boy and also a girl. • Heterosexual, individual who is attracted to opposite gender. For example, boy loves girl, and girl loves boy. This sexual orientation is popularly called straight. • Homosexual, infidel who is sexually attracted to same gender. Have you ever heard lesbian and gay? Those two orientations are categorized as homosexual. Gay is a man who prefers to like same gender. While lesbian is a woman who is attracted to woman too.

Hormone Factor

Testosterone hormone in a man has a tendency to influence and shape the man’s personality in general. On the other hand, progesterone and estrogens hormone dominates and shapes woman personality (take a look back to the explanation on the first chapter). But if something happens conversely, it might influence sexual orientation. • If progesterone and estrogens is dominant in man, it can affect sexual orientation and he can sexually attracted to same gender. • If testosterone is dominant in woman, it can affect sexual orientation and she can sexually attracted to same gender.

Brain Structure

It is known that homosexual man brain structure is similar to heterosexual woman brain structure. It is the same with homosexual woman brain which is similar to heterosexual man brain.

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From all of these human’s sexual orientations, it is clear that heterosexual is not the only one of a lot of sexual orientations. This fact shows that human sexual orientations are varied and have to be respected. There are several opinions saying that sexual orientation is influenced by society. There is also opinion saying that sexual orientation is affected by both biological and psychological factors. The influence from the society can be shaped by peer group, family and culture. Are you still curious about what factors which determine someone’s sexual orientation? Try to observe society and sexuality phenomenon surrounds you!

Virginity toward a harmful concept
Women’s existence
Besides the ins and outs of sex, sexual, and sexuality above, there is also a term a lot of people are “embarrassed” or are reluctant to talk about it: virginity. For woman, virginity is really private, but do you know why does private matter such as virginity will always be associated to morality? Okay, let’s start from this question: “What’s the first thing that comes to your mind when you hear the word ‘virgin’?” Women who have not had sex with men? Women who are pure or immaculate? an ’obedient’ girl? Does the definition of “virgin” as narrow as that? Hmm, hang on!

According to Bahasa Indonesia Big Dictionary (KBBI):
Virgin is has never had sex with men; still pure (girls), while Virginity [n] is concerning virgins; holiness (purity) of a girl; chastity. If you noticed that there is the phrase “has never had sex with men”. If so, is it true that all women who have never had sex with men practically the virgin one? Virgin-related to “intercourse” definition is certainly also related to the female hymen, where there is a part of vagina that determines whether the Say Hello! To Our Body! 59

woman is a virgin or not. If the hymen was torn and bleeding, then you could say that she was not “virgin”. But does “intercourse” is the only cause which can tear up the hymen?

Let’s take a look at the explanation of virginity and hymen below:
1. Elasticity of each hymen is varies Every woman has different hymen elasticity, some have thick membrane and some have thin. Inside the hymen which is full of blood vessels, once rupture occur, automatically, it will be bleeding quite lot. In contrast, if the hymen is not having many blood vessels, when the rupture occurs it will be only minor bleeding or not bleeding at all. Hymen is appearing in a form of mucosal folds (skin layer) that surrounds the entrance of the vagina. The shape and elasticity of it is different. In intercourse (sexual contact between at penis and vagina penetration), when the penis penetrates in a smooth way and does not cause strain on the vagina, the bleeding can be very small or may not be bleeding at all. It is not necessarily that a woman will bleed at first penetration! 2. The cause of tearing in hymen: is it only by sexual intercourse? Apart from sex, sports activities such as gymnastics, collision due to falls, use of tampons during menstruation and others, can also break the hymen, once again it depends on the elasticity and shape of the hymen. 3 . Virginity can be seen physically (?) A lot of myths state that we can actually see whether a woman is virgin or not by looking at her physical traits, such as the way she walks, breast forms, lose hips, and so on. In fact, women’s virginity can only be seen in medical examination by a physician.

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Is the concept of virginity still relevant?
The concept of virginity should be dismantled. Many people, especially men, hold the view that virginity can be seen physically. Worse yet, many are also discriminate against women that were not virgin with the label “bad” and “immoral” or do not deserve to be a partner. Do you agree? The concept of virginity is clearly detrimental to women. Different physical conditions, including the choice to have sex or not is a personal choice that should be respected, and is not to be interfered by anyone other than the owner of the body.

Anyway, how important is virginity for

man?

Violence against Women

Gender-Based Violence: The iceberg phenomenon
Have you ever heard the term “Domestic Violence”? Or have you ever seen the attack against a particular group or transvestite’s community which then caused some victims? Those examples of violence are what we called Gender-Based Violence. Here, you will get the explanation about Gender-Based Violence. Check this out!

Violence is an act which causes more death / disability in women than other accidents such as: cancer, malaria, and so on. (World Population Report, 1993)

Dari sekitar 2 JUTA anak yang dieksploitasi dalam prostitusi dan pornografi, 80-90% nya adalah PEREMPUAN, hampir di semua negara (United Nation Population Fund Indonesia)

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The concept associated for specific gender such as masculine for men and the feminine for women, has given the image of men are superior (strong) and women are inferior (weak). Thus it has led to Violence Against Women, which one of the reason is because women is constantly portrayed as weak.

Women are often considered as an “object” to be exploited. There is a lot of our female friends who are “sold” by their own parents and then being wed by foreigners, but at the end, they become the victims of human trafficking.

Female circumcision is also a form of violence against women!
Have you ever heard the information about female circumcision? It turned out that not only male who were circumcised, but also female. Then why female circumcision is practiced? Long time ago, female circumcision is practiced in Africa. The first surgeon woman in Sudan named Nahid Toubia was doing research about this practice. Based on her findings, it is found that the practice of female circumcision is done on the clitoris, labia and even vulva of a woman (If you have forgotten, you may look back at chapter 1!) According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are four types of female circumcision practices, these are: 1.Clitoridectomy: Discarding some or all part of the clitoris. 2.Excision: Discarding some or all parts of the clitoris and vaginal lips outside,

it is sometimes accompanied by cutting the vaginal lips surrounding the vagina. 3.Infibulation: Decrease the vaginal opening with a lid made by cutting the part of small genital lips and the inside part of large genital lips, then merge the rest with or without cutting the clitoris. 4.Other procedures such as eliminating, pierced, scratch, scrape, or burn the vaginal area. Actually there is a lot of reasons why people practicing female circumcision. The common reasons are just myths, traditions, and beliefs that are not previously checked. Such as the myth that cutting the clitoris will reduce women’s sexual desire, reduce or even stop the desire of women to masturbate, maintain chastity and virginity before marriage, fidelity guarantee as a wife, and improve sexual satisfaction for men. The entire female genitalia can be used as a means of stimulating sexual desire and the clitoris is one of the core organs to achieve orgasm (sexual gratification).

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Women who were circumcised (particularly in clitoris), are likely to be unable to enjoy sexual intercourse and experience orgasm!
According to Dr. Olayinka KosoThomas from Nigeria in his book The circumcision of Woman (1987) state that no woman who experienced circumcision will has a decreasing in sexual desire. Koso-Thomas also observed that men prefer to choose a candidate or date women who are not circumcised, because it is more exciting. Not only occurs in Africa, the practice of female circumcision is also happening in Indonesia. The existence of female circumcision is usually influenced by some interests like cultural, political, and religious interests. Those kinds of interests are exactly what have indirectly regulated a woman’s body, even since she was born. World Health Organization (WHO) and women’s organizations in almost all over the world have struggled together to defy female circumcision. In Indonesia, the Ministry of Health since 2006, issued a regulation regarding the prohibition on the practice of female circumcision for health workers. The regulation was issued by the government because the circumcision of woman has no benefit to health, but

the practice is still carried out around Indonesia. University of Gadjah Mada, University of Indonesia, Hasanuddin University, Atma Jaya University and Population Council showed that female circumcision is still practiced in most regions of Indonesia with strong religious and traditions background such as in Aceh, West Sumatra, Banten, Jakarta, West Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Madura, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, and Gorontalo. According to Marcoes, gender, Islam and the development experts, while the practice of female circumcision in Indonesia is not as radical as in Africa that may lead to death, the reasons behind the practice is exactly the same as female circumcision in Africa. Female circumcision is performed with the aim to control the sexual drive of women. In short, female circumcision is an act without benefit which only limiting the freedom of women over their bodies, and make women lose the right to privacy.

