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To my parents
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Preface
It is known that the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion may result
in an appearance of localized long bell-shaped strain waves of permanent
form (solitary waves or solitons) which may propagate and transfer energy
over the long distance along. Starting with the first documented water
surface solitary wave observation, made by J.Scott Russell yet in 1834,
solitons in fluids were observed and generated many times. It was the
most surprising fact, however, that despite of almost similar description of
stresses in fluids and solids, bulk longitudinal strain solitary waves have not
been observed in nonlinearly elastic wave guides.
One of reason of the lack of the results on nonlinear wave in solids is
that the complete description of a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear con-
tinuum is a difficult problem. That is why initial 3-D problems are usually
reduced to the one-dimensional (1-D) form in order to clarify the simplest
but qualitatively new analytical solutions. Certainly the cylindrical elastic
rod seems to be a suitable real-life 1-D wave guide. Recently, the theory has
been developed to account for long longitudinal strain solitary waves prop-
agating in a free lateral surface elastic rod with permanent cross section.
The nonlinearity, caused by both the finite stress values and elastic mate-
rial properties, and the dispersion resulting from the finite transverse size
of the rod, when in balance allow the propagation of the bulk strain soli-
tary waves. Motivated by analytical theoretical predictions, there has been
successful experimental generation of strain solitary waves in a polystyrene
free lateral surface rod using the holographic interferometry. Hence it was
proven that bulk long localized nonlinear strain waves of permanent form
really exist.
However, presence of a dissipation (accumulation) destroys the balance
between nonlinearity and dispersion, and nonlinear strain wave in the rod
vii
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viii Book Title
may attenuate or amplify. One possibility occurs when the radius of the
rod varies. Dissipative (active) effects may be caused by internal features
of the elastic material, hence, an irreversible part should be included into
the stress tensor in addition to the reversible one depending only upon the
density of the Helmholtz energy. Dissipation (accumulation) may also come
in an elastic wave guide through phenomena occurring at its lateral surface.
Among the volume sources of dissipation/accumulation one can mention a
microstructure, point moving defects, thermal effects. When dissipation
and activation act together there may be another balance resulted in a for-
mation of a bell-shaped wave with the amplitude and the velocity prescribed
by the condition of the dissipative/active balance. Hence the wave is se-
lected. Note that there exist another kind of nonlinear wave of a permanent
shape sustained either by a balance between nonlinearity and dissipation or
by a balance between nonlinearity, dispersion and dissipation. This wave
has the form of a shock and is often called kink-shaped wave or simply kink.
The amplification of the waves (i.e., growth of the amplitude) may cause
the appearance of plasticity zones or microcracks in a wave guide. This is
of importance for an assessment of durability of elastic materials and struc-
tures, methods of non-destructive testing, determination of the physical
properties of elastic materials, particularly, polymeric solids, and ceramics.
Bulk waves provide better suited detection requirements than surface strain
waves in setting up a valuable non-destructive test for pipelines.
Inclusion of dissipation (accumulation) yields nonlinear dispersive- dis-
sipative governing equations that are nonintegrable as a rule. Hence, only
particular, usually travelling wave, solutions may be obtained analytically.
Certainly, these solutions require specific initial conditions. Moreover, they
usually have no free parameters, and additional relationships between the
equation coefficients are required for the existence of the solutions. That is
why the obtaining of the exact solutions is often considered as useless by
many authors preferring to apply numerical methods only.
I would like to achieve two tasks in this monograph. First, it is planned
to provide the sequential analytical consideration of the strain waves am-
plification/attenuation and selection in solids, mainly in an elastic rod. It
may be of interest for those working in the field of solid mechanics. Another
task is to demonstrate the use of even particular analytical solutions for the
description of unsteady nonlinear wave processes. It may attract the atten-
tion of the specialists in various fields since the structure of the governing
equations is rather universal. The content is essentially based on the author
previous research. However, many works were done in a collaboration. The
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Chapter Title for Preface ix
author thanks a lot Profs. G.V. Dreiden, I.L. Kliakhandler, G.A. Maugin,
F. Pastrone, D.F. Parker, A.M. Samsonov, M.G. Velarde; Mr. V.V. Gursky
and Mrs. I.V. Semenova for a long time fruitful collaboration. The book
preparation has been supported by the INTAS grant 99-0167 and by the
RFBR under Grant 2000-01-00482.
I dedicate this book to my parents. They always believe in my efforts
and expected this book more than whoever it may be.
Saint-Petersburg, December, 2002 A.V. Porubov
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x Book Title
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Contents
Preface vii
1. Basic concepts 1
1.1 Single nonlinear waves of permanent shape . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Monotonic bell-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Oscillatory bell-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.3 Kink-shaped waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1.4 Periodic nonlinear waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2 Formation of nonlinear waves of permanent shape from an
arbitrary input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.1 Bell-shaped solitary wave formation from an initial
localized pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.2 Kink-shaped and periodic waves formation . . . . . . 26
1.3 Amplification, attenuation and selection of nonlinear waves 27
2. Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 31
2.1 Exact solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.1.1 Direct methods and elliptic functions . . . . . . . . . 31
2.1.2 Painlev´e analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.3 Single travelling wave solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.1.4 Exact solutions of more complicated form . . . . . . 42
2.2 Asymptotic solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.3 Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.3.1 Nonlinear evolution equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.3.2 Nonlinear hyperbolic equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4 Use of Mathematica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
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xii Book Title
3. Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 63
3.1 The sources of nonlinearities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2 Modelling of nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral surface
elastic rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.2.1 Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.2.2 Derivation of the governing equation . . . . . . . . . 69
3.3 Double-dispersive equation and its solitary wave solution . . 70
3.4 Observation of longitudinal strain solitary waves . . . . . . 75
3.5 Reflection of solitary wave from the edge of the rod . . . . . 79
4. Amplification of strain waves in absence of external en-
ergy influx 87
4.1 Longitudinal strain solitary wave amplification in a narrow-
ing elastic rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.1.1 Governing equation for longitudinal strain waves
propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.1.2 Evolution of asymmetric strain solitary wave . . . . . 90
4.1.3 Experimental observation of the solitary wave ampli-
fication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.2 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod embedded in another
elastic external medium with sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.2.1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.2.2 External stresses on the rod lateral surface . . . . . . 99
4.2.3 Derivation of strain-displacement relationships inside
the rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.2.4 Nonlinear evolution equation for longitudinal strain
waves along the rod and its solution . . . . . . . . . 102
4.2.5 Influence of the external medium on the propagation
of the strain solitary wave along the rod . . . . . . . 104
4.2.6 Numerical simulation of unsteady strain wave propa-
gation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.3 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod with microstructure . 114
4.3.1 Modelling of non-dissipative elastic medium with mi-
crostructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.3.2 Nonlinear waves in a rod with pseudo-continuum
Cosserat microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.3.3 Nonlinear waves in a rod with Le Roux continuum
microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
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Chapter Title for Front Matter xiii
4.3.4 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5. Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 123
5.1 Contact problems: various approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5.2 Evolution of bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of ac-
tive/dissipative external medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.2.1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.2.2 Dissipation modified double dispersive equation . . 126
5.2.3 Exact solitary wave solutions of DMDDE . . . . . . 128
5.2.4 Bell-shaped solitary wave amplification and selection 130
5.2.5 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
5.3 Strain kinks in an elastic rod embedded in an ac-
tive/dissipative medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
5.3.1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.3.2 Combined dissipative double-dispersive equation . . 138
5.3.3 Exact solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
5.3.4 Weakly dissipative (active) case . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
5.3.5 Weakly dispersive case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5.3.6 Summary of results and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
5.4 Influence of external tangential stresses on strain solitary
waves evolution in a nonlinear elastic rod . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.4.1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.4.2 Derivation of the governing equation . . . . . . . . . 153
5.4.3 Symmetric strain solitary waves . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
5.4.4 Evolution of asymmetric solitary waves . . . . . . . . 159
6. Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection163
6.1 Nonlinear bell-shaped and kink-shaped strain waves in mi-
crostructured solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
6.1.1 Modelling of a microstructured medium with dissipa-
tion/accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
6.1.2 Bell-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
6.1.3 Kink-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
6.1.4 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
6.2 Nonlinear seismic solitary waves selection . . . . . . . . . . 178
6.2.1 Modelling of nonlinear seismic waves . . . . . . . . . 178
6.2.2 Asymptotic solution of the governing equation . . . . 180
6.2.3 Numerical simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
6.3 Moving defects induced by external energy flux . . . . . . . 188
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xiv Book Title
6.3.1 Basic concepts and derivation of governing equations 188
6.3.2 Nonlinear waves in a medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.3.3 Nonlinear waves in a plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.4 Thermoelastic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.4.1 Nonlinear waves in thermoelastic medium . . . . . . 195
6.4.2 Longitudinal waves in thermoelastic rod . . . . . . . 196
Bibliography 199
Index 211
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Chapter 1
Basic concepts
This chapter is focused on some features of nonlinear waves to be used
further in the book. Linear waves are accounted for the linear equations,
they have infinitesimal amplitude. Nonlinear waves are described by non-
linear equations. In contrast to the linear waves, an amplitude, a veloc-
ity and a wave number of the nonlinear waves are connected to one an-
other. More general information about nonlinear waves may be found in
numerous special books, like Ablowitz and Segur (1981); Bhatnagar (1979);
Calogero and Degasperis (1982); Newell (1985); Sachdev (1987); Whitham
(1974) etc.
The governing equations for the nonlinear strain waves to be considered
are nonitegrable by the inverse scattering transform method, and only par-
ticular exact solutions may be obtained. Of special interest are the single
travelling wave solutions that keep their shapes on propagation. This is a
result of the balances between various factors affecting the wave behaviour.
There are two main types of the nonlinear travelling solitary waves which
could propagate keeping its shape, bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary
waves. The bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a bal-
ance between nonlinearity and dispersion. The kink-shaped wave may be
sustained by different balances, one possibility occurs when nonlinearity is
balanced by dissipation (or accumulation) , another case corresponds to the
simultaneous balance between dispersion, nonlinearity and dissipation (or
accumulation). The single travelling wave solution requires specific initial
conditions. However, one can show that these solutions account for the
final quasistationary part of an arbitrary initial pulse evolution. This un-
steady process may be described analytically for the integrable equations
or numerically for others. We illustrate all mentioned above further in this
Chapter.
1
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2 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
1.1 Single nonlinear waves of permanent shape
1.1.1 Monotonic bell-shaped solitary waves
The simplest celebrated model equation containing nonlinear and dispersive
terms is the well-known Korteweg- de Vries (KdV) equation Korteweg and
de Vries (1895),
u
t
+ 2b uu
x
+d u
xxx
= 0, (1.1)
whose exact one-parameter single solitary wave solution is
u = 6
d
b
k
2
cosh
−2
k(x −4dk
2
t). (1.2)
The wave amplitude A = 6dk
2
/b and the velocity V = 4dk
2
depend
upon the wave number k which is a free parameter. One can call the solution
(1.2) travelling solitary wave one since it depends upon the phase variable
θ = x−V t only, and monotonic solitary wave since it decays monotonically
when [θ[ → ∞. Typical shape of the wave is shown in Fig. 1.1 where one
can see also that the wave is symmetric with respect to its maximum.
-30 -20 -10 10 20 30
x
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
u
Fig. 1.1 Monotonic solitary wave (solid line) and its first derivative (dashed line)
Sometimes there is a need for the inclusion of higher- order deriva-
tive (dispersion) or nonlinear terms into Eq.(1.1). A particular case arises
for water waves when surface tension suppresses coefficient d Hunter and
Scheurle (1988) and fifth-order dispersion u
5x
is added in Eq.(1.1).
Also higher- order derivative terms model weak nonlocality Engelbrecht
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Basic concepts 3
and Braun (1998), provide an improvement of bad dispersive properties
Christov et. al (1996); Maugin and Muschik (1994), account for a contin-
uum limit of discrete models with far neighbour interactions Kosevich and
Savotchenko (1999), to say nothing of dissipative (active) generalizations.
An example of the inclusion of higher- order nonlinearity is the Sawada-
Kotera equation Sawada and Kotera (1974).
Hence, the following nonlinear equation may be considered:
u
t
+ 2b uu
x
+ 3c u
2
u
x
+r uu
xxx
+s u
x
u
xx
+d u
3x
+f u
5x
= 0, (1.3)
We get from Eq.(1.3) a fifth-order (in space derivatives) KdV equation
Hunter and Scheurle (1988) when c = r = s = 0. This equation was studied
in many papers, see, e.g., Karpman (1993); Karpman (1998); Karpman and
Vanden-Broeck (1995); Kawahara (1972); Kawahara and Takaoka (1988);
Benilov et. al (1993); Grimshaw et. al (1994). When, in addition d = 0,
the resulting equation models the LC ladder electrical transmittion lines.
Its solutions were obtained in Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981); Kano and
Nakayama (1981). A special integrable case corresponds to the Sawada-
Kotera equation with b = d = 0, c = −r = −s/2 = 10, f = 1 Sawada
and Kotera (1974). Its solitary wave solutions may be found in Parkes and
Duffy (1996), see also references therein.
Equation (1.3) is obviously nonintegrable by the Inverse Scattering
Transform method, and only particular exact solutions may be obtained.
Let us consider an exact solution vanishing at infinity. In case of the fifth-
order KdV equation it has the form Kano and Nakayama (1981):
u =
210d
13b
k
2
cosh
−4
k(x −V t), (1.4)
with k
2
= −d/(52f). Hence the width of the wave is prescribed by the
dispersion coefficients d and f which should be of opposite sign. For the
wave velocity we have V = 144dk
2
/13 = −36d
2
/(169f). Hence, simultane-
ous triggering of the signs of b, d and f results in changing only the wave
propagation direction.
In the general case the exact solitary- wave solution has a form similar
to the KdV soliton (1.2),
u = Acosh
−2
k(x −V t). (1.5)
Important particular cases are:
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4 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
(i) In presence of only cubic nonlinear term, r = s = 0, we get the solution
with fixed parameters,
A = 2
_

30f
c
k
2
, V = 4k
2
(2b
_

30f
c
−5d−116f k
2
), k
2
=
b
_
−30f/c −3d
60f
.
(1.6)
In this case the existence of solution vanishing at infinity is provided by
the linear fifth order term f u
5x
. Indeed at f = 0 we get from Eq.(1.3) the
Gardner equation whose solution is Grimshaw et. al (1999):
u =
A
1
coshm(x −V t) +B
1
, (1.7)
where
A
1
=
3

2d m
2

2b
2
+ 9cd m
2
, B
1
=

2b

2b
2
+ 9cd m
2
, V = dm
2
. (1.8)
An important feature of the solution is the existence of the finite limiting
amplitude when B is large Slyunyaev and Pelinovsky (1999). However, at
nonzero f a substitution of Eq.(1.7) into Eq.(1.3) yields B
1
= 1, cosh m(x−
V t) + 1 = 2 cosh
2
m(x − V t)/2, and we get the solution (1.5), (1.6) with
m = 2k.
(ii) When only quadratic higher- order term r uu
xxx
is taken into account,
c = s = 0, the fixed parameters of the solution (1.5) are
A =
30fk
2
r
, V =
2(50b
2
f
2
+ 5bdfr −3d
2
r
2
)
25f r
2
, k
2
=
5bf −dr
10fr
. (1.9)
Note that the solution exists at d = 0.
(iii) In case c = r = 0 the parameter k is free but an additional restriction
on the equation coefficients holds,
A =
60fk
2
s
, V = 4k
2
(d + 4f k
2
), 10b f = d s. (1.10)
One can see that s may be excluded from the amplitude expression using
the third formula from (1.10). Then the amplitude coincides with that of
the KdV soliton (1.2). We also see that the wave velocity consists of two
parts, V
1
= 4dk
2
and V
2
= 16fk
4
, the first of which being exactly the KdV
soliton velocity. Let us rewrite the ODE reduction of the equation (1.3) in
the form (

= ∂/∂θ, θ = x −V t):
b u
2
+d u

−V
1
u +
s
2
u
2
+f u

−V
2
u = 0.
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Basic concepts 5
One can check that the solution (1.5), (1.10) satisfies separately
b u
2
+d u

−V
1
u = 0, (1.11)
s
2
u
2
+f u

−V
2
u = 0,
where the first of these equations is the ODE reduction of the KdV equation
(1.1) having a one-parameter solitary- wave solution.
(iv) Higher order nonlinear terms may support the existence of solitary-
wave solutions even in absence of the linear dispersion terms. Higher- order
nonlinear terms provide bounded localized solutions at d = 0 in contrast to
the case c = r = s = d = 0 Kano and Nakayama (1981). The parameters
of the solution (1.5) are
A =
120fk
4
b + 2k
2
(r +s)
, V = 16fk
4
,
while k satisfies the equation
4[30cf −r(r +s)]k
4
+ 2bsk
2
+b
2
= 0.
Thanks to the higher order terms the solitary- wave solution may exist
even in the absence of the KdV’s nonlinear term, b = 0, provided that the
restriction 30cf −r(r +s) = 0 is satisfied. Then k may be a free parameter.
When f = 0 we have
A =
3cd −2b(2r +s)
c(r +s)
, V =
2d[3cd −2b(2r +s)]
(r +s)(2r +s)
, k
2
=
3cd −2b(2r +s)
2(r +s)(2r +s)
.
There is no exact solution vanishing at infinity in the case d = f = 0.
Instead the solution in the form of a solitary wave on an ”pedestal” may
be obtained as
u = Acosh
−2
k(x −V t) +B, (1.12)
with
A =
2k
2
(2r +s)
c
, B = −
(2r +s)[b + 2k
2
(r +s)]
3c(r +s)
,
V =
s(2r +s)[4k
4
(r +s)
2
−b
2
]
3c(r +s)
2
.
Even equations with dissipation may possess bell-shaped solitary wave
solution. In particular, it was recently found Garazo and Velarde (1991);
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6 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Rednikov et. al (1995) that appropriately heating a shallow horizontal liq-
uid layer long free surface waves u(x, t) can be excited whose evolution is
governed by a dissipation-modified Korteweg- de Vries (DMKdV) equation
u
t
+ 2α
1
uu
x
+

α
2
u
xx

3
u
xxx
+

α
4
u
xxxx
+

α
5
(uu
x
)
x
= 0. (1.13)
The coefficients in Eq.(1.13) depend upon parameters characterizing the
liquid (Prandtl number etc.), temperature gradient across the layer, and its
depth. The exact travelling bell-shaped solitary wave solution have been
obtained in the form (1.12) Lou et. al (1991); Porubov (1993) with
A = 12

α
4
k
2
/

α
5
, B = −(

α
2
+4

α
4
k
2
)/

α
5
,
V = −2α
1

α
2
/

α
5
, α
3
= 2α
1

α
4
/

α
5
. (1.14)
The meaning of the last expression in (1.14) is similar to that in case c =
r = 0 for Eq.(1.3). Indeed, when the relationships for V and α
3
hold, the
ODE reduction Eq.(1.13) may be rewritten as
(

α
2

∂θ
+

1

α
2

α
5
)
_
u
θ
+

α
4

α
2
u
θθθ
+

α
5
2

α
2
(u
2
)
θ
_
= 0, (1.15)
The restrictions on the equation coefficients do not necessary provide
an evidence of the KdV ODE reduction like Eqs.(1.11), (1.15). Particular
case corresponds to the Kawahara equation (Eq.(1.13) with

α
5
= 0) whose
exact solution is Kudryashov (1988):
u =
15α
3
3
128α
1

α
2
4
cosh
−2
(
α
3
8

α
4
θ)(1 −tanh(
α
3
8

α
4
θ)), (1.16)
where V = 5α
3
3
,

α
2
= α
2
3
/(16

α
4
).
All solutions (1.4), (1.5), (1.7) account for monotonic and symmetric
solitary waves. Despite difference in their functional form they have one and
the same shape shown in Fig. 1.1. In contrast to them exact solitary wave
solution (1.16) of the Kawahara equation is monotonic but asymmetric, see
Fig. 1.2.
1.1.2 Oscillatory bell-shaped solitary waves
The solitary wave does not decay necessarily in a monotonic manner. Thus
Kawahara (1972) studied decay at infinity of the wave solution of the fifth-
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Basic concepts 7
-30 -20 -10 10 20 30
x
-0.1
-0.05
0.05
u
b
-30 -20 -10 10 20 30
x
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
u
a
Fig. 1.2 Symmetric (solid line) vs asymmetric monotonic solitary wave (dashed line).
a) profiles; b)their first derivatives.
order KdV equation using linearized equation analysis phase analysis. It
was found that the wave decays monotonically or oscillatory depending
upon the parameter ε, which is proportional (in our notations) to d and
is inverse proportional by the product of f and the wave velocity. The
same technique has been used in Karpman (2001) when nonlinear term in
the fifth-order KdV equation is of the form u
p
u
x
. The oscillatory solitary-
wave solution is shown in Fig. 1.3. The profile of the first derivative with
respect to the phase variable reveals its symmetric nature.
Eq.(1.3) does not possess exact oscillatory solitary wave solution. How-
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8 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-4 -2 2 4
x
-0.5
-0.25
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
u
Fig. 1.3 Oscillatory solitary wave (solid line) and its first derivative (dashed line)
ever, it may be described asymptotically. Certainly the fifth-order KdV
equation is often considered as a perturbed KdV equation. First the asymp-
totic solution is obtained which consists of the KdV solitary wave solution
and a small perturbation that oscillates but does not vanish at infinity
or a non-local solution Benilov et. al (1993); Hunter and Scheurle (1988);
Karpman (1993); Karpman (1998). Let us consider the fifth- order deriva-
tive term and higher- order nonlinear terms as small perturbations assum-
ing f = δF, r = δR, s = δS, c = δC, δ << 1. The asymptotic solution
u = u(θ), θ = x −V t, is sought in the form
u = u
0
(θ) +δ u
1
(θ) +..., (1.17)
with u
i
→ 0 at [θ[ → ∞. In the leading order we get the KdV equation
(1.1) for the function u
0
whose travelling solitary wave solution is (1.2). In
the next order an inhomogeneous linear equation results for u
1
,
2b (u
0
u
1
)
θ
+d u
1,θθθ
−4dk
2
u
1,θ
= −F u
0,θθθθθ
−3C u
2
0
u
0,θ
−Ru
0
u
0,θθθ

