again besides moreover another for insurance together with and likewise as well furthermore additionally along with also for example equally important further

Conclude or Summarize:
in short finally in summary in conclusion consequently due to all in all as a result accordingly to sum up thus therefore

Contrast two things or show a difference:
but otherwise even though conversely even so yet however counter to on the other hand as opposed to in the meantime on the contrary nevertheless still

Emphasize a point:
again indeed to repeat truly in fact to emphasize for this reason with this in mind

Show similarities:
in the same manner in the same way also likewise like both as similarly

that is put another way

to clarify

in other words

stated differently

for insurance

Show location:
above across against along alongside amid in front of near among around away from back of behind below inside off beneath beside between beyond by down into onto on top of throughout outside to the right over under

Show time:
about after at first second third prior to subsequently until meanwhile today tomorrow before soon later afterward immediately finally during in conclusion next in the meantime as soon as

The Difference Transitions Can Make
You might be surprised by how much the effective use of transitional words and phrases can strengthen your writing. Transitions can act as "glue" that helps holds your ideas and your sentences together, and they can help take you and your readers smoothly and logically from one part of your essay to the next. Example

Original Sentence: Succeeding in college often is a challenge for students. Most colleges provide services designed to help students. They include peer tutoring and personal counseling. Colleges need to provide more services to help students succeed. Revised with transitions: Succeeding in college often is a challenge for students. Therefore, most colleges provide services designed to help students, such as peer tutoring and personal counseling. However, colleges need to do more to help students succeed.

The addition of just a few transitional words in the passage above helps the writer indicate how the different parts of the passage are logically related and strengthens the "flow" of the sentences.

Three Problems to Avoid
Transitional words and phrases help strengthen writing, but they can be misused. Below are three things to be wary of as you bring transitional words and phrases into your essays.

Make sure the logical connections are clear as you use transitions. Because transitions indicate relationships between words and ideas, they can be misused if the relationship indicated by the transitional words is unclear or does not exist. Example: George's wife stands at the window and looks out at the rain falling on the empty streets. For example, she sees a cat huddled under a table in the rain. ("For example" does not make sense here because the woman seeing the cat is not a clear "example" of anything in the first sentence.) Example: George's wife decides to go out into the rain to get the cat. Consequently, George sits in bed reading his book. ("Consequently" does not make sense here because it is unclear how George sitting in bed reading is a consequence of the woman deciding to get the cat.)

Avoid the overuse of transitions. Transitions are supposed to guide readers through your writing, but overuse of transitional words and phrases can have the opposite effect and can make your writing confusing. Example: Writing an essay can be challenging. However, there are techniques that can make the process a little easier. For example, taking plenty of notes on the subject can help the writer generate ideas. Therefore, note-taking is an important "pre-writing" strategy. In addition, some people "free-write," writing quickly for ten or twenty minutes to see what ideas arise. However, taking notes and free-writing are only the beginning. Ideas must eventually be organized in a logical way. Consequently, an outline can help the writer make sense of the rough material generated through the note-taking and free-writing process. Therefore, writing an outline is another important step in the writing process. However, some writers are able to conceptualize a sense of logical order for their ideas without actually writing an outline. Nevertheless, these writers seem to have some kind of outline in their minds. In addition, an outline should help the writer formulate a thesis for the essay. Consequently, an outline can help give focus to the essay. (This passage could be stronger with fewer transitional words and phrases. Especially when the transitions are used at the beginnings of sentences, they can become annoying or even confusing to readers if they are overused.)

Avoid errors that can occur with the use of transitions. Just like any other words, transitional words and phrases must be used carefully so that they do not cause errors. Both sentence fragments and comma splices sometimes occur when transitional words are added to an essay. These two errors are illustrated below. Sentence Fragment: Resulting in the woman's search for companionship elsewhere. Corrected Sentence: George seems to ignore his wife, resulting in the woman's search for companionship elsewhere. Comma splice: The woman sees the cat out in the rain, however the cat is gone by the time the woman goes outside. Corrected Sentence: The woman sees the cat out in the rain; however, the cat is gone by the time the woman goes outside. Corrected Sentence: The woman sees the cat out in the rain. However, the cat is gone by the time the woman goes outside. You can avoid these problems if you are particularly aware of the possibility of sentence fragments and comma splices occurring with the use of transitions.