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Rape women Violence against

perceived as a punishment for women’s sexuality
Rape is a forced sexual intercourse and unwanted by the victim - mostly women. It can be penetration of penis, finger, or any medium into woman’s vagina, anus, or mouth. In the public domain, rape cases are easily found. Most of the perpetrators of rape (according to data from the United Nations Population Fund Indonesia, the perpetrators of rape toward women are men and the rapist is commonly people who has a close relationship such as boyfriends or husbands, with a conscious and healthy condition, on the other words the rapist does not have any mental disorder) assume that the woman is the one who trigger the rape to occur. Men think that women who dress up too sexy will lead him to have an erection (male penis stretched because of being stimulated). The dress is showing, so that it is tempting. In fact, this is an alibi for the perpetrators of rape so that he can cover up his mistakes and let the women are on the sides that are being blame instead of given a justice. Sexual attraction can indeed arouse desire and passion of the rapist, but the power, control, and anger is the main motive of rape. In fact, rapists actually feel the satisfaction on his success of controlling and vent anger to the victim rather than to satisfy his sexual desires. Besides, it was found that the majority of rapes are planned. So it can be concluded that the rape was not a spontaneous act, but a conscious, and well-planned one. Therefore, rape is not women’s fault, but a conscious act to control women. It’s obvious that there is nothing wrong with women’s body, right? Women are free to dress as their wish as long as it comforts them, and to be highlighted it is NOT THE TRIGGER OF RAPE. Women have equal rights. We are free to dress and to express whatever we want through anything we wish for. Unfortunately, the state and most of people positioned women as a creature which body must be covered as tightly as possible because it can generate sexual desire for men who see it.

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Rape cases on Indonesia’s media during July – September 2011
No Date 1 2 Friday, July 2011 Tuesday, September 2011 3 Monday, September 2011 4 5 6 7 Wednesday, 13th July 2011 Thursday, 14th Kompas Online July 2011 Wednesday, 13th July 2011 Sunday, September 2011 8 Monday, September 2011 9 Monday, 15th Kompas Online September 2011 10 11 Monday, 22th Pos Kota Online August 2011 Friday, July 2011 12 Thurday, 28th Pos Kota Online Bogor 29th Pos Kota Online Lampung Surabaya SG, 54 years Mawar, old school years old old 16 Bantul SRJ, 47 years Bunga, old years old 14 5th Kompas Online Jakarta Kiki, years old 29 Put, 19 years old 4th Pos Kota Online Lampung Pos Kota Online Lampung Trenggalek Pos Kota Online Bandung PU, 21 years RI, 14 years old Suratno, years old 25 years old years old old 42 Nu, 12 years old old, disable. 8 years old 5th Media Indonesia West Online Jakarta RH dan Afri Livia, years old 20 6th Media Indonesia Bogor Online Source 15th Pos Kota Online Location Cibubur Rapist Sayuti, years old Tommy, years old 35 GA, 15 years old Victims 50 5 Children

Nur and Nan, HT, 21 years Mahmud, 34 Mawar,

6 elementary Nn, 9 years children

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AG, 22 years Surniawati,

September 2011 10 11 Monday, 22th Pos Kota Online August 2011 Friday, July 2011 12 13 Thurday, 28th Pos Kota Online July 2011 Friday, July 2011 22nd Pos Kota Online Surabaya Bogor 29th Pos Kota Online Lampung Surabaya

old

years old 16

SG, 54 years Mawar, old school children AG, 22 years Surniawati, old years old years old old

6 elementary Nn, 9 years

15 years old 19 years old

Mat amin, 30 Noniek,

The table above shows that average victims of rape were young women. While the rapist’s age range from children to senior citizens.

Other Data:
Sexual violence cases occurred in the private domain are as much as 2903, while in the public domain are as much as 1781 cases. Annual reports of the National Commission of Women in 2010 in particular also highlighted a number of forms of sexual violence with the presence of the discriminatory policies of sexual control through the regent’s regulation No.5/2010 in West Aceh. This regulation actually prohibits women wearing tight clothes and pants. Besides, the Regent of Aceh Barat is also providing 12,000 long skirts for all women arrested in raids as a result of that discriminatory policy.

Violence against Women will not stop if our society is still holding on to the conventional tradition. Understanding gender-based violence and discrimination which is affecting women, and proving to yourself that mindset as the examples in a few paragraphs above have been very successful in creating violence against woman takes pretty much time.

So, do not hesitate to continue reading!
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Forms of Gender-Based Violence: • Physical violence:
Slapping, hitting, pulling hair, kicking, injuring with a weapon, female circumcision, forced sterilization (see chapter 1 which discusses the contraception methods!) in family planning method for women, and so on. The violence against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersexual, and Queers (LGBTIQ) which resulted serious physical abuse are: violence toward conference of the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) in Surabaya in 2010 and assaults by several groups of Islamic fundamentalist on Human Rights Training for the transgender at Hotel Bumi Wiyata, Depok at 2010. (Http://www.kontras.org/index. php?hal=siaran_pers&id=1295) Physical violence against transgender people is also often done even by the security forces during the raid or inspection.

who were basking at the red lights? Did you threat your couple because she did not want to do something you want for example having sex?

• Sexual Violence:

Sexual violence includes coercion on intercourse, rape, and others. The definition of sexual violence is touching or groping the body especially sexual organs without the owner’s consent, and make the person feels uncomfortable or even pain. Sexual violence can be occured both in private or public domain, and also in various forms. As you had read before, there are several stereotypes which have been labeled toward women such as the obligation to play their domestic roles as men’ servant. In reality, there is a lot of men who force women ‘to serve their sexual desire’. There is always a case when in a relationship women are forced to have intercourse or oral sex. This shows that the right of a woman’s body is controlled by another person.

• Psychological violence:

Include humiliation, harsh words, threats, and discredit addressed to women and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersexual, and Queers (LGBTIQ). Let’s try to remember, how often do you mock a male friend that you know have attraction toward male? Did you ever say harsh words to transgender Say Hello! To Our Body! 67

According to Komnas Perempuan (Women National Commission) data in 1998-2010, there have been 295,836 cases of violence against women. One per- third of that number is actually caused by sexual violence or rape cases. From 1998-2010 there have been 91,311 women as the victims of sexual violence (Women National Commission, Yunianti Chuzaifah on Pos Kota (13/5/11)

Recently, there are 86 countries which considered homosexuality as illegal and impose serious punishment for homosexuals. Even, 7 of them are imposing death penalty. (http://choiceforyouth.org

Whatever its form and whoever the victim are, female or LGBTIQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, Queers), violence is still a serious threat that cannot be tolerated at all. When we can build a close relationship to the people who have different skin color, hairstyle, face shape, and even different

tastes and beliefs, why we cannot the same thing to those who have different sexuality? Why do we still continue considering women and the LGBTIQ as a group that deserves violence? Do you want to be a part of changes by fighting against human rights violations in our daily lives?

The fact from the (United Nations Children’s Fund) UNICEF states:

• Women who get married before aged 18 are more vulnerable to Domestic Violence than those who married over 18 years. • More than 15 million young women aged 15-19 give birth each year as a result of Unintended Pregnancy

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Violence through Media
• 12 years old girl was raped 5 times in the garden • Having sex three times, a junior high school student got pregnant by her boyfriend • Because of Porn videos, an unemployee man rape a young girl
(Source: Pos Kota Daily 13 Mei, Pos Kota Daily 23 Mei 2011, dan 2011 Tempo daily Newspaper 16 June 2011)

show “gallantry” which means the intensity or strength of a man (rapist), unconsciously female victim is sacrificed for the sake of maintaining strong and powerful degree of the man. Ouch! Not only that, the news is also using the word “digauli” whereas that term can also mean “company” or “hang out”, it automatically narrow down and simplify the meaning of rape. The term “digauli” seems have more positive meaning. Whereas, rape is not a simple thing and very detrimental. Then, how could the media coverage made the rape as a “joke” material? Besides using discriminatory diction in writing news articles, the process of media coverage in raping cases often highly bias and cause another violence for the victim. When the rape occurred and the media covered it, in fact the victims are like being raped for the second time.

As an overview it is just like an ordinary news who informed a case of rape or “penggagahan (In English the literal meaning could be to masculine)” committed by a male against female. Through to headline-news above, it is clear that the media also did violence and discrimination practice. Violence also can be found in some terms used. It’s clear that the events reported above were rape, why do the media change the point of rape problems; raped, with the word “digagahi (masculinate)”, this necessarily indicate that the man is great, right? The word “digagahi”

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And this is the process:

Reporters interviewed and asked the victim to recall the bitter tragedy to the lens of a camera or tape recorder. Now, do you aware that when the victim is trying to recall it, she may once again be reminded of the event that she desperately tried to forget? It is like the lyric of popular dangdut song: already know the wounds, but still poured by salt water! Even worse, rape cases compiled by media were later formed into an “adult nasty stories” with more drama, and cooked up again before it played by the model on several private television stations with a wide range of audience. Doesn’t it severe, when the cruel incidents like rape, is used as a commercial product which circulated widely and inevitably become “entertainment” for the greater society?

