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Ak~ayanivi : essays presented to Dr. Debala Mitra in admiration of her scholarly contributions I editor, Gouriswar Bhattacharya. Delhi, India: 8ri 8atguru Publications, 1991.

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Gouriswar Bhattacharya 1991 SRI SATGURU PUBLICATIONS A Division of INDIAN BOOKS CENTRE DELHI-INDIA . 88 AKSAYANIVI • Essays presented to Dr. Debala Mitra in admiration of her scholarly contributions Editor Dr.Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica No.

The "Indian" Terracottas from ancient Memphis. Maxwell 16. Mukherjee 8. During Caspers 2. (Mrs.) Debala Mitra's List of Contribution List of Contributors 1. Harappan Civilisation: Authorship and Impact/ Krishnadatta Bajpai 3. Vidhura Pandita Jataka . Are they really Indian? / James C. Harle 9.D Contents Page Editors Note Dr. New Perspective in the Appreciation of the Gandharan Culture: A Contribution from the Sphragistic/ Pierfrancesco Callieri 11.Mahayanasiitra/ Lore Sander 17. N.from Barhut to Ajanta: A Study of Narrative. Dipankara Buddha at Ajanta/ Suresh Vasant 19. Palaeohistory of West Bengal: Palaeolithic Stage/ Manibrata Bhattacharya 7. Tne Indus Script in the Light of the Cultural Interaction with the Near East and the recent reappriasal of the Dating of the Harappan Culture/ E. The Usnisa and the Brahmarandhra: An Aspect of Light Symbolism in Gandhra Buddha Images/ Deborah Klimburg-Salter and Maurizio Taddei 12. A Unique Sunga Plaque of Goddess Laksmi from Kosam/ Prithvi Kumar Agrawala 10. C.) Debala Mitra vii ix xi xvii 1 15 4. Proto-Historic Civilisation of Tamralipta/ P. A Note on a Brahmi Inscription of Asoka from Pakistani B. (Mrs. Migration of a Terracotta Motif in the Kushan Period/ Samir kumar Mukherjee 14.Case Study 19 27 37 Biography by Dr. Ecological Background of Chalcolithic Culture in West Bengal between Damodar and Ajay Valley/ Asok Datta 5. Tradition in Indian Narrative Painting in Central Asia/ Dieter Schlingloff 18. K. Semiological and Stylistic Aspects/ Ratan Parimoo '177 . L. The Bodhisattva with the Flask: Siddhartha or Maitreya?/ Wibke Lobo 13. Towards the Identification of a Woodcut Illustration of the Aparimitiiyur-(Niima)Jnana. A Kashmiri image of the Moon-god/ Pratapaditya Pal 15. Material Culture of Early Historical Period Reference/ Nisar Ahmad Some Observations in Archaeological 41 51 55 63 67 73 95 105 109 113 153 163 171 A . Vaikuntha/ Thomas S. Maity 6.