Some Common English Transition Words and Phrases
Adding Information and not only . . . but also also moreover (more formal) furthermore (more formal) in addition (more formal) Examples We have seen the movie twice, and now we want to see it again. Not only did my brother break his leg, but he also bruised his rib. My friend speaks Korean and English. She also speaks Chinese. Cheating is dishonest. Moreover, it hinders students from learning. Students should be on time. Furthermore, they must be prepared. You must complete this essay by 5 p.m. In addition, you must do the exercises on page 47. Examples I have been to many countries. For example, I have been to Russia, Canada, Mexico, and Spain. He often eats strange foods. For instance, he once ate cow brains. I like to travel. Specifically, I enjoy places with old cathedrals. I love fruit. In particular, I like bananas, pineapple, and berries. My friend hates skiing for several reasons. The first reason is that she dislikes being cold. Another reason is that she often falls.

Giving Examples for example for instance specifically in particular The first (second, another, etc.) example/reason is . . .

Showing a Contrast but however on the other hand otherwise instead in contrast (more formal)

Examples Bill earned an A on his essay, but Susan got a B. We wanted to leave at 8:00. However, Mike arrived too late. She hates housecleaning. On the other hand, she doesn't mind cooking. Students should attend class. Otherwise, they may lose their status. I am not going out tonight. Instead, I will stay home and watch a video. Women usually enjoy shopping. In contrast, men often dislike it. Examples He knows that he should do his homework, yet he never does it. I need to wear reading glasses. Nevertheless, I hate how I look in them. I know you don't like to study. Even so, you must pass your exam. There are many benefits to exercising. However, you must take some precautions to avoid injury. Even though the book is difficult to read, it is very interesting. Although the book is difficult to read, it is very interesting. Despite the fact that Kate is good at tennis, she lost the match. Despite Kate's skill at tennis, she lost the match. Examples Math was hard for me in high school. Likewise, it is hard in college. Houseplants require much care and attention. Similarly, outdoor plants must be cared for properly. Rock climbing takes much practice and skill. In the same way, learning to write well requires a great deal of practice. Examples Janet passed her exam, so she is very happy. Tim was late. As a result, we could not go to the concert. James is not feeling well. Therefore, he will not be here today. The committee voted against the proposal. Thus, we must consider another idea. I forgot that the cake was in the oven. As a consequence, it burned. Tina lost her keys. Consequently, she could not drive home. Examples First, I think that she is studying hard.

Showing a Concession yet nevertheless (more formal) even so however although even though despite the fact that . . . despite

Showing a Similarity likewise (more formal) similarly (more formal) in the same way

Showing a Result so as a result therefore thus (more formal) as a consequence consequently (more formal)

Establishing Time Relation or Sequence

first second finally in conclusion in summary meanwhile Showing a Condition or whether . . . or if . . . (then)

Second, I believe that she is a bright student. Finally, I know that she has great potential. In conclusion, I feel that she deserves to win the scholarship. In summary, we should offer her some financial help. Jeff was working hard to clean the house. Meanwhile, his brother was watching television. Examples I must study hard, or I will fail my exam. Whether you are coming or not, I am still going to Amy's party. If you want to get good grades, then you must do your homework. Examples The bookstore sells cards. In fact, they have the best cards around. James is actually the first person I have known who has been to Africa. He was late to class again. In other words, he didn't wake up on time. The plan needed only two things to succeed—namely, time and money. Examples We can go to the beach, or we can go to the mountains. You can either ride the bus or walk to my apartment. I like neither that person nor his brother.
Punctuation Rules

Explaining or Emphasizing in fact actually in other words namely (more formal)

Giving an Alternative or either . . . or neither . . . nor (more formal)

1. Coordinating Conjunctions (and, but, or, yet, so): Put a comma before these conjunctions. (Don't use them at the beginning of a sentence in more formal writing.) example: The movie has already started, but my friend has not arrived yet.

