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Name and Date Founded
Reason for Founding
Role of Religion
Contributions to American Political System
The first kind of representative assembly was born in Virginia; this assembly, known as the House of Burgesses, was established and authorized by the London Company. It set a precedent for future parliaments and assemblies in America.
England was motivated by both its victory over Spain and the writings of Richard Hakluyt, who argued that American colonization was key to national prosperity. James I granted a charter to the Virginia Company of London, a jointstock company, which set up a settlement in Jamestown. Their main goals were to find gold and to find a passage that would lead them to the Indies.
John Rolfe: husband of Pocahontas; discovered profitable strain of tobacco; became major cash crop in Virginia; economic savior John Smith: this captain led the colonist through the winter; his leadership demonstrated what you had to do in order to survive; “He who works not, eats not” Sir William Berkeley: royal governor of Virginia; mainly governed based on large planters; angered the smaller farmers which led to Bacon’s Revolution Lord De La Warr, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir Thomas Dale: London Company gave dictatorial powers to these governors Edwin Sandys: promised the settlers the same rights they had in England in order to attract more immigrants
About 40 miles up from the James River from Chesapeake Bay; the settlement was located on a swampy location, which was harmful because of diseases and contaminated water. On the north of Virginia is Maryland and on the south is North Carolina.
To increase its labor forces, the Virginia used the indenture system, where poor workers in England would travel to New England for financial means and to obtain a stable life. John Rolfe found the tobacco industry; it became a main cash crop in Virginia and the English had a constant demand for tobacco. Although it was profitable, the plant was ruinous to the soil of the ground and could only be planted every two years; tobacco industry promoted the broad acred plantation system and increased demands for more labor.
Virginia had a law stating that one must worship in the Anglican Church; nontolerance towards nonChristians
New Hampshire was bordered by Massachusetts on both the North and South. such as warehouses and sawmills. this was a major stepping stone because it was the first time the people had a voice. private sector businesses were a big part of the economy. John Cotton: prominent clergy. Connecticut. 1628 Some Puritans who believed they were being treated unfairly in England. and New York to the West.New Hampshire Est. John Mason: founded New Hampshire with many others. Lumbering and shipbuilding was the largest manufacturing industry in the colony. They sought to charter a joint-stocked company called Massachusetts Bay Company. Massachusetts Est. Massachusetts is located both on top and bottom of New Hampshire. The government included a governor and a representative assembly. sometimes economically dependent on Massachusetts. New Hampshire was a royal colony and a governor was given authority. The main agricultural products were fishing. Also. Main exports included masts for ships. Massachusetts became one of the biggest and influential New England outposts. initially start a fishing company. worked to defend the government’s role to impose religious rules. Mason was given land and he sent settlers over from England. this was the type of government that America later breached out from. very strict system and had no leniency towards religious tolerance and freedom. Great Migration: mass immigration of Puritans John Winthrop: taught that the Puritan colony should provide an example of what a true Christian society was. The bottom portion of Massachusetts borders New York. corn. 1623 New Hampshire was originally part of Massachusetts Bay but King Charles II separated it from the Bay colony because he wanted more royal control in the colonies. came to Massachusetts to avoid persecution in England. . the forest was used for shipbuilding and logging. and Rhode Island. the freemen (adult church members) chose the governor and the General Court. The economy of New Hampshire revolved around ship-making because it was connected to the sea. which was called the General Court. and other livestock. Massachusett s was exclusively a Puritan Colony with no religious tolerance or freedom. The main religion in New Hampshire was Puritanism. They established manufacturing and trade posts. Fur trading was also very profitable in the colony. Like many other colonies. moved to set a Puritan community in America. they had a strict interpretation of the Bible and were against the Anglican Church’s unscriptural practices. Farming was difficult in Massachusetts. The main resources that the colony had was the forest. fish. and lumber.