S u
0,θ
u
0,θθ
. (1.18)
Its solution vanishing at infinity is
u
1
= (
3C
4b
+
5bF
2d
2

2R +S
4d
) u
2
0
+(
S
b
+
4R
b

14F
d

9Cd
b
2
)k
2
u
0

2k
2
F
d
θ u
0,θ
.
(1.19)
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Basic concepts 9
The shape of the solution u = u
0
(θ) +δ u
1
(θ) depends upon the values
of the coefficients of Eq.(1.3). It may account for an oscillatory solitary
wave solution first obtained numerically in Kawahara (1972), see Fig. 1.3.
In the case of the fifth-order KdV equation, this profile exists at positive d
and f, what corresponds to the Case IV in Kawahara (1972).
Finally, there exist nonlinear equations having exact travelling wave
solutions in the form of an oscillatory solitary wave. In particular, an
equation
u
t
+a u
x
+ 2b uu
x
+ 3c u
2
u
x
+d u
3x
+f u
5x
+g u
7x
= 0, (1.20)
possesses the exact solution
u =
_
35g
c
k
3
cosh
−1
k(x −V t)
_
24 cosh
−2
k(x −V t) −
288
17
_
,
where b = 0, k
2
= 17f/(581g), V = a + 102825k
6
g/289. The equation
coefficients should be connected by d g = 37.405 f
2
.
Oscillatory solitary waves of permanent shape arise also in dissipative
problems, however, usually they are asymmetric and may be found only
numerically.
1.1.3 Kink-shaped waves
The celebrated Burgers’ equation Burgers (1948) is the simplest equation
that models the balance between nonlinearity and dissipation,
u
t
+ 2b uu
x
+g u
xx
= 0, (1.21)
In particular, it possesses the exact travelling solution of permanent form,
u = Am tanh(mθ) +B, (1.22)
where
A =
g
b
, B =
V
2b
, m−free.
If the boundary conditions are
u →h
1
at θ →∞, u →h
2
at θ →−∞, (1.23)
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10 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
then
m =
(h
1
−h
2
)b
2g
, V = b(h
1
+h
2
).
-4 -2 2 4
x
-1
1
2
3
4
5
u
Fig. 1.4 Burgers’ kink-shaped wave
The shape of the solution (1.22), called kink, is shown in Fig. 1.4. Kinks
may arise also due to the balance between nonlinearity, dispersion and dissi-
pation like in the case of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation (KdVB),
u
t
+ 2b uu
x
+g u
xx
+du
xxx
= 0, (1.24)
whose exact solution was obtained independently by many authors Vlieg-
Hultsman and Halford (1991)
u = A tanh(mθ)sech
2
(mθ) + 2A tanh(mθ) +C, (1.25)
with
A =
6g
2
50V d
, C =
V
2b
, m =
g
10d
.
It follows from the boundary conditions (1.23) that
h
+
−h

= 2B, V = b(h
+
+h

),
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Basic concepts 11
and the solution exists under
h
2
+
−h
2

=
12g
2
25bd
.
Equations without dissipative terms may also possess the kink-shaped
solutions. Thus the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (MKdV),
u
t
+ 3c u
2
u
x
+du
xxx
= 0, (1.26)
has an exact solution
u =
_

2d
c
m tanh(mθ), (1.27)
where V = −dm
2
. Note that the MKdV equation has both the bell-shaped
and the kink-shaped solutions. Dissipative equation may possess the same
property. In particular, the DMKdV equation (1.13) has exact kink-shaped
solution Lou et. al (1991); Porubov (1993)
u = C +
36

α
4

α
5
m cosh
−2
(

−3mθ)+
12(α
3

α
5
−2α
1

α
4
)
5

α
5

−3mtanh(

−3mθ), (1.28)
where
C =
12

α
4

α
5
m−

α
2

α
5
+

1

3

α
5
−2α
1

α
4
)
5

α
3
5
+

3

α
5
−2α
1

α
4
)
2
25

α
4

α
3
5
,
V = 2α
1
C +
24α
1

α
4

α
5
m,
while m is a free parameter if α
3
= 12α
1

α
4
/

α
5
or
m = −

3

α
5
−2α
1

α
4
)
2
300

α
2
4

α
2
5
.
The shapes of the kink solutions (1.25), (1.27) are similar to that shown
in Fig. 1.4, while the kink (1.28) may have also different profile shown by
solid and dashed lines in Fig. 1.5.
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12 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-4 -2 2 4
x
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
u
Fig. 1.5 Kink-shaped waves with a ”hat”
1.1.4 Periodic nonlinear waves
Usually single bell-shaped solitary wave solutions are the particular cases of
more general periodic solutions. Thus Korteweg and de Vries (1895) found
the periodic solution of the KdV equation (1.1),
u = 6
d
b
k
2
_
1 −κ
2
+
E
K

2
cn
2
(kθ, κ)
_
(1.29)
where K and E are the complete elliptic integrals of the first and the
second kind respectively , κ is the modulus of the Jacobian elliptic function
Bateman and Erdelyi (1953-54); Byrd and Friedman (1954); Newille (1951).
They called Eq.(1.29) the cnoidal wave solution since it is expressed through
the Jacobi elliptic function cn . Cnoidal wave is not a linear superposition of
the bell-shaped solitary waves. It tends to the single solitary wave solution
(1.2) at κ → 1 as shown in the right column in Fig. 1.6
1
. Exact periodic
and bell-shaped solitary wave solutions correspond in the same manner
in case of the generalized 5th-order KdV equation (1.3) and the DMKdV
equation (1.13).
Although many equations, like Burgers’, BKdV and DMKdV equations
have not exact bounded periodic solutions that transform into the kink-
shaped ones, there exist exceptions. Thus the MKdV periodic solution
1
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science
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Basic concepts 13
Ablowitz and Segur (1981)
u =
_

2d
c
msn(mθ, κ), (1.30)
transforms into the kink solution (1.27) at κ → 1. Another example is a
dissipative nonlinear equation
u
t
+ 2buu
x
+ 3c u
2
u
x
+du
xxx
+f(u
2
)
xx
+gu
xx
= 0, (1.31)
This evolution equation represents an analog of the hyperbolic equation
to be derived further in Sec. 5.3. Its bounded periodic solution Porubov
(1996) is
u =
m

−c
cn(mθ, κ) sn(mθ, κ) dn(mθ, κ)
C
1
+cn
2
(mθ, κ)

b
3c
. (1.32)
with
C
1
=
1 −2κ
2
+

κ
4
−κ
2
+ 1

2
, m
2
=
3g
2
−V
4

κ
4
−κ
2
+ 1
,
and the following restrictions on the coefficients:
f = −
1
2

−c, b = 3g

−c.
The periodic wave solution (1.32) has a functional form different from both
the KdV cnoidal wave and the MKdV bounded periodic solution. When
κ = 1 we have C
1
= 0, and the solution (1.31) tends to the kink-shaped
solution (1.27) as it is shown in the left column in Fig. 1.6 in comparison
with the transformation of the KdV cnoidal wave solution to the bell-shaped
solitary wave.
1.2 Formation of nonlinear waves of permanent shape from
an arbitrary input
All solutions presented in previous section require specific initial conditions.
In practice more important is to know how an arbitrary finite amplitude
input evolves. Analytical solutions of unsteady problems may be obtained
if governing nonlinear equations are integrable Ablowitz and Segur (1981);
Bhatnagar (1979); Calogero and Degasperis (1982); Dodd et. al (1982);
Newell (1985), otherwise only numerical solutions are available. Often ini-
tial input transforms into the stable quasistationary wave structures of
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14 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
d
-10 -5 5 10
x
-2
-1
1
2
u
-10 -5 5 10
x
-1
1
2
3
u
c
-10 -5 5 10
x
-2
-1
1
2
u
-10 -5 5 10
x
-1
1
2
3
u
b
-10 -5 5 10
x
-2
-1
1
2
u
-10 -5 5 10
x
-1
1
2
3
u
a
-10 -5 5 10
x
-0.4
-0.2
0.2
0.4
u
-10 -5 5 10
x
-0.4
-0.2
0.2
0.4
u
Fig. 1.6 Comparison of the periodic solution (1.32) (left column) and the KdV cnoidal
wave (1.29)(right column) for different values of the Jacobi modulus: (a)κ
2
= 0.25, (b)
κ
2
= 0.995, (c)κ
2
= 0.99995, (d)κ
2
= 1. After Porubov and Velarde (2002).
permanent form which may be described by the analytical solutions. Also
the analysis gives the conditions when the formation of them is possible.
In this section we illustrate it using some instructive examples.
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Basic concepts 15
1.2.1 Bell-shaped solitary wave formation from an initial
localized pulse
The fifth-order KdV was extensively studied numerically. The oscil-
latory travelling solitary- wave solutions were found in Boyd (1991);
Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981). The evolution of the initial monotonic
solitary wave into radiating or oscillatory solitary waves was simulated in
Benilov et. al (1993); Karpman and Vanden-Broeck (1995). In a series of
papers Salupere et. al (1997); Salupere et. al (2001) the solitary wave forma-
tion from a periodic input was studied for an equation similar to Eq.(1.3).
We shall study the evolution of a localized initial pulse. Previously, local-
ized pulse evolution into an oscillatory solitary wave was considered in
Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981) for the equation u
t
+ uu
x
−γ
2
u
5x
= 0.
Below we consider the formation of solitary waves in the systems governed
by Eq.(1.3). Following Porubov et. al (2002) we use two methods for com-
putations, finite-difference and pseudo-spectral, see Sec. 2.3.2. Below only
those results are shown that were obtained using both numerical methods.
We have tried various shapes of the initial localized pulses, rectangular,
Gaussian distribution etc.
Influence of the fifth-order dispersive term. First the 5th-order KdV
equation was studied. Since the role of the fifth-order derivative term is of
interest the coefficients b and d in Eq.(1.3) were fixed for all computations,
b = 1, d = 0.5. We found that the rectangular initial pulse splits into a
sequence of solitary waves when the coefficients of dispersive terms, d and
f, are of opposite sign. For both coefficients positive the initial rectan-
gular profile is dispersed without formation of any localized waves. The
dependence upon the sign of the ratio d/f is in agreement with the exact
solitary- wave solution (1.4) and the analysis of the dispersion relation
Karpman (1993). However, more smooth Gaussian initial profiles provide
the appearance of solitary waves even for positive coefficients when f is
rather small, e.g., f = 0.01.
The next result we have obtained is the dependence of the number of
solitary waves upon the value of f when d/f < 0.
Shown in Fig. 1.7 is the formation of the train of solitary waves from a
Gaussian initial pulse in the KdV case, f = 0.
Figs. 1.8-1.10 demonstrate the decrease of the solitary waves for f =
−1, −10, −50 respectively. Both the amplitude and the velocity decrease
with the increase of the absolute value of f in qualitative agreement with
the exact solution (1.4).The ratio between the amplitude and the velocity
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16 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
40 80 120 160 200
x
0
0.2
0.4
u
Fig. 1.7 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the KdV case, f = 0.
of each solitary wave in Fig. 1.7 is equal to 1.5 just as for the KdV soliton
(1.2) . This ratio (and the amplitude) decreases with the decrease of f, from
1.43 at f = −1 to 1.33 at f = −50. A similar tendency is revealed by the
phase analysis of single travelling wave solutions, cf. Fig. 2 in Kawahara
(1972). The ratio for the 5th- order KdV exact solution (1.4) is 1.46, the
amplitude and the velocity for given b and d are −105/(1352f), −9/(169f),
respectively. Only at small f = −0.1 ÷−0.15 are the numerical results for
the leading solitary wave in quantitative agreement with the exact solution
(1.4). More important is that the decrease of f affects the solitary- wave
transformation from monotonic KdV solitons (1.2) to the oscillatory soli-
tary waves. For convenience the last stages from Figs. 1.7-1.10 are collected
in Fig. 1.11. In case f = −1, Fig. 1.11(B), the higher leading solitary wave
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Basic concepts 17
60 120 180 240 300
x
0
0.2
0.4
u
Fig. 1.8 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case, f = −1.
is oscillatory while other solitary waves remain monotonic, then the trans-
formation occurs also for the second solitary wave, Fig. 1.11(C) . Alternate
transformation of the solitary waves confirms the dependence of the kind
of solitary wave upon the value of the product of f and the wave amplitude
(hence, its velocity) found in Kawahara (1972).
Finally, we have found that simultaneous triggering of the signs of b, d,
f doesn’t affect the shapes of the solitary waves. They simply evolve to the
opposite direction according to the analysis of the exact solution (1.4).
Influence of the cubic nonlinearity. Now we add cubic nonlinearity,
c ,= 0, while r = s = 0. The analytical solutions predict an action of
the cubic nonlinear term depends upon the sign of c. Also the solution is
sensitive to the ratio between nonlinear terms contributions, b/c, and the
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18 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
80 160 240 320 400
x
0
0.2
0.4
u
Fig. 1.9 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case, f = −10.
value of the amplitude of an initial pulse. Indeed we have found that at
b = 1, c = 1, d = 0.5, f = −1 the train of solitary waves arises only from
positive initial pulse with amplitude equal to 0.5 while a negative one is
dispersed. Dependence of the amplitude on the sign of b is very typical for
the exact solutions of the equation with quadratic nonlinearity, see (1.2),
(1.4). However, at smaller b, b = 0.2 or b = −0.2, the formation of solitary
waves no longer depends upon the sign of the initial pulse amplitude. A
similar tendency is observed when the initial amplitude becomes close to 1
or higher when predominant cubic nonlinearity excludes an influence of the
quadratic one on the sign of the wave amplitude like in the exact solution
(1.5), (1.6).
At the same time, the stage of forthcoming evolution of already gen-
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Basic concepts 19
100 200 300 400 500
x
0
0.2
0.4
u
Fig. 1.10 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case, f = −50.
erated solitary waves is not so sensitive to the value of b, while other an-
alytical restrictions on the coefficients become more important. Besides
the condition d/f < 0 following from the linear analysis Karpman (1993);
Kawahara (1972), there is f/c < 0 resulted from the nonlinear exact so-
lution (1.5), (1.6). Moreover, at small f one can anticipate an evidence of
the condition d/c > 0 given by Eq.(1.8).
When c > 0, f < 0 all above mentioned inequalities are satisfied. The
number of solitary waves generated from the initial localized pulse increases
with the increase of the value of c and fixed values of d = 0.5, f = −1 and
also b = 1 or b = 0.2. The velocity of the waves increases also, the width
(proportional to 1/k) decreases, while the amplitude remains practically one
and the same. We also observed the alternate transformation of the solitary
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20 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
140 180 220 260 300 340
x
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
u
C
160 210 260 310 360 410
x
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
u
D
70 90 110 130 150 170
x
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
u
A
100 130 160 190 220 250
x
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
u
B
Fig. 1.11 Transformation of the kind of solitary waves in the 5th-order KdV case. (A)
f = 0, (B) f = −1, (C) f = −10, (D) f = −50.
waves from monotonic to oscillatory when c increases for both values of b.
Independence of the amplitude of c doesn’t follow from the exact solution
(1.6) as well as from the asymptotic solution. The third formula in (1.6)
predicts growth of positive values of k
2
only for b = 0.2 giving negative
values for b = 1. However, let us express k through the amplitude A and
substitute it into the expression for the velocity V . Then one can exhibit for
both values of b the similarity of the variation of the velocity with respect
to c with that obtained in numerics.
As found in previous subsection, the decrease of the negative f values
affects the decrease in the number of solitary waves. Assume b = 1, d = 0.5,
we have tried simultaneous variations of c and f in order to sustain one
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Basic concepts 21
100 150 200 250 300 350
x
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
u
B
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
x
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
u
C
40 60 80 100 120 140 160
x
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
u
A
Fig. 1.12 Conservation of the number of solitary wave thanks to the simultaneous pres-
ence of cubic nonlinearity and fifth-order derivative term. (A) c = 0, f = 0, (B) c = 15,
f = −10, (C) c = 75, f = −50.
and the same number, see Fig. 1.12. We see that the wave amplitude
keeps its value from Fig. 1.12(A) to Fig. 1.12(C) while the velocity growths.
This confirms that the amplitude depends upon the ratio f/c but velocity
is proportional to f. The kind of solitary wave alters from monotonic
Fig. 1.12(A) to oscillatory Fig. 1.12(B, C).
At c < 0, d > 0, f > 0 only one inequality, f/c < 0, is satisfied, and
solitary wave formation is observed only for small f , otherwise the initial
pulse is dispersed in this case. On the contrary small absolute values of c
provides the solitary waves formation at c < 0, d > 0, f < 0. When both c
and f are positive no solitary waves appear.
Influence of nonlinearities s u
x
u
xx
and r uu
xxx
. Suppose c = r = 0
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22 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
80 100 120 140 160
x
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
u
r=-1.60
80 100 120 140 160
x
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
u
r=-1.50
80 100 120 140 160
x
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
u
r=-1.57
Fig. 1.13 Equalization of the first and the second solitary waves and subsequent ex-
ceeding of the second wave due to the alteration of the negative values of the coefficient
r.
and vary s at fixed b, d and f, that we choose b = 1, d = 0.5, f = −1 . It
is found that the amount of solitary waves and its transition from mono-
tonic to oscillatory don’t depend upon the value of s. The wave amplitude
decreases with the increase of s while the velocity keeps its value. Wave
behavior is not sensitive to the sign of s. The condition for the solitary
wave formation d/f < 0 remains valid.
The fact the velocity doesn’t depend upon s is in agreement with the
exact solution. Certainly, solitary waves exist outside the restriction from
(1.10). We also used numerical values of the amplitude to define k and
then V using (1.10). A comparison of the velocities with those obtained
numerically demonstrates the more agreement the less is the value of b.
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Basic concepts 23
Asymptotic solution (1.17), (1.19) also predicts the decrease of amplitude at
permanent velocity. Indeed, we get that u
max
= u
0
(0)+δu
1
(0) = 6dk
2
/b(1+
k
2
[f/d −s/(2b)]). At coefficient values we used the value of u
max
decreases
with the increase of s (s is not large in the asymptotic solution), while the
exact solution predicts the same behavior only for positive values of s.
When s = c = 0 the behavior of the solution differs from the previous
one. Having the same values for b, d, f we obtain that increase of positive
values of r yields a decrease in the velocity and an increase in the amplitude
of the solitary waves. The number of solitary waves decreases. However,
at negative values of r we found that at the initial stage of the splitting
of the Gaussian profile the amplitude of the second solitary wave becomes
equal to that of the first one at r = −1.57, see Fig. 1.13. At lesser r second
solitary wave becomes higher, and two solitary waves form a two-humps
localized structure shown in Fig. 1.14.
It is no longer quasistationary since amplitudes of the humps vary in
time. It looks like an interaction of two solitary waves when the second
higher solitary wave surpasses the first one, then it becomes lower, and
the process repeats. Decreasing r we achieve formation of a three-humps
localized structure shown in Fig. 1.15. Its evolution is similar to those
presented in Fig. 1.14. Finally, only multi-humps localized structure arises
from an initial pulse as shown in Fig. 1.16. The localized multi-humps
structures in Figs. 1.14-1.16 keep their width, while their shapes vary in
time.
Certainly, unsteady multi-humps localized structures are not governed
by the ODE reduction of Eq.(1.3) and, hence cannot be explained either by
the phase portraits analysis or by the exact travelling wave solution (1.5),
(1.9). Moreover, at negative values of f the exact solution doesn’t predict
propagation to the right of the solitary wave with positive amplitude.
Absence of linear dispersive terms. We have found an exact solitary
wave solution that may be supported by higher -order nonlinear terms even
without linear dispersive terms, at d = 0 or f = 0. Numerical simulations
show that there are no solitary waves at both zero d and f. Some solutions
from previous subsections keep their features at d = 0, in particular, this
relates to the case r ,= 0. At the same time cubic nonlinearity at d = r =
s = 0 supports two-humps localized waves for c > 0. At negative c the wave
picture is similar to those at d ,= 0. No stable solitary waves propagate in
absence of only the fifth-derivative term, d ,= 0, f = 0 with the exception of
the Gardner equation case where Slyunyaev and Pelinovsky (1999) found
generation of the limiting amplitude solitons.
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24 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
60 120 180 240 300
x
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
u
Fig. 1.14 Two-humps solitary wave formation at r = −1.6.
To sum up, both higher order nonlinear and dispersive terms affect the
formation of localized nonlinear waves their shape and their parameters.
Thus, the number of solitary waves and the transition from monotonic to
oscillatory wave are under responsibility of both 5th- order linear dispersive
term, cubic nonlinearity and higher- order quadratic nonlinearity r u u
xxx
.
More important is the formation of an unsteady but localized multi-humps
wave structure thanks to r u u
xxx
and cubic nonlinearity at d = 0. The sign
of the coefficient b of the KdV quadratic nonlinear term is important for
choosing the sign of the input amplitude. At the same time the nonlinearity
s u
x
u
xx
doesn’t affect the formation and behavior of solitary waves.
Certainly, the shapes of the resulting solitary waves are not obviously
governed by the exact and asymptotic travelling wave solutions. Some
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Basic concepts 25
60 120 180 240 300
x
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
u
Fig. 1.15 Three-humps solitary wave formation at r = −3.2.
other features of numerical solutions, like the dependence of the number of
solitary waves upon the values of the equation coefficients or a transition
from monotonic wave to an oscillatory one, are not predicted by analytical
solutions. However, the combinations of equation coefficients required for
the existence of solitary wave are realized in numerics. Also numerical
wave amplitude and velocity relate like in the analysis. Evidence of all
these predictions even qualitatively is very important for a justification of
the numerical results.
Formation of the bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of dissipation
or an energy influx will be considered further in the book.
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26 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
60 120 180 240 300
x
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
u
Fig. 1.16 No solitary waves other than multi-humps one at r = −12.
1.2.2 Kink-shaped and periodic waves formation
The formation of the kink-shaped waves was studied considering the
evolution of the Taylor shock from discontinuous (step) initial condi-
tions under the governance of the Burgers equation Sachdev (1987);
Whitham (1974). It was found the appearance in due time the steady state
kink solution (1.22). A quasihyperbolic analog of the Burgers equation was
studied in Alexeyev (1999) where it was found that kink may be formed
from suitable initial conditions. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation
(1.24) also extensively studied but mainly in the direction of generation of
the triangle profiles and oscillating wave packets Berezin (1987), see also
references therein. Of special interest is the formation of the kinks with a
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Basic concepts 27
”hat” shown in Fig. 1.5. One possibility will be considered in Sec. 5.3.
Usually periodic waves are generated in finite domains from a harmonic
input. Thus the KdV cnoidal waves (1.29) are realized numerically and in
experiments in a paper by Bridges (1986), also Kawahara (1983) obtained
numerically periodic wave structures in a system governed by Eq.(1.13)
with