2. Correlative Conjunctions (These have two parts: either . . . or): o Put a comma before the second part if it connects 2 clauses (complete sentences). example: Eric is not only an outstanding teacher, but he is also a gourmet cook.


You don't need a comma if it only connects words or phrases. example: Eric is not only an outstanding teacher but also a gourmet cook.


3. Transitional Words and Phrases: o Put a comma after these if they are at the beginning of a sentence. example: I like to travel. Specifically, I enjoy places with old cathedrals.


Use a semicolon to connect the two sentences. example: I like to travel; specifically, I enjoy places with old cathedrals.


Use a comma before and after the transitional word/phrase in the middle of a clause. example: I like to travel, and, specifically, I enjoy places with old cathedrals.

Using Transitional Phrases in the TOEFL Essay
A transitional phrase helps you move from one paragraph to the next. It also helps you move from sentence to sentence.
Transitional phrases help the reader understand your essay. Learning how to use them will really make your TOEFL essay flow. They can be used in two places: at the beginning of a paragraph or at the beginning of a sentence. Here's how:

At the beginning of a paragraph
Pargraph 1 This is your introduction. Do not use any transitional words or phrases at the beginning of this paragraph. Pargraph 2 This is the first paragraph of the essay body. Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: first, first of all, for a start, for starters, in the first place, for one thing, to begin withPargraph 3 This is the second paragraph of the essay body. Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: second, next, in addition to the previous point, more importantly, more important than, another key point isPargraph 4 This is your conclusion. Use any of these at the beginning of this paragraph: in conclusion, in closing, to summarize, in sum, in summary At the beginning of a sentence There are many transitional words and phrases that we can use at the beginning of a sentence. These words have many different meanings, and this makes it more difficult for us to use them correctly. However in spite of that; on the other hand; but It is true that guns are dangerous. However, they are not responsible for the sudden rise in violent crime.Moreover here is some more information; in addition; also Television is a complete waste of time. Moreover, there is never anything good to watch.Nevertheless but; however; in spite of that Sometimes my boyfriend makes me crazy. Nevertheless, I still love him.For example here is one example of what I mean A dog is a wonderful pet. For example, it always comes when you call its name. For instance here is one example of what I mean The internet is one of the greatest achievements in history. For instance, people can now learn about almost anything online--it has more information than most libraries!For one thing


this is my first example; one example is this I hate my car! For one thing, it never starts in the morning .In fact here is some more specific information Americans are fat people! In fact, statistics show that 4 out of 5 Americans are overweight .In point of fact but here is some surprising information Some people argue that guns are responsible for violence in our society. In point of fact, most violent crimes do not involve guns. Similarly in the same or similar way Both of my parents were teachers. Similarly, I am also a teacher. Likewise in the same or similar way All machines require some kind of energy. Likewise, the human body also requires energy--in the form of food .In contrast on the other hand Animals just make sounds. In contrast, humans can speak and communicate. In other words what I mean to say is this All politicians lie, cheat, and steal. In other words, the only people they really care about are themselves. All in all in general; overall My town has a library, a swimming pool, and a few good places to eat. All in all, it's a nice place to live. In short here is a summary in very simple language Pollution causes global warming, destroys the environment, and endagers human life. In short, there is nothing good about pollution. Grammar note: don't forget the comma! Transitional phrases are usually used at the beginning of a sentence. They are always followed by a comma. Examples: In contrast, humans can speak and communicate. For example, it always comes when you call its name. Moreover, there is never anything good to watch. Never forget your comma! This is a very, very important part of writing your TOEFL essay.