Experiencing violence or know someone else who experienced violence? Please contact:

• Yayasan Pulih http://pulih.or.id • Rifka Annisa http://rifka-annisa.or.id/

Now, we already know about the variety of Gender Based Violence. Then, do we still want to be a spectator in viewing such violence? Let’s go back to the basic principles of Human Rights. It says that every human being had an equal right to live safely, comfortably, and equal no matter what the religion, ethnicity, race, sexuality or gender are. Isn’t it an ideal life when we respect each other, promote tolerance, and celebrate diversity? It is the ideal life that we have to fight, together, starting from now! :)

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KNOWING FURTHER:

DATING VVIOLENCE
The fact is, violence is not only happened within marriage but also within a dating relationship. Dating violence include any kinds of violence in dating relationship such as physical, sexual, psychological, and economic. Within a heterosexual relationship, most of the case, women are more vulnerable to violence than men. It has been proved by the data from

National Commission for Women: during 2010, there are 1.229 cases of violence by man within dating relationship.
Moreover, those numbers are only according to women who reported it. Women often depicted as a passive, obedient, and weak. Because of that, women are easily hurt by men. Yeah! Like an iceberg, dating violence case seems more dangerous than other dangerous cases. However, is that the fact? Is that really true? We cannot avoid it as a trivial case. It is kind of sad when most of us tend to hide away, forget, even do not have any courage to report it.

(Oops, it is related with love anyway, everything ‘seems’ right).

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Types of dating

violence
Talking about “violence”, the society considers it as a physical violence only. In fact, it is more than that. These are some types of dating violence:

3. Psychological Abuse

1. Physical Abuse

Slapping, hitting, thrusting back, and other forms related to physical contact.. Never underestimate any “small” physical abuse, because there are many homicide case started with a “small” physical abuse.

This is related to the over emotion of one of the dating partner, like scorning, insulting, humiliating, and yelling with inappropriate words. It usually happens when one of them does not follow what the other wants properly. For example; when the partner does not pick up the phone, wears a certain clothes without permission, hang out with someone else, and so on.

4. Economical Abuse

It can be about benefited the dating partner to get some money, borrow some partner’s things or other things.

2. Sexual Abuse

Forces in doing sexual intercourse (penetration) or any others sexual activities without any consent. Such as; groping, kissing, striping, and raping.

There are several myths in a dating relationship
Besides all of those types of violence in dating relationship above, there are also several myths regarded to violence in dating relationship:

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1. Myth: jealous or violence in a dating relationship is form of attention by dating partner, or on the other word this is the sign that our partner really love us. Fact: that is not love! That is the way they control us. To make us obedient and do what they want us to do. If it is love, it will be express with a caring and understanding. Jealous is normal, but it is not if they express it with violence. 2. Myth: The victims also have a contribution to create the violence. So, the victims is the trigger to the violence Fact: The violence actor will do the action sometimes without any reasons. They just blame the dating partner to cover their own mistakes. But anyway, violence is always wrong! 3. Myth: When the violence actor has already apologize and promise not to do that anymore, it means that the victim will be safe and can trust the dating partner again. Fact: The violence is generally happen in a cycle. When it happens once, it usually happens again. Do not easily trust with a promise, guys! Sometimes, they do not mean what they say. 4. Myth: after doing the violence, the dating partner will be more intimate. Fact: That is wrong! After doing the violence, the next one is other violence. If it more intimate, it is important to

check the psychological aspect. There might be something wrong. What a scary, huh? 5. Myth: If the dating partner promises to be responsible before have sex without a condom, we will be okay because they will fulfill the promise. Fact: Be careful with the promises offer by dating partner when they ask you to have a sex without condom with him/ her. There are many cases of women who abandoned by her dating partner when they are pregnant. Think twice before you do that. 6. Myth: Dating partners are allowed to do anything because we are theirs. Fact: No one have a right over us. Boyfriend/girlfriend or even a husband/wife does not have a right to treat us badly.

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Stop now! dating violence

“Violence” is bad thing. We have to stop people from being the victims, keep a vengeance and then become the next actor. This is the time to stop violence in dating relationship, leave it, and against it. How?

Make a dating consent!

In some countries in the world, sexual consent is familiar and used by many unmarried couples. Let say in San Francisco Bay Area, there are 90% couples from 566 gay couples have a sexual consent in their relationships. The purpose is that they can create a loving and healthy relationship. (Source: http://www.news-medical.net/ news/20100714/129/Indonesian.aspx) Sexual consent cannot be used in some eastern countries, for example Indonesia. The reason is, a lot of people argue that it is not effective and teach the youth to have sex before married. But, let us think more about it, it’s common for young people to engange in a dating relationship. So, it will be better if we have a “dating agreement”! Hmm but, what kind of “dating agreement” is it?

Relationship status
We’re pretty sure that not all of young people agree about “in a relationship with” word. Some of them are comfort with relationship without specific status, or an intimate friend. Whatever it is, when you and your “friend” agree to build a relationship, it is better to make it clear what kind of relationship that you want to build and how is it looks like. For example, you and your partner agree if one of you are still hangout with other friends and feel free to do it.

Do’s and Dont’s
Make a long list about what you and your partner want each other. Then, write the points down. This list has to be made together, transparently, and democratically! For example:

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Do’s: Calling three times a day Bring each other lunch box everyday Dont’s: Sending text message like, “what are you doing?” every 5 minutes. Keeping the ex’s picture.

Healthy and pleasure
Healthy and pleasure are the main standard of anything. And when there is something unexpected occured such as pregnancy, both of you would have known how to make a decision. It can be married, abortion, or the other decision. Then, it is also about how both of you do after that.

Prepare for any possibility
Have an agreement about things that could be very sensitive and tabboo: having sex. The agreement can be about how far you and your couple are allowed to touch each other; holding hand, hugging, kissing, or even having sexual intercourse. Only both of you that can completely understand with the purposes of doing that and how all of those things happened, and remember, you have option to be agree or disagree.

Honest and respect!
It is useless to have a romantic relationship and have a perfect agreement if both of you cannot be honest and respect each other. Just be honest and respect each other.

Have a good relationship without violence, guys!

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What should you do if you experience dating

violence?

It is not complete if we talk about dating violence without knowing how to deal with once we experience it or knowing other person who experience it. These are the following things that we can do:

If you are the victims

• You have to realize that “Your Body is Your Rights”, you have it all alone, and no one can take control over it! Therefore, eventhough both of you love each other and have a commitment, it doesn’t mean that your couple can do anything with you and your body. • Don’t be afraid to say “NO” • Say no to flattery! If your couple asks you so, you have to do it based on your full consciousness. Don’t be afraid to say no! Be careful with any kinds of dating violence. • If the violence cannot be avoided, you have the right to be angry, fight back or report it to the police. Do not let yourself to be weak and drown with love! • Ask a legal law institution to accompany you to report your problem to the police.

Violence-actor deserves to get the punishment!

• The violence-actor, it can be a dating partner, family, neighbor, business partner, or schoolmate. Even they are very close with you, they should be punished. Report whoever they are to the police as soon as possible. Don’t be worry because there are some criminal code in Indonesia regulating it: • Criminal code number 351-358 for criminal and physical abuse • Criminal code number 289-296 about rape • Criminal code number 281-283, and number 532-533 for the politeness crimes

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• Criminal code number 286-288 for sexual abuse towards children

If you have to go to the court

• Don’t be surprised if the police ask you some surprising questions and make you cry or angry regarded to the violence that you get. Besides the part of the investigation, the police also want to know the truth by seeing your emotional expressions. • Stand up and be strong! The violenceactor can be free if the victims are afraid to tell the truth and report it to the police. Don’t give up eventhough it’s difficult to clear these up. • Ask for support from family, close friends, and some related institutions which have concern on violence against women and children.

You can call this following number if you see, know, or become the victims:
- Jakarta: LBH APIK (021-87797289), Mitra Perempuan (021-8298421), Kalyanamitra (021-7902109), SIKAP (3917760). - Jogjakarta: Rifka Annisa (0274518720) LSPPA (0274-374813), - Surabaya: Savy Amira (0318706255)

References:: - http://belajarpsikologi.com/pengertiankekerasan-dalam-pacaran/, diakses 14 Des 2011, 12.30 WIB - http://nasional.kompas.com/ read/2008/09/29/10374576/6.mitos. kekerasan.dalam.pacaran, diakses 14 Des 2011, 12.30 WIB - http://www.lbh-apik.or.id/fact-52%20 dating%20vlc.htm, diakses 14 Des 2011, 12.30 WIB Say Hello! To Our Body! 77

Living with

HIVshould we AIDS? and do? What
Young people is vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Do you believe it? Take a look at these following evidences from Indonesia: The total of HIV positive case in January-September 2011 is 15.589 cases with the group of productive age 20-49 years old as the highest group who get infected with 13.823 cases. During 2010 until 2011 there are 2.806 HIV cases of adolescent aged 15-24 years old. (Sumber: www.aidsindonesia.or.id/ laporan-triwulan-kementeriankesehatan-ketiga-2011.html)

So, what should we do if we get infected by HIV and AIDS? Being an HIV and AIDS positive is not a curse. Whereas, people living with HIV and AIDS are no different with the HIV and AIDS negative people. They must not be discriminated. They have the same rights just like other people, they’re entitled for:

Having a partner

Who said that people living with HIV and AIDS cannot have a partner? That is not true. Every people living HIV and AIDS have the rights to decide to marry or not, have a sex with someone, and express their sexual orientation. Living as an HIV positive person should not make someone live in isolation. By having a supportive partner, it is expected to support the

HIV positive person to have a healthy and high quality life. It is not a problem at all for an HIV positive person to have a life partner, get married and have a child. It will be good if they can manage a healthy life, physically, psychologically and socially and live to its fullest.

