PUNCTUATION

PUNCTUATION
In journalistic punctuation style, you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Therefore, punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence.

PUNCTUATION
In journalistic punctuation style, you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Therefore, punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence.

Use of Comma ,

PUNCTUATION
In journalistic punctuation style, you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Therefore, punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence.

Use of Comma , Use of Colons :

.PUNCTUATION In journalistic punctuation style. But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Use of Colons : Use of Semicolons . Use of Comma . Therefore. punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence. you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity.

Use of Colons : Use of Semicolons . Use of Comma . you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence. But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Therefore.PUNCTUATION In journalistic punctuation style. Use of Apostrophes µ .

you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. Therefore. Use of Comma . But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence.PUNCTUATION In journalistic punctuation style. Use of Apostrophes µ Use of Hyphens ± . Use of Colons : Use of Semicolons .

Therefore. . you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. Use of Comma . But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. Use of Apostrophes µ Use of Hyphens ± Use of Comma Splices and Run-ons: The comma-splice and run-on sentence are all examples of the problem in which two or more sentences are improperly joined. punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence.PUNCTUATION In journalistic punctuation style. Use of Colons : Use of Semicolons .

Therefore. punctuation style in technical writing is based on the structure of the sentence. Use of Colons : Use of Colons . Fragments: Fragments are simply incomplete sentences²grammatically incomplete. .PUNCTUATION In journalistic punctuation style. Use of Comma . But this is likely to be viewed differently by different people. you punctuate according to what you feel are the needs for clarity. Use of Apostrophes µ Use of Hyphens ± Use of Comma Splices and Run-ons: The comma-splice and run-on sentence are all examples of the problem in which two or more sentences are improperly joined.

or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. . phrase.Modifiers: A word.

Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded . phrase. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence.Modifiers: A word.

or vice versa. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. phrase. .Modifiers: A word.

phrase. Pronoun Reference: He. which .Modifiers: A word. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. They. or vice versa.

Modifiers: A word. Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Whom . which Pronoun Case: Who. Pronoun Reference: He. or vice versa. phrase. They.

or vice versa. Pronoun Reference: He.Modifiers: A word. Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. which Pronoun Case: Who. They. phrase. Whom Capitalization . or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence.

or vice versa. Whom Capitalization Numbers vs. Pronoun Reference: He. which Pronoun Case: Who. Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. phrase. Words .Modifiers: A word. They.

Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or vice versa. Whom Capitalization Numbers vs. phrase. Words Symbols and Abbreviations . They. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Pronoun Reference: He.Modifiers: A word. which Pronoun Case: Who.

Parallelism: Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded Subject-Verb Agreement: singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. They. except) . Pronoun Reference: He. or vice versa. which Pronoun Case: Who.Modifiers: A word. Words Symbols and Abbreviations Homonyms (accept. Whom Capitalization Numbers vs. phrase.

that is. it expresses a complete thought.USE OF COMMA Use comma after all introductory elements.) . (The main clause is that core part of a sentence that makes it a complete sentence. coming before the main clause should be punctuated with a comma. Any element. regardless of the length.

USE OF COMMA Use comma after all introductory elements. regardless of the length.) When an atom acquires enough energy to leave its orbit. . it expresses a complete thought. the atom is positively charged. (The main clause is that core part of a sentence that makes it a complete sentence. coming before the main clause should be punctuated with a comma. that is. Any element.

the atom is positively charged. that is. the auto makers view the additional cost as justified by the savings in petroleum by a lighter car during its lifetime. (The main clause is that core part of a sentence that makes it a complete sentence. As for the energy required to produce plastic automobile parts. . Any element.) When an atom acquires enough energy to leave its orbit.USE OF COMMA Use comma after all introductory elements. coming before the main clause should be punctuated with a comma. regardless of the length. it expresses a complete thought.

Any element. .) When an atom acquires enough energy to leave its orbit. (The main clause is that core part of a sentence that makes it a complete sentence. that is. it expresses a complete thought. As for the energy required to produce plastic automobile parts. the weight distribution on the turbine blades must be balanced with great accuracy.USE OF COMMA Use comma after all introductory elements. coming before the main clause should be punctuated with a comma. the auto makers view the additional cost as justified by the savings in petroleum by a lighter car during its lifetime. Because the high-pressure turbo pumps rotate at speeds of 30. the atom is positively charged.000 rpm. regardless of the length.

hurricanes do not usually occur there. that is. the weight distribution on the turbine blades must be balanced with great accuracy.000 rpm. the auto makers view the additional cost as justified by the savings in petroleum by a lighter car during its lifetime. Because there is no belt of doldrums in the Atlantic south of the equator. . Because the high-pressure turbo pumps rotate at speeds of 30. it expresses a complete thought. As for the energy required to produce plastic automobile parts. the atom is positively charged.USE OF COMMA Use comma after all introductory elements. coming before the main clause should be punctuated with a comma. regardless of the length. (The main clause is that core part of a sentence that makes it a complete sentence. Any element.) When an atom acquires enough energy to leave its orbit.

Punctuate even short introductory phrases .

Punctuate even short introductory phrases Using this concept. Faraday arrived at a relation between the changing flux and the induced electromagnetic .

(the bracketed commas indicated where commas are typically but mistakenly placed): .Punctuate even short introductory phrases Using this concept. Instead. Faraday arrived at a relation between the changing flux and the induced electromagnetic Double check commas between the parts of a sentence A single comma should never break the flow of the main subject. commas should occur in pairs. and object or complement of a sentence. verb.

Faraday arrived at a relation between the changing flux and the induced electromagnetic Double check commas between the parts of a sentence. verb. (Yes. and object or complement of a sentence.Punctuate even short introductory phrases Using this concept.] was a major breakthrough in the history of electronics. Instead. (the bracketed commas indicated where commas are typically but mistakenly placed): The discovery that moving a magnet within a coil could produce current [.) . commas should occur in pairs. it's a long way from the subject "discovery" to the verb "was" but there should be no comma. A single comma should never break the flow of the main subject.

(Yes. (the bracketed commas indicated where commas are typically but mistakenly placed): The discovery that moving a magnet within a coil could produce current [. Instead. verb.")  . commas should occur in pairs.] increases the effective velocity coverage for the same sampling rate. Faraday arrived at a relation between the changing flux and the induced electromagnetic Double check commas between the parts of a sentence. A single comma should never break the flow of the main subject. and object or complement of a sentence.) Decreasing the radar operating frequency [. "Decreasing the radar operating frequency" is the subject of the verb "increases. it's a long way from the subject "discovery" to the verb "was" but there should be no comma.] was a major breakthrough in the history of electronics.Punctuate even short introductory phrases Using this concept.

] increases the effective velocity coverage for the same sampling rate. "Decreasing the radar operating frequency" is the subject of the verb "increases. it's a long way from the subject "discovery" to the verb "was" but there should be no comma. (Yes. (the bracketed commas indicated where commas are typically but mistakenly placed): The discovery that moving a magnet within a coil could produce current [. Instead.] was a major breakthrough in the history of electronics. and object or complement of a sentence. (does it feel like a pause?) .Punctuate even short introductory phrases Using this concept.] precipitation particles move with the air in their environment and are therefore good tracers for air motion. commas should occur in pairs.")  It can be assumed that [. verb. A single comma should never break the flow of the main subject. Faraday arrived at a relation between the changing flux and the induced electromagnetic Double check commas between the parts of a sentence.) Decreasing the radar operating frequency [.

Use a comma between all independent clauses

Use a comma between all independent clauses.
Whenever you have a compound sentence (those are the ones joined by and, but, or, nor, for, whereas), put a comma before the conjunction (the words I just listed in italics). Length of the compound sentence does not matter. (conjunctions are italicized):

Use a comma between all independent clauses.
Whenever you have a compound sentence (those are the ones joined by and, but, or, nor, for, whereas), put a comma before the conjunction (the words I just listed in italics). Length of the compound sentence does not matter. (conjunctions are italicized): The tank is made of aluminum, but the outer surface is protected by a spray-on foam.