Rules For Using Transition Words
Transition words are meant to create a smooth shift from one idea to another. Thus, they must always be used when the intention of one's writing is to do so. For Example: (Idea #1)The most worthwhile thing about learning how to cook, is the reward of enjoying fine meals. (Idea #2) Cooking is viewed as an attractive quality that will impress many potential dates. (Idea #1)The most worthwhile thing about learning how to cook, is the reward of enjoying fine meals. Additionally, (Idea #2) cooking is an attractive quality that will impress potential dates. In the second example the use of the transition word additionally, causes the passage to sound more natural. There are three situations when using an effective transition word will be valuable: 1. At the beginning of a sentence. - Used when transitioning between two related ideas in two different sentences. (See Example Above) This will emphasize the relationship between the two ideas. *Never use as the first sentence of an essay. You may use this at the beginning of a body paragraph, or within any paragraph.


2. The middle of a Sentence - Used when linking two related ideas within one sentence. This will usually put more emphasis on the second idea. Example:Susie's favorite food was McDonalds; consequently, she often felt sick. 3. The End of a Sentence - De-emphasizes the relationship, yet emphasized the preceding idea. This transition is not as common as the first two. Use caution! Example: Susie's favorite food was McDonalds - she often felt sickresultantly. Remember to avoid repeatedly using the same transition words throughout your writing. Try to incorperate as many different transitions as possible. (Use the List Below!)

How to use Transition Words and Phrases
Why use transition words? Transition words and phrases are vital to the success of any essay. They are the bread and butter of writing. We need these words and phrases to join sentences and thoughts together in a coherent fashion. Transitions are words or phrases that show the relationship between different ideas. Connecting your ideas together will help your readers follow your train of thought and therefore better understand your message. Here are a few tips on how and when to use transition words and phrases: 1. Always use a transition phrase at the beginning of a new body paragraph 2. Always use a transition word in between thoughts within a paragraph 3. Never use a transition word to begin an essay 4. Never use a transition word to begin a paragraph (but you can sometimes use a transition phrase at the start of a new body paragraph) The transitions in the following list are divided into categories according to the relationship that they show:

Also and furthermore in addition to moreover too

• TAMUQ students continue Aggie traditions by having Ring Day. Moreover, they have Run for the Ring and the Twelfth Man Club, which are also • For every English class, there is a grammar placement test. Found on the main campus. Furthermore • Last week, Texas A&M University had computer problems. Here is a writing est. In addition, the air conditioning broke down.

Accordingly Hence Thus so then to this end as a result Because consequently for this purpose therefore thereupon


• Mohammed is going to work until midnight. As a result • The hurricane destroyed many homes and businesses. , I‟ll have to have dinner alone. Consequently • I locked all the windows before I left. , the President sent aid. Therefore, I was shocked to discover that I had been COMPARISON again also in the same way likewise once more similarly • Last year, Dana did very well in calculus. Likewise, this year she made an A in differential equations. • Once more, the Aggies have surprised the sports world by winning when the odds were against them. brobbed.

Although Nevertheless Hand...on the 1. 2. 3. 4. but despite even though notwithstanding regardless still however in contrast though while in spite of yet instead nonetheless other hand on the contrary on the one

Ameara is allergic to dogs even though she is just got one for her children. Most people eat meat. However, some people are strictly vegetarian. My grandfather likes spicy food. In contrast, my grandfather prefers a bland diet. While tea is popular in Asia, coffee is popular in the Americas.

After again also next and once and then still then besides finally when first...second... furthermore last Moreover 1. 2. 3.

Once the water is boiling, add the pasta. Then allow the pasta to boil for ten minutes. Next, drain the pasta in a colander and return to the pen Finally, spoon spaghetti sauce on top of the pasta.

as a result on the whole as has been noted in any event therefore as I have said in conclusion as we have seen in other words in short as mentioned earlier

to summarize


Before Writing Read the Test Directions Carefully Sometimes you are not asked to answer all of the questions, just to choose a certain number. Read all of the Questions As you read, quickly write down key words and phrases in the margin that immediatly come to mind. This will help you later in case anxiety gives you a mental block when you return to the question. Budget your Time Spend more time on questions that are worth the most points. Be sure you do not spend too long on each question or else you will run out of time before you can answer them all. Choose the Easy Question First
Answer the easy questions that you feel the most prepared for first to establish an “answering attitude” and help you relax. Study the question’s wording 1. Underline Key Direction words --------such as analyze, explain, describe, or compare. If the question asks you to analyze and you have summarized, you have not answered the question correctly. If you are unsure of what these words mean, see our handout “understanding key words in the Essay Prompt” for definitions. 2. Answer each part of the question. Some questions have multiple parts such as “explain and apply”