α
5
= 0, while at nonzero coefficient similar results were found in
Rednikov et. al (1995). Note that harmonic input in the finite domains is
used also for the study of the bell-shaped solitary waves interactions where
no periodic wave structure of permanent shape arises Salupere et. al (1994);
Salupere et. al (1997); Salupere et. al (2001).
1.3 Amplification, attenuation and selection of nonlinear
waves
As already noted the bell-shaped solitary wave is sustained by a balance
between nonlinearity and dispersion. What happens with the wave when
dissipation/accumulation destroys this balance? It was shown in Sec. 1.1
that the bell-shaped wave may exist even in presence of dissipation but un-
der strong restrictions on the equation coefficients. Assume the influence
of dissipation/ accumulation is weak and is characterized by a small pa-
rameter ε << 1. It turns out that an asymptotic solution may be found in
this case whose leading order part is defined as a solitary wave with slowly
varying parameters. Depending on the problem either slow time, T = εt,
or slow coordinate, X = εx, may be used.
In the former case the solitary wave solution is
u(θ, T) = A(T) cosh
−2
(k(T)θ), (1.33)
where θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −V (T). In the latter case we have
u(θ, X) = A(X) cosh
−2
(k(X)θ), (1.34)
where θ
x
= P(X), θ
t
= −1. Next order solutions give us the functional
form of the dependence of the wave parameters upon the slow variable.
Derivation of the asymptotic solution will be described in Sec. 2.2. Now only
general features of the wave behaviour are considered. When A(T) increases
in time k(T) usually increases also, hence the width of the wave inverse
proportional to k(T), decreases. This is an amplification of the solitary
wave. On the contrary, we have an attenuation of the solitary wave when its
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28 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-10 10 20 30 40 50
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
u
b
-10 10 20 30 40 50
x
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
u
a
Fig. 1.17 Temporal evolution of an initial solitary wave resulting in a selection: a) from
below, b) from above.
amplitude decreases while its width increases. Sometimes it happens that
the increase/decrease of A(T) takes place not up to infinity/zero but to
the finite value A

. Usually this value is defined by the governing equation
coefficients, hence, by the physical parameters of the problem. To put
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Basic concepts 29
-20 -10 10 20
x
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
u
Fig. 1.18 Solitary wave (1.33) (dashed line) vs solitary wave (1.34) ( solid line).
this another way, the parameters of the resulted steady wave are selected.
Selection provided by an amplification of an initial wave, will be called
selection from below, see Fig. 1.17(a), while selection from above happens
as a result of an attenuation of an initial wave, see Fig. 1.17(b).
Shown in Fig. 1.18 is the profile of the wave (1.34) in comparison with
the symmetric solitary wave solution (1.33) at t = 0. One can see that the
wave (1.34) is asymmetric with respect to its core (or maximum). However,
only initial stages of the temporal evolution of (1.34) differs from that of
Eq.(1.33). As follows from Fig. 1.19, the final stage of the selection both
from below and above, is the symmetric bell-shaped solitary wave like shown
in the last stages in Fig. 1.17.
The amplification/attenuation of the kink may be described asymp-
totically and numerically Sachdev (1987), it will be shown in Sec. 5.3.
Cnoidal wave evolution may be accounted for an asymptotic solution
similar to that of the bell-shaped solitary waves Rednikov et. al (1995);
Svendsen and Buhr-Hansen (1978).
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30 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-20 -10 10 20 30 40 50
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
u
b
-20 -10 10 20 30 40 50
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
u
a
Fig. 1.19 Selection of the asymmetric monotonic solitary wave: a) from below, b) from
above.
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Chapter 2
Mathematical tools for the governing
equations analysis
As a rule governing equations for nonlinear strain waves are nonitegrable
by the inverse scattering transform method, and only particular analytical
solutions may be obtained. Hence the study of real physical processes
requires a combined analytico-numerical approach. The aim of this chapter
is to describe methods to be used in this book. The choice of the analytical
and numerical procedures is based on an experience of the author and does
not claim a completeness.
2.1 Exact solutions
2.1.1 Direct methods and elliptic functions
Most of the mathematical work in the realm of nonlinear phenomena
refers to integrable equations and their exact solutions, particularly, pe-
riodic. Among the recently developed general methods the algebroge-
ometrical approach may be used in an efficient way to find such solu-
tions. Not only the numerical realization and graphical representation of
the solution is provided by this method but also multi phase quasiperi-
odic solutions as well as purely periodic ones may be represented using
the algebrogeometrical approach as illustrated in Belokolos et. al (1994).
When we are interested in a self-similar solution of a partial differential
equation one can use well developed theory of the solutions of ordinary
differential equations, see, e.g., Ince (1964). Exact solutions of nonlin-
ear nonintegrable partial differential equations are obtained usually us-
ing various direct methods. The significant point in direct methods is to
build in advance the appropriate functional form of the solution (ansatz)
of the equation studied. For example, the usage of ansatz in the form
31
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32 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
of a hyperbolic tangent (tanh) power series resulted in finding of new
exact travelling wave solutions (see, e.g., Korpel and Banerjee (1984);
Parkes and Duffy (1996) and references therein). The choice of tanh
is caused by the fact that any derivatives of tanh may be expressed as
a polynomial with respect to the tanh itself. Then the equation stud-
ied becomes polynomial of the tanh after substituting the ansatz, and
solution parameters are obtained from the algebraic equations appear-
ing after equating to zero coefficients at each order of tanh . One would
like to apply the same procedure to find more general periodic solutions.
First of all another appropriate ”basic” function is required instead of the
tanh . For this purpose various elliptic functions were proposed recently,
the most popular were theta functions (see, e.g.,Chow (1995), Nakamura
(1979)), Jacobian elliptic functions (see, e.g.,Kostov and Uzunov (1992);
Parker and Tsoy (1999)) and the Weierstrass elliptic function Kascheev
(1990); Porubov (1993); Porubov (1996); Porubov and Parker (2002);
Samsonov (1995); Samsonov (2001). In principle, periodical solutions could
be obtained in terms of any of these functions. The efficient choice is caused
by the simplest procedure of the ansatz construction and the least compli-
cated algebra for determining solution parameters. It is well known that
theta functions may be included in the Hirota bilinear method in order to
get N-periodical solutions Nakamura (1979). However most of dissipative
equations cannot be transformed to the bilinear form. At the same time
single travelling wave solution derivation looks very complicated even for
non-dissipative equations Chow (1995), Nakamura (1979). Moreover we
have to deal with four theta functions that results in additional difficul-
ties for the ansatz construction. Explicit periodic travelling wave solutions
may be found for many nonintegrable equations and systems by using an
ansatz in terms of ℘, with appropriate forms for the ansatz suggested by
information about the poles of the solution. When compared to the use
of theta functions or Jacobi elliptic functions, a prime advantage of using
the function ℘ is that the algebra is drastically simplified. The ansatz for
the solution involves only one Weierstrass function ℘(ζ, g
2
, g
3
), instead of
four theta functions or three Jacobi elliptic functions cn(ζ, k), sn(ζ, k)
and dn(ζ, k). Another advantage is that two apparently distinct solutions
are readily recognized as equivalent. In order to see it let us first give
some properties of the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ to be used below.
According to its definition Whittaker and Watson (1927), the Weierstrass
function is analytical in the complex plane other than in the points where
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 33
it has double poles. The governing equation for the function ℘ is:
¦℘

(ζ)¦
2
= 4℘
3
−g
2
℘ −g
3
(2.1)
where g
2
and g
3
are constant parameters. Remarkable features of the func-
tion ℘ are that all of its derivatives can be written by means of itself,
and that any elliptic function f may be expressed using ℘ it and its first
derivative as Whittaker and Watson (1927)
f = A(℘) +B(℘)℘

, (2.2)
where A and B are rational functions with respect to ℘. Depending on
the ratio between g
2
and g
3
the Weierstrass function may be bounded or
unbounded inside the domain under study. The bounded periodic solutions
are more conveniently expressed by writing them in terms of the Jacobi
elliptic functions cn, sn and dn which are bounded on the real axis. For
this purpose the relation between the Weierstrass function and the Jacobian
functions is used as a special case of (2.2). Indeed, the familiar link is
obtained in Whittaker and Watson (1927) but using the singular function
sn
−2
,
℘(ζ, g
2
, g
3
) = e
3
+ (e
1
−e
3
)sn
−2
(

e
1
−e
3
ζ, k). (2.3)
However, following the method introduced in Whittaker and Watson (1927)
one can check that the following formula is valid:
℘(ζ, g
2
, g
3
) = e
2
−(e
2
−e
3
)cn
2
(

e
1
−e
3
ζ, k), (2.4)
connecting the Weierstrass function with the Jacobi function cn, regular
along the real axes. Here k =
_
(e
2
−e
3
)/(e
1
−e
3
) is the modulus of the
Jacobian elliptic function, while τ = e
m
( m = 1, 2, 3 , e
3
≤ e
2
≤ e
1
) are
the real roots of the cubic equation

3
−g
2
τ −g
3
= 0. (2.5)
Expressing these results in terms of an appropriate choice of parameters,
the wave number κ =

e
1
−e
3
and the Jacobian elliptic modulus k, we
have
e
3
= −
1 +k
2
3
κ
2
, e
2
=
2k
2
−1
3
κ
2
, e
1
=
2 −k
2
3
κ
2
,
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34 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
g
2
=
8
3
κ
4
(1 −k
2
+k
4
), g
3
=
4
27
κ
6
(k
2
+ 1)(2 −k
2
)(1 −2k
2
). (2.6)
The localized both the bells-shaped and the kink-shaped solitary wave so-
lutions appear in the limit k →1 of the Jacobi elliptic functions.
Now consider an instructive example Porubov and Parker (2002). In
Parker and Tsoy (1999), solutions were sought in terms of powers and
products of Jacobi functions and thereby two solutions were obtained
z
1
= e
2
−(e
2
−e
3
) cn
2
(

e
1
−e
3
ζ, k), (2.7)
z
2
=
ˆ r
2
m
2
2
sn
2
(ˆ rζ, m) ±
ˆ r
2
m
2
cn(ˆ rζ, m)dn(ˆ rζ, m) −
ˆ r
2
(1 +m
2
)
12
, (2.8)
which appear different. Obviously, the solution (2.7) is a representation of
the Weierstrass function (2.3). However, one can check by direct substitu-
tion that the solution (2.8) also satisfies equation (2.1) when the parameters
ˆ r and m are defined as solutions to
ˆ r
4
12
(1 + 14m
2
+m
4
) = g
2
,
ˆ r
6
216
(1 −33m
2
−33m
4
+m
6
) = g
3
. (2.9)
Therefore z
2
is also a solution satisfying the same governing equation
(2.1) defining the Weierstrass function. The two expressions (2.7) and (2.8)
are essentially equivalent solutions, provided that (ˆ r, m) are appropriately
related to (r, k). Accordingly, working with ℘ reveals links between seem-
ingly distinct forms of solution.
It is to be noted that the first Weierstrass function derivative ℘

can-
not be expressed as a polynomial of the Weierstrass function itself Whit-
taker and Watson (1927), and we have to equate zero separately coeffi-
cients at each order of ℘ and at products of ℘

and corresponding orders
of ℘ Kascheev (1990); Porubov (1993); Porubov (1996); Samsonov (1995);
Samsonov (2001). Therefore we really deal with two functions, and it is
unlikely to get the solution using the ansatz proposed in the form of power
series with respect both of the ℘ and ℘

as it was done for the tanh. An-
other idea may be used, based on the singular point analysis of the possible
solution and the well known fact that the Weierstrass function ℘ has the
second order poleWhittaker and Watson (1927). In order to check the poles
of a solution we shall use the WTK method Weiss et. al (1983) looking for
the solution in the form of Laur´ent- type series about the singular manifold.
It will be explained in details in Sec. 2.1.2.
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 35
The exact solutions obtained in this manner, usually belong to the class
of travelling wave solutions which require special initial conditions. In case
of the solitary wave solution the initial condition should be have the shape
of the solitary wave itself. Moreover, travelling wave solutions for the dis-
sipative equations usually have not free parameters, and additional rela-
tionships on the equation coefficients are required for the existence of the
solutions Porubov (1993); Porubov (1996); Porubov and Velarde (1999);
Porubov and Parker (1999); Porubov and Parker (2002); Samsonov (1995);
Samsonov (2001).
2.1.2 Painlev´e analysis
Recently it was developed the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential
equations whose solutions have not movable singularities, other than poles.
Then the theory has been extended to partial differential equations. Usually
these equations are called ”equations with the Painlev´e property”. The
achievements of the theory may be found in Cariello and Tabor (1989);
Conte (1989); Conte et. al (1993); Levi and Winternitz (1992); Newell et. al
(1987); Weiss et. al (1983). Here we concentrate on the one aspect of the
theory-the singular manifold method or WTC method for partial differen-
tial equations Newell et. al (1987); Weiss et. al (1983). Let ϕ(x, t) = 0 is
the ”singular” or ”pole” manifold on which a solution u(x, t) is singular.
The main idea of the WTC is to demonstrate that the expansion
u(x, t) =
1
ϕ
α

j=0
q
j
(x, t)ϕ
j
(2.10)
is single valued. This requires (i) α is an integer, (ii) ϕ is analytic in x
and t and (iii) the equations for the coefficients q
j
have self-consistent
solutions. When all these conditions are satisfied the equation under study
has the Laur´ent property. Also it is necessary to assume that neither ϕ
x
nor ϕ
t
vanish on ϕ(x, t) = 0. Let us illustrate how the methods works
on an example of the KdV equation (1.1). Following Newell et. al (1987);
Weiss et. al (1983) we assume b = 3, d = 1. Substituting the ansatz (2.10)
into Eq.(1.1) one can find α = 2 and q
0
= −2ϕ
2
x
. Recursion relations for
the q
j
are
(j + 1)(j −4)(j −6)q
j
= F(ϕ
t
, ϕ
x
, ..., q
k
; k < j). (2.11)
The values of j, j = −1, 4 and 6 are called resonances. At each such
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36 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
resonance the right-hand side of Eq.(2.11) vanishes thus ensuring the inde-
terminancy of the corresponding q
j
. Moreover, the expansion (2.10) may
be truncated at O(ϕ
0
). As a result we obtain using Eq.(2.11) an auto-
B¨acklund transformation for the solution of Eq.(1.1),
u(x, t) = 2

∂x
2
log ϕ +q
2
,
where q
2
satisfies the KdV equation. Also the Lax pair for the KdV equation
follows from the solution of Eq.(2.11) Newell et. al (1987); Weiss et. al
(1983).
However, the Lax pair cannot be obtained for nonitegrable equations as
opposed to a truncated expansion that carries an information about possible
pole orders of a solution. Using this information the anzats for the solution
may be proposed, in particular, in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function
℘ and ℘

. Substituting the proposed form of the solution into the equation
under study and equating to zero coefficients at each order of ℘ and at prod-
ucts of ℘

and corresponding orders of ℘ one can get the algebraic equations
on the solution parameters, the phase velocity and the Weierstrass function
parameters g
2
, g
3
. Certainly this procedure is of phenomenological kind
but it allows to obtain the solutions of nonitegrable nonlinear equations in
an explicit form. Some examples are presented below.
2.1.3 Single travelling wave solutions
First we consider exact solutions of DMKdV Eq.(1.13) obtained in Porubov
(1993). It was found there the following auto-B¨acklund transformation for
the solution u(x, t)
u =
12

α
4

α
5
(log ϕ)
xx
+
12
5

α
5

3


1

α
4

α
5
)(log ϕ)
x
+

u, (2.12)
where

u (x, t) satisfies Eq.(1.13). Concerning only tavelling wave solutions,
one can reduce Eq.(1.13) to the third-order ODE of the form:

α
4
u


3
u

+

α
2
u

+

α
5
uu


1
u
2
−V u +P = 0, (2.13)
where P = const, prime denotes differentiation with respect to θ, θ = x−
V t. Based on Eq.(2.12) possible solution may contain simple and second-
order poles that may be modelled in terms of ℘ as Porubov (1993):
u = A℘ +
B℘

℘ +C
+D. (2.14)
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 37
Substituting Eq.(2.14) into Eq.(2.13) one can derive a system of alge-
braic equations in A, B, C, D, phase velocity V and Weierstrass function
parameters g
2
, g
3
:
(g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)B = 0, (12C
2
−g
2
)B = 0,
P = V D + 8α
1
B
2
C −α
1
D
2
−α
3
g
2
A/2 −2

α
2
BC + 12

α
4
BC
2


α
5
(2ABC
2
+g
2
AB/2 −2BCD),

1
(2B
2
+AD) −V A+ 2

α
2
B + 2

α
5
(BD −ABC) = 0,
α
1
A
2
+ 6α
3
A+ 12

α
4
B + 6

α
5
AB = 0,
B(2α
1
(D −AC) −V ) = 0, A(12

α
4
+

α
5
A) = 0,

1
AB + 2α
3
B+

α
2
A+

α
5
(AD + 2

α
5
B
2
) = 0.
The solutions of these equations are:
(i) when g
2
, g
3
are free parameters and α
3
= 2α
1

α
4
/

α
5
;
A = −
12

α
4

α
5
, B = 0, D = −

α
2

α
5
, V = −

1

α
2

α
5
.
(ii) when either
C = −
1
300

α
4
2

3


1

α
4

α
5
)
2
,
or α
3
= 12α
1

α
4
/

α
5
, C is a free parameter
A = −
12

α
4

α
5
, B = −
6
5

α
5

3


1

α
4

α
5
),
D = −

α
2

α
5
+

1

α
5
2

3


1

α
4

α
5
) +
1
25

α
4

α
5

3


1

α
4

α
5
)
2
,
V =
24α
1

α
4

α
5
C −

1

α
2

α
5
+

2
1

α
5
2

3


1

α
4

α
5
) +

1
25

α
4

α
5

3


1

α
4

α
5
)
2
, g
2
= 12C
2
, g
3
= 8C
3
.
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38 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Using (2.4) the solution (2.14) with parameters defined by (i) may de-
scribe a particular bounded cnoidal wave, propagating with fixed phase
velocity, of the form:
u =
12