Use a comma between all independent clauses.
Whenever you have a compound sentence (those are the ones joined by and, but, or, nor, for, whereas), put a comma before the conjunction (the words I just listed in italics). Length of the compound sentence does not matter. (conjunctions are italicized): The tank is made of aluminum, but the outer surface is protected by a spray-on foam. By the mid-1970s, the free-spending ways of the Apollo Program were gone, and NASA now had to grapple with large technical challenges on a limited budget.

Length of the compound sentence does not matter. and then press the Enter key. whereas). . for. but the outer surface is protected by a spray-on foam. the free-spending ways of the Apollo Program were gone. but. and NASA now had to grapple with large technical challenges on a limited budget. Whenever you have a compound sentence (those are the ones joined by and. put a comma before the conjunction (the words I just listed in italics). By the mid-1970s. (This is an imperative sentences²this qualifies as a compound sentence.Use a comma between all independent clauses. Type your name. nor. (conjunctions are italicized): The tank is made of aluminum. or.

(In this case "you" is the subject for the compound verb²it's the subject for both "should type" and "press. You should type your name and then press the Enter key. but the outer surface is protected by a spray-on foam. and NASA now had to grapple with large technical challenges on a limited budget. put a comma before the conjunction (the words I just listed in italics). but. By the mid-1970s. (conjunctions are italicized): The tank is made of aluminum. Whenever you have a compound sentence (those are the ones joined by and." This is not a compound sentence. (This is an imperative sentence²this qualifies as a compound sentence. Length of the compound sentence does not matter. whereas). and therefore there is no comma before "and. nor. for.Use a comma between all independent clauses. and then press the Enter key.") . or. the free-spending ways of the Apollo Program were gone. Type your name.

Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase .

Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences. A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. and verbs are bold): . object. (subjects are italicized. verb. or complement²the works).

compound verb phrase.Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences. or complement²the works). object. not a compound sentence: "Offspring" is subject for both verbs. . A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. verb. and verbs are bold): Offspring exposed to significant amounts of alcohol before birth are much more active than controls and sometimes seem to fly around the room. (subjects are italicized.

not a compound sentence: "Offspring" is subject for both verbs. and verbs are bold): Offspring exposed to significant amounts of alcohol before birth are much more active than controls and sometimes seem to fly around the room. verb. (subjects are italicized. A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. . or complement²the works).Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. compound verb phrase. object. Plastic parts are not weldable and must be repaired by other methods. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences.

.Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. The observation and measurement of such small frequency shifts require excellent radar frequency-stability characteristics that are not usually found in conventional radar but can be added without a drastic increase in equipment costs. and verbs are bold): Offspring exposed to significant amounts of alcohol before birth are much more active than controls and sometimes seem to fly around the room. not a compound sentence: "Offspring" is subject for both verbs. Plastic parts are not weldable and must be repaired by other methods. A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. compound verb phrase. (subjects are italicized. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences. verb. object. or complement²the works).

Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. and verbs are bold): Offspring exposed to significant amounts of alcohol before birth are much more active than controls and sometimes seem to fly around the room. object. not a compound sentence: "Offspring" is subject for both verbs. verb. (subjects are italicized. Rather than break our rule why not split these into two sentences each? . Plastic parts are not weldable and must be repaired by other methods. or complement²the works). A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. compound verb phrase. The observation and measurement of such small frequency shifts require excellent radar frequency-stability characteristics that are not usually found in conventional radar but can be added without a drastic increase in equipment costs. Long and needy of commas at and and but. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences.

and verbs are bold): Offspring exposed to significant amounts of alcohol before birth are much more active than controls and sometimes seem to fly around the room. A complete sentence has to be on both sides of the conjunction (that means subject. Plastic parts are not weldable and must be repaired by other methods. However. Rather than break our rule why not split these into two sentences each? The observation and measurement of such small frequency shifts require excellent radar frequency-stability characteristics that are not usually found in conventional radar. Long and needy of commas at and and but. verb. compound verb phrase. The observation and measurement of such small frequency shifts require excellent radar frequency-stability characteristics that are not usually found in conventional radar but can be added without a drastic increase in equipment costs. this same observation and measurement can be added without a drastic increase in equipment costs. Watch out about what you think are compound sentences. (subjects are italicized.Do not use a comma between two compound verb phrase. object. . or complement²the works). not a compound sentence: "Offspring" is subject for both verbs.

. Greece.The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. and Mexico) but can be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods.

The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. It can also be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. and Mexico). The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. and Mexico) but can be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. . Greece. Greece.

The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. Use commas around all nonrestrictive elements. Greece. and Mexico) but can be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. . Greece. The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. These elements can be taken out of the sentence without hurting its basic message. It can also be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. Use commas around these nonrestrictive elements. and Mexico). Nonrestrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence literally does not need to say what it wants to say.

and Mexico) but can be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. Eighty percent of the work done by the heart is carried out by the left ventricle. The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. and Mexico). Use commas around all nonrestrictive elements. Greece. These elements can be taken out of the sentence without hurting its basic message. Greece. (The writer reminds us what the left ventricle does.The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. Nonrestrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence literally does not need to say what it wants to say. It can also be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods.) . it would still make sense. but the sentence could live without it. Use commas around these nonrestrictive elements. which pumps blood into the arteries serving the organs and the tissues.

The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. It can also be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. it would still make sense.The manganese dioxide used in batteries is usually obtained from natural ore (mainly from Gabon. Eighty percent of the work done by the heart is carried out by the left ventricle. Greece. which pumps blood into the arteries serving the organs and the tissues. and Mexico) but can be a synthetic product prepared by chemical precipitation or by electrolytic methods. Use commas around these nonrestrictive elements. Nonrestrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence literally does not need to say what it wants to say. and Mexico). Greece. but the sentence could live without it. These elements can be taken out of the sentence without hurting its basic message.) Eighty percent of the work done by the heart is carried out by the left ventricle . (The writer reminds us what the left ventricle does. Use commas around all nonrestrictive elements.

which is 19 percent of design speed. (This is additional detail.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm. not essential to the sense of the sentence.) .

always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm. not essential to the sense of the sentence. caused by the rotation of the earth. (This is additional detail.) The Coriolis force. . which is 19 percent of design speed.

) The Coriolis force. The Coriolis force always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere (This is a helpful definition but again is not essential to the sentence. (This is additional detail. which is 19 percent of design speed. not essential to the sense of the sentence.) . caused by the rotation of the earth. always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm.

caused by the rotation of the earth.) The Coriolis force. The Coriolis force always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere (This is a helpful definition but again is not essential to the sentence. . always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm. involves the combined effect of pressure and circular wind. a type of atmospheric vortex.) The formation of hurricane. which is 19 percent of design speed. (This is additional detail. not essential to the sense of the sentence.

a type of atmospheric vortex.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm.) The Coriolis force. . not essential to the sense of the sentence.) The formation of hurricane. Researchers also found that heavy drinkers ² women drinking at least 1. involves the combined effect of pressure and circular wind. caused by the rotation of the earth. which is 19 percent of design speed. always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere. (This is additional detail. The Coriolis force always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere (This is a helpful definition but again is not essential to the sentence.6 ounces of absolute alcohol during pregnancy ² have infants averaging 59 grams less than the infants of lighter drinkers.

which is 19 percent of design speed. not essential to the sense of the sentence. (This is additional detail. a type of atmospheric vortex. Researchers also found that heavy drinkers ² women drinking at least 1. Researchers also found that heavy drinkers have infants averaging 59 grams less than the infants of lighter drinkers.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm. caused by the rotation of the earth.) The Coriolis force. always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere.6 ounces of absolute alcohol during pregnancy ² have infants averaging 59 grams less than the infants of lighter drinkers. involves the combined effect of pressure and circular wind. . The Coriolis force always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere (This is a helpful definition but again is not essential to the sentence.) The formation of hurricane.