Make an outline Even though it takes time, an outline will save time in the end and help you produce a more coherent and organized answer. Don’t Hesitate If you feel stuck on how to begin answering a question, do not just sit and think. Write whatever you can because you must receive partial credit. Writing will also help you think and possibly job your memory. Never leave an essay question blank.

Writing your essay
Get to the point immediately. Directly answer the question in the first sentence and then support and expand on it from there. Do not spend time on elaborate introductions. 11

Support your answer Use facts, example, and reason to support your answer or position. Be accurate but concise. Write as if your audience knows nothing about the subject so that your answer will be through. However, do not be repetitious or use unnecessary words. Instructors prefer brief but well thought out answers over longer essays that are flowery and long-winded. Conclude with a summary. Close your essay with a quick summer or a paraphrasing of your main point. Check for mistake. After you are satisfied that you have answered each question thoroughly and accurately, check for errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, or penmanship.

Understanding Key words in Essay prompts
The first hurdle to writing an essay is interpreting the prompt. Familiarity with these words commonly found in essay prompts will help you better understanding the assignment and meet your instructor ‟s expectations. Analyze. Separate something into pasts and discuss, examine, or interpret each part. Classify. Put something into a category with things of similar type. You might need to defend or explain why you have categorized those items in such a way and how one category differs from another. Compare. Examine two or more things and show their similarities (and often differences). Contrast. Examine two or more things and to show their differences. Criticize. Analyze and make reasoned judgments may be positive, negative, or both. Define. Give the meaning of a term or concept. antonyms, or citing directly definitions. Demonstrate. Show something clearly by giving proof or evidence. Discuss. Consider and debate about the pros and cons The meaning will often be specific to the course.

Definitions will often require explanation, which can be done by using examples, listing synonyms or

(the favorable and the unfavorable factors or reasons; advantages and disadvantages.) of an issue 12

or conflict. “Discuss” is often used as a general term to refer to any of the other terms on this list. Enumerate. Make a list of ideas, aspects, qualities, parts, or reasons,. Evaluate, assess. Give reasoned opinioned assessing the merit or quality of a particular work, idea, or person. Explain. Describe something in detail so that it is more clearly understood. Clarify an idea through giving a definition or reasons. Identify. Indicate or describe what a thing is, what is composed, of or when or where is occurs. Illustrate. Give concrete examples in order to explain something. Interpret. Explain or clarify what the something means.

Outline. Give the main facts, ideas characteristics, or events. This does not necessarily mean making an outline with Roman Numerals and letters. Prove, justify. Argue the truth of your claim with factual evidence, especially using facts what were presented in the class or in the text. Relate. Show the connection between ideas, events, or situations, especially using facts that were presented in the class or in the text. State. Explain something clearly and concisely (briefly). Summarize. Give a shortened account of a longer text, giving its main points and highlights but omitting unnecessary details. Trace. Show the order of events or a progression of ideas, similar to „outline”.