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right to to have and raise a child. But, it is true that there are some procedure and tips to be followed by a woman living with HIV andAIDS before deciding to get pregnant. Of course, the purpose is to keep the mother and child healthy and prevent the child from being infected by HIV. If the HIV and AIDS positive woman doesn’t want to have a baby, she is advised to learn and access available contraception to prevent them from getting pregnant (Check the previous chapter, please...)

Having sex

Does people living with HIV and AIDS only allowed to have sex only with other HIV and AIDS positive people? This is absolutely wrong. People living with HIV and AIDS are allowed to have sex with HIV and AIDS negative people as long as they practive safe sex and based on consent. (Take a look at the previous part!). Therefore, the information and and access toward contraception for people living with HIV and AIDS is very important to prevent the HIV epidemic.

Publish the HIV-AIDS status to the closest people? Do it when you are ready.

To have or not to have a child

Deciding when and how to share about the HIV and AIDS status is not a simple thing for people living with HIV and AIDS. Of course there is a lot of reasons and considerations which are not easily decided. Many of them share it to the closest people whom they considered to be supportive, but there will always be people who pull away from them. So, it takes a lot of preparation for people living with HIV and AIDS before disclosing their health-status with others. However, if you have been diagnosed to be HIV positive or find someone living with HIV and needs supportive system, you can go to the link here: http://www.aidsindonesia.or.id

A misconception about people living with HIV and AIDS is positive women has to be sterilized (check it on chapter 1) and prevent them from being pregnant. This is wrong, every woman living with HIV and AIDS still has a

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Unintended

Pregnancy
The lack of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) makes young people face a lot of problem and vulnerable to violence, and for young women who got no access to CSE the rate of unintended pregnancy are even higher than the one who got the access. Unintended pregnancy is not a problem of morality degradation, or the lack of religious study, but it is due to the lack of information about their body and rights. That’s why young people sometimes make reckless decision toward their body due to the absence of information. Talking about unintended pregnancy, it will takes a lot of time more time than watching a movie. This issue is still very sensitive, especially in Indonesia. However, we cannot act like we do not know. As if buy something and we cannot get our money back, pregnancy cannot be avoided, because the tummy will get bigger each day. So, there is some information regarded to unintended pregnancy that you all should know:

The prevention of pregnancy
Before having sex with someone, it is important to know any kinds of contraception to prevent pregnancy. If you forgot to use it before having sex, you can consume emergency contraception pill. The function is to prevent the sperm from meeting with the egg cell (ovum). Please note that the emergency contraception pill is not for abortion, but it is intended just to prevent the pregnancy.

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How to detect a pregnancy?
If you have sex without condom or other contraception tools, you have to continuously check your menstruation period. If it does not run regularly, notice whether you’re pregnant or not by checking the symptom of pregnancy such as morning sick, changes in breast size, be easily tired, and peeing often. Use a test-pack (pregnancy test tools like a pen, the top of the tools made by a metal which has to dip into the urine, and then it will show a sign. The sign (+) for positively pregnant and (-) for negatively pregnant. If the indicator of the test-pack do not show a (-) sign, but you are still not sure about that, just come to the nearest clinic and have a consultation with the doctor.

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If you are

positively pregnant..
You will be surprised, panic, worried, scared, and confused when you know that you are positively pregnant. As a young people, a drastic changes within your body and being pregnant is a very surprising moment. But, in the case of unintended pregnancy, it is not just a surprising moment, moreover it will make your surroundings look up to you. There is a lot of possibilities include with the risks that you can take in dealing with pregnancy. Pregnancy is not a simple thing like diarrhea which can be solved easily. A sudden, unplanned pregnancy will create a curiosity from other, and that is what you have to think about. Are you ready to pregnant? If yes, are you considering about your life as a woman who has lots of activities? Are you thinking about how to take care of the baby with lots of activities? Will you marry with the father of the baby? If you are not ready yet to be a mother, what should you do? Or if you are ready to be a mother but the man will not marry you, what will you do? Are you ready to face the situation and condition that you have never done before, physically, mentally and socially?

When you are pregnant, you have to make a good decision for you and your body and nobody deserves to intervene your decision.

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Please take a look the following points:
• If you want to keep the pregnancy, born the baby, and take care of him/ her, you have to BE HAPPY with your son/daughter. Read a lot of books, make discussions, or join in a young mom forum. Don’t let yourself down with your own decision, you are the one who should decide what you want for your life. • If you want to keep the pregnancy but still not ready yet to take care of the baby, you can have someone to ADOPT your baby. It is better to have some consultations with family or close friends to make a right decision.

• If you are not ready yet to get pregnant and the pregnancy is endanger your health (physically and mentally), you have to know the best and safe method to terminate it. Don’t go to the shaman, drinking a traditional illegal medicine, or any other method like jumping!

If you got a unintended pregnancy or heard about that and need a consultation, you can call this hotline number: (in bahasa Indonesia)

• 087839555100 • 085325211100

LGBTIQ? So what?
Living as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersexual or queer (LGBTIQ) is not that easy. It is harder when your surroundings and significant other still live with a strong heteronormativity, the norm regarding heterosexual as the only sexual orientation being accepted. LGBTIQ is likely to face a lot of discrimination and violence. To start,there are some terms related with this: Homophobia is an over anxiety toward homosexuality. It is showed by negative attitude by the society toward homosexual. The homophobias (homophobic) are usually avoid, hate, and doing some unfair acts to make LGBTIQ person feel uncomfortable and depress. Say Hello! To Our Body! 83

Heterosexism is kind of attitude considering that heterosexual is the only sexual orientation deserve be exist. In Indonesia, many people tend to be a heterosexist because of the culture that considers other sexual orientation as abnormal and unnatural. Heterosexist is closely related with heteronormativity which talk about the normative role in each gender.

discrimination and violence towards the diversity of sexual orientation, lead LGBTIQ and others who care for it advocating the issues through a lot of form of activism, and one of them is by commemorating IDAHO every year. Since 1993, Indonesia also considered homosexuality as a normal, not a disease or psychosis. It was written in the classification and diagnose guiding of mental disease III launched by Indonesia’s Ministry of Health. The state has obligation to guarantee the rights of every people include LGBTIQ. Based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every people with a different gender and sexual orientation have the same rights. What are our rights? Let’s move to the next chapter!

The diversity of sexual orientation is not a disease or psychosis
17th May 1990 is the day where World Health Organizations (WHO) officially stated that homosexuality is not a disease or psychosis. So, every year on 17th May, world commemorate International Day Against Homophobia or IDAHO. The

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CHAPTER 3
Human Rights For All

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Take action Reproductive Health and Let’s Claim Our Sexual and
Rights!
Human is a sexual being. We have sexual and reproductive needs. We also have lust, fantasy, and other needs which are related to sexuality. This only can be accomplished if our sexual and reproductive health and rights are well fulfilled. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) are two points which we will examine related to the fulfillment our health and reproductive rights. Let’s have a look about these two concepts!

What is SRHR?

Based on the formula, SRHR contains several components such as: SRHR = Sexual Health + Sexual Rights + Reproductive Health + Reproductive Rights

Sexual Health

Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, and social well-being in relation to sexuality. The approach requires that the human sexuality and health services should be seen in a positive and respectful way and meant to pleasurable, safe sex activity, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.

information related to sexuality, sex education, partner choice, choice to be sexually active or not, married, time for having baby, and having a pleasurable, healthy, and satisfying sexual life.

Reproductive health

Sexual Rights

Basic human rights which have listed in many legal frameworks (national legal, international, and other consensus). Those basic human rights generally could be: free from coercion, discrimination, violence to increase the standard health including health access,

A fully prosperous condition physically, mentally, and socially. Not only about the explanation of the disease related to reproductive system, function, and process.

Reproductive rights

Reproductive right is the arrays of rights accrued by law (national, international and other consensus). It includes the rights for committing

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freely the desirable number of children which is free from discrimination, coercion, and violence. If we trace back, health is not only a biological problem just like what we have shared on the first chapter, but

also attach social problems like what we have seen in the second chapter. Thus, rights based approach is needed to guarantee those rights!

Let’s Claim Our SRHR!