) The formation of hurricane. detergent materials decrease the contact angle. The Coriolis force always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere (This is a helpful definition but again is not essential to the sentence. thereby decreasing the wettability. Researchers also found that heavy drinkers have infants averaging 59 grams less than the infants of lighter drinkers. not essential to the sense of the sentence. a type of atmospheric vortex. always acts at right angles to the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere. (This is additional detail.The test produced a speed in the high-pressure hydrogen turbopump of 7000 rpm. caused by the rotation of the earth.6 ounces of absolute alcohol during pregnancy ² have infants averaging 59 grams less than the infants of lighter drinkers. When added to liquids.) The Coriolis force. (Nonessential stuff²put commas around it!) . Researchers also found that heavy drinkers ² women drinking at least 1. involves the combined effect of pressure and circular wind. which is 19 percent of design speed.

Do not use comma around restrictive elements. .

to say what it means to say.Do not use comma around restrictive elements. you will ruined the sentence! . If you take restrictive elements out of a sentence. Restrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence desperately needs to make sense.

Do not use comma around restrictive elements. . when the login prompt appears. Restrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence desperately needs to make sense. you will ruined the sentence! Problem: You can use the system. If you take restrictive elements out of a sentence. The way this sentence is punctuated implies that you can use the system any old time! The comma indicates that the clause beginning with "when" can be omitted. to say what it means to say.

The way this sentence is punctuated implies that you can use the system any old time! The comma indicates that the clause beginning with "when" can be omitted. Restrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence desperately needs to make sense. Now the sentence means that you can use the system only when the prompt appears. when the login prompt appears. to say what it means to say. (The clause beginning with "when" is restrictive² it can't be omitted from the sentence and therefore should not be punctuated.) . you will ruined the sentence! Problem: You can use the system.Do not use comma around restrictive elements. If you take restrictive elements out of a sentence. Revision: You can use the system when the login prompt appears.

(The clause beginning with "when" is restrictive² it can't be omitted from the sentence and therefore should not be punctuated. you will ruined the sentence! Problem: You can use the system. If you take restrictive elements out of a sentence.) A turbopump is essentially a pump that is turned by the action of a turbine that shares a common shaft with the pump. it's one that does what the latter part of this sentence says it does.Do not use comma around restrictive elements. The way this sentence is punctuated implies that you can use the system any old time! The comma indicates that the clause beginning with "when" can be omitted. (It's not any old pump. Restrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence desperately needs to make sense. Now the sentence means that you can use the system only when the prompt appears.") . to say what it means to say. Imagine this sentence ending at "essentially a pump. when the login prompt appears. Revision: You can use the system when the login prompt appears.

Revision: You can use the system when the login prompt appears.) A turbopump is essentially a pump that is turned by the action of a turbine that shares a common shaft with the pump. it's one that does what the latter part of this sentence says it does." which is the restrictive element in this sentence.") Eighty percent of the work done by the heart is carried out by the left ventricle. (It's not any old pump. Imagine this sentence ending at "essentially a pump.Do not use comma around restrictive elements. when the login prompt appears. No commas here!) . The way this sentence is punctuated implies that you can use the system any old time! The comma indicates that the clause beginning with "when" can be omitted. Restrictive elements are phrases and clauses that a sentence desperately needs to make sense. (Imagine this sentence without "done by the heart. Now the sentence means that you can use the system only when the prompt appears. to say what it means to say. you will ruined the sentence! Problem: You can use the system. (The clause beginning with "when" is restrictive² it can't be omitted from the sentence and therefore should not be punctuated. If you take restrictive elements out of a sentence.

.Use a comma before the "and" in a series of three or more.

However. And when you consider that using the series-and comma cannot hurt the sense of the sentence. there are situations where the lack of the series-and comma can cause confusion. it makes sense to use it in all cases. go ahead and put the comma before the and that occurs before the final element.Use a comma before the "and" in a series of three or more. You may have heard that this series-and comma rule is optional. In series of three or more words or phrases. .

door liners. And when you consider that using the series-and comma cannot hurt the sense of the sentence. bumper components. Instrument panels. it makes sense to use it in all cases.Use a comma before the "and" in a series of three or more. and grille panels are the most common parts produced directly by automakers. However. seat covers. there are situations where the lack of the series-and comma can cause confusion. In series of three or more words or phrases. . go ahead and put the comma before the and that occurs before the final element. You may have heard that this series-and comma rule is optional.

and grille panels are the most common parts produced directly by automakers. Instrument panels. a 5-ounce glass of wine.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor all contain approximately the same amount of alcohol. and a mixed drink with 1. In series of three or more words or phrases.Use a comma before the "and" in a series of three or more. bumper components. it makes sense to use it in all cases. And when you consider that using the series-and comma cannot hurt the sense of the sentence.  A 12-ounce can of beer. You may have heard that this series-and comma rule is optional. there are situations where the lack of the series-and comma can cause confusion. seat covers. door liners. . go ahead and put the comma before the and that occurs before the final element. However.

bumper components. go ahead and put the comma before the and that occurs before the final element. and retesting the redesigned components. there are situations where the lack of the series-and comma can cause confusion. seat covers. Instrument panels. You may have heard that this series-and comma rule is optional. And when you consider that using the series-and comma cannot hurt the sense of the sentence. However. it makes sense to use it in all cases. . testing the original designs.  A 12-ounce can of beer. In series of three or more words or phrases. a 5-ounce glass of wine. and grille panels are the most common parts produced directly by automakers. The development years involved designing the components for the Space Shuttle's engines.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor all contain approximately the same amount of alcohol. door liners.Use a comma before the "and" in a series of three or more. and a mixed drink with 1.

Do not use a comma between a series of only two. .

Do not use a comma between a series of only two. Be careful not to apply the series-and comma rule to a series of only two elements. . Watch out also for those situations where it looks like you have a series of three elements but it is actually a series of two noun phrases and a compound verb phrase (if this is meaningless²see the example).

(Notice that "bread.) . No commas for either "and" here.Do not use a comma between a series of only two. Be careful not to apply the series-and comma rule to a series of only two elements." and "poetry" are not really in a series." "cheese. We brought bread and cheese and read poetry. Watch out also for those situations where it looks like you have a series of three elements but it is actually a series of two noun phrases and a compound verb phrase (if this is meaningless²see the example).

.Punctuate series adjectives carefully.

then you should use commas. It gets tricky knowing how to punctuate when two or more adjectives pile up in front of a noun. (Remember that in no case is there a comma between the final series adjective and the noun it modifies.Punctuate series adjectives carefully.) . One fairly reliable technique is this: if you can switch the order of the adjectives or if you can insert and between them without making the phrase sound weird.

then you should use commas.Punctuate series adjectives carefully. (Remember that in no case is there a comma between the final series adjective and the noun it modifies. It gets tricky knowing how to punctuate when two or more adjectives pile up in front of a noun.) . One fairly reliable technique is this: if you can switch the order of the adjectives or if you can insert and between them without making the phrase sound weird.) He's having his third mid-life crisis. (You couldn't say "mid-life third crisis" nor could you say "sports red new car"²so no commas in or amongst these adjectives. Now he wants a new red sports car.