according to general opinion. the fact that the hair is tied together ina knot or in a loop on top of the head does not seem to playa significant role. with the hair partly'hound up and partly curling down to the shoulders. 7 He approaches the problem from the East to the West. Texts like the Lalitavistara. John 'Huntington has dealt with the religio-philosophical as well as iconographical aspects of that Bodhisattva. However. Both features. without any ascertainable difference of purport. is a characteristic symbol of this Bodhisattva.e. should be identified as Buddha Maitreya in his Ketumatl paradise. Recently. because the Bodhisanvas with the flask can be found with either of the variants. which were traditionally designated as Buddha Sakyamuni.' They clearly represent the six Buddhas offormer. The fact that the iconography and function of the Maitreya image presents an unsolved problem till today.The Bodhisattva with the Flask: Siddhlrtha or Maitreya? 1 WibkeLobo The standing Bodhisattva from Shabaz-Garhi. always concluding from the Chinese texts which. so that it became nearly impossible to identify those Gandhara Bodhisattvas which showed only one or the other feature. let alone supplying us with iconograhical descriptions. the Future Buddha. tried to prove that the Maitreya cult spread more widely in Gandhara than was generally believed. He has. 5 They narrate the descent of the Bodhisattva from TUSi~ HeaveQ to the city of Ketumatl and his rebirth there in a Brahman family. now in the Musee Guimet. which.eras. . i. which is considered to be the most important utensil of a Brahman. namely. in the absence of Indian texts on the Maitreya cult. Buddha Sakyarnuni and Bodhisattva Maitreya either at the left or right end of the row. He thereby arrives at the provocative opinion that all the Gandharan Bodhisattvas represent Maitreya in some form or other and that even a large part of the Buddha figures. in the Bodhisattva images. his hair-do and his water-pot. are dated several centuries later than the Gandharan sculptures he refers to. As a ~~ he is represented with a flask in the left hand and the so-called Brahmacarin hair-do. the hair-do and the pot. The most significant feature is the flask in his left hand. and in addition combined this with other iconographically important details. were widely related exclusively to Maitreya. Msbevsstu and the Vinaya of the Miilasarvastivada which are our most important sources in the identification of Gandharan narrative reliefs do not supply us with information as to what extent Maitreya was worshipped. 6 These texts are often cited in orderlo explain the Brahmanic appearance of Maitreya. 4 This iconography of Maitreya is apparently supported textually by the Mai~yaryakaraI)as and the Maitreyasamitis. is because no texts on a Maitreya cult in Gandhara have been handed down to us. however. he draws upon Chinese ones in order to identify the Gandharan images.' is one of the numerous Gandhara images which can be regarded as typical representation of the Bodhisattva Maitreya. at least all those with Bodhisattva Maitreya on their socle.. Evidence for this can be found in the different reliefs showing a row of seven Buddhas and one Bodhisattva.

Archaeological Survey of India. Annual Report 1912-1913. Kunst des Buddhismus. Fig. 118. Wien 1982. London 1897. Meunie. Ingholt. ~'~""'''oU''. (llel'~f~g\ .t.CJ.bridge 1960. Fig. middle lunette. 3. In: East and West 1973. I). Huntington. 4(5 (M~m0irs de la. Burgess. PI. . I. :tolJcher. This. 47 . Tome I. likewise appear with Bodhisattva Siddhartha as well.qlInel. Vol. 1974. viz. J. TltisStQdy is concerned with 16 narrative reliefs which represent a Bodhisattva with the flask and have been interpreted rather diversely by scholars. Also in: J. I. Pt. 11. Pl. Paris 1942. . "A. Tome I. "cJP. Shotorak. PI. although. WallOp.. Vol. The attempt has been made to find out what narrative reliefs can convey about the iconography of Maitreya.t>erVVeg der Erleuchtung. The Earliest . of India. XIII. J. 37. Paris (here Fig. Fig. 1. PI. A. 2. XIII.2.Preiburgi. The Ancient Monuments. 5.Nos.Dobbins.Also in: H. p '\:'. 71. Ca. .Mars~.L'Azt Oreco-Bouddhique du Gandhara.[\$1811 Art on Microfiche. L 'Art Greco-Bouddhique du GandMra. 192 a. Pt. 102 (Memoirs of the Department of Archaeology in Pakistan.Paris 1942. 23..rn. 45.96 The Bodhisattva with the flask The images which he introduces as proof for his interpretation are almost all single statues. Aus der Sammlung des StaatIichen Museums fiir Vo7kerkunde in Mtinche{l. Gandharan Art from Stratified Excavations. J."" 2. 288. Freiburg. Paris 1942. according to motif and composition. The Buddhist Art of Gandhara. Basel. Mennie. 71. J.Lo. NeW YQlk 1957. Dundon.. Gandharan Art in Pakistan.S. will be the object of our present research. Pt. The problem is that Bodhisattva Maitreya cannot be defmitely identified on Gandhara reliefs because the symbols. Fig. Paris 1905. Fig. by S.L. PI. attributed to him. Temples and Sculptures of India.. 4. ed. 6.Foucher. 44. . Temples andScwptures Monuments. Hr. they should be regarded as one homogeneous group. Delegation Archeologique Fran9aise au Afghanistan X). Fig. A. They have been illustrated in the following publications or can be found in the museum collections: 1. 34 afterp. N. He does not examine the more expressive narrativereliefs on this theme.. 3. XIII.". ShotQrak. Shotorak.. however. PI.L.heBrahrnacarin hair-do and the pot. 2) 1905. 164 b. Zijrich. The Earliest . IX e. PI. I<.