α
4

α
5
k
2
κ
2
cn
2
(kθ, κ) −

α
2

α
5

4

α
4

α
5
k
2
(2κ
2
−1) (2.15)
where k is a free parameter. When the Jacobian elliptic functions modulus
κ → 1 the solution (2.15) transforms to the solitary wave solution (1.12).
The solution (2.14) with parameters defined by (ii) accounts for a bounded
kink-shaped solution (1.28). When C is a free parameter, kink propagates
with any phase velocity value.
Besides bounded solutions (2.15) and (1.28), the solution (2.14) also
describes unbounded ones in the form of localized and periodic discontinu-
ities. Finally it is to be noted that the functional form (2.14) in terms of
the Weierstrass function is not unique. One can see that there exist at least
one more solution of the form:
u = −
12
25

α
4

α
5

3


1

α
4

α
5
)
2
exp(2y)℘(exp(y) +G, 0, g
3
),
where
y = exp(γθ), γ = −
1
5

α
4

3


1

α
4

α
5
),
G and g
3
are free parameters. This solution allows to describe only the
bounded kink-shaped wave (1.28). At the same time it accounts for a new
periodically discontinious solution.
In previous Chapter the bounded periodic solution (1.32) of the equa-
tion (1.31) was considered. When studying travelling wave solutions, i.e.
solutions depending only on the phase variable θ = x −V t, this equation
may be transformed into the O.D.E., which results in the following equation
after integrating once with respect to θ:

+gη

−V η

+b(η
2
)

+f(η
2
)

+c(η
3
)

= N. (2.16)
Further we follow the results obtained in Porubov (1996). The transforma-
tion is obtained here using the WTK method of the form
u =
f ±
_
f
2
−2cd
c
(log ϕ)

+ ¯ u. (2.17)
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 39
Therefore possible solution should contain first order pole. The Weierstrass
elliptic function ℘ possesses second order pole, and we shall propose three
solution forms. The first of them is
u =
A℘

℘ +C
+B. (2.18)
In order to find the solution parameters the formula (2.18) is substituted
into the Eq.(2.16). Then equating to zero coefficients at each order of ℘+C
and ℘

one can derive the algebraic equations on A, B, C, phase velocity V
and the Weierstrass function parameters g
2
, g
3
:
(℘ +C)
−4
: (g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)
2
(6Af −3A
2
c −6d) = 0,
(℘ +C)
−3
: (g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)(12C
2
−g
2
)(14Af −9A
2
c −12d) = 0,
(℘ +C)
−2
: 4(g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)(2bB −V + 48ACf + 3c(12A
2
C −
B
2
) −48Cd) −3(12C
2
−g
2
)
2
(2f −2Ac −d) = 0,
(℘ +C)
−1
: 4(g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)(10f −4f + 3Ac + 6d) −(12C
2

g
2
)(2Bb −V + 24ACf + 3(B
2
−12A
2
C)c −12Ad) = 0,

0
: 4(12C
2
−g
2
)qA
2
= N,
(℘ +C) : 2Bb −V + 24ACf + 6(B
2
−12A
2
C)c −12Cd = 0,
(℘ +C)
2
: 2Af +d + 2A
2
c = 0,

(℘ +C)
−3
: (g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
)(g + 2Bf −Ab −3ABc) = 0,

(℘ +C)
−2
: (12C
2
−g
2
)(2Ab −g −2Bf + 6ABc) = 0,

: 2Ab +g + 2Bf + 6ABc = 0.
Three solutions of algebraic equations are obtained. The first appears
when
12C
2
−g
2
= 0, g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
= 0.
In this case two of three roots e
i
of Eq.(2.5) are equal to one another, and
no periodical solution exists. Then the solution (2.18) will have the form
of localized discontinuity under positive C values. When the parameter C
is negative we get κ = 1, and the bounded kink-shaped solitary wave
solution follows from Eq.(2.18):
u = γ tanh(mθ) +u
0
. (2.19)
For the wave amplitude γ two formulaes are valid
γ = A
1
m, A
1
= (f + (f −2cd)
1/2
)/(6c),
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40 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
γ = A
2
m, A
2
= (f −(f −2cd)
1/2
)/(6c).
Then for u
0
we have
u
0
=
2bA
j
−g
2(3cA
j
+f)
, j = 1, 2,
and phase velocities V
1
, V
2
are
V
1
= 2u
01
b + 6c(u
2
01
+ 4A
2
1
m
2
) −4m
2
(2fA
1
−d),
V
2
= 2u
02
b + 6c(u
2
02
+ 4A
2
2
m
2
) −4m
2
(2fA
2
−d),
while m
2
= −3C = 3e
1
is a free parameter.
The second solution corresponds to the situation when
g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
= 0, 12C
2
−g
2
,= 0. (2.20)
In this case the solution may exist under additional conditions on the equa-
tion coefficients f = g = 0, that results in absence of the dissipative terms
in Eq.(2.16). Hence it becomes now the O.D.E. reduction of the Gardner
equation. The bounded cnoidal wave solution arises when C = −e
1
and
has the form
u = ±
_

2d
c
κ
2
m
cn(mθ, κ)sn(mθ, κ)
dn(mθ, κ)

b
3c
, (2.21)
where m
2
= e
1
− e
3
. It governs the travelling cnoidal wave, propagating
with the phase velocity V = −b
2
/(3c) − 6e
1
d. that transforms into the
kink-shaped soluiton (2.19) when κ = 1.
Finally, the third solution arises when
12C
2
−g
2
= 0, g
2
C −g
3
−4C
3
,= 0.
In this case the bounded cnoidal wave solution (1.32) holds. When κ = 1
we have C

= 0, and it transforms into the kink-shaped solution (2.19), see
Fig. 1.6.
Now we shall consider the second possible solution’s form in terms of
the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘:
η =
_
A℘ +B. (2.22)
Substitution Eq.(2.22) into the Eq.(2.16) allows us to conclude that solution
may now exist only when f = g = 0. Then one can get the algebraic
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 41
equations for the solution parameters equating to zero coefficients at the
terms ℘


k
, k = 0 ÷3, and (A℘ +B)
5/2
:


3
: cA+ 2d = 0


2
: 9cAB −V A+ +15dB = 0

℘ : 9cAB −2V A+ +12dB = 0

: 12cB
3
−4V B
2
+dA(Bg
2
−Ag
3
) = 0
(A℘ +B)
5/2
: N = 0
One can obtain the following solution of these equations:
A = −
2d
c
, B =
2de
i
c
, i = 1 ÷3, V = −
1
2
cB,
where e
i
are the real roots of Eq. (2.5). We again deal with the O.D.E.
reduction of the Gardner equation, however now one can obtain its another
bounded solutions. Thus for d/fc > 0 we find cnoidal wave solutions of
the form:
(I) for B = 2de
2
/c
u =
_
2d
c
m κ cn(mθ, κ), (2.23)
where m
2
= e
1
−e
3
and for the phase velocity we have V = dm
2
(2κ
2
−1).
(II) for B = 2de
1
/c we obtain
u =
_
2d
c
m κ dn(mθ, κ), (2.24)
Solution (2.24) represents cnoidal wave propagating with the phase velocity
V = dm
2
(2 − κ
2
). It is to be noted that at κ = 1 both the solutions
(2.23) and (2.24) transform to the bell-shaped solitary wave
u =
_
2d
c
m ch
−1
(mθ, κ),
propagating with the velocity V = dm
2
.
When d/c > 0 the bounded solution appears from (2.22) if B = 2de
3
/c
and has the form
u =
_
2d
c
m κ sn(mθ, κ), (2.25)
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42 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
For the phase velocity we find V = −dm
2
(1+κ
2
). In contrast to solutions
(2.23), (2.24) the solution (2.25) transforms to the kink-shaped solution
(2.19) when κ = 1.
Finally one can construct the third possible solution in terms of the
Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ depending now on new independent variable
y = exp(kθ). Changing variable in auto-B¨acklund transformation (2.17)
one can see that the following solution may be proposed:
u = A
y℘

y
℘ +C
+B, (2.26)
Substituting it into Eq.(2.16) one can find that solution may exist under
f = 0. Therefore we now deal with the O.D.E. reduction of the Gardner
equation with linear dissipation. The solution of the form (2.26) for the
last equation was already obtained previously in Samsonov (1995). It was
found that this solution may correspond either to discontinuous periodical
solution or to the bounded kink-shaped solution of the form similar to the
solution (2.19).
2.1.4 Exact solutions of more complicated form
The procedure of the obtaining exact solutions is based on the reduction
to the ODE, hence only travelling wave solutions may be found. However,
sometimes this procedure is applied to obtain only the part of a solution,
and more complicated profiles are decsribed. Consider some examples.
Recently the coupled nonlinear Schr¨odinger equations (CNLS)
iW
t
+sW
xx
+ (ηWW

+σUU

)W = 0,
iρU
t
+rU
xx
+ (η
−1
UU

+σWW

)U = 0, (2.27)
with r, s = ±1; ρ, σ, η real, have attracted considerable interest because
of their role in governing various physical wave-guiding systems. These
equations are not generally integrable by the inverse scattering transform
method, except in cases of high symmetry (e.g. ρ = 1, η = σ = ±1). The
machinery of the Weierstrass function is applied in the search for travelling
wave solutions of equations (2.27) in the form
W = w(ζ) e

, U = u(ζ) e

, (2.28)
where θ = x −c t, ζ = ζ(θ, t), φ = φ(θ, t), with u, w, ζ and φ real. Substitu-
tion (2.28) into equations (2.27) allows to separate the real and imaginary
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 43
parts. The solutions for u and w are sought in the form
w =
_
F℘
2
+A℘ +B, u =
_
G℘
2
+D℘ +E, (2.29)
while for ζ and φ we have
ζ =
1
2
s c θ −s C
1
_

w
2

0
(t) ,
φ =
1
2
r c ρ θ −r C
2
_

u
2

0
(t) , (2.30)
where C
i
(i = 1, 2) are free parameters. The most notable difference from
previous solutions is the dependence of the “frequency” and “phase” on w
and u, when C
i
,= 0. This introduces significant features into the profiles
of the real and imaginary parts of W and of U. Thus, we find for W of the
form:
W = w exp ı Y, (2.31)
where w is defined by Porubov and Parker (1999)
w =
¸
A
_
2k
2
−1
3
κ
2
−k
2
κ
2
cn
2
(κθ, k) +B/A
_
, (2.32)
while for the phase function Y we have
Y =
csθ
2

sC
1
Π[ϕ, n, k]
κA(H
1
−e
3
)
+ (γ +
c
2
s
4
)t, (2.33)
Π[ϕ, n, k] is the elliptic integral of the third kind, ϕ = arcsin(sn(κθ)), n =
−κ
2
k
2
/(B/A+e
3
) and C
1
is defined by
A =
2(σ r η −s)
η(1 −σ
2
)
, C
2
1
=
A
2
4
_
4
_
B
A
_
3
−g
2
B
A
+g
3
_
, (2.34)
γ =
σ(E A−BD) −3s B
A
, D =
2(s σ −r η)
1 −σ
2
,
where B, E, g
2
and g
3
are free parameters. The shape of the wave (2.31)
depends strongly on the values of the parameters κ, k and H
1
. An example
of the behavior of Re W is shown in Fig.2.1(a) for the case H
1
∈ [e
2
, e
3
], c ∼
κ and at t = 0. We get an interesting wave, consisting of the carrier wave
slightly modulated and with superposed periodic disturbances. Therefore,
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44 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
20 40 60 80 100
x
-2
-1
1
2
Re W
b
20 40 60 80 100
x
-2
-1
1
2
Re W
a
Fig. 2.1 Exact solutions of the CNLS. a) profile with moving disturbances; b) almost
envelope wave solution.
the wave shape is not determined solely by the amplitude wave shape.
When c considerably exceeds the wave number κ we get the profile closer
to the usual envelope wave solution, see Fig. 2.1(b).
Another interesting profiles correspond to the exact solutions of the
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 45
complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, CGLE,
ı u
t
+p u
xx
+q [u[
2
u = ı γ u (2.35)
where the constant coefficients are p = p
r
+ı p
i
, q = q
r
+ı q
i
, with p
j
, q
j
,= 0,
(u, p, q) ∈ C, γ ∈ R. The subscripts t and x denote temporal and spatial
derivatives, respectively. This equation appears in the description of a large
variety of physical phenomena, e.g., in nonlinear optics, non-equilibrium
pattern formation, lasers, superconductivity etc. Like in case of CNLS
equations, first of all, we decompose the solution u(x, t) in its amplitude,
y, and phase, θ, both real,
u = y(ζ) e
ıθ
, (2.36)
where ζ = x −c t, θ = θ(ζ, t). Substituting (2.36) into (2.35) and equating
to zero the real and imaginary parts one obtains two coupled equations for
the functions y and z ≡ θ
ζ
. Then periodic and pulse solutions of the CGLE
may be found Porubov and Velarde (1999). The first derivative of the real
part of the periodic solution with respect to x, v = (Re u)
x
, is
v =
Z
y
sin
_
θ + arcsin(
y y
x
Z
)
_
, (2.37)
with
y =
_
2q
r
p
r
_
k
2
1
dn
2
(k
1
ζ, κ) −δ
2
1
_
, Z =
_
y
2
y
2
x
+C
2
. (2.38)
When C = 0, the zeroes of the first derivative (2.37) are defined by
the zeroes of the function y
x
and correspond to the zeroes of the Jacobi
functions cn and sn. Their positions do not change in time, and for u we
have harmonic temporal oscillations of the spatially periodic state defined
by the amplitude parts of the solutions (2.36). However, the situation
changes dramatically when C ,= 0. In this case Z never vanishes, and the
zeroes of the first derivative are defined by the zeroes of the sin function
only, whose position vary in time. A typical situation is shown in Fig. 2.2.
Fig. 2.2(a) shows a structure with four spatially repeated parts. During half
of the time period the shapes of these parts vary, and we get in Fig. 2.2(d)
a profile which is practically the mirror image to Fig. 2.2(a). Qualitatively
this evolution does not depend upon the value of the modulus κ of Jacobi
functions.
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46 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
Re u
d
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
Re u
c
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
Re u
b
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
Re u
a
Fig. 2.2 Evolution of the periodic solution (2.36) Re u vs x for times t = mp
i
π/(3prγ),
0 < m < 3 with k = 0.9, δ
1
= 0.5. a)m = 0, b)m = 1, c)m = 2, d)m = 3.
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 47
Consider now the pulse solution Porubov and Velarde (1999),
u =
_
6Al
1
l
2
k cosh
−1
(kζ) exp ıθ, (2.39)
with
κ
2
= −
γ
2(p
i
+ 4Ap
r
−4A
2
p
i
)
, l
1
= p
2
r
+p
2
i
, l
2
= p
r
q
i
−p
i
q
r
.
The first derivative for the real part of (2.39) is
(Re u)
x
=
¸
6Al
1
(1 + 4A
2
)
l
2
k
2
cosh
−1
(kζ) tanh(kζ) sin
_
θ −arctan(
1
2A
)
_
.
(2.40)
Thus, from (2.40) it follows that additional zeroes of the first derivative
may appear if
k >
_
l
2
6Al
1
exp
_
arctan(1/(2A))
2 A
_
. (2.41)
The evolution of the real part of the solution (2.39) is illustrated in Fig. 2.3.
Again we see that two initial maxima in Fig. 2.3(a) disappear, Fig. 2.3(e),
then an initial minimum at ζ = 0 is changed into a maximum, while two
minima arise, Fig. 2.3(f-h). Therefore, our solution is breather- like. If
(2.41) is not satisfied, there is a pulse solution whose spatial behavior is
determined by the function cosh
−1
(kζ) only with one extremum at ζ = 0.
2.2 Asymptotic solutions
Particular exact solutions are insufficient for understanding physical pro-
cesses. One can see that many equations consist in generalisations of the
integrable equations like the KdV equation. Sometimes additional terms
may be considered as small perturbations. Often straight asymptotic ex-
pansions are incorrect Cole (1968); Jeffrey and Kawahara (1982); Nayfeh
(1973), and the matching asymptotic procedure Ablowitz and Segur (1981);
Kodama and Ablowitz (1981) may be applied to find a solution in this
case. The basic idea of the perturbation approach is to look for a solu-
tion of a perturbed nonlinear equation in terms of certain natural fast and
slow variables. Often there is a need in only one fast variable, such as
phase variable θ in the unperturbed problem. Depending upon the prob-
lem either slow time, T = ε t, or slow coordinate, X = ε x, ε << 1 are
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48 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
g
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
h
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
e
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
f
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
c
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
d
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
a
-0.04 0.04
x
-4
-2
2
4
Re u
b
Fig. 2.3 Evolution of the pulse solution (2.39) Re u vs x for times t = mπ/β, 0 < m < 8.
a)m = 0, b)m = 1, c)m = 2, d)m = 4, e)m = 5, f)m = 6, g)m = 7, h)m = 8.
introduced. Fast variable is generalized in a perturbed problem assuming
either θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −V (T) or θ
x
= P(X), θ
t
= −1. The functions V (T)
or P(X) are defined to remove secular terms. Some of the appropriate sec-
ularity conditions are formed from Green’s identity as follows. Assume a
solution u = u(θ, T) is of the form
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 49
u(θ, T) = u
0
(θ, T) +ε u
1
(θ, T) +... (2.42)
The leading order problem is nonlinear equation for u
0
whose solution
is known. Then in the next order an inhomogeneous linear equation for u
1
holds
L(u
1
) = F(u
0
).
Here L(u
1
) is a linearized leading-order equation operator. Denoting by
v
i
(i = 1, ..., M) the M solutions of the homogeneous adjoint problem,
L
A
(v
i
) = 0, i = 1, ..., M,
where L
A
is the adjoint operator to L, we obtain that
L(u
1
)v
i
−L
A
(v
i
)u
1
= Fv
i
is always a divergence. Using the boundary conditions it may be integrated
to give the secularity conditions. In particular, when v
i
→ 0 as [θ[ → ∞
while u
1
is bounded the secularity condition is:
_

−∞
v
i
F dθ = 0. (2.43)
Then either V (T) or P(X) are obtained from Eq.(2.43). Method may
be used for finding perturbed cnoidal wave solutions. In this case in-
tegration in (2.43) is carrying over the period Rednikov et. al (1995);
Svendsen and Buhr-Hansen (1978). It is to be noted that a simple qua-
sistationary expansion is not uniformly valid on [x[ → ∞. Complete
solutions is obtained using matching quasistationary solution to a non-
stationary one for large [θ[, e.g. [θ[ ∼ 1/ε Ablowitz and Segur (1981);
Kodama and Ablowitz (1981).
Let us apply this method for a perturbed solitary wave solution of the
DMKdV equation (1.13). Following Kliakhandler et. al (2000); Rednikov
et. al (1995) assume that

α
i
= ε α
i
, ε << 1, and suppose that u depends
upon a fast variable θ and a slow time T, such as
θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −V (T), T = ε t.
Then equation (1.13) becomes
α
3
u
θθθ
−V u
θ
+ 2α
1
uu
θ
+ε [u
T

2
u
θθ

4
u
θθθθ

5
(uu
θ
)
θ
] = 0.
(2.44)
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50 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
The solution of Eq.(2.44) is sought in the form (2.42). In the leading
order we get
α
3
u
0,θθθ
−V u
0,θ
+ 2α
1
u
0
u
0,θ
= 0. (2.45)
We are interested in studying localized solutions vanishing together with
its derivatives at [θ[ →∞. Then the leading order solution is
u
0
=
6 α
3
α
1
b(T)
2
cosh
−2
(b(T) θ) (2.46)
with V = 4α
3
b
2
. At order ε, we have
α
3
u
1,θθθ
−V u
1,θ
+ 2α
1
(u
0
u
1
)
θ
= F, (2.47)
F = −
_
u
0,T

2
u
0,θθ

4
u
0,θθθθ

5
(u
0
u
0,θ
)
θ
¸
.
The operator acting on the function u
1
in the lhs of Eq.(2.47) is adjoint to
that of the Eq.(2.45). Then the secularity condition (2.43) with v
i
= u
0
yields the equation for b:
b
T
=
8
15
b
3
_
A+Bb
2
_
, (2.48)
with
A = α
2
, B =
4
7
_

3
α
5
α
1
−5α
4
_
. (2.49)
The behavior of b (or the sign of b
T
) depends on the signs of A and
B and on the value of b
0
≡ b(T = 0). Indeed, when both A and B
are positive b diverges while for both negative values it will vanish. For
A < 0, B > 0 the parameter b vanishes if b
0
<
_
−A/B while it diverges
if b
0
>
_
−A/B. The most interesting case occurs when A > 0, B < 0.
Here b tends to
_
−A/B independent of b
0
. A quantitative description of
the variation of b can be given. Equation (2.48) may be directly integrated
giving the implicit dependence of b on T:
T =
4 B
15A
2
ln
¸
¸
¸
¸
b
2
0
(A+Bb
2
)
b
2
(A+Bb
2
0
)
¸
¸
¸
¸

4(b
2
0
−b
2
)
15Ab
2
b
2
0
. (2.50)
We see that b tends to infinity in finite time, T = T

for A > 0, B > 0,
T

=
4 B
15A
2
ln
b
2
0
B
(A+Bb
2
0
)
+
4
15A b
2
0
, (2.51)
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 51
A similar scenario occurs when A < 0, B > 0, b
0
<
_
−A/B. Hence,
with our asymptotic approximation we can predict when blow-up could
occur. On the other hand, for both A < 0, B < 0 and A < 0, B > 0,
the quantity b
0
>
_
−A/B, b vanishes when T tends to infinity. Finally,
when A > 0, B < 0, the quantity b approaches
_
−A/B when T tends
to infinity, and expression (2.50) provides an analytical description of the
time-dependent process of the parameter-value selection of the solitary wave
(2.46), see Fig. 1.17. In the last case, if we additionally assume α
3
=