) Each door is held shut with an adjustable. (You couldn't say "mid-life third crisis" nor could you say "sports red new car"²so no commas in or amongst these adjectives. (Remember that in no case is there a comma between the final series adjective and the noun it modifies. One fairly reliable technique is this: if you can switch the order of the adjectives or if you can insert and between them without making the phrase sound weird.) . It gets tricky knowing how to punctuate when two or more adjectives pile up in front of a noun.Punctuate series adjectives carefully. Now he wants a new red sports car.) He's having his third mid-life crisis. (You probably could switch "adjustable" and "spring-loaded"²use a comma here. then you should use commas. spring-loaded door latch.

PUNCTUATION .

PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: .

reader! Here it comes!" For example: .PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: Although the colon has other uses in writing. its most important function is to act as a signal to the reader-it says something like "Okay.

reader! Here it comes!" For example: To make a kite. its most important function is to act as a signal to the reader-it says something like "Okay. thin sticks. you need the following items: string. and scissors. paper.PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: Although the colon has other uses in writing. glue. .

PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: Although the colon has other uses in writing. and scissors. Notice the words before the colon make a complete statement-at least grammatically. paper. Here are some additional examples: . you need the following items: string. glue. its most important function is to act as a signal to the reader-it says something like "Okay. thin sticks. reader! Here it comes!" For example: To make a kite.

Here are some additional examples: The main engines of the Space Shuttle consist of six main components: the external tank. reader! Here it comes!" For example: To make a kite. glue. the preburners. the low-pressure turbo pump. paper. Notice the words before the colon make a complete statement-at least grammatically. the high-pressure turbo pumps. and scissors. thin sticks. the combustion chamber. its most important function is to act as a signal to the reader-it says something like "Okay. . and the nozzle. you need the following items: string.PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: Although the colon has other uses in writing.

thin sticks. To make a metal dashboard. and the nozzle. Notice the words before the colon make a complete statement-at least grammatically. the high-pressure turbo pumps. the preburners.PUNCTUATION Use of Colons: Although the colon has other uses in writing. reader! Here it comes!" For example: To make a kite. three steps are required: (1) the metal must be stamped. (2) the texture must be stamped into the metal. Here are some additional examples: The main engines of the Space Shuttle consist of six main components: the external tank. its most important function is to act as a signal to the reader-it says something like "Okay. and scissors. you need the following items: string. paper. and (3) the part must be painted. . the low-pressure turbo pump. glue. the combustion chamber.

Here are some examples of this possibility: .Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. In fact. you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second.

In fact. . the lower the grades.Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. Here are some examples of this possibility: The grades of the students in the caffeine research project told a dramatic story: the higher the caffeine intake. both for semester and overall grade point average. you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second.

you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second. shelf-lives of three years with a No. Here are some examples of this possibility: The grades of the students in the caffeine research project told a dramatic story: the higher the caffeine intake. shelf-life increases as the cell size of the battery becomes smaller: with wellconstructed cells.Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. . both for semester and overall grade point average. 6 telephone cell and ten years with a penlight cell are possible. In fact. the lower the grades. In general.

shelf-lives of three years with a No. the lower the grades. you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second. It should connect only complete sentences to complete sentences or complete sentences to lists. Here are some examples of this possibility: The grades of the students in the caffeine research project told a dramatic story: the higher the caffeine intake. . In fact. In general. don't use a colon inside a complete sentence.Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. shelf-life increases as the cell size of the battery becomes smaller: with wellconstructed cells. both for semester and overall grade point average. However. 6 telephone cell and ten years with a penlight cell are possible.

Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. shelf-life increases as the cell size of the battery becomes smaller: with wellconstructed cells. However. both for semester and overall grade point average. an antenna. It should connect only complete sentences to complete sentences or complete sentences to lists. you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second. and a receiver. In fact. 6 telephone cell and ten years with a penlight cell are possible. shelf-lives of three years with a No. don't use a colon inside a complete sentence. In general. . Here are some examples of this possibility: The grades of the students in the caffeine research project told a dramatic story: the higher the caffeine intake. Problem: The typical Doppler velocity sensor consists of: a transistor. the lower the grades.

In fact. and a receiver. an antenna. an antenna. Here are some examples of this possibility: The grades of the students in the caffeine research project told a dramatic story: the higher the caffeine intake. shelf-lives of three years with a No. It should connect only complete sentences to complete sentences or complete sentences to lists. the lower the grades. both for semester and overall grade point average.Notice in the last example that the first sentence introduces a series of complete sentences. Revision: The typical Doppler velocity sensor consists of a transistor. Problem: The typical Doppler velocity sensor consists of: a transistor. shelf-life increases as the cell size of the battery becomes smaller: with wellconstructed cells. In general. don't use a colon inside a complete sentence. you can use the colon to connect two complete sentences-as long as the first sentence introduces or prepares for the second. . and a receiver. However. 6 telephone cell and ten years with a penlight cell are possible.

and scissors. . paper. thin sticks.Problem: You will need the following items: string. glue. to make a kite.

to make a kite. glue. and scissors.to make a kite. and scissors . paper. Revision: You will need the following items . .Problem: You will need the following items: string. paper.string. thin sticks. glue. thin sticks.

and scissors. glue. and scissors . to make a kite. thin sticks. paper.to make a kite." And don't forget the important role of the colon in introducing a vertical list.string. paper. . A colon should punctuate the lead-in that sets up the list items. Revision: You will need the following items .Problem: You will need the following items: string. glue. thin sticks. Look at this last example closely: the grammatical core of the sentence is "You will need the following items to make a kite.

Use of Semicolons .

Its two main uses are to connect two (or more) sentences that seem very closely related and to clarify the punctuation of a series of items that have their own internal commas. .Use of Semicolons The semicolon could be called a strong comma.

it leads to an intra-intimal thrombus containing not just red cells but mainly fibrin and platelets. . "Plaque-fissuring" refers to the formation of an opening from the lumen to the intima.Use of Semicolons The semicolon could be called a strong comma. Its two main uses are to connect two (or more) sentences that seem very closely related and to clarify the punctuation of a series of items that have their own internal commas.

it leads to an intra-intimal thrombus containing not just red cells but mainly fibrin and platelets. . Its two main uses are to connect two (or more) sentences that seem very closely related and to clarify the punctuation of a series of items that have their own internal commas. "Plaque-fissuring" refers to the formation of an opening from the lumen to the intima. philanthropy accounted for 24 per cent of the total operating budget of nonprofit hospitals in New York City. it had dropped to 17 per cent. in 1948.Use of Semicolons The semicolon could be called a strong comma. In 1940.

it had dropped to 17 per cent. in 1948.Use of Semicolons The semicolon could be called a strong comma. philanthropy accounted for 24 per cent of the total operating budget of nonprofit hospitals in New York City. In 1940. Its two main uses are to connect two (or more) sentences that seem very closely related and to clarify the punctuation of a series of items that have their own internal commas. it leads to an intra-intimal thrombus containing not just red cells but mainly fibrin and platelets. The other use of the semicolon worth noting here is how it can clarify items in a series that have commas within them already: . "Plaque-fissuring" refers to the formation of an opening from the lumen to the intima.

in 1948. and can be incorrectly attributed to.Use of Semicolons The semicolon could be called a strong comma. injury symptoms from adverse temperature or moisture relations may resemble. philanthropy accounted for 24 per cent of the total operating budget of nonprofit hospitals in New York City. just the opposite. "Plaque-fissuring" refers to the formation of an opening from the lumen to the intima. it leads to an intra-intimal thrombus containing not just red cells but mainly fibrin and platelets. The other use of the semicolon worth noting here is how it can clarify items in a series that have commas within them already: Injury caused by pollutants can easily be mistaken for injury caused by other stresses. it had dropped to 17 per cent. air pollutants. Its two main uses are to connect two (or more) sentences that seem very closely related and to clarify the punctuation of a series of items that have their own internal commas. In 1940. or. .

because it occurs across a membrane that is only about 10 nanometers thick.A typical membrane potential of about one-tenth of a volt sounds relatively small. but. . it represents an enormous voltage gradient of about 10 million volts per meter.

because it occurs across a membrane that is only about 10 nanometers thick. The heart undergoes two cardiac cycle periods: diastole. . when blood enters the ventricles. but.A typical membrane potential of about one-tenth of a volt sounds relatively small. and systole. when the ventricles contract and blood is pumped out. it represents an enormous voltage gradient of about 10 million volts per meter.

and other tasks. with managers assigned on the basis of geographical markets and customer types in addition to functional categories. when the ventricles contract and blood is pumped out. but. or market-oriented. distribution. it represents an enormous voltage gradient of about 10 million volts per meter. with responsibility assigned on the basis of buying. and systole. with production managers for each product category and brand managers for each individual brand in addition to functional categories. because it occurs across a membrane that is only about 10 nanometers thick. . promotion.A typical membrane potential of about one-tenth of a volt sounds relatively small. The heart undergoes two cardiac cycle periods: diastole. selling. An organization may be functional. production-oriented. when blood enters the ventricles.