The fulfillment of SRHR or Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights is a must. Young people have many problems which emerge since these rights are not guaranteed by the government, it is reflected with the lack of young people’s knowledge related to reproductive health, moreover about the fulfillment of rights which they actually must have. In addition, there are only a few government programs which focus on the reproductive health attached to young people’s sexual rights, this leads to make them “lost” in the incomprehensive knowledge. Generally, what are the problems that young people are facing on, related to their reproductive and sexual health? Here they are: - The high number of HIV – AIDS among young people - Sexually Transmitting Infection - Unintended pregnancy - Many wrong information from porn movies - High number of young people who have already sexually active, but do not perform safe sex. - Unsafe abortion - Lack of access toward youth friendly sexual health services for young people - Sexual violence - Discrimination towards young LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) - Low self-esteem and self-acceptance within the young LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) Do we want to keep silent and turn around from all of these problems? The key of these problems is the young people’s rights have to be fully guaranteed through the access towards comprehensive sexuality education and youth-friendly health services!

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Abstinence Approach

One of sexuality education models which has been applied called abstinence approach. Through this kind of method, the information about sexuality education is given, but young people keep being prohibited for having sex. The lack of this method is that young people have not been given the information of their reproductive and sexual rights and tend to judge negatively sexual activity which is done by unmarried couple.

responsibly. Thus, Comprehensive Sexuality Education is needed. However, if we are still running our program based on the Abstinence Approach, everything related to sexual and reproductive health mostly will be seen negatively. The abstinence approach should be transformed into a more effective approach, based on the fulfillment of the SRHR, so young people would fully understand the whole concept of sexuality education, not only from the health aspect, but also from the aspect of the fulfillment of their rights which they actually have. Therefore, the CSE (Comprehensive Sexuality Education) approach is needed for young people! Talking about SRHR and CSE, you must be very curious about two those points, right? Do you want to know what are Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights which young people actually have? Let’s go into them one by one!

CSE (Comprehensive Sexuality Education) Approach

It is obvious that the more young people are prohibited, the more they will get lost! The approach which is not only about the health aspect, but also comprehensive rights is needed to be given to them. Young people have to be given the comprehensive information, so they can make any decision about their own body consciously and

The Origin of SRHR

The concept of SRHR was formed in the 1994 ICPD (International Conference on Population and Development) in Cairo. It could be considered as one of successful conferences and became guidance for people around the world which work in the field of SRHR to create the policy related to sexual and reproductive health comprehensively. The conference which was attended by a lot of people and institutions from various sectors have resulted a guidance about Comprehensive Sexuality Education / CSE. These are seven elements on the comprehensive sexuality education:

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1. Gender As we have mentioned in the previous chapter, it is a concept of “social” sex type which does exist in the society. It is important to know the applied gender role’s concept, including how the concept tends to be more detrimental for women. 2. SRH / Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV It is crucial to understand the sexual and reproductive health and its relation with HIV-AIDS. In this element, the discussion includes the understanding of STI and HIV, also how to prevent and live with it. The complete information about the body circle: puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and contraception are also provided. 3. Sexual Citizenship Rights The knowledge about Human Rights and policy, law, and the accepted national structure in each country, information about the provided information access and services and how to get it, participation in drafting, implementation, to the accepted policy evaluation. It is also about how to get the protection for what they have chosen, including rights to choose whether to have sex, to be sexually active, or sexually passive.

4. Pleasure Sexual activity is done by people since it is a pleasure! If it is true, why do people see it in a negative way? Pleasure is not only about sexual activity, but also as a part of human life which cover biological and human emotion: sexual respond, masturbation, love, lust, relationship, interpersonal communication, sexual variety, and the first sexual experience. 5. Violence Violence is strongly related to sexual and reproductive health. Thus, it is necessary to understand the type of violence and how it emerges, including law and rights protection from the violence, support for the victims, violence myth, prevention, the technique of protecting themselves from violence. 6. Diversity Human being is very diverse. Starting from faith, culture, level of education, ethnic, economic and social status, difability (also known as disabilty) status, HIV status, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Therefore, it is crucial to point diversity as something positive. It is also important to know the variety of discrimination, the impacts, and how to prevent and cope

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with it. Diversity is not only about tolerance, but also it has to be more than that: celebration of diversity. 7. Relationship Knowing the various relationship types such as family, friends, sexual partner, romantic couple, and etc

are very important. Also, the type of emotion, intimacy (emotional and physical), rights and obligations, dynamic of relation, and building a healthy relationship and eradicating an unhealthy relationship or full of force (coercive) are very beneficial to be understood.

Let’s Take a look to Our Sexual and Reproductive Rights! Here They are...
Before we go forward, it is necessary to clearly differentiate between reproductive rights and sexual rights. At a glance, they look the same, but actually there are several obvious differences.

Sexual Rights include more to sexuality, sexual orientation, gender identity, sexual attitude, and sexual health. Reproductive Rights include more to fertility, reproductive, reproductive health, and family.

Sexual Rights 1. Rights to Equality

• It covers rights to enjoy and implement the rights that they have, including sexual rights. • The legal protection from all types of discrimination without distinguishing gender, sex, sexual orientation, HIV status, and other identities. • The exclusion of law, policy, practical, and attitude which strengthen the stereotype and the wrong concept which believe that certain gender or sex is better than others. • The omission of any kind of discrimination based on gender which hit the young people. • Policy, law, and service which are gender sensitive. • The omission of parents’ involvement or partner which makes young people cannot access the sexual and reproductive health services.

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2. Rights to Participate

• Involving young people meaningfully in the planning, implementation, and evaluation from during the process and policies related to services for rights and sexual health. • Building young people’s leadership within the sexual and reproductive rights movement in the local, national, regional, and global level. • Involving young people in deciding the best way for them to participate in the policy making process whether in community, national, regional, or international level. • The existence of adults’ commitment to create an equal partnership with young people and support any capacity building activities for youth, so they can meaningfully participate.

3. Rights to Live and Free from Dangerous

• The protection from sexual violence, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment and human trafficking. • The guaranteed protection from bullying which happens at schools and communities. • Revoking criminal threat over women or medical staffs who do abortion. • The omission of medical procedure which is forced towards women, including sterilization (tubectomy), the forced abortion particularly the HIV-AIDS women and difable (as known as Disable). • The omission of tradition which humiliates women such as women circumcision and forced marriage. • The omission of law which provides the involvement of parents, family, or partner, so young people can access contraception services, HIV test, pregnancy termination, and other sexual health services freely.

4. Rights to Privacy

• The secrecy for sexual and reproduce health services. Here, every time we access the services, nobody may know without our permission. • The secrecy for sexual attitudes, sexual orientation, HIV status, the use of contraception, including the history of Sexual Transmitted Infection (STI), pregnancy, and abortion. • The secrecy for the communication process which has been done such as letters, diaries, e-mails, or any document files. • Parents, families, partners, and other people have no rights to know the sexual health information without our permission. 5. Rights to Personal Autonomy and Admitted as a Legal Individual • The recognition, protection, and fulfillment of the young people’s law without distinguishing ages, gender, or sexual orientation. Say Hello! To Our Body! 91

• The liberty to explore sexuality safely and pleasantly apart from the sexual orientation and gender identity. • Celebrating diversity in the society. • Free will to decide the time, with whom, and how to have sex. • Make sure that young people who live in prison, certain institutions, or conflict area will not experience violence. • The omission of any kind forced medical action such as vasectomy and tubectomy, or hormone therapy. • Access towards information, so young people can become aware of their rights.

6. Rights to Think and Freedom of Expressions

• Access towards comprehensive sexual education and correct information about Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights • Access to create, join, lead, or participate in a group for expressing thoughts, ideas, opinions, and desires about sexuality, gender, and sexual rights in the environment where all young people’s rights and freedom can be happened. • The meaningful participation in the public process, including the making of policy related to sexual rights. • Make sure that young people can express exactly suit to their identity which can make they feel comfortable. • Facilitating the young people’s capability to express their sexual and gender identity in the positive and healthy way. • The liberty to show their affection in public together with their partner without any violence threats.

7. Rights to Health

• Access towards the complete sexual and reproduce health services which can fulfill the needs of young people. • Education, knowledge, and capability which enable young people to practice a safe sex and prevent the unintended pregnancy, STI, and HIV-AIDS. • The young people’s participation in designing policy, program, law, and public health services in the community and their own nation. • The omission of law which requires the need of permission from parents, family, or partners which can make young people feel difficult in accessing the sexual and reproductive health services. • Opening the access for women to stop the unintended pregnancy. • There is an access towards the variety of contraception type

8. Rights to Know and Learn
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• Access towards comprehensive sexual education for young people including those who out from school or no longer studying at the formal education

institutions. • Access towards education to reduce the stigma, discrimination, and any kind of violence. • The involvement of young people in the planning, development, and evaluation of comprehensive sexual education program and policy related to sexuality. • Full access towards education for women. • The development skill for building a strong, equal, and healthy relation. • Make sure that young people can obtain education until finish, particularly for those who are pregnant, already being parents, and for people who live with HIV-AIDS. • Developing sexual education which is not only focus on the biological aspect, but also social, like sexuality. • Leaving the education method which is based on abstinence and going forward with the Comprehensive Sexual Education (CSE).