In such cases they are often combined with other narrative scenes. Sa. When preserved.ed. 1st ed. This is a typical and important iconographical factor. 7. IX. I 35. 7. This scene can be interpreted with the help of different texts narrating the legends in the life of the Buddha.WibkeLobo 12. On the relief from the National Museum Karachi Brahma and Sakra can be clearly identified (item 8). middle lunette (depicted side 14.1928). 16. however. In some cases. Some of the reliefs (see items 2 and 7. Museum of Indian Art Berlin. In a few cases the canopy is substituted by a pointed or trapezoidal arch (see items 2. 14. Some are on horseshoe-arches or caitya-shaped gables or on pilasters. the Bodhisattva. Franz. his right hand is in the abhayamudra. I. 9. Delhi 1977 (rev. Noticeably often the throne has an elaborate back-rest and a canopy. middle lunette. 10) 15. Common to all the reliefs is a Bodhisattva seated on a throne in the centre of the composition (Figs. middle lunette. 16). 12. PI. Esq. 13. and Fig. Franks. the impression of shelter or protection is always present. Inv. Fig. They are seated on small chairs or cane stools. inverted). Their arms are often clasped around a raised knee or the hands are raised in gesticulations. Pl. Stupa. Stiipagable. 2).W. 16) have additional spectators looking down from the lateral balconies. Several of these reliefs are isolated fragments of larger friezes or pieces which do not reveal their original function within architecture. H. referring always to the future Buddha . OccaSionally. Ttumtempel. 11.G. Hargreaves. on display with the label: "Brahma and Indra ask Buddha to preach". Pagode. 1989. Graz 1978. viz. 2). H. The suggestion of out-door architecture is emphasized by the birds sitting on the arches as well as on the sloping roofs (Fig. The balcony motif never appears with the canopy but only with the arched niche. 16. the Mahavastu. 8 In these narrations. Flanking the throne to the left and right are several persons seated in one or two superimposed rows. He is clad in a dhoti and upper garment. They wear either turbans or have the Brahmacarin hair-do. Generally. the Lalitavistara. thus conveying an expressive picture of animated conversation. Auction catalogue Christie's London. the Bodhisattva is twice as tall as the persons surrounding him. (here Fig. 6. No. 251. Rather remarkable is the variety and vivacity of their poses. and the left one lies in the lap holding the flask. 97 Sculptures in the Peshawar Museum. 1890). 10. particularly since it is scarcely to be met with in Gandharan narrative reliefs outside the group under consideration. the Tibetan and the Chinese renderings of the Sanskrit canon as well as the Nidllnakatha. with their feet supported on low footstools and their legs crossed. He is often represented with a nimbus and always has the Brahmacarin hair-do. British Museum London (Given by A. wears ornaments and has his legs folded in meditation posture on the throne.. 10. the front legs of the throne are in the form oflions (see items 5.11). 6. the followers can be identified as deities by their nimbi (see items 1. 2)..