A common misuse of the semicolon is to plunk it down between what appear to be two complete sentences: .

.A common misuse of the semicolon is to plunk it down between what appear to be two complete sentences: Problem: The slide rule was an important device for scientists and engineers for many years. although its use has all but vanished since the advent of the pocket calculator.

A common misuse of the semicolon is to plunk it down between what appear to be two complete sentences: Problem: The slide rule was an important device for scientists and engineers for many years. although its use has all but vanished since the advent of the pocket calculator. although its use has all but vanished since the advent of the pocket calculator. Revision: The slide rule was an important device for scientists and engineers for many years. .

The "although" clause is not complete.) . although its use has all but vanished since the advent of the pocket calculator. it can't stand on its own.A common misuse of the semicolon is to plunk it down between what appear to be two complete sentences: Problem: The slide rule was an important device for scientists and engineers for many years. Revision: The slide rule was an important device for scientists and engineers for many years. although its use has all but vanished since the advent of the pocket calculator.

Apostrophes .

But the thing does add precision to writing. minimally. The rules are simple.Apostrophes It is used primarily to show possession and. it does prevent confusion. here they are: . to show plurals.

add 's: . to show plurals.Apostrophes It is used primarily to show possession and. The rules are simple. But the thing does add precision to writing. it does prevent confusion. But people have gotten it all mixed up. minimally. here they are: To show possession for singular words not ending in s.

But people have gotten it all mixed up. minimally. here they are: To show possession for singular words not ending in s. add 's: ‡ Earth's shadow . to show plurals. The rules are simple.Apostrophes It is used primarily to show possession and. But the thing does add precision to writing. it does prevent confusion.

The rules are simple. add 's: ‡ Earth's shadow ‡ The fish's ear . But people have gotten it all mixed up.Apostrophes It is used primarily to show possession and. to show plurals. But the thing does add precision to writing. it does prevent confusion. here they are: To show possession for singular words not ending in s. minimally.

it does prevent confusion. here they are: To show possession for singular words not ending in s. add 's: ‡ Earth's shadow ‡ The fish's ear ‡ The Moon's orbit . But people have gotten it all mixed up. to show plurals. The rules are simple. But the thing does add precision to writing. minimally.Apostrophes It is used primarily to show possession and.

Apostrophes
It is used primarily to show possession and, minimally, to show plurals. But people have gotten it all mixed up. But the thing does add precision to writing; it does prevent confusion. The rules are simple; here they are: To show possession for singular words not ending in s, add 's: ‡ Earth's shadow ‡ The fish's ear ‡ The Moon's orbit ‡ India's population

To show possession for singular words ending in s, add 's (usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice):

To show possession for singular words ending in s, add 's (usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice):

‡ Mars's (or Mars') shadow

To show possession for singular words ending in s, add 's (usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice):

‡ Mars's (or Mars') shadow ‡ Venus's (Venus') orbit

add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): .To show possession for plural words ending in s.

To show possession for plural words ending in s. add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees .

add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits .To show possession for plural words ending in s.

add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits ‡ These species' niches .To show possession for plural words ending in s.

To show possession for plural words ending in s. add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits ‡ These species' niches ‡ These countries' population .

To show possession for plural words ending in s. add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits ‡ These species' niches ‡ These countries' population To show possession for plural words not ending in s. add 's: .

To show possession for plural words ending in s. add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits ‡ These species' niches ‡ These countries' population To show possession for plural words not ending in s. add 's: ‡ Men's rights .

To show possession for plural words ending in s, add ' to the plural form of the word (but don't add another s): ‡ These companies' employees ‡ Planets' orbits ‡ These species' niches ‡ These countries' population

To show possession for plural words not ending in s, add 's: ‡ Men's rights ‡ Children¶s education

To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such, add 's (again usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice):

To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such, add 's (again usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice): ‡ Do you know how many c's and s's are in the word necessary?

To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such, add 's (again usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice): ‡ Do you know how many c's and s's are in the word necessary? ‡ On a computer, O's are represented by O's and 0's with 0's.

To show possession for possessive pronouns. add 's (again usage varies on this. don't use the apostrophe (don't ask me why): . O's are represented by O's and 0's with 0's. but this is a safe choice): ‡ Do you know how many c's and s's are in the word necessary? ‡ On a computer.To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such.

To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such, add 's (again usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice): ‡ Do you know how many c's and s's are in the word necessary? ‡ On a computer, O's are represented by O's and 0's with 0's.

To show possession for possessive pronouns, don't use the apostrophe (don't ask me why):

‡ This book is yours.

To show the plural of numbers or letters when they are discussed as such, add 's (again usage varies on this, but this is a safe choice): ‡ Do you know how many c's and s's are in the word necessary? ‡ On a computer, O's are represented by O's and 0's with 0's.

To show possession for possessive pronouns, don't use the apostrophe (don't ask me why):

‡ This book is yours. ‡ This CRT is theirs, not ours.

The rules for its and it's.

The rules for its and it's.
Its is the possessive form of it; it's is the contraction for it is (exactly opposite):

The rules for its and it's. it's is the contraction for it is (exactly opposite): ‡ The SGO density gauge is missing one of its adjusting knobs. Its is the possessive form of it. (possessive here) .

it's is the contraction for it is (exactly opposite): ‡ The SGO density gauge is missing one of its adjusting knobs. (possessive here) ‡ It's unfortunate that our language has so many exceptions to its rules-or is it? (Contraction for "it is" here) . Its is the possessive form of it.The rules for its and it's.

Hyphens .

"Take hyphens seriously and you will surely go mad." They weren't lying! .Hyphens Someone once said.

" They weren't lying! Hyphens are supposed to keep us from misreading things and show us how words in complex phrases relate to each other. "Take hyphens seriously and you will surely go mad.Hyphens Someone once said. The problem is that the rules for hyphens simply cannot be applied absolutely consistently. you end up hyphenating everything .

. "Take hyphens seriously and you will surely go mad." They weren't lying! Hyphens are supposed to keep us from misreading things and show us how words in complex phrases relate to each other.Hyphens Someone once said. you end up hyphenating everything Hyphens show that a pair of words is acting as a unit and must be read that way. which are two or more words acting as a unit. The problem is that the rules for hyphens simply cannot be applied absolutely consistently. The common types of unit modifiers.

anti. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). However. do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. multi.Although styles vary on this. do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. ‡ .

anti. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird).Although styles vary on this. multi. do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ nonprescription drugs . do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. However.

and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). anti. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ multistep reaction ‡ nonprescription drugs precooked foods . do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. multi.Although styles vary on this. However. do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre.