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Reproductive Education: Rights 1. Rights to Information and

• Rights to education and reliable information related to sexual and reproductive health accesses, free from stereotype, and are given in the objective, critical, and plural context. • Rights to adequate education and information which is able to support every decision which they have made related to their sexual and reproductive life and has been made with free choice and by consent. • Rights to complete information related to any kind of contraception method, including effectiveness, risk, and the prevention of the unintended pregnancy.

2. Rights to Services and Protection

• Rights to health services with the best quality including the sexual and reproductive health. • Rights to comprehensive health services including access to all contraception methods, also the termination of the unintended pregnancy, diagnosis, and the treatment of infertility and STI, including HIV. • Rights to protection from the hazardous traditional practices particularly for women and children. For example: female genital mutilation. • Rights to pregnant and counseling which empower and can decide based on the provided information. • Rights to sexual and reproductive health services as a part of the comprehensive health care, easily accessed; financially or geographically, privately and confidential, and respecting the dignity and the comfort of the person. • Rights for women to obtain services related to pregnancy, childbirth, and postchildbirth including the adequate nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding. • Rights to health protection and safety in the workplace, including protection of the reproductive organs. • All working women have rights to get salary during their maternity leave with the worth social benefit.

3. Rights to Freedom of Thinking

• Rights to freedom of thinking and talking related to the sexual and reproductive life. • Rights to have protection from the restriction based on thoughts and religion towards access for education and information related with the sexual and reproductive health. • Rights to free from the interpretation of religious text, faith, philosophy, and tradition which limit in accessing the sexual and reproductive health services.

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4. Rights to Decide the Number of Childrens and Spacing Birth

• All women have rights to information, education, and services toward reproductive health protection, safe abortion, and the safe childbirth which is easily accessed, affordable, accepted, and comfortable for everyone. • Rights to the safe, affective and accepted contraception access. • Rights to the freedom in choosing and using the safe contraception method to prevent the unintended pregnancy.

5. Rights to Life (Rights to be protected from the death because of pregnancy and the childbirth process)

• Women deserve for a life which is free from the risk from pregnancy. • Children deserve for a life which is free, particularly due to their gender identity. • Nobody lives in a risk and danger for the reason of the lack of health services/ information access, counseling or services related to the sexual and reproductive health.

6. Rights to Freedom and Protection

• Rights to be freely enjoying and controlling the sexual and reproductive life with also respect the others. • Rights to be free from medical intervention related to the sexual and reproduce health with a full consent, free, and based on the information. • Women have rights to be free from any kind of female genital mutilation. • Rights to be free from sexual harassment. • Rights to be free from the outside fear, shame, guilty, faith based on the myth and another psychological factor which obstacle sexual respond or damage the condition of sexual life. • Rights to be free from forced pregnancy, sterilization, and abortion.

7. Rights to be free from violence and bad treatment

• Children have protection rights from any kind of exploitation particularly sexual exploitation, children prostitution, and any kind of violence, attack, and sexual harassment, including protection from the force for children in involving in the sexual activity which breaks the law, exploitative, or the use of children in the porn material. • The medical experiment or experiment related with sexuality or the arrangement of fertility or the other technique must not be followed by anyone based on the free and informational agreement.

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• Woman has the right of protection from human trafficking or woman exploitation in prostitution. • Right of having protection from violence and condescend related with sexuality and reproductive health, especially during a war. • The right of protection in raping and sexually abused.

8. The rights in getting advantages from science:

• Everyone has the same right to get the technological reproduction service advantages and access which are related to infertility, contraception and abortion where the delimitation of that information can endanger the health. • The right of protection and information of every effect which is endangering the health from technological reproduction health service. • The users of sexual and reproduction health service have the right to access all of the safe and acceptable reproduction technology.

9. The rights to privacy:

• All of sexual and reproduction health services including the information and counseling must prepare a client with a privacy and make sure that the given personal information are well kept. • Woman has the right to choose the reproduction choice freely included the choice of safe abortion. • Everyone has the right to express their sexual orientation to get a safe and satisfying sexual life, but still they have to respect the other’s rights without a fear of oppression, or freedom refusal or social failure. • All of the sexual and reproduction health services, including the information and counseling service which are offered should be available for all individual and couples, especially youth, based on their rights to privacy and secrecy.

10. The rights to built and plan a family:

• The right of having protection from forced marriage without a full and free consent and based on the information from the persons involved • The right of accessing the health and reproduction service including the people who infertile or about to be infertile due to infected by a sexual infection. • The right of on building and planning a family is not limited with woman and man, but also the transgender.

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11. The rights to participating in politics:

• The right of making a network in SRHR issue • The right of making a group to promote SRHR • The right of trying to influence the government to make SRHR as a priority of construction.

12. The rights to be free in every form of discrimination in family and reproduction:

• No one can be discriminated related with their sexual and reproduction life in accessing health service based on race, skin color, sex or sexual orientation, marital status, the position in family, age, language, religion, political orientation, nationality, wealthy, birth and other status. • The right of accessing the education and information to assure heath and prosperity including information access, advice and service related to SRHR, apart from race, skin color, sex or sexual orientation, marital status, the position in family, age, language, religion, political orientation, nationality, wealthy, birth and other status. • Women and children have the right to an appropriate nutrition and a long life nursing, and free from prejudice, custom and all of inferiority practices or stereotyping. • There is no discrimination in women to access information and/or concerned services of development or fulfilling the SRHR including the access of the arrangement of fertility service, due to the agreement of others are matter. • No one can be pushed in participating to the sexual health or reproduction service which has a discrimination effect toward certain groups. • The right of protection on any forms of violence based on race, skin color, sex, language, religion, political orientation, nationality, wealth, birth and other status. • Women have the right to protection from discrimination in social life, domestic of workplace related with women stuff like pregnancy and others. • There is no discrimination in accessing information, health service or other service related to sexual health and reproduction, right and need in a life time based on gender, age, sexual orientation or difability (disability) status.

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Comprehensive Sexuality Education

is a MUST!
Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) is an obligatory thing. Related to previous explanation, it is clearly shown that CSE is the solution for youth problems. However, many people think that Comprehensive Sexuality Education has some negative sides. These are the 7 myths or negative sides about CSE. Are those true?

emotion as early as possible. Sexuality education teaches the basic parts of the body, human reproduction systems, interpersonal and family relations, safety, and build their confidence. These knowledge have to be given step by step based on their age.

3. Comprehensive Sexuality Education makes children grow faster.
Getting a more accurate and complete information, based on the age is everyone’s right. If the knowledge of reproduction and sexual health do not exist, the youth will get the different information and sometimes mislead by their friends, media, and other resources. A right sexuality education will balanced the false information through the dissemination of right information which are stressed on values and relation.

1. Comprehensive Sexuality Education leads the youth to have sex.
A research is clearly shown that sexuality education does not lead the youth to have a sex, it precisely encourages the youth to delay the first age for them to have sexual activity and have a responsible sexual attitude.

2. Comprehensive Sexuality Education is not good for children
Comprehensive sexuality education is given step by step and also proper with human’s age. Comprehensive sexuality education is also not concerning in sexual relation, but the types of relations. So, children will know and understand the types of a relation before they act based on their sexual orientation and also get to know their body, relation, and their

4. Sexuality education is parent’s duty only.
A good sexuality education aware of the importance of parent and family’s role as the informant and supporting part in form of understanding on sexuality. However, government also has a role through educational ministry, school and teacher to support and complete the parent’s role by giving a safe and supportive environment and also qualified material in comprehensive sexuality education.

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5. Sexuality education is against with culture, religion and beliefs
Comprehensive sexuality education adjusts with the needs and cultural context. All of the people, who contribute such as religious figure, also participate in the development of comprehensive sexuality education material. Though, Comprehensive Sexuality Education has to change the norm and cultural practices which are contradicted with Human Rights especially harming the women.

6. Sexuality education has already existed in biology study
The knowledge that they get in biology are very limited and it is just about the human’s organs. It does not cover yet the human sexuality, gender and types of relationship.

7. Comprehensive Sexuality Education has to support the former values.
Comprehensive Sexuality Education is using an approach based on right and respects the values of respectfulness, acceptance, tolerance, equivalent, empathy and support the Human Rights.

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What can YOU do to

support CSE?
Who said that Comprehensive Sexuality Education is the medical stuff ’s job only? We are also can be a part of the endorser of CSE! What can we do?

Start from ourselves:
• Prepare ourselves with a comprehensive and updated knowledge about SRHR • Participating in a workshop, seminar, and discussion related to SRHR • Do a research on youth regarding SRHR in your community. You can start it by reading many literatures, making a survey, interview and any other possible approaches. • Participating in conference or activity that concerns with SRHR. • Make a map! Mapped all of the organizations, institution, or an individual who concerned in SRHR.

• Make an activity that involved the parent, teacher, religious figure to discuss the importance of SRHR. • Cooperate with artist and musician to create a work on SRHR • Create information about SRHR; it can be a blog, facebook, or twitter.