shortly before his Great Departure.Se~e~J'ep~sentations. All the same. ~!lthis CQnnexion. on the other hand.appears frontally in the right half of the picture. However. . The gods gather around him. The flask.e~'ascan be seen in the numerous representations of hiswanderings and his visits to the Brahmanic ascetics.1i. The description of this episode in the textssupplles .om. and the BOdhisattva in . depending on their relation to i. 9. This explanation seems to be the only possibility in justifying the presence of the supposedly Brahmanic water-pot with Siddhartha who belongs to the warrior caste.slyagree that here PrinceSiddhartha is depicted in the moment in which he is requested by the gods to leave home.tO is of the opinion that the reliefs of this kind must represent Bodhisattva Maitreya in the TU$lta Heaven.:iUso possible.). Foucher. In my opinion the Gandhara reliefs under discussion most convincingly represent exactly this episode.ves irltlihe1:'!l$itaHeaven.. gathers around him several thousands of Apsaras. butoombine it wlthotber ones as well. he contemplates 5 times on his incarnation and then informs the gods of the Tusita Heaven about it. A relief from the Lahore Museum (Fig. However. in spite of the flask. the scene on the left. also Sherman. after Foucher.()fthis episode~ be found on reliefs. is most interesting.s. Thus a conversation takes place. Such interpretation.Buddha. Buddha Sakyamuni.. however. however.Vinaya. They question him. is an indication that he has no fUJ:therhesitation inbecorning the ascetic Gautama. His hands an~either covered by the garment or hold it. and he instructs them.not Maitreya because it seems to be quit~ unreasonable to show the second one while n~tingthe l«gends iQ the life of the first one.usabove all. should be represented with a turban and never with the hair bound together on the head in a loop.bowe¥e!".They . It i. Beal). Before him are two Brahmanic ascetiC$ seated in and in front of a hut They could quite possibly carry a pot but never Siddhartha. He takes his place on a throne (minutely described in the LaJitavistara and explicitly referred to as lion-throne in the Chinese version of the Mi11asarvlJstivada. which always show episodes in the life of fhe Bodhisattva Siddhartha resp. ~y illustrations show that the other way round is .well have suggested that. accompanied by VajrapaI. must be an episode after the Birth. strong arguments can be raised against thisintexpretati()n.the Tusita Heaven on the left.cn()tc()mp~~orythat the Gandhara friezes sbould always be read from the right to the left. 2).98 The Bodhisattva with the flask $~a:mQlil. which depict not only this scene. The Birth of Siddhartha is depieted on therigbt. since he read ttlefri~efirofJl~rigbttothe left and. ther~fore. 2.. with two facts that are noteworthy for a pictorial representation: 1. has interpreted this as an episode from Siddhartha's youth.g h.1 •. they assume. As when he realizes that his time has come. He lOOks. Sakras and Brahmas and instructs them on the 108 gateways of the law. now in the Musee Guimet (Fig.throne). This suggests that the Bodhisattva of the Tusita scene is the future ~ce Siddbarthaand. it cannot be a representation of Maitreya in this case. a frieze. these images have been controversially interpreted.unanimoQ.justlilce a . Their correspondence with the relevant texts is so evidtlpt tIlat there is no doubt about this Bodhisattva being a represen~on of the future Prince . translated by S. Taddei.after "leavil). Guardians of the World. The BQl:ihisattvaSiddhartha. because SiddlWtha in such case. contradicts the fact that Siddhartha as an "ascetic" never carried a pot . Meunie. 3) serves as an example for the other scenes of the same type. 'n)eBodhisattva has-taken his place on a throne (lion.Siddhartha in-the Tusita Heaven.lj. MarStFalland IQg~pll as.

