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# BE.

Mechnical Engineering

Wave Energy

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

Introduction 1. Waves are created by the gravitational action of sun and the moon and also by the interaction of wind with the surface of the sea. 2. Wave power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a rene wable energy source. 3. Wave energy can be extracted and converted into electricity by wave power machines. They can be deployed either on the shoreline or in deeper waters offshore. 4. Wave energy fluxes in open sea or against coasts may vary from a few watts to kilowatts per meter. In favorable locations, wave energy density can average 65 megawatts per mile of coastline. 5. The total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. 6. They are smallest in summer and great est in winter.(Westerlies and the Trade winds.) 7. Wave motion consists of both vertical and horizontal movement of water. 8. Individual particles of water undergo almost a circular motion, moving up as the crest approaches, forward at the crest, down as it rece des, and backward in the trough

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

Q.1.How waves are created? Ans: 1. The waves on the surface of the sea are caused mainly by the effects of wind. The streamlines of air are closer together over a crest and the air moves faster. 2. It follows from Bernoullis theorem that the air pressure is reduced, so the amplitude increases and waves are generated. 3. As a wave crest collapses the neighboring elements of fluid are displaced and forced to rise above the equilibrium level.

Figure: Surface Wave on Deep Water 4. The motion of the fluid beneath the surface decays exponentially with depth. 5. About 80% of the energy in a surface wave is contained within a quarter of a wavelength below the surface. 6. Thus, for a typical ocean wavelength of 100 m, thi s layer is about 25 m deep. 7. We now derive an expression for the speed of a surface wave using intuitive physical reasoning. 8. The water particles follow circular trajectories, as shown in Fig.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

Q.2.Short Notes on Wave Energy Conversion devices? Ans: Wave Energy Conversion devices The different wave energy conversion devices are

1. Wave Energy Conversion by Float 2. High level reservoir wave machine 3. The Dolphin Type Wave Power Machine 4. Float or Pitching Device or Buoyant Moored device 5. Oscillating Water Column 6. Hinged contour device

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

1. Wave Energy Conversion by Float a. Wave motion is primarily horizontal but the motion of the water is primarily vertical. b. Mechanical power obtained by floats making use of the motion of the water. c. The concept visualizes a large float that is driven up and down by the water within relatively stationary guides. d. This reciprocating motion is converted to mechanical and then electrical power is generated. e. A system based on this principle is shown in the figu re in which square float moves up and down with water.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

f. It is guided by four vertical manifolds that are the part of the platform. There are four large under water floatation tanks which stabilize the platform. g. Platform is supported by buoyancy forces and no vertical or horizontal displacement occurs due to wave actions. Thus the platform is made stationary in space. h. A piston which is attached to the float as shown in the figure move s up and down inside the cylinder. The cylinder is attached to the platform and is therefore relatively stationary. i. The piston and cylinder arrangement is used as a reciprocating compressor. j. The downward motion of the piston draws air into the cylinder via an inlet check valve. k. This air is compressed by upward motion of the piston and is supplied to the four under flotation tank, through the outlet check valve via the four manifolds. l. In this way the four floatation tanks serves the dual purpose of buoyancy and air storage, and also the four vertical manifolds and flat guides. m. An air turbine is run by the compressed air which is stored in the buoyancy storage tank, which in turns drives an electrical generator, producting electricity which is then transmitted to the shore via an underwater cable.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

2. High level reservoir wave machine a. This concept of this device is illustrated with reference to figure, in which magnification piston is used. b. The pressurized water is elevated to natural reservoirs above the wave generator, which would have to be near shore line, or to an artificial water reservoir.

## Figure: Schematics of a High level Reservoir Wave Machine

c. The water in the reservoir is made to flow through a turbine coupled to an electric generator, and then back to a sea level. d. Calculation made shown that a 20 m diameter can produce a 1MW power.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

3. The Dolphin Type Wave Power M achine a. This type of wave generator, which is designed by Tsu Research laboratories in Japan, is shown in the figure. b. The system consist of the following components c. This device uses the float which has two motions. The first is a rolling motion about its own fulcrum with the connecting rod.

Figure: Schematics of a Dolphin type wave generators. d. Revolving movements are caused between the float and the connecting rod. e. The other is a nearly vertical or heaving motion about the connecting rod fulcrum. f. It causes relative revolving movements between the connecting rod and the stationary dolphin. g. In both that cases, the movements are amplified and converted by gears into continuous rotary motion that drive the two electrical generators.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

4. Float or Pitching Device or Buoyant Moored device a. The device floats on or just below the surface of the water and is moo red to the sea floor. b. A wave power machine needs to resist the motion of the waves in order to generate power: part of the machine needs to move while another part remains still. c. In this type of device, the mooring is static and is arranged in such a way that the waves motion will move only one part of the machine. d. Electricity is generated from the bobbing or pitching action of a floating object which can be mounted to a floating raft or to a device fixed on the ocean floor.

5. Oscillating Water Columns a. An oscillating water column is a partially submerged, hollow structure that is installed in the ocean. b. It is open to the sea below the water line, enclosing a column of air on top of a column of water. c. Waves cause the water column to rise and fall, which in turn compresses and depresses the air column. d. This trapped air is allowed to flow to and from the atmosphere via a Wells turbine, which has the ability to rotate in the same direction regardless of the direction of the airflow. e. The rotation of the turbine is used to generate electricity.

WAVE ENERGY

## Non Conventional Energy Sources

6. Hinged contour device a. Here, the resistance to the waves is created by the alternate motion of the waves, which raises and lowers different sections of the machine relative to each other, pushing hydraulic fluid through hydraulic pumps to generate electricity. b. A hinged contour device is able to operate at greater depths than the buoyant moored device. c. These shoreline devices, also called "tapered channel" systems, rely on a shore-mounted structure to channel an d concentrate the waves, driving them into an elevated reservoir. Water flow out of this reservoir is used to generate electricity, using standard hydropower technologies. d. The main problem with wave power is that the sea is a very harsh, unforgiving environment. e. An economically-viable wave power machine will need to generate power over a wide range of wave sizes, as well as being able to withstand the largest and most severe storms and other potential problems such as algae, barnacles and corrosion.

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