1
α
4

5
, the asymptotic ”dissipative” solitary wave (2.46) will tend to
the exact travelling solitary wave solution (1.12).
Function u
1
(θ, T) is a solution of a linear inhomogeneous O.D.E., hence,
it will contain free parameters depending on T like b(T) in the leading or-
der problem. Its definition allows to satisfy solvability condition in the
next order problem and to avoid secular terms in the asymptotic expan-
sion. Higher order approximations may be studied similarly. The first-order
solution u
1
has been obtained in Rednikov et. al (1995) of the form:
u
1
= A
1
u
0,θ
+A
2
θ cosh
−2
(b(T) θ) +A
3
u
0,θ
log(cosh (b(T) θ))+
A
4
(1 −tanh(b(T) θ)),
where A
i
may be found in Rednikov et. al (1995). One can see it predicts
a plateau behind the solitary wave and does not vanish at minus infinity.
Uniformly valid solution is found using the matching asymptotic procedure
may be found in Rednikov et. al (1995). Perturbations of cnoidal wave
solutions were studied, e.g., in Rednikov et. al (1995); Svendsen and Buhr-
Hansen (1978). In this case the modulus of the Jacobian elliptic functions
should be a function of a slow variable, corresponding expressions for the
derivatives of the elliptic functions with respect to modulus may be found
in Byrd and Friedman (1954); Newille (1951).
2.3 Numerical methods
One can see that both exact nor asymptotic solutions have severe limi-
tations. In particular they satisfy specific initial conditions and do not
allow to account for an arbitrary initial disturbance evolution. Therefore
numerical simulations should be used. Two kinds of nonlinear equations,
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52 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
considered here, may be written either
u
t
= L(u) (2.52)
or
u
tt
= L(u) (2.53)
where L(u) is a certain nonlinear differential operator. Equations of the
kind (2.52) will be called nonlinear evolution equations while nonlinear
hyperbolic equations correspond to the class (2.53). Further only nu-
merical methods are described which are used by the author and his co-
workers in solving the problems considered in the book. Two main schemes
are used, pseudo-spectral approach and finite-difference approach. More
detailed information about numerical modelling of nonlinear wave equa-
tions may be found, in particular, in Berezin (1987); Dodd et. al (1982);
Fletcher (1984); Mayer (1995); Sachdev (1987); Zwillenger (1989), see also
references therein.
2.3.1 Nonlinear evolution equations
Among the equations of the kind (2.52) main attention has been paid to
numerical solutions of the KdV equation, see Berezin (1987); Dodd et. al
(1982) where various difference schemes are discussed. As noted in Berezin
(1987) implicit three-levels schemes are rather simple and suitable for a
realization. However, some of the straight finite-difference methods re-
quire rather small time step for stability, while long-time evolution should
be studied. It becomes the smaller the higher is the order of a highest
derivative term in NEE. In particular, it takes place for a simulation of the
generalized fifth-order KdV equation (1.3), another example has been stud-
ied in Christov et. al (1997). The problem of an increase of the time step
may be solved either by a modification of a difference scheme or by using
a more effective solving procedure, in particular, the fourth-order Runge-
Kutta finite-difference method. Besides simulation of Eq.(1.3) in Porubov
et. al (2002), this method was effectively applied to study the evolution
and interaction of Marangoni-B´enard solitary waves governed by Eq.(1.13)
in Marchant (1996). The same equation has been numerically solved in
Christov and Velarde (1995) using a four-stage scheme providing third-
order approximation in time. The implicit predictor-corrector method has
been applied to nonlinear diffusion equations in Sachdev (1987).
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 53
Pseudo-spectral methods have been adopted recently, there already exist
monographs Fletcher (1984); Sachdev (1987) where they are explained in
details, see also Zwillenger (1989) and references therein. In a pseudo-
spectral scheme the space derivatives are approximated very accurately by
means of the Fourier transforms, in particular, by the fast Fourier transform
(FFT) algorithm. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme may be used for
the time derivative Kliakhandler (1999). It provides very mild stability
restrictions on the time step. The pseudo-spectral numerical scheme has
proved very efficient in solving dispersive and dissipative equations. The
evolution of the initial monotonic solitary wave into radiating or oscillatory
solitary waves was simulated in Benilov et. al (1993) for the fifth-order
KdV equation. In a series of papers Salupere et. al (1997); Salupere et. al
(2001) the solitary wave formation from a periodic input was studied for
an equation similar to Eq.(1.3), while the paper Salupere et. al (1994) is
devoted to the KdV soliton detection from a harmonic input. The use of the
pseudo-spectral approach to account for an evolution of an initial localized
pulse in framework of Eq.(1.3) is demonstrated in Sec. 1.2.1. Numerical
solutions of the nonlinear diffusion equations are considered in Fletcher
(1984); Sachdev (1987).
Finally, this method allows to study an evidence of the selected solitary
waves Kliakhandler et. al (2000) predicted on the basis of the asymptotic
analysis of Eq.(1.13) in previous section. To reveal the expected behaviour
of the solutions, the following numerical technique has been employed.
Since at the very late stage of the evolution the unstable waves are ex-
pected to be controlled by the finite-amplitude waves found in Kawahara
(1983), we define the typical wavenumber k
c
=
_
α
2
/2α
4
corresponding
to the most unstable linear mode in Eq.(1.13). The corresponding wave-
length is λ
c
= 2π/k
c
. The length of spatial domain was chosen to be 256λ
c
,
i.e. rather long. At the same time, the number of discretization points
was chosen to be 4096, i.e. λ
c
is covered by 16 points. The latter ensures
fair resolution of the whole solutions computed. Periodic boundary condi-
tions have been used for simulations. The pseudo-spectral technique was
employed for the spatial discretization and the Runge-Kutta fourth order
scheme for the time advance. The time step was chosen to be 0.01. The
tests with smaller time steps and better resolution gave indistinguishable
results. The control of the simulations in the Fourier space shows the good
resolution of the computed solutions. First, it has been checked that the
tendency to blow-up, Fig. 2.4(a), the damping, Fig. 2.4(b), and the selection
have been observed at the α
i
values prescribed by the theory in previous
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54 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
t
i
m
e
t
i
m
e
Damping (b)
distance
distance
(a) Blow-up
Fig. 2.4 Blow-up (a) and damping (b) of the initial conditions.
section. In the case of ”blow-up”, we found that the pulse tends to grow
rapidly at the time t

rather close to the predicted t

= T

/ε from (2.51).
This observation allows to find analytically “time-of-life” of the blowing
solutions of Eq. (1.13).
Following Kliakhandler et. al (2000) let us discuss in detail the selection
of ”dissipative” solitary waves occurring at A > 0, B < 0. Choosing the pa-
rameter values ε = 0.1, α
1
= 1, α
2
= 1, α
3
= 1, α
4
= 6/5, α
5
= −2, the
resulting amplitude of the selected solitary wave is obtained using (2.46),
(2.49) and b =
_
−A/B. The amplitude, 6α
3
b
2

1
= 0.583 and the veloc-
ity V = 4α
3
b
2
= 0.389. We consider both the selection occurring from ”be-
low” when the magnitude of an initial Gaussian pulse is smaller than that of
the eventually selected solitary waves and the selection from ”above” when
the selected solitary wave amplitude is smaller than that of the initial pulse
magnitude. This would permit to separate the selection mechanism from
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 55
200 400 600 800
0
240
480
720
Distance
T
i
m
e
Fig. 2.5 ”Dissipative” solitary wave selection from an initial Gaussian profile with am-
plitude 0.3 and width 36 units.
those originating from the growing unstable disturbances Kawahara (1983);
Oron and Rosenau (1997). One can see in Fig. 2.5 that up to the time
t ∼ 120 an initial Gaussian pulse with the magnitude 0.3 < 0.583 and
width 36 breaks into a train of three localized pulses aligned in row of
decreasing magnitude. Due to smallness of ε, the influence of the dissipa-
tive non-KdV terms is small at this stage. This may be seen by compar-
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56 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
200 400 600 800 1000
0
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
T
i
m
e
Distance
Fig. 2.6 ”Dissipative” solitary wave selection from an initial Gaussian profile with am-
plitude 1 and width 12 units.
ison of solutions of Eq.(1.13), shown as solid lines, with pure KdV case,
α
2
= α
4
= α
5
= 0, shown by dashed lines. At later stages the initial pulse
transforms into a train of the solitary waves. At nonzero ε each solitary
wave amplitude and velocity tend to the values 0.585 and 0.38 in agreement
with the theory of single solitary wave selection, while each of three KdV
solitons continues propagation with its own amplitude and velocity. ”Dis-
sipative” solitary waves form a bound state Christov and Velarde (1995);
Nekorkin and Velarde (1994) whose unequal spacing between equally high
crests reflects the original separation of the solitary waves in the KdV stage
when higher ideal solitons travel faster. The tail behind the train of soli-
tary waves appear as a result of short wave instability similar to Kawahara
(1983). However, the solitary waves have higher velocity than the velocity
of growing wave packets. As a result, the solitary waves bound state es-
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 57
capes the destruction induced by the radiation that lags behind. A similar
finding for the GKS equation was reported in Chang et. al (1995). We see
on the last stages that the magnitude of the tail saturates. All these struc-
tures are quite well resolved and similar to those found in Kawahara (1983);
Oron and Rosenau (1997). They are robust and remain the same under the
mesh refinement and smaller time steps.
The selection process realized from ”above” is shown in Fig. 2.6 when
initial Gaussian pulse has the magnitude 1 > 0.583 and the width 12.
Two equal solitary waves with amplitude 0.585 and velocity 0.38 appear
as a result of decrease of the magnitude of the initial pulse. Again the
comparison with pure KdV case is shown by dashed lines. All features of
the selection process are similar to the selection from ”below”.
Simulations of Eq.(1.13) with other values of parameters ε, α
i
such that
A > 0, B < 0, which are not reported here, show the same features of the
selection process as described above.
2.3.2 Nonlinear hyperbolic equations
Among the equations of kind (2.53) we are especially interested in various
Boussinesq-like long waves equations, that may be written in the form of
so-called double-dispersive equation Erofeev and Klyueva (2002); Samsonov
(2001)
u
tt
−α
1
u
xx
−α
2
( u
2
)
xx
−α
3
u
xxtt

4
u
xxxx
= 0. (2.54)
At α
3
= 0 it corresponds to the classic Boussinesq equation. Besides
quadratic nonlinear term, α
2
( u
2
)
xx
, cubic or higher-order nonlinearities
may be considered Christou and Christov (2002); Soerensen et. al (1984);
Soerensen et. al (1987); also higher-order derivative terms may be incor-
porated in Eq.(2.54) Christou and Christov (2000); Christov et. al (1996).
A Fourier-Galerkin method were applied to computing localized solutions
in Christou and Christov (2000); Christou and Christov (2002). An im-
plicit difference scheme was developed in Christov and Maugin (1995);
Christov and Velarde (1994); Christov and Velarde (1995) to account for nu-
merical solutions of the Boussinesq equation and its generalizations where
Newton’s quasi-linearization of the nonlinear terms is employed. The so-
lution in Soerensen et. al (1984); Soerensen et. al (1987) is obtained using
the Gauss elimination.
There is an another method developed independently the USSR in 1953
Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987); Samarskii and Nikolaev (1989) and in the
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58 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
USA by L.H. Thomas (1949). That is why it is known in the West as the
Thomas method Morton and Mayers (1994); Richtmyer and Morton (1967).
As noted in Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973), this method is justified for
the solutions of linear problems. However, the author applied it more than
ten years ago for a numerical solution of Eq.(2.54). One can see further in
the book that it gives numerical results in a good agreement with analytical
predictions. Previously the Thomas method was used for both nonlinear
evolution equationsBerezin (1987) and hyperbolic equationAlexeyev (1999).
Recently it was successfully applied in Bukhanovsky and Samsonov (1998);
Porubov et. al (1998) for computing rather complicated hyperbolic nonlin-
ear elastic systems.
Since the Thomas algorithm is not widely used for solutions of the non-
linear waves problems, it is useful to describe it in a more elaborate manner.
Following Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987); Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973)
consider a boundary problem:
a
n
u
n−1
+b
n
u
n
+c
n
u
n+1
= f
n
, 0 < n < N, (2.55)
u
0
= ϕ, u
N
= ψ. (2.56)
Let us assume
u
0
= L
1/2
u
1
+K
1/2
,
where L
1/2
= 0, K
1/2
= ϕ. It allows to exclude u
0
from the equation (2.55)
at n = 1, giving
u
0
= L
3/2
u
2
+K
3/2
,
with L
3/2
= −c
1
/b
1
, K
1/2
= (f
1
− a
1
ϕ)/b
1
. Following this procedure one
can obtain
u
n
= L
n+1/2
u
n+1
+K
n+1/2
, (2.57)
with
L
n+1/2
= −
c
n
b
n
+a
n
L
n−1/2
, K
n+1/2
=
f
n
−a
n
L
n−1/2
b
n
+a
n
L
n−1/2
.
Hence going from 1 to N one can calculate the coefficients L
n+1/2
,
K
n+1/2
. Using (2.57) and the boundary conditions (2.56) at n = N, one
can obtain u
N−1
. Then coming back from n = N −1 to n = 1 one can find
every u
n
from (2.57) using already known L
n+1/2
, K
n+1/2
. It was noted
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 59
in Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987); Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973) that
small amount of arithmetic operations together with a weak sensitivity to
the calculation errors are the main advantages of the method.
Assume u
n
= u(x
n
, t
j
) is a mesh function of a solution of Eq.(2.54)
while v
n
= u(x
n
, t
j−1
), w
n
= u(x
n
, t
j−2
) correspond to the mesh functions
on previous time steps. Then we have for discretization of Eq.(2.54)
a
n
= c
n
= α
3
, b
n
= −´x
2
−2α
3
,
f
n
= ´x
2
(w
n
−2v
n
)−α
1
´t
2
(v
n−1
−2v
n
+v
n+1
)+α
3
(2v
n−1
−4v
n
+2v
n+1

w
n−1
+ 2w
n
−w
n+1
) −α
4
´t
2
/´x
2
(v
n−2
−4v
n−1
+ 6v
n
−4v
n+1
+
v
n+2
) −α
2
´t
2
(v
2
n−1
−2v
2
n
+v
2
n+1
),
where ´t, ´x are time and space steps respectively. Uniqueness condition,
[b
n
[ > [a
n
[ + [c
n
[ Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973), is always satisfied at
positive α
3
. The difference scheme is similar to those used in Soerensen
et. al (1984); Soerensen et. al (1987) in the case α
4
= 0 and with higher
order nonlinearities being taken into account.
2.4 Use of Mathematica
Recently various symbolic mathematical programs were developed to pro-
vide huge analytical operations. One of the most powerful is the Math-
ematica developed by Wolfram (1999) that is used by the author on all
stages of his studies. This section is not focused on the detailed description
of the magnificent abilities of the program. Only some important features
are considered in relation to the problems studied here.
Among the advantages of the Mathematica one can mention variety
of the build-in mathematical functions. In particular, it works efficiently
with the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ that may be used for obtaining ex-
act solutions. Indeed, the procedure described in Sec. 2.1 is based on the
transformation of the problem of a solution of a PDE to the problem of the
solution of algebraic equations for the ansatz parameters. These equations
may be too complicated for manual operations, and use of the Mathemat-
ica allows to obtain solutions avoiding errors. Design of the Mathematica
package provides an automatic finding of a solution. An example may be
found in Parkes and Duffy (1996) where a package is presented to obtain
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60 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
2 4 6 8 10
x
10
20
30
y
b
2 4 6 8 10
x
-6
-4
-2
2
4
6
y
a
Fig. 2.7 a) Incorrect and b) correct representations of the function y.
solutions in terms of the hyperbolic tanh-function. However, it is unlikely
that an automated method may be applied for finding periodic solutions.
First, it is necessary to introduce the rules for the elliptic functions deriva-
tives. Second, sometimes combinations like g
2
C − g
3
− 4C
3
or 12C
2
− g
2
should be kept in the solution for its convenient analysis, see Sec. 2.1.3.
The Mathematica cannot do it automatically. Finally, it works simulta-
neously with all possible solutions of the algebraic equations that yields
huge expressions at the intermediate stages of a solution and may result in
falling down the evaluation. Hence, it is better to manage the substitution
procedure step by step manually introducing the commands that provide
the most efficient line of attack on the problem.
The algebraic manipulations should be used also for a check of the
asymptotic solutions and for derivation of the governing nonlinear equa-
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Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 61
tions. Numerical abilities may be efficiently used for the analysis of ana-
lytical relationships, while Fortran, C++ or other languages are preferable
for numerical simulations of nonlinear PDEs. The Mathematica possesses
high-level graphic facilities, it admits representation of graphics in many
formats including PostScript and Encapsulate PostScript. Almost all fig-
ures in the book are prepared using the Mathematica. Like analytical
procedures graphics may be automatized. In particular, numerical data
obtained using Fortran or C++ programs, may be represented by an auto-
mated procedure, see, e.g., Kliakhandler (1999).
Sometimes, the Mathematica gives incorrect results. In particular,
the construction of the profiles shown in Figs. 2.1 and 2.2 requires cal-
culation of the function y = Π[ϕ, n, κ], ϕ = arcsin(sn(k x)) expressed
through the elliptic integral of the third kind. Direct Mathematica com-
mand Plot[y, ¦x, 0, 10¦] yields the profile shown in Fig. 2.7(a). One can see
it contains the points where there is no first derivative of y. In order to
obtain correct smooth profile it is necessary to define y as y = Π[ψ, n, κ],
where ψ is obtained using the Mathematica commands
ψ[x /; 0 ≤ x ≤ x
0
] = ϕ; ψ[x /; x
0
≤ x ≤ 3 x
0
] = π −ϕ;
ψ[x /; 3 x
0
≤ x ≤ 5 x
0
] = 2π +ϕ;
ψ[x /; 5 x
0
≤ x ≤ 7 x
0
] = 3π −ϕ; etc.
where x
0
= K(κ)/k, K(κ) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind, κ
is the elliptic functions modulus. Then we obtain required smooth profile for
y shown in Fig. 2.7(b) around which the profiles are developed in Figs. 2.1,
2.2.
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62 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
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Chapter 3
Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod
The theory of strain waves in solids began to develop over two hundred
years ago, see about it Love (1927); McNiven and McCoy (1974). During
the long period only linear theory of elasticity was considered since because
of the engineering needs and poor experimental facilities. Now the study of
the material properties Lurie (1990); Murnaghan (1951), acoustic signals
Biryukov et. al (1991); Oliner (1978); Parker and Maugin (1987) etc. require
mathematical models based on the nonlinear elasticity. Recent develop-
ments in general elastic theory may be found in Bland (1960); Lurie (1990);
Maugin (1993); Maugin (1995); Murnaghan (1951), while nonlinear waves
in solids were considered in Engelbrecht (1983); Engelbrecht (1997);
Erofeev (2002); Erofeev and Klyueva (2002); Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994);
Mayer (1995); Parker (1994); Parker and Maugin (1987); Samsonov (2001).
In order to go further it is necessary to define a notion of the word
solid. In macroelasticity solid may be defined as a substance having a defi-
nite volume and shape and resisting forces that tend to alter its volume or
shape. From the point of view of the theory of discrete media, solid may
be considered as a crystalline material in which the constituent atoms are
arranged in a 3D lattice with certain symmetries. As noted previously
Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994); Samsonov (2001), these definitions comple-
ment each other allowing to take into account a model of elastic potential
of atomic interactions, and to cover amorphous, porous or granular media.
When elastic features are one and the same in any direction we have
isotropic solids. Sometimes anisotropy is important, e.g., in design of non-
linear acoustic devices Oliner (1978); Parker and Maugin (1987). Strain
waves in solids may be classified as follows. Comparing the direction of the
wave propagation with the particle motion one can distinguish longitudinal
and shear waves. The former wave propagates along the direction of the
63
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64 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
particle motion, the latter -perpendicular to it. Waves propagating inside
solid are called bulk waves. In presence of a lateral surface, surface strain
waves are possible. In this book main attention is paid to the longitudinal
bulk waves in isotropic media and wave guides.
3.1 The sources of nonlinearities
Among the possible sources of nonlinearity we briefly consider so-called
geometrical and physical nonlinearities since they affect the strain wave
propagation to a greater extent. Other kinds of nonlinearities are consid-
ered in Engelbrecht (1997); Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994). The geometrical
nonlinearity is described by the exact expression of the strain tensor always
used in the theory of large deformations. Initially the position of a particle
is accounted for a vector-radius
− →
r , or an initial or reference configuration
is defined. Loading forces provide the displacement of particle yielding the
current or actual configuration characterized by an another vector-radius
−→
R. Then the movement is described by the displacement vector,