How to Effectively Organize a Paper
Theresa Torisky MY THOUGHTS ON ORGANIZATION Organization is a skill that takes much practice and critical thinking. You need to think about the information you have and analyze it in terms of similarities and differences among the information. You also need to analyze your information in terms of making the best argument for your main point. The first time you try to organize your information, you might get frustrated. That's ok. As you continue thinking and writing, your ideas on how to group the information you have will probably change. This can occur at the paragraph level or even at the sentence level. For instance, I've just decided that I'd like these last few sentences to come before the one I wrote earlier, so I am going to use cut and paste to reorganize my sentences! You will probably end up re-organizing your information a number of times before you turn in the final draft of your paper. (This sentence used to be after "That's ok.") Organizing a paper can be like putting together a giant jigsaw puzzle-only you don't have the picture on the box to help you know what the final product should look like! How frustrating! That's why you need to be patient with yourself and realize that organizing your ideas will be an ongoing process which you will probably be doing the entire time you are writing your paper. Give yourself permission to tinker and tinker and tinker, until your ideas make as much sense as they are going to at the time you turn in your paper. One final thought: Be careful your ideas don't end up sounding repetitive! You want to make one point and then move on to another point. As you continue thinking and writing, you will probably need to check for repetitiveness because the way our brains work, we do tend to repeat ourselves if we feel we haven't fully made our point! IDEAS FOR ORGANIZING INFORMATION 1. Ask yourself at the outset: What is the major point I would like to get across? What are the most convincing pieces of evidence I have to back up my point? How can I divide these into sub-categories? What are my most intriguing bits of information? How do they relate to each other and to my thesis? In what order would it make the most sense to put these ideas? What is my rationale for putting my ideas in this particular order? Is there another possible order to put these ideas in? Why did I choose this way of organizing my ideas as opposed to another way? (This one used to be number 6, but I decided it should go first-so I'm cutting and pasting!) 2. Use different colored highlighters to group together common ideas. You can use this method on prewriting or a rough draft. 3. Come up with subcategories, and then use a labeling system to identify the different sub-categories either in your prewriting or on your rough draft. 4. Use webbing or clustering to organize information--either at the prewriting stage or to web or cluster information already written in rough draft form. 5. Make a scratch outline--either of prewriting ideas or of ideas already written in rough draft form to see how ideas might need to be re-organized.


6. At the rough draft stage, underline topic sentences and then see if all the ideas in each paragraph reflect the topic sentence. Also check to see if any of the topic sentences are actually repetitions of the same ideas. In addition, check to see if all of your points are represented. If not, you probably need to create another topic sentence--and another paragraph. Finally, look at the order of your topic sentences. Is this the order in which you want your main points to appear in your paper? Are there nice transitions between each paragraph? 7. Remember, if you get stuck, you can always go back and clarify your thinking-beause writing is a RECURSIVE process!

WRITING AN OUTLINE AND A PROSPECTUS FOR YOURSELF Consider:What is the topic? Why is it significant? What background material is relevant? What is my thesis or purpose statement? What organizational plan will best support my purpose? WRITING THE INTRODUCTION present relevant background or contextual material define terms or concepts when necessary explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose reveal your plan of organization WRITING THE BODY use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides build your essay around points you want to make (i.e., don't let your sources organize your paper) integrate your sources into your discussion summarize, analyze, explain, and evaluate published work rather than merely reporting it


move up and down the "ladder of abstraction" from generalization to varying levels of detail back to generalization WRITING THE CONCLUSION if the argument or point of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument or your reader if prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research REVISING THE FINAL DRAFT check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion paragraph level concerns: topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs sentence level concerns: sentence structure, word choices punctuation, spelling

An outline is: * A logical, general description * A schematic summary * An organizational pattern * A visual and conceptual design of your writing An outline reflects logical thinking and correct classification. PURPOSE Generally * Aids you in the process of writing Particularly * Helps organize your ideas * Presents your material in a logical form * Shows the relationship of ideas in your writing * Constructs an ordered overview of your writing * Defines boundaries and groups PROCESS Before you begin: * Determine the purpose of your paper. * Determine the thesis of your paper. * Determine the audience you are writing for. Then: * Brainstorm - List all the ideas you want to include in writing.