wearing a turban and sitting on a lotus.Brahma or the Serpentgods). 13. but it didn't become generally accepted. The Tusita scene is worked into the lunette placed above it. which serves as example for all the pictures of the group under discussion. is the interpretation of the relief as one of the several meditations to which Prince Siddhartha devoted himself before Renouncing the World. since. the Offering of Food by the four Lokapalas. Both are traceable on the Gandhara reliefs as separate panels. It is the amrtaghata which contains the immortality nectar of the gods. there is no problem to interpret the left one as Tusita scene which is followed on the right by the Birth as the next episode. The Bodhisattva sits with his legs folded in meditation pose on the throne holding a flask in his hand. The main scene shows the Bodhisattva seated in meditation wearing a turban. in Gandharan art. 11 Already in 1960 J.. His seat is covered with lotus leaves. His presence here supports the suggestion that this scene is the Request of the Gods to Leave Home. The Meditation belongs to the preparatory phase preceding the Great Departure. 12. is a characteristic iconographical feature in the episodes preceding the Renunciation of the World. 14). but planned for walls which are not circumbulated. serves as a further example of this. in the future. which is now in the Lahore Museum (Fig. the context of the picture does not allow one to identify the Bodhisattva with Maitreya but with the future Prince Siddhartha in the Tusita Heaven. Brahms on the left of the relief and Sakra on the right have their hands raised in the gesture of adoration. 11. He carried the flask as the divinity that he is during his stay there. not very often met with in Gandhara relief scenes. However. and for which there is no other example of this type. A. much more convincing than this attribution which depends entirely on the rather questionable connexion between the turban and the future Ksatriya class. 14 as the representation of The future Prince Siddhartha in the Tusita Heaven. As numerous examples from the Mathura school of art reveal it can be carried by all the important gods (Indra. Marshall proposed this interpretation for the relief illustrated by him (Fig. The main reason for the different opinions with regard to this scene. Siva. The gods surrounding him are requesting him to descend to earth. He wears a turban. 6). Vajrapani is not represented in any episode foregoing the Renunciation cycle.WibkeLobo 99 architecture. there are also reliefs where the Meditation and the Request of the Gods are combined in a single scene. 15 However. 5). ViSIJIl. become the son of a Ksatriya. is exactly the scene which is the focal point of this study. A rather unambiguous example of this is a gable in the Avery Brundage Collection (Fig. lies most probably in the interpretation of the Bodhisattva relief from the famous Stiipa of Sikri. 3. A gable-arch (Fig. canopy is spread above him. Here. In spite of the limited space the characteristic features can be clearly recognized. Vajrapani can be seen in the background. 4) which shows on its lower lunette a scene just after the Enlightenment of the Buddha Sakyamuni. viz. as also in other friezes and gables mentioned earlier (items 2. They should be read from the right to the left if they were designed as decoration for Stnpas. according to Foucher. and it should not be confused with the water-pot of the Brahmanas. 12 It has been interpreted since Foucher's time. but likewise the Request of the Gods to Leave Home is an important episode of this cycle. 13 unchallenged in recent publications as well. Beside him are several deities seated on stools with different gestures and postures. is very convincingly represented by a frieze in the Peshawar . 7). That the meditating Bodhisattva. The Bodhisattva sits on a lotus socle and meditates. the order of the scenes is inverted and they should be read from the left to the right Therefore. since he will. 10.