V =
−→
R -
−→
r . However, not only the positions of the particles vary during the
deformation but also the distances between them. In order to describe the
alteration of the distance a deformation or strain tensor is introduced. It
is obtained from the difference between the squares of the arc length in the
deformed (actual) and undeformed (reference) configuration. In the refer-
ence configuration the Cauchy-Green finite deformation tensor C is defined
Lurie (1990), whose general form is
C =
_



V + (



V )
T
+



V (



V )
T
_
/2
(written in terms of a vector gradient



V and its transpose (



V )
T
). In
rectangular Cartesian coordinates x
i
the components of C may be written
in a more familiar form
C
ik
=
1
2
(
∂u
i
∂x
k
+
∂u
k
∂x
i
+
∂u
l
∂x
i
∂u
l
∂x
k
),
where u
k
are the components of the displacement vector

V .
As a result of a deformation process there appear stresses. Certainly
they should be connected with the strains, and this is a source of the phys-
ical nonlinearity. It was found more than hundred years ago that Hook’s
linear law of elasticity is insufficient, see about it in Jeffrey and Engel-
brecht(1994); Samsonov (2001). Since Piola-Kirchoff stress tensor is defined
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 65
in the reference configuration, through the volume density of the internal
energy Π in adiabatic processes (or through the Helmgholtz free energy in
thermoelastic processes),
P
ik
=
∂Π
∂C
ik
,
one can say the physical nonlinearity depends upon the structure of the
internal (or free) strain energy density Π. The energy of deformation must
be insensitive to the rotation of the reference frame. It was Murnaghan
(1951) who supposed to develop the energy as a power series in the three
invariants of the strain tensor,
Π =
λ + 2µ
2
I
2
1
−2µI
2
+
l + 2m
3
I
3
1
−2mI
1
I
2
+nI
3
, (3.1)
where I
k
, k = 1, 2, 3 are the invariants of tensor C:
I
1
(C) = trC, I
2
(C) = [(trC)
2
−trC
2
]/2, I
3
(C) = det C. (3.2)
The first two terms in (3.1)account for linear elasticity, hence the second or-
der elastic moduli, or the Lam´e coefficients (λ, µ), characterize linear elastic
properties of the isotropic material. Other terms in (3.1) describe material
or physical nonlinearity Lurie (1990); Murnaghan (1951). Accordingly, the
third order elastic moduli, or the Murnaghan moduli (l, m, n) account for
nonlinear elastic properties of the isotropic material. The energy may be
written using another set of invariants,
J
1
(C) = trC, J
2
(C) = trC
2
, J
3
(C) = trC
3
,
in the form Lurie (1990)
Π =
λ
2
J
2
1
+µJ
2
+
ν
1
6
J
3
1

2
J
1
J
2

3
J
3
. (3.3)
Since
J
1
(C) = I
1
(C) , J
2
(C) = I
2
1
(C) −2I
2
(C),
J
3
(C) = I
3
1
(C) −3I
1
(C)I
2
(C) + 3I
3
(C),
Eqs.(3.1) and (3.3) coincide if ν
1
= 2l −2m + n, ν
2
= m−n/2, ν
3
= n/4.
In some cases there is a need in more terms in Eq.(3.1):
Π =
λ + 2µ
2
I
2
1
−2µI
2
+
l + 2m
3
I
3
1
−2mI
1
I
2
+nI
3
+
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66 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Table 3.1 Lame’s and Murnaghan’s modulii, ∗10
−9
N/m
2
material λ µ l m n
Polystyrene 1.71 0.95 -18.9 -13.3 -10
Steel Hecla 37 111 82.1 -459 -461 -358
Aluminium 2S 57 27.6 -299 -311 -228
Pyrex glass 13.5 27.5 14 92 420
SiO
2
melted 15.9 31.3 129 71 -44
a
1
I
4
1
+a
2
I
2
1
I
2
+a
3
I
1
I
3
+a
4
I
2
2
, (3.4)
The fourth order moduli (a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
) can be either positive or negative.
However, mainly the third-order moduli data may be found in the literature
Frantsevich et. al (1982); Lurie (1990), some of them are collected in Table
3.1.
The series expansions (3.1), (3.4) are convenient to account for the de-
formation of compressible materials (metals, polymers, etc.), whose yield
point is small. For incompressible materials, like rubber, there exist an-
other models, e.g., the Mooney model Lurie (1990). Its generalization, the
Mooney-Rivlin model, may be used even for compressible materials, its
application to nonlinear strain waves in a rod may be found, e.g., in Dai
(1998).
3.2 Modelling of nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral
surface elastic rod
3.2.1 Statement of the problem
Let us consider an isotropic, axially infinitely extended, free lateral surface
cylindrical elastic rod, see Fig. 3.1. Axi-symmetry leads to using cylin-
drical Langrangian coordinates (x, r, ϕ), where x is the axis of the rod,
ϕ [0, 2π], 0 ≤ r ≤ R. When torsions are neglected, the displacement
vector is

V = (u, w, 0). We shall consider the propagation of longitudinal
strain waves of small but finite amplitude in the rod. Once the reference
configuration is defined we use Hamilton’s variation principle to obtain the
governing equations together with the boundary conditions, setting to zero
the variation of the action functional,
δS = δ
_
t
1
t0
dt2π
_

−∞
dx
_
R
0
r Ldr = 0, (3.5)
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 67
Fig. 3.1 Free lateral surface cylindrical rod
where, L is the Lagrangian density per unit volume, L=K − Π, with Π
defined by Eq.(3.1). For the kinetic energy density K we have
K =
ρ
0
2
_
_
∂u
∂t
_
2
+
_
∂w
∂t
_
2
_
(3.6)
where ρ
0
is the rod material density at t = t
0
. The integration in brackets in
(3.5) is carried out at the initial time t = t
0
. Initially, the rod is supposed
to be in its natural, equilibrium state. In absence of torsions non-zero
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68 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
components of the Cauchy-Green deformation tensor C, are
C
xx
= u
x
+
1
2
(u
2
x
+w
2
x
), C
rr
= w
r
+
1
2
(u
2
r
+w
2
r
), C
ϕϕ
=
1
r
w +
1
2r
2
w
2
,
C
rx
=
1
2
(u
r
+w
x
+u
x
w
r
+w
x
w
r
).
Hence the invariants in (3.2) may be written as
I
1
(C) = C
xx
+C
rr
+C
ϕϕ
,
I
2
(C) = C
xx
C
rr
+C
xx
C
ϕϕ
+C
rr
C
ϕϕ
−C
2
rx
,
I
3
(C) = C
ϕϕ
(C
xx
C
rr
−C
2
rx
).
The following boundary conditions (b.c.) are imposed for a free lateral
surface rod:
w → 0, at r → 0, (3.7)
P
rr
= 0 , at r = R, (3.8)
P
rx
= 0, at r = R, (3.9)
where the components P
rr
, P
rx
of the Piola - Kirchhoff stress tensor P
are defined as
P
rr
= (λ + 2µ) w
r

w
r
+ λ u
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
u
2
r
+
3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m
2
w
2
r
+ (λ + 2l) w
r
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
w
2
r
2
+
(λ + 2l) u
x
w
r
+ (2l −2m+n) u
x
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
u
2
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
w
2
x
+ (µ +m) u
r
w
x
, (3.10)
P
rx
= µ (u
r
+w
x
) + (λ + 2µ +m) u
r
w
r
+
2λ + 2m−n
2
u
r
w
r
+
(λ + 2µ +m) u
x
u
r
+
2m−n
2
w
x
w
r
+ (µ +m) w
x
w
r
+
(µ +m) u
x
w
x
. (3.11)
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 69
3.2.2 Derivation of the governing equation
Exception of torsions provides transformation of the initial 3D problem
into a 2D one. Subsequent simplification is caused by the consideration of
only long elastic waves with the ratio R/L ¸ 1 between the rod radius R
and typical wavelength L. The typical elastic strain magnitude B does not
exceed the yield point of the material. Since Murnaghan’s material have
small yield points, one can assume B ¸ 1. The Hamilton principle (3.5)
yields a set of coupled equations for u and w together with the b.c. (3.8),
(3.9). To obtain a solution in universal way one usually proceeds to the di-
mensionless form of the equations and looks for the unknown displacement
vector components in the form of power series in the small parameters of
the problem (for example R/L), hence, leading to an asymptotic solution
of the problem. However, this procedure has some disadvantages. In par-
ticular, comparison of the predictions from the dimensionless solution to
the experiments suffers from the fact that both B and L, are not well de-
fined. In particular, solitary wave has an infinite wave length. Further, the
coefficients of the nonlinear terms usually contain combinations of elastic
moduli which may be also small in addition to the smallness of B something
not predicted beforehand. Finally, this procedure gives equations of only
first order in time, t, while general equations for displacements u and w are
of the second order in time. Therefore the solution of the model equation
will not satisfy two independent initial conditions on longitudinal strains
or displacements Samsonov (2001).
An alternative is to simplify the problem making some assumptions
about the behavior of longitudinal and/or shear displacements and/or
strains in the elastic wave-guide. Referring to the elastic rod these rela-
tionships give explicit dependence of u and w upon the radius, while their
variations along the rod axis are described by some unknown function and
its derivatives along the axis of the rod. Then the application of Hamilton’s
principle (3.5) yields the governing equation in dimensional form for this
function. This equation is of the second order of time, hence its solution
can satisfy two independent initial conditions. Any combinations of elastic
moduli appear in the coefficients of the equation, hence, subsequent scaling
may take into account their orders when introducing small parameters.
For an elastic rod, the simplest assumption is the plane cross section
hypothesis McNiven and McCoy (1974): the longitudinal deformation pro-
cess is similar to the beards movement on the thread. Then every cross
section of the rod remains flat, hence, u = U(x, t) does not change along
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70 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
the radius r. However, this assumption is not enough due to the Poisson
effect, i.e., longitudinal and shear deformations are related. That is why
Love (1927) proposed to use a relationship between w and u: w = −r ν U
x
,
with ν the Poisson coefficient. Unfortunately, the plane cross-section hy-
pothesis and Love’s hypothesis do not satisfy the boundary conditions that
demand vanishing of both the normal and tangential stresses, P
rr
and P
rx
,
at the lateral surface of the rod with prescribed precision.
Another theory has been proposed in Porubov and Samsonov (1993) to
find the relationships between displacement vector components satisfying
b.c. on the lateral surface of the rod (3.8), (3.9) as well as the condition
for w (3.7). Later it was developed in Porubov and Velarde (2000).
Since pure elastic wave are studied, B ¸ 1, the ”linear” and ”non-
linear” parts of the relationships may be obtained separately. A power
series approximations is used, as generally done for long wave processes.
Accordingly, the longitudinal and shear displacement in dimensional form
are:
u = u
L
+u
NL
, u
L
= u
0
(x, t) +r u
1
(x, t) + r
2
u
2
(x, t) +...,
u
NL
= u
NL0
(x, t) +r u
NL1
(x, t) +..., (3.12)
w = w
L
+w
NL
, w
L
= w
0
(x, t) +r w
1
(x, t) + r
2
w
2
(x, t) +....,
w
NL
= w
NL0
(x, t) +r w
NL1
(x, t) +... (3.13)
Substituting the linear parts u
L
and w
L
(3.12), (3.13) into the b.c. (3.7) and
in the linear parts of b.c. (3.8), (3.9), and equating to zero terms at equal
powers of r one obtains u
k
and w
k
. Using these results the nonlinear parts
u
NL
, w
NL
are similarly obtained from the full b.c. We get u
0
(x, t) = U(x, t)
while other u
k
and w
k
are expressed through U and its derivatives. Then
(3.12), (3.13) are substituted into (3.1) and (3.6). Running the Hamilton
principle (3.5) we obtain the single governing equation for the unknown
function U(x, t). In contrast to the theory based on the plane cross section
hypothesis and the Love hypothesis, the present theory allows to account
for nonzero b.c. for the stresses on the lateral surface of the rod.
3.3 Double-dispersive equation and its solitary wave solu-
tion
In order to derive the governing equation for longitudinal strain waves in
a free lateral surface rod we assume that B ∼ R
2
/L
2
. This assumption
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 71
provides a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion required for exis-
tence of the bell-shaped solitary waves of permanent shape. Substituting
power series (3.12), (3.13) into the boundary conditions and equating to
zero combinations at each power of the radius, we get
u = U +a
2
r
2
U
xx
, (3.14)
w = b
1
r U
x
+b
3
r
3
U
xxx
+B
1
r U
2
x
. (3.15)
where
a
2
=
ν
2
, b
1
= −ν, b
3
=
ν
2
2(3 −2ν)
,
B
1
=
ν(1 +ν)
2
+
(1 −2ν)(1 +ν)
E
[l(1 −2ν)
2
+ 2m(1 +ν) −nν].
Then kinetic and potential energy truncated approximations are
K =
ρ
0
2
(U
2
t
+νr
2
[U
t
U
xxt
+νU
2
xt
]), (3.16)
Π =
1
2
_
EU
2
x
+
β
3
U
3
x
+νEr
2
U
x
U
xxx
_
(3.17)
Here ν and E are the Poisson ratio and the Young modulus correspondingly,
ν =
λ
2(λ +µ)
, E =
µ(3λ + 2µ)
λ +µ
,
while β is a nonlinear coefficient, β = 3E + l(1 − 2ν)
3
+ 4m(1 − 2ν)(1 +
ν) + 6nν
2
. We have to truncate the approximations (3.14), (3.15), (3.16),
(3.17) in order to be in an agreement with the five-constant Murnaghan
approximation (3.1), where cubic nonlinear terms are neglected.
Comparing these relations with those obtained using cross-section and
Love’s hypothesis, a
2
= 0, b
3
= 0, B
1
= 0, one can see that only the
term a
2
r
2
U
xx
makes its contribution into Eqs.(3.16), (3.17), while terms
b
3
r
3
U
xxx
and B
1
r U
2
x
are needed to satisfy the boundary conditions on the
lateral surface with prescribed accuracy.
Substituting (3.16), (3.17) into (3.5) one can obtain the so-called double-
dispersive equation, DDE, for a strain function v = U
x
,
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
2
( v
2
)
xx
−α
3
v
xxtt

4
v
xxxx
= 0. (3.18)
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72 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
where
α
1
=
E
ρ
0
, α
2
=
β

0
, α
3
=
ν(ν −1)R
2
2
, α
4
= −
νER
2

0
.
For the first time DDE was derived independently by some authors, in
framework of the plane cross section and Love’s hypothesis, see about it
Erofeev and Klyueva (2002); Samsonov (2001). The important difference
is only in the values of the dispersive terms coefficients α
3
and α
4
, in
Samsonov (1988) it was α
3
= −ν
2
R
2
/2, α
4
= µν
2
R
2
/(2ρ
0
).
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
Fig. 3.2 Formation of solitary waves from an initial rectangular tensile pulse.
Eq.(3.18) possesses exact travelling solitary wave solution that may be
obtained by direct integration,
v = Acosh
−2
(k (x −V t)), (3.19)
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 73
with
A =
3(ρ
0
V
2
−E)
β
, k
2
=
E −ρ
0
V
2
2νR
2
(E +ρ
0
(ν −1)V
2
)
. (3.20)
Accordingly, V
2
lies either inside the interval
E
ρ
0
(1 −ν)
< V
2
< c
2

=
E
ρ
0
, if −1 < ν < 0. (3.21)
or in
c
2

< V
2
<
E
ρ
0
(1 −ν)
, if ν > 0, (3.22)
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
1
Fig. 3.3 Formation of a train of solitary waves from an initial rectangular tensile pulse.
When positive Poisson ratio is positive, more precisely, 1/2 ≥ ν > 0,
the sign of the amplitude is defined by the sign of β. The nonlinearity coef-
ficient is the only coefficient carrying an information about the Murnaghan
moduli. Hence, they define whether tensile or compression solitary wave
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74 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
may propagate for a given elastic material of the rod. We see that it is the
mixed dispersive term α
3
v
xxtt
, who establishes the permitted finite interval
for the wave velocity.
Exact solution requires specific initial conditions. It is of interest to
know how rather arbitrary localized initial pulse evolves. To this purpose
numerical simulation of the equation has been performed using numerical
method explained in Sec. 2.3.2.
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
50 100 150 200
-0.5
0.5
Fig. 3.4 Delocalization of an initial compression pulse.
It was found that rather arbitrary initial pulse splits into the train of
solitary waves or evolves into small amplitude oscillating wave-packet ac-
cording to the predictions about wave parameters done on the basis of exact
single travelling solitary wave solution. Indeed, assume the material elastic
features of the rod yield β > 0. Shown in Fig. 3.2 is the evolution of an
initial tensile rectangular pulse into single solitary wave, while massive ini-
tial pulse splits into the sequence of solitary waves, see Fig. 3.3. However,
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 75
each solitary wave is accounted for the exact single travelling wave solution
(3.19). Figure 3.4 demonstrates no solitary wave generation from the initial
compression pulse. However, when the material of the rod possesses β < 0,
only compressive solitary wave arises from an initial compression localized
input. To sum up, single travelling wave exact solution provides correct
predictions about solitary waves formation in an unsteady process of an
arbitrary localized input evolution.
Finally, let us estimate the deviation from the plane cross section caused
by the second terms in the expression (3.14). Indeed, the curvature h
of the profile of longitudinal strain u along the radius of the rod is h =
[u
rr
[ /(1 +u
2
r
)
3/2
= [νU
xx
[ /(1 +ν
2
r
2
U
2
xx
)
3/2
. It was found in Porubov and
Samsonov (1993)that the variation of longitudinal strain u along the radius
is negligibly small when U
x
is the solitary wave (3.19) that is important for
the experimental observation of the waves.
3.4 Observation of longitudinal strain solitary waves
We briefly consider the recent successful experiments on solitary wave ob-
servation in a transparent rod, details may be found in Dreiden et. al (1995);
Samsonov (2001). The optical methods were used because they are prefer-
able to study transparent optical phase inhomogeneities. They allow not
only to visualize inhomogeneity but also to determine its parameters, and
on the other side, being contactless, they do not introduce any disturbances
in an object under study. All optical methods record the alterations of re-
fractive index in an object, when studying optically transparent phase in-
homogeneities. Shadowgraphy is more convenient to record a considerable
refractive index gradient, for example, caused by a strong shock wave prop-
agation. It was shown theoretically in our case that a strain solitary wave
is a propagating long density wave of small amplitude. Interferometry is
the most appropriate for such waves study because it allows to observe and
measure with sufficient accuracy even small refractive indices alterations.
Holographic interferometry method, used in the experiments Dreiden
et. al (1995), has several advantages in comparison with the conventional
optical interferometry. In particular, limitations to the optics quality are
considerably lower because wave fronts to be compared pass through the
same optical path. For this reason both waves are distorted to the same
extent and possible defects in optical elements and experimental cell do not
affect the resulting interference pattern. However, the choice of an optical
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76 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
recording method allows to study, in general, only elastic materials, that
are transparent for the given light wave length.
To check that the excited strain wave possesses indeed the solitary wave
feature to conserve its shape, it is necessary to follow in observations a
propagation along an extended elastic wave guide. However, in a wave
guide made of material highly absorbing linear elastic waves, it will be
sufficient to detect the constant shape wave propagation at much shorter
distance.
Based on the results of the analysis presented above the transparent
polystyrene SD-3 has been chosen as an appropriate material for a wave
guide manufacturing. The elastic properties of it are given by a set of
parameters ν = 0.35; β = − 6 10
10
N/m
2
; c

= 1.8 10
3
m/sec, see
Frantsevich et. al (1982).
The experimental set-up used to generate and observe the strain soli-
tons, consists of a basin where the rod is submerged into the water, a
device to produce the initial shock wave, a holographic interferometer for
the recording of a wave pattern, a synchronizer and a laser radiation energy
meter. The waves inside the rod are generated from a primary shock wave
produced in the water near the edge of the rod by laser vaporization of a
metal target. The first exposure of the hologram is carried out to obtain
the hologram of undisturbed wave guide. The second exposure is produced
by a laser pulse synchronized with the prescribed stage of the wave propa-
gation. Observations are carried out in the transversal direction, and two
cut-off were made parallel to the rod axis in order to make transparent
the central part of the rod. The carrier fringes on interferograms, obtained
due to the reconstruction of doubly exposed holograms, occur due to the
wedge turn between the exposures. The longitudinal strain wave patterns
are recorded at various distances from the input edge of the rod, that are
attained by the cell displacement along the axis of wave propagation.
The solitary wave parameters are calculated based on the data of the
holography interferograms obtained. Typical interferogram is shown in
Fig .3.5. Only central part of the PS rod is transparent thanks to the
vertical cuts. Curved interference fringe is extracted from the area inside
the rod and placed below the interferogram. Note that the interferometric
pattern does not exhibit a standard bell-shaped image of a shallow water
solitary wave since the strain solitary wave is, in fact, a longitudinal density
wave in solids.
The solitary wave amplitude can be calculated using the interferometry
fringe shift ∆K measured in the interference pattern, see Fig. 3.5. Let 2h
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 77
Fig. 3.5 Experimental observation of longitudinal strain solitary wave in an elastic
rod(after Dreiden et. al (1995)).
be a distance passed by the recording light across the rod, i.e., precisely,
the distance between two longitudinal cut-off. Before the deformation the
phase variation ∆φ
1
of the light wave having the length λ, is caused by the
laser light propagation along the distance q − 2h through the water and
the distance 2h through the rod ( where q is the distance between the cell
walls) Samsonov et. al (1998):
n
0
(q −2h) + 2hn
1
=
λ