* * Order specific, *

Organize - Group ideas together that are related to each other. Divide this material into groups arranging from the general to the or from abstract to concrete. Label - Create main and subtopic headings and write coordinat

THEORY An outline has a balanced structure which uses the principles of: * Parallelism * Coordination * Subordination * Division Parallelism Whenever possible, in writing an outline, coordinate heads should be expressed in parallel form. That is, nouns should be made parallel with nouns, verb forms with verb forms, adjectives with adjectives, and so on. (Example: Nouns - computers, programs, users; Verbs - to compute, to program, to use; Adjectives - home computers, new programs, experienced users.) Although parallel structure is desired, logical and clear writing should not be sacrificed simply to maintain parallelism (For example, there are times when nouns and gerunds used at the same level of an outline are acceptable.) Reasonableness and flexibility of form is preferred to rigidity. Coordination In outlining, those items which are of equal significance have comparable numeral or letter designations; an A is equal a B, a 1 to a 2, an a to a b, etc. Coordinates should be seen as "having the same value." Coordination is a principle that enables the writer to maintain a coherent and consistent document. Correct coordination A. Word processing programs B. Data base programs C. Spreadsheet programs Incorrect coordination A. Word processing programs B. Wordstar C. Thinktank Explanation: Wordstar is a type of word processing program and should be treated as a subdivision. Thinktank is a type of organizational program. One way to correct coordination would be: A. Types of programs 1. Wordstar 2. Thinktank B. Evaluation of programs 1. Wordstar 2. Thinktank Subordination

In order to indicate relevance, that is levels of significance, an outline uses major and minor heading. Thus in ordering ideas you should organize material from general to specific or from abstract to concrete - the more general or abstract the concept, the higher the level or rank in the outline. This principle allows your material to be ordered in terms of logic and requires a clear articulation of the relationship between component parts used in the outline. Subdivisions of a major division should always have the same relationship to the whole. Correct subordination A. Word processing programs 1. Applewriter 2. Wordstar B. Thought processors 1. Thinktank 2. THOR Faulty subordination A. Word processing programs 1. Applewriter 2. Useful 3. Obsolete Explanation: There is an A without a B. Also 1, 2, 3 are not equal; Applewriter is a type of word processing program, and useful and obsolete are qualities. One way to correct this faulty subordination is: A. Applewriter 1. Positive features 2. Negative features B. Wordstar 1. Positive features 2. Negative features Division To divide you always need at least two parts; therefore, there can never be an A without a B, a 1 without a 2, an a without a b, etc. Usually there is more than one way to divide parts; however, when dividing use only one basis of division at each rank and make the basis of division as sharp as possible. Example 1: A. Microcomputers hardware 1. Types 2. Cost 3. Maintenance B. Microcomputers software Example 2 A. Computers 1. Mainframe 2. Micro a. Floppy Disk b. Hard disk B. Computer Uses

1. Institutional 2. Personal FORM The most important rule for outlining form is to be consistent!! An outline can use TOPIC OR SENTENCE STRUCTURE. A TOPIC outline uses words or phrases for all entries; uses no punctuation after entries Advantages - presents a brief overview of work; is generally easier and faster to write than a sentence outline A SENTENCE outline uses complete sentences for all entries; uses correct punctuation Advantages - presents a more detailed overview of work including possible topic sentences; is easier and faster for writing the final paper. An outline can use Roman Numerals/Letters or Decimal form. Roman Numeral Decimal I. 1.0 A. 1.1 B. 1.2 1. 1.2.1 2. 1.2.2 a. b. II. 2.0 A. 2.1 B. 2.2 C. 2.3

A THESIS STATEMENT -is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic. NOT: In this paper, I will discuss X. BUT: X has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its . . . -makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic. -is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire paragraph. -is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting information. The following example combines a purpose statement and a thesis statement (all capitals).


The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile's agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . THE CHILEAN REFORM EXAMPLE PROVIDES EVIDENCE THAT LAND DISTRIBUTION IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF BOTH THE IMPROVEMENT OF PEASANT CONDITIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. MORE EXTENSIVE AND ENDURING REFORMS WOULD LIKELY HAVE ALLOWED CHILE THE OPPORTUNITY TO FURTHER EXPAND THESE HORIZONS. A PURPOSE STATEMENT -announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be. "This paper examines . . .," "The aim of this paper is to . . .," and "The purpose of this essay is to . . ." are common beginnings. -makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn. -usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph. -is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel.


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