tteya remains to be answered. tl'ie Mahavastu ascertains that he meditated not just once. Heaven in the group Of reliefs presented here. but apparently several times phase preceding the Great Departure. since one assumed that he must then wear.(Fi.. The fact that he appears here with a flask and the . can be differentiated. right hand raised in abhay. in a really amazing way. each with their own iconographic characteristic. took his seat and devoted himself to the same meditation that he practised in the shade of the rose apple tree (the so-called First Meditation). in 1. However. and not of the Request tt. 16 It is narrated there that the prince went to his chamber. Both the pictures convincingly support the interpretation of the Sikri relief as the representation of the Request to Leave Home. all icofiographitaldetailsare clearly decipherable. This panel is.The B(){Ihisattva with the flask Ntu. ' during his preparatpry 'Interestingly.~tll'n. The errone()u$in~erp:retation of the Sikri relief haS prevented to recognize the future Prince Siddhartha in the Tusita. a true-to-the-details transformation of a moment described only in the Mahavastu. The prince.unudra Brahmacarin hair-do throne with canopy orarch seated attendants in lively poses. the question how these representations can be distinguished from those of Mai. which to my knowledge is not traceable on Gandhara narrative reliefs (see note 15). The same as in the relief in the Avery Brundage Collection (Fig: 7) two episodes merged here into one scene: the Meditation andthe Request to Leave Home. is lost in meditation.. often with crossed legs and the hands either gesticulating or raised in adoration '2. standirigattendants(only sometimes seated).awith the flast.~:8). He took no notice of the women singing and dancing around him. Two episodes. a turban any case an.aracteristics: Bodhisattva seated with his legs folded in meditation posture hands in meditation posture lotus pedestal turban . that Maitreya is implied. often identifiable as Brahma and Sakra with their hands raised in·adoration. seated on a lotus.> Descend from the Tusita Heaven. Iftbenarrative reliefs under discussion can beproved to be depictions of the future Bodhisattva Si~dharth.' as far l:lS I know.e future Prince Siddhartha in the Tusita HeaVen Characteristics: Bodhisattva seated with his legs folded in meditation posture flask in the left band. but a palace scene on the right for which there is no parallel. Prince Siddhaithabeing Requested to Leave H'ome . female inusicians and dancers can be seen around him. It is clear in the friezes with the row of Buddha's forerunners and the Bodhisattva at the end. He wears a turban.Cb. 1b.d hbldhis hands in meditation gesture. interpreted in the proposed way.:rt depicts the Great Departure on the left.

Maitreya is present The crossed legs become a typical iconographic feature for Maitreya in later Gandharan art and m Afghanistan. 208-219. Sakyamuni or Maitreya. 1. 10). This' article is a revised version of "Der Bodhisattva mit dem Flaschchen: Siddhartha oder Maitreya?". are no more than about 30 em in height and appear to be socle reliefs. Paris 1918. All the reliefs of the forerunners together with Sakyamuni and Maitreya. edited by H. LXXV b (IsMEO. They do not appear very often and can be classified as later works within the realm of Gandharan art. Pis. I am grateful to Mr. . Often they belong. so far as they have been handed down to us in their original context.. Buddha. to the supposed representations of Sravasn miracles (Fig. Fig. . remain atypical in Indian Art.WibkeLobo " 101 Brahmacarin hair-do was reason enough to refer to all the other similar-looking figures as Maitreya. This motif can be related to the animated conversation of the spectators surrounding the Bodhisattva in Tusita Heaven. The Gandhara reliefs testify that it is valid for both. . but no satisfactory explanation has been found. Falk. Fig. known till now. 42. . An examination of this motif in connexion with the iconography of paradise scenes could possibly lead us to a better understanding of it. Auboyer.XVII). Freiburg 1982. .M. Ackermann. Taddei. L'Art Greco-Bouddhique du Gendhia«. 17 which must be dated without any question to a later period of Gandharan art than the reliefs of the Tilsita scene . In course of time and in the degree to which the Maitreya cult increased in importance. Central and East Asia. Tome IT. it is' necessary to take into consideration the chronology of the panels...ehr. LXXIV a. H}). Foucher. There has been considerable speculation on the meaning of the crossed legs as a royal mode of sitting. In this case and in the Tusita scene the Future Buddha is meant and we have to understand the flask as the characteristic attribute of the Future Buddha no matter who. For those colleagues who are not familiar with German and for whom it is difficult to obtain that volume this translation might be helpful. Der Weg der Erleuchtung.necessarily Maitreya just because he looks exactly like the one on the socle reliefs. however. 3. 2. However. pp. For example in: H. This suggests that the Bodhisattva with the flask: is not . Rome 1975. 420. It is obvious thatMaitreya is implied in the reliefs showing a Bodhisattva with the flask and seated on a throne with pendant and crossed legs (Fig. Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhiira in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 9). This means that most of the narrative Bodhisattva-reliefs are related (0 the legends of the Future Buddha Sakyamuni and not tothose of the Future Buddha Maitreya. published in German language in: Hinduismus und Buddbsmus. Freiburg 1987. Sushanta Sinha and Miss Vandana Natkami for their kind help in translating the German text. A. Reports and Memoirs VoI. between whom according to the Lelitsvistsrs. Reliefs 'which clearly depict Maitreya seem to be only those which show the Bodhisattva with the flask sitting with pendant and crossed legs on a throne (as shown in Fig. NOTES 1. 18 To summarize: The examination of the Gandhara relief scenes affirms that the Bodhisattva with the flask and the hair-do of a Brahmacarin can be regarded as the future Siddhartha in the case he is sitting on a throne with his legs folded in meditation pose. the iconography of the Future Buddha was transferred completely to Maitreya.