∆φ
1
. (3.23)
Here n
0
, n
1
are the refraction indices of water and the elastic material
before deformation. After the deformation the refraction index value of
the rod changes to n
2
. Moreover, the distance, which light passes through
the rod and water, varies due to the deformation of the rod. As a result
we obtain the formula for the magnitude of the light wave phase variation
∆φ
2
:
n
0
(q −2h −2∆h) +n
2
(2h + 2∆h) =
λ

∆φ
2
. (3.24)
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78 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Evidently, the interferometry fringe shift ∆K is defined as
∆K =
∆φ
2
−∆φ
1

. (3.25)
The new value of the refraction index of the deformed rod n
2
is caused by
the local density variation:
∆ρ
ρ
=
n
2
−n
1
n
1
−1
. (3.26)
On the other side, one can obtain the density variation from the solution
of a static linear problem on uniaxial compression (or tension), see Lurie
(1990), and as a result the following relationship is valid:
∆ρ
ρ
= U
x
(2ν −1). (3.27)
Then we get finally from (3.25):
U
x
= −
λ∆K
2h[(n
1
−1)(1 −2ν) +ν(n
1
−n
0
)]
. (3.28)
The amplitude is determined by the maximal fringe shift value. Deriva-
tion of the relationship (3.28) shows that the length L of the solitary pulse
may be directly determined from the interferogram as the length of the
fringe shift perturbation between two undisturbed areas.
In our experiments Dreiden et. al (1995) we used a long polystyrene rod,
149 mm long. The nonlinearity parameter β < 0 for polystyrene, and we
can anticipate the appearance of only compression solitary wave. It is fairly
long and keeps its shape on propagation. As follows from (3.28) the wave
shown under interferogram in Fig. 3.5 is indeed a longitudinal compression
wave. There is no any tensile wave around the observed wave, moreover, in
the water surrounding the rod the interference patterns remains horizontal,
i.e., undisturbed, that proves the wave that is measured propagates inside
the rod. Therefore, the theory developed for an infinite cylindrical rod
allows to predict an existence of solitary waves in a finite-length rod with
vertical cuts.
Unfortunately only the wave amplitude may be measured more or less
precisely, hence full quantitative comparison with the theory is impossible.
The unsteady process of the solitary wave generation cannot be accounted
for the theory. The propagation of a shock wave before the solitary wave
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 79
contradicts numerical results shown in Fig. 3.2. For a long time solitary
waves were observed only in a wave guide made of polystyrene. Very re-
cently they were generated also in a plexiglas rod Samsonov et. al (2003).
3.5 Reflection of solitary wave from the edge of the rod
Following Dreiden et. al (2001) let us consider a semi-infinite homogeneous
rod, −∞< x < X. The procedure developed in section 3.2 may be applied
but now the elementary work done by the external forces should be included
into the Hamilton principle, and the integration with respect to x is carried
out over −∞< x < X,
δ
_
t
1
t
0
dt
_

_
X
−∞
dx
_
R
0
r Ldr
_
+
_
t
1
t
0
δAdt = 0. (3.29)
The Lagrangian density per unit volume, L=K − Π, is defined as before.
According to Lurie (1990) we cannot call Eq.(3.29) variation principle since
external forces are not necessary potential ones. Use of the Hamilton prin-
ciple yields the DDE (3.18) as a governing equation for longitudinal waves
together with the boundary conditions requiring zero values for v and its
derivatives as x → −∞, while on the rod end, x = X, they depend upon
the type of clamping. If the rod end is assumed free, the elementary work
of external forces at the end of the rod, x = X, is zero, δA = 0, and Eq.
(3.29) yields
v = 0, v
xx
= 0. (3.30)
When the end is clamped, the elementary work is not determined, but
obvious kinematic reasons require zero displacement and its velocity,
U = 0, U
t
= 0, (3.31)
that may be rewritten in terms of strains,
v
x
= 0, v
xt
= 0. (3.32)
Since DDE does not possess an exact solution describing interacting waves
moving in opposite directions, it is necessary to apply an asymptotic tech-
nique, reducing DDE to a nondimensional form. Introducing the scales, L
for x, L/c
0
for t, and B/L for v, where c
0
=
_
E/ρ
0
is the so-called rod
velocity. A small parameter ε is chosen as ε = B = R
2
/L
2
<< 1, to
balance nonlinearity and dispersion.
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80 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Assume the asymptotic solution v depends, in addition to x, t, on a
slow time τ = εt. The solution is sought in power series in ε:
v = v
0
+εv
1
+. . . . (3.33)
Substituting (3.33) into dimensionless DDE, and equating the terms with
the same power of ε we obtain the D’Alembert solution for v
0
:
v
0
= v
01
(θ, τ) +v
02
(ψ, τ), (3.34)
where θ = x +t, ψ = x −t. At order ε there is a linear equation for v
1
,
2v
1,θψ
= 2v
01,θτ
−2v
02,ψτ
+
β
2E
_
(v
2
01
)
θθ
+ 2v
01,θ
v
02,ψ
+ (v
2
02
)
ψψ
_
+
ν
2
2
(v
01,θθθθ
+v
02,ψψψψ
) (3.35)
The absence of secular terms leads to two uncoupled KdV equations for the
functions v
01
and v
02
,
2v
01,τ

β
2E
(v
2
01
)
θ

ν
2
2
v
01,θθθ
= 0, (3.36)
2v
02,τ
+
β
2E
(v
2
02
)
ψ
+
ν
2
2
v
02,ψψψ
= 0, (3.37)
and the bounded solution of Eq. (3.35) is
v
1
=
β
E
v
01
v
02
+v
11
(θ, τ) +v
12
(ψ, τ). (3.38)
Substituting the soliton solutions of the KdV equations (see Chapter 1)
into the leading order solution (3.34), we obtain
v
0
=
6Eν
2
β
k
2
[cosh
−2
_
k[x + (1 +εν
2
k
2
)t −x
01
_
+
cosh
−2
_
k[x −(1 +εν
2
k
2
)t −x
02
]
_
]. (3.39)
where x
01
are the constant phase shifts. It follows from (3.39) that the type
of the strain wave depends upon the sign of β like in previous section. Both
conditions (3.32) on the clamped end are satisfied if x
02
= 2X−x
01
. In this
case reflection of the solitary wave occurs with no change of its shape. On
the contrary, one cannot satisfy boundary conditions (3.30) at a free end of
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 81
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
5 10 15 20
-0.5
0.5
Fig. 3.6 Reflection of the solitary wave from a free end of the rod.
the rod. It means that the reflected solitary wave does not propagate but
disappears due to dispersion.
It may be clearly seen from numerical simulation of the reflection Drei-
den et. al (2001). Again the implicit finite-difference scheme explained in
Sec. 2.3.2, is used. Implementation of the boundary conditions at the end
of the rod is effected by means of symmetric continuation of the calculation
area beyond the real rod end, so that the area of calculation would occupy
the interval 0 < x < 2X. In case of free end of the rod the sign of β in
the interval X < x < 2X is chosen opposite to that used in the interval
0 < x < X. Initial pulses are assumed to be the equal magnitude KdV
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82 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
5 10 15 20
0.25
0.5
Fig. 3.7 Reflection of the solitary wave from a fixed end of the rod.
solitons located centrally symmetric relative to the genuine end x = X.
The type of an initial solitary wave depends upon the sign of β. In par-
ticular, if β > 0 the initial solitary wave in the interval 0 < x < X is a
tensile wave, while in the interval 0 < x < 2X we impose the same tensile
solitary wave for the clamped end or the compression solitary wave for the
free end. Initial velocities of the solitary waves are chosen equal and taken
to be directed towards each other.
The reflection from the free end is shown in Fig. 3.6. The right-hand
side of the figure corresponds to the free end. It is seen that the amplitude
of the solitary wave propagating from left to right decreases as it reaches
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 83
Fig. 3.8 Observation of a reflection of the solitary wave from a free end of the rod.
the end of the rod. The reflected wave is of opposite, first, its amplitude
grows, then the wave is dispersed, and no localized strain wave is observed
near the input end of the rod.
In case of the clamped end numerical results are shown in Fig. 3.7. In
agreement with the theory the amplitude of the solitary wave is seen to
be nearly twice as large when it reaches the end of the rod. The reflected
wave has the same amplitude and velocity as the incident one. Keeping its
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84 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Fig. 3.9 Reflection of the solitary wave from a clamped end of the rod.
shape, the reflected wave propagates towards the input end of the rod.
Experimental observation of the solitary strain wave reflection were car-
ried out in Dreiden et. al (2001) using the same technique as for the study
of the solitary wave propagation. Shown in Fig. 3.8 is the reflection from
the free end. Footnotes in Fig. 3.8(a) and Fig. 3.8(b) demonstrate the
decrease of the amplitude of the initially generated compression localized
wave shown in Fig. 3.8(a), cf. with the first and the fifth stages in Fig. 3.7.
It was found in experiments the absence of any reflected localized waves
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Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 85
Fig. 3.10 Reflected wave comes back to the input end of the rod.
moving towards the input end of the rod, cf. with the last stage of Fig. 3.6.
Hence all observations verify theoretical predictions.
Figures 3.9, 3.10 demonstrate the reflection of the strain solitary wave
from the rod end attached to the right to a massive brass plate. The
material of the plate is chosen so as to avoid penetration of the wave energy
outside the rod. It was found experimentally in Dreiden et. al (2001) that
the acoustic resistance of the plate should be much greater than that of
the material of the rod (polystyrene). It is seen that the amplitude of the
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86 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
incident solitary wave, Fig. 3.9(a), is almost doubled by the fixed end of
the rod, Fig. 3.9(b)in an agreement with the first and the fifth stages in
Fig. 3.7. Figure 3.10 shows the reflected solitary wave moving to the left
at a distance of 140 mm from the fixed end. It has the same amplitude
and velocity as the incident one, cf. the last stages in Fig. 3.7. In order to
see it is necessary to subtract the fringe shift outside the rod (marked by
B in Fig. 3.10) from the fringe shift measured inside the rod (marked by
A in Fig. 3.10). The wave observed in experiments demonstrates the main
feature of the solitary waves to keep their shapes after collisions, hence it
confirms also the fact that the observed localized wave is indeed the strain
solitary wave predicted by the theory.
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Chapter 4
Amplification of strain waves in
absence of external energy influx
As we seen in the previous chapter, strain solitary wave propagates without
change of the shape in an uniform rod with a free lateral surface. However,
the wave may still exist even in presence of an external medium or when
a material of the rod is microstructured. At the same time, the shape of
the wave varies when the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is
destroyed. The simplest reason is the varying cross section of the rod.
4.1 Longitudinal strain solitary wave amplification in a nar-
rowing elastic rod
The section is devoted to the theoretical and experimental description of
the propagation and amplification of the strain solitary wave (soliton) in
a cylindrical nonlinearly elastic rod with varying cross section. We call it
an inhomogeneous rod in the following for convenience, while the rod with
permanent cross section will be called the homogeneous one. We follow
Samsonov et. al (1998) where the results presented below were published
for the first time.
4.1.1 Governing equation for longitudinal strain waves
propagation
Let us consider the wave propagation problem for an isotropic infinite non-
linearly elastic compressible rod with varying cross section, see Fig. 4.1.
Introducing the cylindrical Lagrangian coordinate system (x, r, ϕ), where x
is the axis along the rod, ϕ [0, 2π], 0 ≤ r ≤ R(x) ≤ R
0
, R
0
− const, one
can write the displacement vector

V = (u, w, 0), if torsions are neglected.
Basic equations, describing the nonlinear wave propagation in the initial
87
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88 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Fig. 4.1 Free lateral surface cylindrical rod with varying cross section.
configuration, are obtained from the Hamilton variation principle (3.5).
We are studying long nonlinear longitudinal strain waves (density
waves), that allows to do some simplifications, namely, the relationships
between longitudinal and transversal displacements u and w. To find them
one needs to satisfy the boundary conditions on the free lateral rod surface
r = R(x), namely, the absence of both the normal and tangential stresses
at every moment. We introduce the small parameter ε, taking into account
that the waves under study should be elastic waves with sufficiently small
magnitude B, B << 1, as well as sufficiently long waves with the length
L, so as the ratio R
0
/L << 1, where R
0
is the maximal value of r(x)
along the rod . The most important case occurs when both nonlinear and
dispersive features are in balance and small enough:
ε = B =
_
R
0
L
_
2
<< 1. (4.1)
The boundary conditions have the form (3.7)-(3.9). The unknown func-
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 89
tions u, w are expanded in a power series (3.12), (3.13). Substituting
them into the boundary conditions and following the procedure explained
in Sec. 3.2, one can obtain
u
L
= U(x, t) +r
2
ν
2
U
xx
, w
L
= −r νU
x
−r
3
ν
2
2(3 −2ν)
U
xxx
. (4.2)
w
NL
= r
_
ν(1 +ν)
2
+
(1 −2ν)(1 +ν)
E
_
l(1 −2ν)
2
+ 2m(1 +ν) −nν
_
_
U
2
x
,
(4.3)
Higher order terms may be obtained by the same way, however, they will
be omitted here because of no influence on the final model equation for
the longitudinal strain waves equation to be derived using the Hamilton
principle (3.5). Substituting expansions (3.12), (3.13) with (4.2), (4.3) into
the formulas for K and Π, one can find respectively:
K =
ρ
0
2
_
U
2
t
+νr
2
_
U
t
U
xxt
+νU
2
xt
¸_
, (4.4)
Π =
1
2
_
EU
2
x
+
β
3
U
3
x
+νEr
2
U
x
U
xxx
_
. (4.5)
where β = 3E+2l(1−2ν)
3
+4m(1+ν)
2
(1−2ν) +6nν
2
becomes the only
coefficient depending on the nonlinear elasticity of the rod, it coincides
with that obtained in Sec. 3.2.3. Substituting (4.4), (4.5) into (3.5) and
calculating δS = 0, one can obtain the following nonlinear equation:
U
tt

c
2

R
2

∂x
_
R
2
U
x
¸
=
1
R
2

∂x
_
β

0
R
2
U
2
x

ν
4

∂x
(R
4
U
tt
) +
ν
2
2
R
4
U
xtt
_
+
1
R
2

∂x
_
νc
2

4
_
R
4
U
xxx
+

2
∂x
2
_
R
4
U
x
_
__

νR
2
4
U
xxtt
, (4.6)
where c

is the so-called ”rod” wave velocity, c
2

= E/ρ
0
.
Let us consider now the rod which cross section varies slowly along the
x− axis, which is described by a function R = R(γx), γ << 1. Introducing
the notation: v = U
x
, τ = tc

and differentiating the equation (4.6) on
x, we obtain an equation
v
ττ


∂x
1
R
2

∂x
_
R
2
v +
βR
2
2E
(v
2
) +aR
4
v
ττ
−bR
4
v
xx
−4bR
3
R
x
v
x
_
= 0,
(4.7)
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90 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
with the dispersion terms coefficients a and b, a = −[ν(1 − ν)]/2, b =
−ν/2. Two first terms here describe a common linear wave, the third
governs the nonlinearity, and the two following terms are responsible for
dispersive features of the rod, while the last term, being of the same order,
looks like a dissipative one, it occurs due to the cross section variation.
4.1.2 Evolution of asymmetric strain solitary wave
To describe the evolution of a travelling strain wave v we introduce the
phase variable θ and the slow variable X ≡ γx, as follows:
θ
τ
= −1, θ
x
= A(X). (4.8)
Using the asymptotic method explained in Sec. 2.2, the solution of Eq.
(4.7) is obtained in new variables in the power series in γ:
v = v
0
+γv
1
+. . . . (4.9)
Substitution (4.9) into the equation (4.7) gives in leading order of γ the
ODE reduction of the nonlinear double dispersive equation (3.18) for v
0
:
(1 −A
2
)v
0,θθ
−A
2
β
2E
(v
2
0
)
θθ
−R
2
A
4
(a −b)v
0,θθθθ
= 0,
whose solitary wave solution is Samsonov (2001):
v
0
=
3E
β
α cosh
−2
(k(X)[θ −θ
0
(X)]) , (4.10)
depending upon the varying parameter α = α(X), α > 0, while A, k are
expressed through it:
A
2
=
1
1 +α
, k
2
=
α(1 +α)
4R
2
[a(1 +α) −b]
. (4.11)
Since the parameters of the solitary wave depends upon the slow coordinate,
the wave is asymmetric like shown in Fig. 1.18.
Both A and k will be real in Eq.(4.11) for most standard elastic materials
(having the Poisson coefficient ν > 0) if the value of the function α is inside
an interval :
0 < α <
ν
1 −ν
, (4.12)
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 91
Then the type of the strain wave (4.10) (compression or tensile one) is
defined only by the sign of the nonlinear coefficient β, which depends on
the elasticity of the rod material, respectively.
Let us study a distortion of the solitary strain wave due to the ”geomet-
rical” inhomogeneity considered. Indeed an inmogeneous linear equation
holds for v
1
at order O(γ)
(1 −A
2
)v
1,θθ
−A
2
β
E
(v
1
v
0
)
θθ
−R
2
A
4
(a −b)v
1,θθθθ
= F, (4.13)
where
F =
R
X
R
A(2v
0,θ
+
β
E
(v
2
0
)
θ
+νR
2
[3(ν −1) + 5A
2
]v
0,θθθ
) +
A
X
(v
0,θ
+
β
2E
(v
2
0
)
θ
+νR
2
[
ν −1
2
+ 3A
2
]v
0,θθθ
) +
A(2v
0,θX
+
β
E
(v
2
0
)
θX
+νR
2
[
ν −1
2
+ 2A
2
]v
0,θθθX
).
Then the equation for the amplitude α arises from the secular term absence
condition (2.43):
_
ln
R
2
α
2
2kA
3
_
X
+
4bk
2
R
2
A
4
5
_
ln 2R
4
α
2
Ak
_
X
= 0, (4.14)
that after use of Eq.(4.11) is reduced to a nonlinear first order ODE for an
amplitude variation
R
X
R
= α
X
_
1
6(1 −D +α)

1


1
3(1 −D
1
+α)

1
3(1 −D
2
+α)
_
,
(4.15)
where:
D =
b
a
=
1
(1 −ν)
, D
1,2
=
2 ±

9 −5ν
5(1 −ν)
.
Taking the restrictions for α, Eq.(4.12), into account, we conclude that the
expansion in the brackets on the right- hand side of Eq.(4.15) is always
positive. Therefore the unbounded growth of the amplitude of the solitary
wave occurs with the radius decrease, while the increase of the radius is
accompanied by the decay of the amplitude. When the radius no longer
alters at X > X