Although styles vary on this. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ multistep reaction ‡ antibotulism agent ‡ nonprescription drugs precooked foods mid-1970s . do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. However. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. anti. multi.

do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. However. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ multistep reaction ‡ antibotulism agent ‡ nonmalarial areas ‡ nonprescription drugs precooked foods mid-1970s micro-universe . multi. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. anti.Although styles vary on this.

do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). However. multi.Although styles vary on this. do hyphenate prefix words such as self-. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ multistep reaction ‡ antibotulism agent ‡ nonmalarial areas ‡ reusable ‡ nonprescription drugs precooked foods mid-1970s micro-universe subnuclear . anti.

anti. However. and so on (unless it spells some other word or just looks hopelessly weird). multi. do not hyphenate the common prefixes such as pre. ‡ self-lubricating hinges ‡ multistep reaction ‡ anti-botulism agent ‡ nonmalarial areas ‡ reusable ‡ re-sent nonprescription drugs precooked foods mid-1970s micro-universe subnuclear anti-icing . do hyphenate prefix words such as self-.Although styles vary on this.

Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: .

Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: ‡ 5-year grant 10-month period .

5-inch diskette .Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: ‡ 5-year grant ‡ 20-megabyte memory 10-month period 3.

5-inch diskette Hyphenate an elliptical form of a longer phrase that is acting as a unit modifier: .Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: ‡ 5-year grant ‡ 20-megabyte memory 10-month period 3.

5-inch diskette Hyphenate an elliptical form of a longer phrase that is acting as a unit modifier: ‡ Below-average rainfall warm-up period .Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: ‡ 5-year grant ‡ 20-megabyte memory 10-month period 3.

Hyphenate a unit modifier made up of a number followed by a unit of measurement: ‡ 5-year grant ‡ 20-megabyte memory 10-month period 3.5-inch diskette Hyphenate an elliptical form of a longer phrase that is acting as a unit modifier: ‡ Below-average rainfall ‡ Built-in scale warm-up period on-board timer .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system ‡ water-repellent fabric .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system ‡ water-repellent fabric ‡ coffee-flavored ice cream .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system ‡ water-repellent fabric ‡ coffee-flavored ice cream ‡ Nutrient-rich waters .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system ‡ water-repellent fabric ‡ coffee-flavored ice cream ‡ Nutrient-rich waters ‡ government-sponsored programs .

Hyphenate a verb and a non-verb element acting as a unit: ‡ drought-producing system ‡ water-repellent fabric ‡ coffee-flavored ice cream ‡ Nutrient-rich waters ‡ government-sponsored programs ‡ corrosion-resistant metal .

Don't hyphenate units in which the first word ends in -ly: .

Don't hyphenate units in which the first word ends in -ly: ‡ Highly developed country .

Don't hyphenate units in which the first word ends in -ly: ‡ Highly developed country ‡ Fully equipped computer .

.Don't hyphenate units in which the first word ends in ly: ‡ Highly developed country ‡ Fully equipped computer Once you get a partial feel for hyphens. watch out! You might start acting like Lucy in that show where she has been on the assembly line too long and starts going after everything and everybody with her wrenches. back off. Everything will seem like it needs a hyphen! When that happens. and ask yourself-could someone misread this sentence without a hyphen.

Comma Splices and Run-ons .

as a variant is called) are all examples of the problem in which two or more sentences are improperly joined. yet). nor. two sentences are joined by a comma without an intervening coordinating conjunction (and. but. it's likely to be a comma splice as well. or. . the run-on sentence is a sentence that goes on and on and needs to be broken up.Comma Splices and Run-ons The comma-splice and run-on sentence (and the fused sentence. In the typical comma-splice sentence. A fused sentence is two complete sentence just jammed together without any punctuation and without any conjunction. Technically.

it's likely to be a comma splice as well. In the typical comma-splice sentence. Here are some examples of this type of problem and their revisions: . Technically. the run-on sentence is a sentence that goes on and on and needs to be broken up.a full-stop period just doesn't seem right. the semicolon is the right choice in these situations (although it's easy to go semicolon crazy when you first start using them). A fused sentence is two complete sentence just jammed together without any punctuation and without any conjunction. We write comma-splice and run-on sentences because we sense that the sentences involved are closely related . as a variant is called) are all examples of the problem in which two or more sentences are improperly joined. yet).Comma Splices and Run-ons The comma-splice and run-on sentence (and the fused sentence. two sentences are joined by a comma without an intervening coordinating conjunction (and. but. or. Actually. nor.

it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. books do not have the most complete information. .Problem: Sometimes.

books do not have the most complete information. . it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. books do not have the most complete information. Revision: Sometimes.Problem: Sometimes. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals.

I do have at least some hours the University will accept. .Problem: Sometimes. Problem: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. Revision: Sometimes. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. books do not have the most complete information. books do not have the most complete information. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. however.

books do not have the most complete information. .Problem: Sometimes. Revision: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. Revision: Sometimes. Problem: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. however. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. However. I do have at least some hours the University will accept. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. books do not have the most complete information. I do have at least some hours the University will accept.

Revision: Sometimes. However. however. they tend to be more susceptible to rust. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. Problem: The opposite is true of stronger types of stainless steel. I do have at least some hours the University will accept. books do not have the most complete information. books do not have the most complete information. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. Revision: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer.Problem: Sometimes. Problem: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. I do have at least some hours the University will accept. .

it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals.Problem: Sometimes. they tend to be more susceptible to rust. books do not have the most complete information. However. . Problem: The opposite is true of stronger types of stainless steel. I do have at least some hours the University will accept. however. Revision: The opposite is true of stronger types of stainless steel: they tend to be more susceptible to rust. Revision: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. Revision: Sometimes. I do have at least some hours the University will accept. it is a good idea then to look for articles in specialized periodicals. Problem: Most of the hours I've earned toward my associate's degree do not transfer. books do not have the most complete information.

Fragments .

They usually come about because the sentence may already seem too long. Also. in conversation.Fragments Fragments are simply incomplete sentences. grammatically incomplete. we typically speak in fragments. Here are some examples and their revisions: .

They usually come about because the sentence may already seem too long. Here are some examples and their revisions: Problem: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week. And made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. in conversation. . we typically speak in fragments. Also.Fragments Fragments are simply incomplete sentences-grammatically incomplete.

Revision: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week and made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. . Here are some examples and their revisions: Problem: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week.Fragments Fragments are simply incomplete sentences-grammatically incomplete. They usually come about because the sentence may already seem too long. we typically speak in fragments. in conversation. Also. And made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product.

Fragments Fragments are simply incomplete sentences-grammatically incomplete. They usually come about because the sentence may already seem too long. And made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. The best ideas that they had heard in years. Revision: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week and made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. Problem: The committee considered her ideas for a new marketing strategy quite powerful. Also. we typically speak in fragments. in conversation. . Here are some examples and their revisions: Problem: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week.

Fragments Fragments are simply incomplete sentences-grammatically incomplete. the best ideas that they had heard in years. Also. Here are some examples and their revisions: Problem: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week. we typically speak in fragments. . And made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. Problem: The committee considered her ideas for a new marketing strategy quite powerful. The best ideas that they had heard in years. Revision: Mary appeared at the committee meeting last week and made a convincing presentation of her ideas about the new product. in conversation. Revision: The committee considered her ideas for a new marketing strategy quite powerful. They usually come about because the sentence may already seem too long.

Problem: The corporation wants to begin a new marketing push in educational software. Although the more conservative executives of the firm are skeptical. .

Problem: The corporation wants to begin a new marketing push in educational software. Revision: Although the more conservative executives of the firm are skeptical. Although the more conservative executives of the firm are skeptical. . the corporation wants to begin a new marketing push in educational software.