John Davenport: also found a neighboring colony (which would later be chartered into one colony). sought more religious freedom but still maintained strictness of Puritans. The fertile Connecticut River Valley flows through the colony. Lord Baltimore was the first proprietor and established Maryland for economic reasons and to provide Catholics with a refuge. black slaves began to be imported. it also sanctioned less toleration for other religions who did not believe in Jesus. however. indigo. . Manufacturing businesses in Maryland focused on shipbuilding and iron works. Established the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Lord Baltimore (George Calvert): prominent English Catholic. the first written constitution. Thomas Hooker: led a group of settlers who slightly disagreed with the teachings of the Puritans and the authority of John Winthrop. allowed freedom of worship. representative government existed and included legislature by vote and governor. Maryland also thrived economically due to the profitable tobacco. 1634 Rather than granting charters to joint-stock companies. impacted formation of today’s constitution. England decided to grant charters to proprietors. and fish. similar to Virginia. rice. came to New England for economic purposes and to find refuge for persecuted Catholics. Rhode Island on the East. and Massachusetts on the North. forests (timbers). Calvert proposed the Act of Toleration. Connecticut Est. 1635 Established by Reverend Thomas Hooker and Boston Puritans who sought more religious and economic freedom. who would be responsible for the colony instead of the king. Farming conditions were excellent. set about to implement his father’s plans in 1634 Maryland is located just north of the Potomac River and borders Virginia. Protestants win and Catholics lose right to vote in Maryland Assembly. the representative assembly passed the Act of Toleration in 1649.Maryland Est. fishing industry also developed due to access to sea. late 1600s. mainly wheat and corn. Mainly Puritans who slightly disagreed with the leadership in Massachusett s. Calvert also allowed the existence of a representative assembly. Agricultural products included corn. later in the 17th century. Catholic colony but Protestants outnumbered the Catholics. which granted religious freedom for all Christians. and Delaware Like Virginia. Cecil Calvert: second Lord Baltimore. he led settlers who argued that Winthrop wasn’t strict enough Connecticut borders New York on the West. Maryland depended on indentured servants for labor. Natural resources were soils. and wheat. Also. Protestant revolts and minor civil war between Protestants and Catholics. major industry focused on agriculture. Pennsylvania.
his teachings were deemed to be “disruptive” and he was kicked out of Massachusetts. rice. however. also the idea of political freedom allows such liberties to exist today. the colony held many different religions together Delaware adapted similar political aspects with Pennsylvania because it was run by the same governor. the same idea. Delaware. On almost two sides of Rhode Island is water. significant because she was a woman. The economy of Delaware was also a mix. fled to the Narragansett Bay and found the settlement of Providence with his followers. The political influence that Rhode Island has on contemporary governments is limited. Delaware had fertile lands for agriculture in which they grew indigo. ironworks. also granted religious freedom and tolerance for people. and other settlements in the area. Industrial works included trading lumber. The climate and fields were suitable for agriculture. later killed by Indians. 1636 Rhode Island was created when Roger Williams gained a charter combining Providence.Rhode Island Est. defined a clear distinction between Church and State. however. Roger Williams: initially a Puritan preacher. lies in Rhode Island’s ability to deal with crime and political turmoil. Delaware Est. On the north of the colony was Massachusetts and on the west was Connecticut. fled to Narragansett with her followers and founded settlement called Portsmouth. believed in antinomianism (only faith is necessary to attain salvation). which includes dairy products and raising livestock. 1638 Was initially a part of Pennsylvania but William Penn granted a separate legislature. . making the fishing industry profitable as well. Rhode Island was established under the principles of religious tolerance and freedom. the same governor of Pennsylvania also served as the governor for Delaware. The forests covered part of Delaware and so the lumber business thrived. the people of Delaware Peter Minuit: Founder of Delaware. Penn granted Minuit to form the colony There were three colonies that surrounded Delaware. therefore. New Jersey and Maryland surround Delaware and Pennsylvania also lies close to the Delaware colony. and shipbuilding. Portsmouth. Rhode Island attracted mostly lawbreakers and troublemakers making the colony in continuous turmoil. similar to Rhode Island. and grain. Rhode Island has forests so the lumber industry flourished as well. first to settle near the Delaware Valley and Christina River. it was meant to grant colonies complete religious toleration. Anne Hutchinson: openly contradicted the teachings of Puritan doctrine. Rhode Island has access to the sea. however. Also.
later. implemented tax without consent of representative assembly. 1653 Initially just the Carolina. New York Est. and wheat. North Carolina grew as an overflow from Virginia. This not only foreshadows the democratic ideals that are held today in the government but also the American Revolution when the colonies earn autonomy from British rule. eventually in 1729.North Carolina Est. (see also information for South Carolina). The farmers were mostly from Virginia and therefore established selfsufficient tobacco farms. James appointed New York governor and gave general political and civil rights to the people and allowed the formation of the representative assembly. North Carolina developed differently from South Carolina. North and South Carolina were formed. Duke of York: later to be known as the future James II. Besides the eight noblemen who were the proprietors of the colony. On the south. there weren’t any significant leaders in the early colonies On the North of North Carolina is Virginia. religious tolerance and freedom was practiced and therefore different religious groups lived there. which explains how many Virginians come to North Carolina to farm tobacco. North Carolina was famous for its democratic views and freedom from British oppression. rice. 1664 The Duke of York was given land between Connecticut and Delaware Bay from the king and seized the Dutch colony by force. indigo. Only small number of good harbors and the colony had very poor transportation. New York borders both Pennsylvania and New Jersey. the colony practiced religious freedom. they produced grain. two colonies. Massachusetts. allowed foreign Dutch to be treated well. to the East is New Hampshire. little available manual labor In North Carolina. and Connecticut. cattle. He established a colony and named it New York. this practice is illegal today because of its injustices. combined his land with land of the Dutch by seizing it. James was opposed to a representative assembly. New York’s economy was comprised of mainly agriculture and manufacturing. New York had people coming from different areas and thus brought a diversity of religions into the colony. In the agricultural fields. . the manufacturing aspects included iron works and shipbuilding. stepping stones to the type of assemblies and rights people have today. to the south of the colony is South Carolina.