Advocacy for Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE)
• Joint in SRHR community around you and working with the other youth. • Involve within your community with comprehensive sexuality education material/modules • Have a dialogue with your local government, especially with the ministry of education to make a design of comprehensive sexuality education. • Train and support the teacher and school that start to put a comprehensive sexuality education into their curriculum.

Community
• Make a youth network which concerns on SRHR in your community! • Being an educator to increase the awareness and knowledge about SRHR toward youth. • Being a volunteer in an institution which advocates SRHR like Women’s Journal Foundation. • Giving an SRHR information to youth community which is hard to be reached like road children and youth living with HIV.

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Advocacy for youth friendly health service
• Mapping a clinic, hospital, or other health service which is youth friendly, especially for young people with HIV, difable (disable), unmarried, sex workers, LGBT (lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) • Build partnership with midwife, medical’s staff, and doctor who support the choice of the youth toward their body and life.

National and local advocacy
• Advocacy to put CSE into school curriculum • Campaign on increasing the public awareness about SRHR • Make a letter or petition to chosen parliament member around you about the importance of youth’s SRHR • Analyze the national and international law and demand the commitment of them to fulfill and support for youth’s SRHR. • Make a research about the positive impacts which support SRHR and use it as an advocacy material.

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BEHIND THE SCENES
“Say ‘Hello!’ to Our Body”

BEHIN D TH SCENE E S

“Say ‘Hello!’ to Our Body” is a book published by Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan colaborated with The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW). The writing process was started from “ Youth Sexuality Workshop” which was held in June 29th – July 1st 2011 at Ciherang, Bogor. The workshop is focused on sharing knowledge about Comprehensive Sexuality Education, ranging from basic concept about Gender, Sexual and Reproductive rights, until about Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV and AIDS . The

participants of the workshop are 11 young people from Jakarta and the greater area. After attending the workshop, the 11 participants were writing this book together in order to share the knowledge to Indonesian youth in a simple and youth-friendly word. Furthermore, the process of publishing this book is actually a way to encourage meaningful youth participation and to support the implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Indonesian educational curriculum.

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Do you want to know who are the persons behind this book? Here they are:

Person in charge: Mariana Amiruddin Project Officer: Nisrina Nadhifah Production Team: Farhanah, Kurnia Wijiastuti, Shintya Felicitas Editor: Ryan Fajar Febrianto, Nisrina Nadhifah, Rinaldi Ridwan

Author: Adi Ahdiat, Amalia Sekarjati, Amira Ruzuar, Antonia Ristya, Hatika Al-Safa, Joeliana, Kurnia Wijiastuti, Lydia Natasha, Rae Hutapea, Shabrina Wulan, Shintya Felicitas. Design & Illustration: Yanuarudin Mukhlis Translator: Shabrina Wulan

THE TEAM

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1. Ninies

UNESCO Indonesia. Until 2013 will be active as Youth Advisor UNFPA Indonesia. Had elected to become Kartini Muda Indonesia 2011 in one of the automotive companies version, and the believer of a saying: life is a never ending learning process that should be enjoyed. She also believe that life is not like a Panjat Pinang (climbing a tree) that if you want to be on the top, we must step on the people below. Art, theater, movies, books, music, Tumblr, coffee, bananas, and the beach are things she likes to talk about. Human Rights, Pluralism, Gender, and Sexuality? It’s a must !

Full Name : Nisrina Nadhifah Rahman Nickname : Ninies Twitter : @niniesrina Facebook : Niesrina Ninies Nadhifah Tumblr : http://niniesrina.tumblr. com Ninies, 17 years old. “Trapped” in holding a position as a youth program assistant at Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan as well as writer of Change Magazine for 2 years. Had become the editor in the Peace Generation Mizan, writer of sexuality short story in Berbeda & Berwarna, Had a chance to write in Youthspeak The Jakarta Post, an online magazine of global youth “Youth Global Change” youthchangeglobal. wordpress.com, and certainly in the global web-Changemakers . net. Representative of Indonesia for the Global Changemakers Youth Summit 2010 in London, UK and became facilitators for the same event in 2011, from the British Council. Crew of Media & Communication Youth Desk

2. Inal

Full Name : Rinaldi Ridwan Nickname : Inal Twitter : @inalisme E-mail : rinaldiridwan@gmail.com Rinaldi, his nickname is Inal, recently joined IPPF ESEAOR to attend Youth

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Leadership program to build youth network in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights issues in East and Southeast Asia, and Oceania region. Before that, Rinaldi worked in Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan as Coordinator of Youth Program since 2008. In early 2011, Rinaldi and some friends formed the Youth Network in Jakarta. It is a network of young activists coming from diverse backgrounds to discuss and share youth activism. In addition, Rinaldi is also a volunteer of Women’s Bestfriend, a network supported by Women on Web working in solving unintended pregnancy in Jakarta. Rinaldi can also be found on twitter @ TabuSeksualitas and tabuseksualitas. tumblr.com where he and his colleague spread the information about Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) for young people.

3. Fani

Farhanah, has been called Fani since she was a baby (not Fanny or Fanie). A milk and coffee enthusiasts which are actively writing in Change magazine since 2009 and in 2011 have became the managing editor. Feel proud and happy to be a part of the Change magazine and learn a lot of things that can not be counted by money. The 4th child of four brothers, graduated from the University of Indonesia majoring in Communication Studies on 2010 with a specialization in journalism. She has a keen interest in the media field since she liked to read her brother’s magazine and her father’s newspaper during childhood. Fani Loves to read books, though she seldom bought one, so that she is always devoted in borrowing her friends book during school time. In addition, she also loves to write, either on the sidelines learning logs, super secret diaries, until finally dare to publish it on the blog. Since joining Change magazine in Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan, she has been more interested in gender, youth, human rights, and also sexuality issues. He aspires to do anything she loved for her life. Fani also like to make a number of variety of things to be 5. Believe that ghosts are existing and aliens are just nonsense. Dreaming to make a school someday. Thinking that happiness could be as simple as cold coffee, hammocks, hot music, movies, cool books, friends, laughter, and empty train.

Full Name : Farhanah Nickname : Fani Twitter : @farhanahaha Facebook : Farhanah Faridz Tumblr : http://koropakotak.tumblr. com

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4. Nia

intern during one year to learn more about youth advocacy in SRHR in national and regional level, Nia also got a chance to write in Change Magazine which has made her be able to transfer her writing hobby. Currently, she is also a member of the Regional Youth Moving from Indonesia, a group of young people from ASEAN and China which is also raised the issue of sexuality and reproductive health and rights for young people. Along with her friend, she made a twitter account @TaBuSeksualitas and blogs on tabuseksualitas.tumblr. com which discuss about youth’s SRHR so that young people can get the comprehensive information and be able to ask and consult without feeling taboo and ashamed.

Full Name : Kurnia Wijastuti Nickname : Nia Twitter : @nona_nia Facebook : Kurnia Soekarno Kurnia Wijiastuti, usually called Nia is a college student at University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, majoring Health Education and Behavioral Sciences. She was born in Jakarta, May 9th, 1988. Nia is irritated on the taboo that restrict young people in Indonesia in accessing information on sexuality and reproductive health. Believed that there will be a change, had made her deciding to be involved in activism and join to Independent Youth Alliance, a youth-led organization aiming to voice the rights of young people in terms of sexual and reproductive health, education, and employment. In addition, she is also a volunteer of Women’s bestfriend, a network supported by Women on Web which is concerned in unintended pregnancy in Jakarta. Nia joined Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan as youth

5. Ryan

Full Name : Ryan Fajar Febrianto Nickname : Ryan Twitter : @febriantoryan Facebook : Ryan Fajar Febrianto

Ryan is a college student of Sociology, University of Indonesia. His interest in Social and Cultural Studies led him to become a volunteer at Yayasan Jurnal perempuan (Change Magazine), 2011 Youth Leader in Global Citizen Corps Indonesia (Indonesia GCC) which serve under the Youth Community of Mercy Corps, as well as the elected representation of Indonesia in the Global Changemakers British Council (global Youth Summit, London England 2011), which is a network of young activists around the world, based in Bern, Switzerland. Now, Ryan is running the Group Action Project with the theme on youth empowerment project called “Action! Club” along with other nine fellow of Global Changemakers from the Philippines, Armenia, Barbados, Pakistan, Serbia, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh. Ryan currently busy in pursuing his dream as an expert in Corporate Social Responsibility! “Say “Hello!” to Our Body” is his first book project with a team from Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan. “Youth can be the leaders of TODAY!” Is the motto as well as his motivation in making changes.