102 The Bodhisattva with the flask . . 1.B. Foucaux. Vol. VII.~q{Ile of the n1lIlll.3 . Scherman.W. Kentucky 1968. PI. Fig. 778. BIl. das Zulainftsideal der Buddhisten. In: Journal of Central Asia. 8. VII.:m. Kushan Sculpture: Images from Early India. Only die Nidiinakatha which is not an important source for Gandhara narrative reliefs and the Chinese rendering of the Sanskrit canon. Bd. . P$holt. pp. Foucher.t all for a Request scene in this eonnexion. 27. Shotorak Paris 1942. 145. see footnote I. Taddei. of 4. . Roma 1962. 18: 19. 133-178.Brahma . 11.. . 53. pp.43. Derived from Tibetan works in the BkahHgyur and Bst. . pp.Beal. Die altesten Buddhadarstellungen des Munchener Museums fUr Volkerkunde. Des Bucb der Erziihlungen aus friiheren L Existenzen Buddbas. 13. 4 ff (Sacred Books of the Buddhists. . A Kushan Indra and some related sculptures. The Mahiivastu. 46. Jatakam. PI.deseend. London 1952. XXVII. Paris 1905. 58. Taddei. For a new interpretation of this group of reliefs to which also the famous Mohammad Nari stele is related and which always show a Buddha in preaching gesture seated OJl a lotus as representation of Buddha Amitabha in his paradise. 119. Mtmchen 1921. pp' 36-38.1980.Le Lalitavistara. J.1. 1. Figs. n.ll. pp. 1983. 5. L 'Art Greco-Bouddhiquc du Gandhara. 114-117. 25 Figs. Pl. The Iconography and Iconology of Maitreya Images in Gandhara. Cleveland Museum of Art 1985. Fig. In: Journal of Central Asia. 13. 217.J.D.W.1969. PI. No. Huntington. Anno III.S. See also the reliefs mentioned in note 3 which are depicted in the Sotheby's auction catalogue. J.F. Foucher. Xlll. _ IC.H.Auction catalogue 3rd July 1978./'lfllI'p('krates .P.W. Marshall. In: East MdWestI962. J. No. Louvain 1976.57 and pp.l'OUS text passages or independent texts.. 7. H. 9.A.. XVIJI). . The Life oftheBL!ddha. . A. In: Zeitschrift fIir die Kunde Stidssiens. Vol. Fig. XXX). 16. See also E. Fig. Bd. The Buddhist Art of Gandhara. 212-226. Figs.B. decided to . 299 . pp. Gandhiiran Art in Pakistan.qyuT. 290. Ingholt. R. GandhaninArtin Pakistan. PI. 651-672. pp. 14. Fig.-H. 2. London 1897.•footnote 71. Rqckhi.Ingholt. 17. Trad. Archeologfa. In: Annali. Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. 26 ff. D. In: Oriental Art 1979. Paris 1884. Foucher. Vol. J. 6. Meunie. Tome I.Gandk~llArt inPakil>tan. Leumann. A study in Iconography and Style. 18. 134. Speed Art Museum. see IC. The Ancient MOPUlJIellts. in Vol.M. Fig. pp.1984. 56. I. Descriptive Catalogue by M. Strassburg 1919. Vol. New York 1957. 10. 130. Fig. 112.. In: Mimchener Iehrbucli der Bildenden Kunst. Trudia. realizing that his time has come. Vol.I Jones. Paris 1905.13 Figs.lreS lndi~pt. Figs. Also in: H. The Romsntic Legend of SaJcya Buddha. Czuma. 285-286. Vol. 47. 37.. Lamotte. 88. Vol. 8lildspme connected Problems. The Earliest Monuments. p. Exhibition ca~ogue. 320 ff.A. l:. New York 1957. pp. London 1952. 