Problem Modifiers .

phrase. or when the modifier is located in the wrong place within the sentence.a word. A modifier is any element . or clause.that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Modifier problems are usually divided into two groups: misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers: .Problem Modifiers Modifier problems occur when the word or phrase that a modifier is supposed to modify is unclear or absent.

phrase. or when the modifier is located in the wrong place within the sentence. A modifier is any element-a word. or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Modifier problems are usually divided into two groups: misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers: Misplaced modifiers .Problem Modifiers Modifier problems occur when the word or phrase that a modifier is supposed to modify is unclear or absent.

phrase. or when the modifier is located in the wrong place within the sentence. Modifier problems are usually divided into two groups: misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers: Misplaced modifiers To correct misplaced modifier problems. . or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence.Problem Modifiers Modifier problems occur when the word or phrase that a modifier is supposed to modify is unclear or absent. A modifier is any element-a word. you can usually relocate the misplaced modifier (the word or phrase).

or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. phrase. Modifier problems are usually divided into two groups: misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers: Misplaced modifiers To correct misplaced modifier problems. Problem: They found out that the walkways had collapsed on the late evening news.Problem Modifiers Modifier problems occur when the word or phrase that a modifier is supposed to modify is unclear or absent. you can usually relocate the misplaced modifier (the word or phrase). (Was that before or after the sports news?) . A modifier is any element-a word. or when the modifier is located in the wrong place within the sentence.

or when the modifier is located in the wrong place within the sentence.Problem Modifiers Modifier problems occur when the word or phrase that a modifier is supposed to modify is unclear or absent. Modifier problems are usually divided into two groups: misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers: Misplaced modifiers To correct misplaced modifier problems. you can usually relocate the misplaced modifier (the word or phrase). or clause--that adds information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence. . (Was that before or after the sports news?) Revisions: On the late evening news. Problem: They found out that the walkways had collapsed on the late evening news. A modifier is any element-a word. we heard that the walkways had collapsed. phrase.

Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. (Did they spend even a minute?) .

Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. . (Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident.

(Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident.Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. Dangling modifiers .

you can rephrase the dangling modifier.Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. . Dangling modifiers To correct dangling modifiers. (Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident. or rephrase the rest of the sentence that it modifies.

. a new fuse was installed in the car. or rephrase the rest of the sentence that it modifies. Dangling modifiers To correct dangling modifiers.Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. you can rephrase the dangling modifier. Having damaged the previous one. (Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident.

you can rephrase the dangling modifier. (Who damaged that fuse?) . or rephrase the rest of the sentence that it modifies.Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. a new fuse was installed in the car. Dangling modifiers To correct dangling modifiers. Having damaged the previous one. (Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident.

or Having damaged the previous one. . I had to install a new fuse in my car. Dangling modifiers To correct dangling modifiers. or rephrase the rest of the sentence that it modifies. (Who damaged that fuse?) Revision: Because the previous fuse had been damaged.Problem: The committee nearly spent a hundred hours investigating the accident. (Did they spend even a minute?) Revision: The committee spent nearly a hundred hours investigating the accident. a new fuse was installed in the car. Having damaged the previous one. you can rephrase the dangling modifier. a new one had to be installed.

Using a grant from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. a contra flow lane was designed for I-45 North. (Who used that money?) .

(Who used that money?) Revision: When the Urban Mass Transportation Administration granted funds to the city. planners began designing a contra flow lane for I-45 North. a contra flow lane was designed for I-45 North.Using a grant from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. or .

planners began designing a contra flow lane for I-45 North. . city planners designed a contra flow lane for I-45 North.Using a grant from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. a contra flow lane was designed for I-45 North. or Using a grant from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. (Who used that money?) Revision: When the Urban Mass Transportation Administration granted funds to the city.

Parallelism .

Widely varied wording is distracting and potentially confusing to readers.Parallelism Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded. You want to use the same style of wording in a series of items--it makes it easier on the reader. Here are some examples. with revisions and some comments: .

Widely varied wording is distracting and potentially confusing to readers. accessories. mounts.Parallelism Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded. Here are some examples. and techniques for beginning star gazers. . with revisions and some comments: Problem: The report discusses how telescopes work. what types are available. You want to use the same style of wording in a series of items--it makes it easier on the reader.

Widely varied wording is distracting and potentially confusing to readers. with revisions and some comments: Problem: The report discusses how telescopes work. Here are some examples." and "techniques" phrases." "accessories. You want to use the same style of wording in a series of items--it makes it easier on the reader. what types are available. accessories. and techniques for beginning star gazers.) . mounts. (The "how" and the "why" clauses are not parallel to the "mounts.Parallelism Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded.

(The "how" and the "why" clauses are not parallel to the "mounts. with revisions and some comments: Problem: The report discusses how telescopes work. mounts. . mounts. You want to use the same style of wording in a series of items--it makes it easier on the reader. Widely varied wording is distracting and potentially confusing to readers. Here are some examples.) Revision: The report discusses how telescopes work. what types are available. and techniques for beginning star gazers.Parallelism Parallelism refers to the way that items in a series are worded. and accessories are available. accessories. what types of telescopes. and how to begin your hobby as a star gazer." and "techniques" phrases." "accessories.

Problem: This report is intended for people with some electronics background but have little or no knowledge of geophysical prospecting. .

Problem: This report is intended for people with some electronics background but have little or no knowledge of geophysical prospecting.) Revision: This report is intended for people with some electronics background but with little or no knowledge of geophysical prospecting. . (The "with" phrase is not parallel with the "have little" clause--this one is not even grammatical.

parallel phrasing can give readers important cues as to how to interpret information. Parallelism problems have to do when same types of phrasing are not used in the same areas of a document: such as for list items in a specific list. or for all headings at a certain level within a specific part of a document.) Revision: This report is intended for people with some electronics background but with little or no knowledge of geophysical prospecting. At times. However.Problem: This report is intended for people with some electronics background but have little or no knowledge of geophysical prospecting. in many instances. . (The "with" phrase is not parallel with the "have little" clause--this one is not even grammatical. working on parallelism of phrasing is trivial.

Subject-Verb Agreement .

Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems. particularly in these cases: . or vice versa. either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb. (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s.) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject.

or vice versa. (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s. either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb. particularly in these cases: When several words come between the subject and verb: .) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject.Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems.

Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems. or vice versa. particularly in these cases: When several words come between the subject and verb: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tends to be rather informal. (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s. . either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb.) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject.

either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb.Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems. (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s.) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject. particularly in these cases: When several words come between the subject and verb: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tends to be rather informal. Revisions: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tend to be rather informal. . or vice versa.

Revisions: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tend to be rather informal.Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems.) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject. particularly in these cases: When several words come between the subject and verb: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tends to be rather informal. The shortage of available infants and the availability of children with special needs has changed the focus of adoption for many parents . (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s. either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or vice versa.

either a singular subject is matched with a plural verb. or vice versa. (Remember that some singular verbs end in -s. Revisions: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tend to be rather informal.Subject-Verb Agreement With subject-verb agreement problems. The shortage of available infants and the availability of children with special needs has changed the focus of adoption for many parents Revisions: The shortage of available infants and the availability of children with special needs have changed the focus of adoption for many parents .) Sometimes it's hard to spot the true subject. particularly in these cases: When several words come between the subject and verb: The communications between the programmer and the rest of the company tends to be rather informal.

When there are two or more subjects joined by and or or: .

When there are two or more subjects joined by and or or: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. .

.When there are two or more subjects joined by and or or: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. Revisions: In the computer's memory are stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program.

the need to keep pace with rapidly increasing amounts of data.When there are two or more subjects joined by and or or: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. . Skyrocketing charges for data preparation. and requirements for fast system response has led to a search for more efficient input devices. Revisions: In the computer's memory are stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program.

the need to keep pace with rapidly increasing amounts of data. . Revisions: In the computer's memory are stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. the need to keep pace with rapidly increasing amounts of data.When there are two or more subjects joined by and or or: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. and requirements for fast system response has led to a search for more efficient input devices. Skyrocketing charges for data preparation. and requirements for fast system response have led to a search for more efficient input devices. Revisions: Skyrocketing charges for data preparation.