6. Shintiya

Full Name : Shintya Felicitas Nickname : Shintya Facebook : Shintya Felicitas Tumblr : shinteya.tumblr.com Shintya, 19 years old. Currently a journalism student on Department of Communication Sciences, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Indonesia since 2010. Her hobby is writing and aspires to be a journalist. Newly acquaintances with the world of feminism and like it like crazy! Shintya activities during her campus include: campus press (FISIPERS UI), the UNESCO Youth Desk Communication and Media Division, Radio Contributors in Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan, and several other activities. For questions, criticisms, suggestions, or blasphemy can be sent to: shintiya@ jurnalperempuan.com or Facebook: Shintya Felicitas. You may be also messing around on her blog at: shinteya.tumblr.com.

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7. Amira

soccer community with her friends in philosophy major. She began to recognize her pleasure in the art world particularly in theater role until ended up with playing theater several times in 2010 and 2011. Using the reason “just want” when being asked why did she interested to participate in the writing of this book is a prove of Amira’s personality representation who like new things and dare to try it first. As a feminist, Amira fully support any movement toward gender equality and support the implementation of comprehensive sexuality education for young people in Indonesia.

Full Name : Amira Hasna Ruzuar Nickname : Amira Twitter : @miruzuar Facebook : Amira Hasna Ruzuar Tumblr : http://amiraruzuar.tumblr. com Amira is a philosophy student of University of Indonesia who was born in Cilegon, June 16th, 1994. The second child of three sons and the only daughter. Amira enjoys reading, writing, music, philosophy, feminism, candy, pool, blue, rain, theater, indoor soccer, Charlie Chaplin, mothers, docks, and a smile. Amira decided to get out of school because she is not satisfied with Indonesian educational system at the age of 12. Admiring Pramoedya Ananta Toer and confessing that she did not like sports but ended up in becoming a semi-professional swimmer and have won several medals. She is also join the

8. Tasha

Full Name : Lydia Natasha Hadiwinata Nickname : Tasha Twitter : @lydianatasha Facebook : Lydia Natasha Hadiwinata Tasha, 21 years old, is a senior students majoring in Multimedia Journalism at the University of Multimedia Nusantara, Ivory in Tangerang,

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8. Sekar
Banten. In campus, Tasha had ever become a coordinator in the Division of Journalism and Communication Students Association and also Coordinator of Communications and Information Media. Now she is still active with students group, Ultima Sonora Choir and the acting world with teater Katak.. Tasha is currently a writer contributor at Change magazine and had internships at SCTV and Kompas.com a few months ago as a reporter. Tasha has been interested in and concerned about human rights, women’s, and youth’s sexuality issue. “Sex is often considered as taboo to be talked about by the parents to their children, while us as young people, really need to know about our own bodies. So I am very happy to be invited to participate in writing this Youth Sexuality handbook! Three days duration in Ciherang with cold and mellow condition where we exchange ideas for writing this book, is a really valuable experience for me. During the worksho, I have made friends which passionate in spreading this info and we have been aware to our rights to know all the knowledge about our bodies! I’m just so happy!”

Full Name : Amalia Sekarjati Nickname : Sekar Twitter : @amaliagalaujati Facebook : Amalia Sekarjati Sekar was born in Jakarta, March 4th, 1991. Have difficulties in describing herself due to her preference to be described by others. Had two hobbies: hanging out with friends for a chat and situate herself to feel the loneliness in a crowd. Sekar is interested in the imagery and fantasy, both created by others or created in her own mind. “This book provides an opportunity for me to write and recognize myself. Sexuality, for me, has been positioned to be far away from our daily life which it is closely linked with every human being. Hopefully by reading this book, young people can be familiar and ‘not hostile’ with themselves. Enjoy reading and exploring yourself! Say Hello! To Our Body! 111

10. Wulan

Full Name : Shabrina Wulan Nursita Nickname : Wulan/Cewul Twitter : @Cewulans Facebook : Shabrina Wulan Nursita Shabrina Wulan Nursita more familiarly known as Wulan or Cewul. At the time of this project was made, Wulan was enrolled at the University of Indonesia majoring in English Literature in 7th term. Because she considered as the one who just come to campus and then go home after, Wulan never tied with one organization or any particular project before. Wulan has a lot of experiences in various fields, namely the online business of buying and selling range from the conventional, SEO, Affiliate Marketing, PTC, Microworkers, etc. Moreover, she also had ever joined the MLM which spent millions of money. She has also been given training of Futures Trading / Trading stock index futures like Hanseng, Kospi, Forex, at a stock brokerage firm, and ever became parttime English teacher at a prestigious

vocational high school in South Jakarta. She had ever taught under the bridge and currently joining Change Magazine from Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan as contributor. In summary, Wulan really likes to receive any opportunities to learn and experience new things, including the opportunity to make this project. “Actually, I’m more concerned at educational issues rather than sexuality or gender, but after getting some materials from Change and participate in the workshop, I know that education plays a vital role on sexuality issues. Therefore, I become more interested and am very happy because I could involve in sharing important knowledge for youth with a cool and solid team.”

11. Tika

Full Name : Hatika Alshafa Nickname : Tika Facebook : Hatika Al Shafa

Students of Sociology, University of Indonesia batch 2010. Besides her daily activity in studying, Tika is also teaching at a course institution. Tika currently active in the Student’s research and study club, Young Intellectual Circle, FISIP UI. Currently pioneering the campus newspaper “Merdesa UI”, and in her spare time she become a contributor of an environmental organisation, Lantan Bentala. Tika enjoys reading, writing, and is interested in children, women, and poverty issues. If you like to discuss about anything especially history and literature. Tika can be reached via ym; in hatikaalshafa@ymail.com, facebook; Hatika Al Safa, or blog http:// myeldunariworld.wordpress.com

12. Joel

Juliana, better known as Joel which many people say it is similar to a guy name, did not care about her name whether her name is spelled like a girl or a boy name. Joel is a 7th term student of UAJY (University of Atma Jaya Yogyakarta), but she was born and raised in Singkawang, West Kalimantan. In addition to its status as a student, Joel also taught Mandarin language in some kindergartens, “to shared the language and to save for the future”. Joel is also active in the Student Service Board for 2 years and served many young people in various universities in a form of Prayer Fellowship. “One thing I never imagine is, I will involve deeply about gender issues. I reject all forms of discrimination against women, including stereotypes, beauty myths, violence, and anything else that would harm the women. “ As a gender equality activist, Joel often follow the integration course program that has to do with gender. Then as her act, Joel has written on the blog and done a little writing which has also been published as opinion from reader in JOGJA Bernas, (12/2/2010) with the title “The press-Crown for Women” in order to celebrate the Press.

Full Name : Juliana Nickname : Joel Facebook : Juliana Joel Angeu Messenger: joeliangeu@gmail.com

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13. Rae

Full Name : Rae Sita Michel Nickname : Rae Twitter : @rererae Facebook : Rae Hutapea Rae Sita Michel, commonly called Rae. Born in Jakarta, 16th April 1994. Rae loves the writing world, journalism, music, and hang out. She always spend her spare time with writing, reading, playing guitar, violin, blogging, and hang out. Currently incorporated in the stewardship of New Kebayoran GKI Youth Commission, members of the Youth Nature Lovers (Trupala), KompasMuda Community, MSP crew in O Magazine, the ambassadors of Ouch magazine, contributors EO of YJP CHANGE magazine, reporter and broadcasters in the program Teen Voice-KBR 68H. Formerly, had become the representative of Provoke Magazine for a year. Some of her writing has also been published in KompasMuda, Provoke magazine, Ouch magazine, IOTA magazine (GKI KebayoranBaru),

and O magazine. In this book, Rae wrote about sexual diversity. “Writing a book on Youth Sexuality is a new thing for me because it is the first time writing for a book. It was shocking when being asked to be the author and should stay in Ciherang for 3 days to learn about sex, sexual, and sexuality. A discussions like this are rarely able to be discussed by youth because it is still considered as dirty and disgusting. I hope that this book can open up horizons for young people to think about their own body and reproductive organs, and surely make the youth think that sexuality is something that is not disgusting”

14. Risty

Full Name : Antonia Dian Aristya Nickname : Risty Twitter : @antoniaristyaa Facebook : Antonia Dian Aristya Dian Aristya Antonia, born in Jakarta, 15th November 1993. She is still a student in SMA 6 Jakarta 12 grade in

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science major. In this book, Risty is writing in the biological part which she said really complicated. Dreaming to be someone who can bring Indonesia’s positive image at the international level by becoming a diplomat. “I am really happy to have solid friends in Youth Sexuality Books because they can think in such a mature way. Also, glad to be one of the authors and contributors event of Change magazine.” Risty loves everything about reading and books which are inspiring, creative and innovative. Because up to now she still believes that books are windows to the world which can bring you to your wildest dream.

Adi Ahdiat, or can be called Adi is a student of the Faculty of Humanities UI, majoring in Philosophy. His interest in writing and discussion made him want to involve in the sexuality training at Ciherang and in writing this book. In this book, Adi served as the Co-Coordinator of Writers. His hobbies are playing music, discussing, and during the process of making this book, Adi is busy in writing his undergraduate thesis.

15. Adi

Full Name : Adi Ahdiat Nickname : Adi Email : adikudaadi@gmail.com

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