15. Fasc. and in the catalogue of the J.. IC. p. by Beal (see note 8) say that the gods approach him in the Tusita Heaven in orcilerto ask him to descend to earth. L'Art Gr6co-Bouddhique du Gandhara. .I Burgess.E. Qndon 1884. p. Schlingloff. Fig. Vol. The Mahiivastu.St.Huntington. 164 b. 15.. Cambridge 1960. 45. 15. p.P. Cambridge 1951. Ein Zyklus des Buddhalebens in Ajanta. No. 712. of xxvn. S. pp. 17. Meitreys-ssmiti. 311. Fig. Tome Il. In any case. 139.. Marshall.713.r~p1es!ind ScuJp~1.. Jones. Tome I.>. . 1. 457. p. S.Further texts referring to the legends in the life of the Buddha are mentioned in: D. pp.1. A Gandharan Image of Amitayus' Sukhavan.S.1. Sculptures from the Sacred Area of Butkara I. pp. In: Disloghi di . 93.Fig. and it seems that on Gandhara reliefs there is m)evide:nce a. 1983. Ed. Vol. Morris. The Iconography and lconology ofMaitreya Images in Gandhara. Tome I. The other texts stress the point that it was the Bodhisattva hlms¢lf who. . [The Indra image is not dated. which contain the prophecies 0'1 Maitreya or accounts on his community are to be found in: E. transI. ibid. Huntington. Louisville.!ind the Early History his Order. Speed Art Museum.. . . Fig. E.ff and 30 ff (Ann ales du Musee Guimet 6). Pal. p. ccxcvrn. 8. .) 12. 1. The Dynastic ¥s of the KU$hans. An Ekamukhalinga from the N. SchlingloffcEin Zyklus des Buddhalebens in Ajanta.4. n.Maitreya: A Tentative Interpretation of a Gandharan Relief from Swat. . No. Transl. 1928. 131. . 40 (N. No. ~ . 16. pp. Louisville. 86 ff. . 288-302.N. 11 ff.: ill. Vol. Foucher. No. the textual situation proves that the Request of the Gods only plays a marginal role in this episode. pp. A. Fig. .I Dutoit. Vol. 18. Rosenfield.J. 4. In: Wiener Zeitschriftfur die Kunde Sadasiens. 1984.779. . footnote 69. ibid. V. 446.2.1.7: Nidiin!lk!itha. M. New York 1957. Fig. XXV. Leumann.L. Los Angeles 1967. !rpm the Cbiaese-Ssnscrit: London 1875. Transl. F accenna. II. India{} Buddhist Sculpture in American Collections.

Huntington has paved the way for the study of paradise representations in Gandharan art. See in this connexion also R. pp. an oft-discussed and still unsolved problem. pp. Vol. The SriivastlMiracles in the Art of India and Dviiravau.ln. . Brown. Aspects of Asian Art. 79-95.L.e. 81-82. With his interpretation of the Mohammed-Nari-Stele I.WibkeLobo 103 18. XXXVII 1984.

" 164 . 1. L' Art Greco-Bouddhique a. 2. Kunst des J.. Foucher.Fig. b. . A. A Lomrnel. " Fig.

Buddha. . 71. 4.3. J. The Buddhist Art of 71. 1. Marshall. .

50.The Buddhist Art The Buddhist PI. .

Indian and South-East-Asian Brundage-Collection. Gandluiran Art in Pakistan 45.7. . Stone Sculptures from the Pasadena Art Museum 8.. Fig. Lefebvre T. 5. R.Y. InghoIt. H.

fur Indische Kunst Inv No. I .

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