When the normal subject-verb order is inverted: .

.When the normal subject-verb order is inverted: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program.

When the normal subject-verb order is inverted: In the computer's memory is stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program. . Revisions: In the computer's memory are stored the program and the data to be manipulated by that program.

.When the normal subject-verb order is inverted: Equivalent to more than 3000 punched cards are the single diskette. first introduced in 1972.

first introduced in 1972. . first introduced in 1972. Revisions: Equivalent to more than 3000 punched cards is the single diskette.When the normal subject-verb order is inverted: Equivalent to more than 3000 punched cards are the single diskette.

either. every.When the subject is a word like each. none. especially when followed by a plural object of a preposition: . neither. no one. and nobody.

and nobody. every. no one. . either. especially when followed by a plural object of a preposition: Each of the steps in the process are treated in a separate chapter of this report. none.When the subject is a word like each. neither.

especially when followed by a plural object of a preposition: Each of the steps in the process are treated in a separate chapter of this report. Revisions: Each of the steps in the process is treated in a separate chapter of this report. none. neither. either. . and nobody.When the subject is a word like each. no one. every.

Revisions: Each of the steps in the process is treated in a separate chapter of this report. Neither of the two high-level languages offer a facility for designing your own variables. every. . and nobody. especially when followed by a plural object of a preposition: Each of the steps in the process are treated in a separate chapter of this report. no one. neither. none.When the subject is a word like each. either.

either. neither. none. no one.When the subject is a word like each. Revisions: Each of the steps in the process is treated in a separate chapter of this report. and nobody. . Revisions: Neither of the two high-level languages offers a facility for designing your own variables. Neither of the two high-level languages offer a facility for designing your own variables. especially when followed by a plural object of a preposition: Each of the steps in the process are treated in a separate chapter of this report. every.

When the subject is a phrase or clause acting as a unit: .

.When the subject is a phrase or clause acting as a unit: Printing 54.000 chars. per 60 seconds were considered a high speed for printers at one time.

per 60 seconds was considered a high speed for printers at one time.000 chars.When the subject is a phrase or clause acting as a unit: Printing 54.000 chars. per 60 seconds were considered a high speed for printers at one time. . Revisions: Printing 54.

Revisions: Printing 54. . per 60 seconds was considered a high speed for printers at one time.000 chars. What is truly amazing about bits cells in integrated circuits are that 30 cells lined up side by side are about as wide as a human hair.000 chars.When the subject is a phrase or clause acting as a unit: Printing 54. per 60 seconds were considered a high speed for printers at one time.

. per 60 seconds was considered a high speed for printers at one time.When the subject is a phrase or clause acting as a unit: Printing 54. per 60 seconds were considered a high speed for printers at one time.000 chars. Revisions: What is truly amazing about bits cells in integrated circuits is that 30 cells lined up side by side are about as wide as a human hair.000 chars. What is truly amazing about bits cells in integrated circuits are that 30 cells lined up side by side are about as wide as a human hair. Revisions: Printing 54.

Pronoun Reference .

Pronoun Reference A pronoun is a word like "he." and so on." "each." You look back up at the sea of words you have just been laboriously reading through--you say "this what?!" You have just experienced one form of the pronoun-reference problem. It's like a variable in programming--it points to some other word that holds its meaning." "this. Problems arise when you can't figure out what the pronoun is pointing to (its "reference") and when it doesn't "agree" in number or gender with what it is pointing to." "everyone." "them." "they." "him. . You're reading along in some incredibly technical thing. and it refers to something as "this." "which.

" "everyone. Problems arise when you can't figure out what the pronoun is pointing to (its "reference") and when it doesn't "agree" in number or gender with what it is pointing to." "them." "they. It's like a variable in programming--it points to some other word that holds its meaning. You're reading along in some incredibly technical thing. Problem: Lasers have also been used to study the reaction by which nitric oxide and ozone make nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and molecular oxygen." and so on.Pronoun Reference A pronoun is a word like "he." You look back up at the sea of words you have just been laboriously reading through--you say "this what?!" You have just experienced one form of the pronoun-reference problem. ." "which." "this. It plays an important role in the chemistry of the ozone layer that surrounds the earth and protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation." "him. and it refers to something as "this." "each.

" "this. (Okay.) . and it refers to something as "this.." "each.Pronoun Reference A pronoun is a word like "he." "everyone." Problem: Lasers have also been used to study the reaction by which nitric oxide and ozone make nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and molecular oxygen. You're reading along in some incredibly technical thing." and so on. Problems arise when you can't figure out what the pronoun is pointing to (its "reference") and when it doesn't "agree" in number or gender with what it is pointing to." "they." "them. ("It" what?) Revision: Lasers have also been used to study the reaction by which nitric oxide and ozone make nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and molecular oxygen.. It's like a variable in programming--it points to some other word that holds its meaning. It plays an important role in the chemistry of the ozone layer that surrounds the earth and protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. now we see." "which. This process plays an important role in the chemistry of the ozone layer that surrounds the earth and protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation." "him.

The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. Here is one common example: .

Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip.The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. .

The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. . Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip.

The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: . Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip.

Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip. while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: Problem: These days. every student needs to own their own computer. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. .The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to.

. Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip. The problem in this example is that "student" does not agree with "their": one is singular. plural. every student needs to own their own computer. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: Problem: These days. the other.The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip.

plural. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. students need to own their own computers. The problem in this example is that "student" does not agree with "their": one is singular. . Revision 1: These days. while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: Problem: These days. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip. the other. every student needs to own their own computer.The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip.

while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: Problem: These days. plural. every student needs to own their own computer. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. Revision 2: These days. students need to own their own computers.The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip. The problem in this example is that "student" does not agree with "their": one is singular. Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip. . every student needs to own his or her own computer. the other. Revision 1: These days.

Revision 1: These days. The problem in this example is that "student" does not agree with "their": one is singular. while "their" is a plural thing--they don't agree in number! Here is a second example: Problem: These days. every student needs to own his or her own computer. . the other. plural. students need to own their own computers. Revision 3: These days. every student needs to own a computer.The second kind of pronoun-reference problem arises over lack of agreement between the pronoun and what it refers to. The problem here is that "Motorola" is a singular thing. Revision: Motorola has just announced its new PowerPC chip. Revision 2: These days. every student needs to own their own computer. Here is one common example: Problem: Motorola has just announced their new PowerPC chip.

Here are some additional examples .Whenever it works. try converting the singular noun to a plural--the plural pronoun will then be okay (but don't forget to change the verb to plural). .

by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. they could save time and money. Problem: NASA hoped that.Whenever it works. try converting the singular noun to a plural--the plural pronoun will then be okay (but don't forget to change the verb to plural). Here are some additional examples . .

it could save time and money. they could save time and money.Whenever it works. try converting the singular noun to a plural--the plural pronoun will then be okay (but don't forget to change the verb to plural). Revision: NASA hoped that. . Here are some additional examples . by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. Problem: NASA hoped that.

it could save time and money. they could save time and money. electrical vehicles could become as popular as its conventional counterpart. try converting the singular noun to a plural--the plural pronoun will then be okay (but don't forget to change the verb to plural). Problem: If an energy efficient system can be developed. Problem: NASA hoped that. by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually.Whenever it works. by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. Revision: NASA hoped that. . Here are some additional examples .

electrical vehicles could become as popular as their conventional counterpart.Whenever it works. electrical vehicles could become as popular as its conventional counterpart. try converting the singular noun to a plural--the plural pronoun will then be okay (but don't forget to change the verb to plural). by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. Problem: If an energy efficient system can be developed. they could save time and money. Problem: NASA hoped that. Here are some additional examples . it could save time and money. Revision: If an energy-efficient system can be developed. by using production tooling rather than by making each tool individually. Revision: NASA hoped that. .

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