indigo. to the west is Pennsylvania. 1670 Charles II rewarded eight noblemen who had helped him regain the crown. including whether slaves count towards the population or not. confusing property lines confused people Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret: founders of the colony. These governments foreshadowed the free and representative governments today. also. South Carolina began to develop is rice-growing plantations. a social structure which was unpopular. Established through the principles of religious freedom and gave various groups that came into New Jersey the right to freely believe and practice their faith. too. there weren’t any significant leaders in the early colonies South Carolina has North Carolina to the North and Georgia to the South. There were no significant singularities about South Carolina’s political aspects except the slaves were brought. 1664 James gave Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret part of New York because James thought the land was too big to rule. So he gave them the land and the two proprietors attracted various groups. In foreshadows the slave debates in the future that will incite the Civil War and also many aspects of the government. cattle. Diverse groups of people came into South Carolina and thus South Carolina. these noblemen became the proprietors of Carolinas. rice. it borders New York. . before it divided. esp. and to the south is Delaware. Quakers and sold their lands. Like many different colonies. South Carolina Est. administered West new Jersey and East New Jersey respectively until charter declared they be combined New Jersey is near the sea. had a diversity of religion and practiced religious freedom. Initially. most people in South Carolina were planters from Barbados. The Carolinas were initially planned to become hierarchal societies. To its east is the sea and the west is the open frontier South Carolina’s economy was heavily based on agriculture. amid the process. South Carolina’s economy was mostly based on fur trading and providing food for the Indies. New Jersey’s economy mainly centers around agriculture. to the north. but in the mid 18th century.New Jersey Est. which also produced tobacco. and cotton. New Jersey mined and manufactured goods for sale. Besides the eight noblemen who were the proprietors of the colony. they mainly breed livestock. New Jersey also tried to attract settler by offering representative governments.
which had a last influence to today’s government. There were very few settlers in Georgia but those who did live there had religious tolerance and freedom. . Slowly adopted the plantation mechanisms from South Carolina. Also. fertile soil allowed for productive agricultural farming and manufacturing included textiles. to the east is New Jersey. 1681 Mainly found for being a refuge for persecuted Quakers. he also wanted to promote political freedom among the people. he provided the Frame of Government (1682 – 1683) which promoted a representative assembly elected by landowner. paper making. and shipbuilding. strict regulations. became a royal charter. this was called the “holy experiment” William Penn: convert to the Quaker faith. Georgia Est. once the colony had stabilized. other than that. colony created because Britain needed a defensive buffer colony so that it can protect the wealthy plantation farms and owners from invasion of Spanish Florida. Agricultural crops included rice. used the money to set a colony. On the north. 1733 Last British colony and only one to receive direct funds from London. countless people in London were living in poverty and imprisonment from debt and these people can start their life over in the colonies. when his father died. and to the south is Maryland and a little bit of Delaware. James Oglethorpe: founder of the colony. not much influence on contemporary US government. Georgia was the southernmost colony. to the north is New York. and make income and wealth for himself. Agriculture was the main economic facet in Georgia. Penn wanted to accomplish three main things through his colonies: provide refuge for Quakers. Like today’s governmental system.Pennsylvania Est. implement liberal governmental ideas. Mixed economy of both agriculture and manufacturing. Georgia had a governor that would work to make the colony prosper. king also owed him money. sugar. it provided religious freedom for all types of worship and this declared in the Charter of Liberties (1701) William Penn wanted to implement liberal governmental policies in the new colony. Georgia bordered South Carolina and in the South. he left Penn lots of money. Pennsylvania has open frontier to the west. The main purpose for the establishment of the colony was to provide religious freedom and tolerance for Quakers. British philanthropist and obtained a charter for Georgia so that the poor can have a place where they could make a living. and indigo. Georgia served as a buffer for the conflicting Spanish-held Florida.
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