, see Fig. 4.1, the amplitude and the velocity of the solitary
wave remain constant. The solitary wave evolution in this case is similar
to that shown in Fig. 1.19. However, there is no tendency to a finite value
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92 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
α

in the solutions of Eq.(4.15), and the values of the wave parameters at
X > X

are not fixed by the equation coefficients, they are defined by the
initial condition. Hence this is not a selection of the solitary wave when any
initial conditions provide one and the same solitary waves, see Sec. 1.3.
Direct integration of Eq.(4.15) yields
R
6
α
3
_
ν +α(2ν −6/5) −α
2
(1 −ν)
¸
2
(1 −ν)[ν −α(1 −ν)]
= const. (4.16)
Routine analysis of the functions v
0
, Eq.(4.10), and v
0,x
shows that the
distortion of the wave shape takes place apart from the amplitude variation.
When the bell-shaped solitary wave propagates along the narrowing rod,
its front side becomes steeper while the back one becomes smoother. Vice
versa, the front side of the solitary wave, moving along the expanding rod,
becomes smoother, while the back one - steeper. The equation for the
determination of an extremum of a derivative v
0,x
γ
R
X
R
+[k(1 −γθ
0,X
) +γk
X
[θ −θ
0
(X)]] tanh (k[θ −θ
0
(X)]) = 0. (4.17)
shows that for the wave propagation along the narrowing rod (R
X
< 0)
the extremum is achieved for θ − θ
0
(X) > 0, while in an expanding rod
(R
X
> 0) - for an inverse sign. Then the asymmetric solitary wave
accelerates in the narrowing rod and decelerates in the expanding one in
comparison with the same solitary wave moving along a uniform (homoge-
neous) rod.
The exact formulas (4.11), (4.16) may be easily simplified to describe
the wave parameters variations. The range of the strain wave amplitude is
restricted by a physical condition of the strain elasticity:
[
_
1 + 2C
xx
−1 [ < e
0
, (4.18)
where e
0
is the yield point of a material, and for most of elastic materials
its value lies in the interval 10
−4
−10
−3
Frantsevich et. al (1982). Therefore
α will have to be small enough, and the following approximations follow
from Eqs. (4.11), (4.16):
A = 1, k
2
=
α
4R
2
(a −b)
,
α
α
0
=
_
R
0
R
_
2
. (4.19)
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 93
The most important feature of the solution of Eq.(4.13) is in the appear-
ance of a plateau, propagating behind the solitary wave (4.10) with much
less velocity Samsonov (2001). The amplitude of the plateau is negative
for the narrowing rod and positive when the wave propagates along the
expanding rod.
4.1.3 Experimental observation of the solitary wave ampli-
fication
We used the same experimental technique as used for the study of the strain
solitary wave propagation in a homogeneous rod, see Sec. 3.3. The choice
of the rod cross sections variation is caused by two reasons. First, we were
going to observe a geometrical inhomogeneity influence just on the strain
solitary wave, secondly, the experimental setup limitations should be taken
into account. Measurements of the solitary wave amplitude in a homoge-
neous rod resulted in an estimation of the parameter ε = O(10
−3
). When
the inhomogeneity parameter γ is chosen to be γ << ε, then the possible
variation of the initial rod radius (R
0
= 5 mm) at the distance 100 mm
along the axis will be of order 0.1 mm or 2 % from the initial value. The
estimation of the amplitude change in this case by means of an approxima-
tion (4.19) shows that such a magnitude corresponds to the oscillations of
the observed solitary wave front Dreiden et. al (1995). So it seems hardly
possible to detect such a deviation using our experimental setup. Therefore
the inhomogeneity parameter should be chosen as γ >> ε.
It has to be noted, however, that an unsteady process takes place in
experiments in contrast to the quasistationary process governed by the
asymptotic solution obtained above. When γ >> ε the inhomogeneity
will change the initial pulse earlier than both nonlinearity and dispersion,
and the strain solitary wave will hardly appear from an initial shock. Thus
the rod cross section should remain constant at the distance required for
the solitary wave generation and separation, and begin vary only after it.
Experiments on the solitary wave generation in a homogeneous rod, see
Sec. 3.4, showed that a solitary wave appears even at the distance of 60
mm (ca. 10 R
0
) approximately from the input edge of the rod. Based on
this analysis, a rod of 140 mm long was made of polystyrene with uniform
and narrowing parts, as is shown in Fig. 4.2, and two cut offs were made on
the lateral surface for the observation purposes. The rod radius decreases
linearly from the value R
0
= 5 mm to the value R = 2.75 mm along the
distance 70 mm. In this case the inhomogeneity parameter γ = 0.032 is
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94 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Fig. 4.2 Polysteryne rod with variable cross section and cut-offs.
much greater than the typical solitary wave amplitude ≈ 10
−4
Dreiden et. al
(1995) for the homogeneous rod.
The shape of the strain wave was reconstructed by means of Eq.(3.28)
using the following values of parameters: n
0
= 1.33, n
1
= 1.6, Λ = 7
10
−7
m, ν = 0.35. It must be taken into account that light passes the
different distances 2h in different cross sections. At the interval where the
cross section remains uniform , we have 2h = 2h
0
= 7.75 10
−3
m,
while the measured cross section for the tapered rod part as well as the
inteferograms may be found in Samsonov et. al (1998). The enlargement
Fig. 4.3 Amplification of longitudinal strain solitary wave. Two graphs ”strain v vs.
solitary pulse width L” are drawn after interpolation. Solid circles • and the dashed
interpolative line both correspond to experimental data measured on a 40-60 mm interval
of the rod length; open triangles and the solid interpolative line correspond to them
on a 75 - 125 mm interval.
of the amplitude scale allows to visualize the main features of the solitary
wave in the tapered rod, see Fig. 4.3. Some features predicted by our theory
appear in experiments, namely, the increase of the amplitude, the steepness
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 95
of the wave front and smoothness of its back, i.e., asymmetric deformation
of the bell-shaped solitary wave. Moreover, the characteristic width of the
pulse, L
1
= 25, 2 mm, in the homogeneous part of the rod at the one-half
amplitude level is visibly greater than the similar value, L
2
= 22, 3 mm,
in the narrowing part, hence the width of the localized strain solitary pulse
decreases along the tapered rod.
The measurement of the wave amplitude is supposed to be quite plau-
sible for the comparison with the theory. One can see that the maximal
amplitude of the strain solitary wave is achieved at the distances 60 and
95 mm from the rod input edge, respectively. Then from the estimation
(3.28) we obtain the solitary wave magnitudes equal to 3.29 10
−4
in
the interval 40-90 mm, and to 3.83 10
−4
for the interval 75-125 mm.
Therefore the solitary wave magnitude increases 1.16 times. The estima-
tion using the simplified formulas (4.19), and a length dependence of the
kind R = R
0
−γ(x −70) gives the amplification as 1.31 times, which is in
a good agreement with the experimental data.
However, some new theoretical results cannot be checked in experi-
ments, namely:
-The experimental setup does not allow to measure directly the solitary
wave acceleration caused by the narrowing cross section along the rod.
-Like in case of the homogeneous rod, the precise measurement of the
wave width is impossible.
-There is no observation of a plateau.
4.2 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod embedded in an-
other elastic external medium with sliding
Stresses on the lateral surface of an elastic wave guide, e.g., an elastic rod,
may appear due to its interaction with the surrounding external medium,
as in some technological devices. Various types of contact models can be
used at the interface between the rod and the external medium. The full
(strong) contact model is used when there is continuity of both normal and
shear stresses, and displacements. Alternatively, in a weak contact, friction
may appear at the interface, hence a discontinuity in the shear stresses.
Slippage provides another form of contact at the interface, in which only
the continuity of the normal stresses and displacements is assumed. Surface
stresses may also arise due to the imperfect manufacturing of the lateral
surface of the wave guide and are formally like the ”surface tension” on the
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96 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
free surface of a liquid Biryukov et. al (1991), Nikolova (1977).
The analytical solution of the contact problem is rather difficult even
in the framework of the linear elasticity theory, see Kerr (1964) and refer-
ences therein. However, considerable progress has been achieved to account
for short nonlinear surface acoustic waves propagating along the interface
between elastic media Parker (1994); Parker and Maugin (1987).
Recently, in the studies of strain waves in a rod interacting with an
elastic external medium, attention was mostly focused on the propagation
ofsurface strain waves along the lateral rod surface perpendicular to its
axis (see, e.g., Gulyaev and Polsikova (1978); Shevyakhov (1977)). Here,
however, we shall consider bulk density strain waves, propagating along the
rod axis. Although rather useful in the study of free lateral surface rods,
the so- called plane cross section hypothesis and Love’s relationship fail
to properly account for contact problems, because they rule out normal
stresses at the rod lateral surface, hence there is discontinuity of normal
stresses at the interface of the rod and the external medium. Most of the
results in this section were first published in Porubov et. al (1998).
4.2.1 Formulation of the problem
Let us consider an isotropic, axially infinitely extended, elastic rod sur-
rounded by another albeit different elastic medium, in which it may slide
without friction, see Fig. 4.4. We shall consider the propagation of longitu-
dinal strain waves of small but finite amplitude in the rod. Axi-symmetry
leads to using cylindrical Lagrangian coordinates (x, r, ϕ), where x is the
axis of the rod, ϕ [0, 2π], 0 ≤ r ≤ R. When torsions are neglected, the
displacement vector is

V = (u, w, 0). We choose Murnaghan’s approxima-
tion (3.1) for deformation energy for the rod. The displacement vector for
the linearly elastic external medium may be written as

V
1
= (u
1
, w
1
, 0).
Its density is noted by ρ
1
, and its elastic properties are characterized by
the Lam´e coefficients (λ
1
, µ
1
). Any disturbances due to the wave prop-
agation inside the rod are transmitted to the external medium through
displacements and stresses normal to the rod surface only when contact
with slippage is considered. Disturbances are assumed to decay to zero
in the external medium far from the rod. The normal strains as well as
the displacements inside the rod are smaller than those along the rod axis.
Thus we assume that displacements and strains are infinitesimal in the ex-
ternal medium, hence as already said it is a linear elastic one. Then for the
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 97
Fig. 4.4 Cylindrical rod surrounded by an external elastic medium.
external medium we have:
ρ
1
u
1,tt
−(λ
1
+ 2µ
1
) u
1,zz
−(λ
1

1
)
_
w
1,rz
+
w
1,x
r
_

λ
1
_
u
1,rr
+
u
1,r
r
+w
1,rx
+
w
1,x
r
_
= 0 (4.20)
ρ
1
w
1,tt
−(λ
1
+ 2µ
1
)
_
w
1,rr
+
w
1,r
r

w
1
r
2
_
−µ
1
w
1,xx


1

1
) u
1,rx
= 0 (4.21)
The following boundary conditions (b.c.) are imposed:
w → 0, at r → 0, (4.22)
w = w
1
, at r = R, (4.23)
P
rr
= σ
rr
, at r = R, (4.24)
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98 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
P
rx
= 0, σ
rx
= 0, at r = R, (4.25)
u
1
→ 0, w
1
→ 0 at r → ∞. (4.26)
where P
rr
, P
rx
denote the components of the Piola - Kirchhoff stress
tensor P, see Eqs. (3.10), (3.11). The quantities σ
rr
and σ
rz
are the
corresponding components of the linear stress tensor in the surrounding,
external medium:
σ
rr
= (λ
1
+ 2µ
1
) w
1,r

1
w
1
r
+ λ
1
u
1,x
(4.27)
σ
rx
= µ
1
(u
1,r
+w
1,x
) (4.28)
The conditions (4.23)-(4.25) define the sliding contact, while the longitu-
dinal displacements u and u
1
are left free at the interface r = R.
The Piola- Kirchhoff tensor coincides with the linear stress tensor for
infinitesimally small strains. Note that the coefficients in P
rr
and P
rx
depend upon both the second order Lam´e coefficients λ and µ and the
Murnaghan moduli, l, m, n. Hence the tensor P takes into account both
the geometrical and material nonlinearities.
The linear equations (4.20) and (4.21) are solved together with the
boundary conditions (4.23), (4.25), (4.26), assuming that the displacement
w at the interface is a given function of x and t, hence w(x, t, R) ≡ W(x, t).
Then the linear shear stress σ
rr
at the interface r = R is obtained as a
function of W and its derivatives, thus providing the dependence only on
the rod characteristics in the right hand side of the b.c. (4.24). The same
is valid for the elementary work done by external forces at r = R:
δA = 2π
_

−∞
σ
rr
δwdx. (4.29)
Satisfaction of the b.c. on the rod lateral surface yields the relationships
between displacements and strains inside the rod, see Sec. 3.2, allowing
to derive only one nonlinear equation for long longitudinal waves using
Hamilton’s principle (3.29) with the Lagrangian density per unit volume,
L=K − Π, with Π, K and δA defined by Eqs. (3.1), (3.6) and (4.29)
correspondingly.
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 99
4.2.2 External stresses on the rod lateral surface
First, the linear problem (4.20), (4.21) will be solved with the boundary
conditions (4.23), (4.25), (4.26). As we focus attention on travelling waves
along the axis of the rod we assume that all variables depend only upon
the phase variable θ = x − ct, where c is the phase velocity of the wave.
Assuming that the unknown functions u
1
, w
1
are
u
1
= Φ
θ
+ Ψ
r
+
Ψ
r
, w
1
= Φ
r
−Ψ
θ
, (4.30)
then Φ and Ψ satisfy the equation:
Φ
rr
+
1
r
Φ
r
+ (1 −
c
2
c
2
l

θθ
= 0, (4.31)
Ψ
rr
+
1
r
Ψ
r

1
r
2
Ψ + (1 −
c
2
c
2
τ
) Ψ
θθ
= 0, (4.32)
where c
l
and c
τ
are the velocities of the bulk longitudinal and shear linear
waves in the external medium, respectively. They depend on the density
and the Lam´e coefficients, c
2
l
= (λ
1
+ 2µ
1
)/ρ
1
, and c
2
τ
= µ
1

1
.
To solve equations (4.31), (4.32)we introduce the Fourier transforms of
Φ and Ψ:

Φ=
_

−∞
Φexp(−k θ) dθ,

Ψ=
_

−∞
Ψexp(−k θ) dθ
that reduces Eqs. (4.31), (4.32) to the Bessel equations :

Φrr
+
1
r

Φr
−k
2
α

Φ= 0, (4.33)

Ψrr
+
1
r

Ψr

1
r
2

Ψ −k
2
β

Ψ= 0, (4.34)
with α = 1−c
2
/c
2
l
, and β = 1−c
2
/c
2
τ
. The ratios between c, c
l
and c
τ
define
the signs of α and β, hence three possible sets of solutions to the equations
(4.33), (4.34) appear, vanishing at infinity due to b.c. (4.26). Using the
boundary conditions (4.23), (4.25),we obtain the following relationships for
the Fourier images of normal stresses at the lateral surface r = R :
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100 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
I) when 0 < c < c
τ
:

σ
rr
=
µ
1

W
1 −β
_
2(β −1)
R
+
k(1 +β)
2
K
0
(

αkR)

α K
1
(

αkR)

4k

βK
0
(

βkR)
K
1
(

βkR)
_
(4.35)
II) when c
τ
< c < c
l

σ
rr
=
µ
1

W
1 −β
_
2(β −1)
R
+
k(1 +β)
2
K
0
(

αkR)

α K
1
(

αkR)

4k

βJ
0
(

−βkR)
J
1
(

−βkR)
_
(4.36)
III) when c > c
l

σ
rr
=
µ
1

W
1 −β
_
2(β −1)
R
+
k(1 +β)
2
J
0
(

−αkR)

−α J
1
(

−αkR)

4k

βJ
0
(

−βkR)
J
1
(

−βkR)
_
(4.37)
where J
i
and K
i
(i = 0, 1) denote the corresponding Bessel functions.
We shall see in the next section that in the long wave limit the normal
stress σ
rr
has one and the same functional form at the lateral surface of
the rod in all three cases (4.35)- (4.37). The main difference in the stress
(and strain) fields in the external medium is how they vanish at infinity.
This depends on the monotonic decay of K
i
and the oscillatory decay of J
i
when R →∞. Note that the dependence of the strain wave behavior on the
velocities of bulk linear waves, c
l
, c
τ
, is known, in particular, for acoustic
transverse Love waves propagating in an elastic layer superimposed on an
elastic half-space Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994); Parker and Maugin (1987).
4.2.3 Derivation of strain-displacement relationships in-
side the rod
To solve the nonlinear problem inside the elastic rod, we have to simplify the
relationships between longitudinal and shear displacements u and w follow-
ing the procedure explained in Sec. 3.2. These relationships are obtained,
using conditions on the free lateral surface r = R, namely, the simulta-
neous absence of the tangential stresses and the continuity of the normal
ones. We search for elastic strain waves with sufficiently small magnitude
B << 1, and a long wavelength relative to the rod radius R, R/ L << 1.
L scales the wavelength along the rod. An interesting case appears when
there is balance between (weak) nonlinearity and (weak) dispersion as for
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 101
a rod with free lateral surface. Then
ε = B =
_
R
L
_
2
<< 1. (4.38)
is the smallness parameter of the problem. The linear part of longitudinal
strain along the rod axis, C
xx
, is u
x
. Then choosing L as a scale along x,
one gets BL as a scale for the displacement u. Similarly, the linear part of
transverse strain, C
rr
, is w
r
. We use the scale BR for the displacement w,
by choosing R as a length scale along the rod radius. Then with [kR[ << 1
in (4.35) - (4.37), we have a power series expansion in kR. It allows to obtain
analytically an inverse Fourier transform for σ
rr
= k
1
r
2
w+k
2
r
−1
w
xx
and
to write the conditions (4.24), (4.25) in dimensionless form at the lateral
surface r = 1 as:
(λ + 2µ) w
r
+ (λ −k
1
) w +λu
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
u
2
r
+
ε(
3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m
2
w
2
r
+ (λ + 2l) ww
r
+
λ + 2l
2
w
2
+ (λ + 2l) u
x
w
r
+
(2l −2m+n) u
x
w + (µ +m) u
r
w
x
+
λ + 2l
2
u
2
x
−k
2
w
xx
) +
ε
2
λ + 2µ +m
2
w
2
x
= O(ε
3
), (4.39)
µu
r
+ε(µw
x
+ (λ + 2µ +m) u
r
w
r
+ 0.5(2λ + 2m−n) u
r
w +
(λ + 2µ +m) u
x
u
r
) +ε
2
(0.5(2m−n) ww
x
+
(µ +m) (w
x
w
r
+u
x
w
x
)) = O(ε
3
) (4.40)
At the rod lateral surface W ≡ w, W
xx
≡ w
xx
. Moreover, for 0 < c < c
τ
:
k
1
= −2µ
1
, k
2
=
µ
1
c
2
(γ −log 2)
c
2
τ
, (4.41)
while for c
τ
< c < c
l
:
k
1
=

1
(4c
2
τ
−c
2
)
c
2
, k
2
=
µ
1
c
2
τ
c
2
_
1 −
c
2
c
2
τ
+ (2 −
c
2
c
2
τ
)
2
(γ −log 2)
_
,
(4.42)
and for c > c
l
:
k
1
=

1
[c
2
(c
2
τ
−c
2
l
) + 3c
2
l
c
2
τ
−4c
4
τ
]
c
2
τ
(c
2
l
−c
2
)
, k
2
=
µ
1
c
2
4c
2
τ
. (4.43)
with γ = 0.5772157 Euler’s constant.
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102 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
The unknown functions u, w will be found in power series of ε:
u = u
0
+εu
1

2
u
2
+. . . , w = w
0
+εw
1

2
w
2
+. . . . (4.44)
Substituting (4.44) in (4.39), (4.40), and equating to zero all terms of the
same order of ε, we find that the plane cross-section hypothesis and Love’s
relation are valid in the leading order only:
u
0
= U(x, t), w
0
= r C U
x
, (4.45)
with
C =
λ
k
1
−2(λ +µ)
. (4.46)
To order O(ε) we get:
u
1
= − r
2
C
2
U
xx
, w
1
= r
3
DU
xxx
+r QU
2
x
, (4.47)
with coefficients
D =
λ(λ + 2k
2
)
2(k
1
−2(λ +µ))(2(2λ + 3µ) −k
1
)
(4.48)
Q =
λ + 2l + 2C(λ + 4l −2m+n) + 2C
2
(3λ + 3µ + 4l + 2m)
2(k
1
−2(λ +µ))
(4.49)
The higher order terms in the series (4.44) may be obtained in a similar way,
but are omitted here being unnecessary to obtain an evolution equation for
the strain waves.
4.2.4 Nonlinear evolution equation for longitudinal strain
waves along the rod and its solution
Now we can derive the equation for the strain waves along the rod. First
of all, substituting (4.44) into the potential deformation energy density Π
(3.1), one can get in dimensionless form that
Π = a
1
U
2
x

_
a
2
r
2
U
x
U
xxx
+a
3
U
3
x
¸
+O(ε
2
), (4.50)
with
a
1
=
λ + 2µ
2
+ 2λC + 2(λ +µ)C
2
,
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 103
a
2
= −
λ + 2µ
2
C −λC
2
+ 4λD + 8(λ +µ) C D,
a
3
=
λ + 2µ
2
+λC +λC
2
+ 2(λ +µ)C
3
+ 2Q[λ + 2(λ +µ)C] +
l
_
1
3
+ 2C + 4C
2
+
8
3
C
3
_
+m
_
2
3
−2C
2
+
4
3
C
3
_
+nC
2
.
For the kinetic energy we have:
K =
ρ
0
2
_
U
2
t
−ε r
2
C(U
t
U
xxt
−CU
2
xt
)
¸
+O(ε
2
) (4.51)
Substituting (4.50), (4.51) and (4.29) into (3.29) and using Hamilton’s vari-
ational principle, we obtain the following equation for a longitudinal strain
wave, v = U
x
:
v
tt
−b
1
v
xx
−ε
_
b
2
v
xxtt
+b
3
v
xxxx
+b
4
(v
2
)
xx
_
= 0, (4.52)
with
b
1
=
2(a
1
−k
1
C
2
)
ρ
0
, b
2
=
C(1 +C)
2
,
b
3
=
a
2
−2C(k
2
C + 2 k
1
D)
ρ
0
, b
4
=
3(a
3
−k
1
C Q)
ρ
0
. (4.53)
Equation (4.52) is nothing but the double dispersive equation (3.18), it
admits, in particular, exact travelling solitary wave solution. Note that
the coefficients depend now upon the wave velocity, c, due to (4.41)- (4.43).
The terms of order O(ε
2
) have been neglected, when deriving equation
(4.52). Therefore we assume c
2
= c
2
0
+ε c
1
+... and consider the coefficients
b
2
− b
4
depending on c
0
only, while the coefficient b
1
may depend also on
c
1
as b
1
= b
10
(c
0
) + ε b
11
(c
0
, c
1
). Then the solitary wave solution has the
form:
v = A m
2
cosh
−2
(mθ) , (4.54)
with
A =
6(b
10
b
2
+b
3
)
b
4
. (4.55)
To leading order the phase velocity is obtained from the equation
c
2
0
= b
10
(c
0
), (4.56)
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104 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Table 4.1 Phase velocities of waves in a polystyrene rod embedded indifferent media.
All velocities are measured in 10
−3 m
sec
material c
τ
c
l
c
01
c
02
c
03
model
Quartz 3.78 6.02 2.06 2.1 or 7.15 2.13 or 5.77 I
Iron 3.23 5.85 2.08 2.1 or 6.32 2.11 or 5.15 I
Copper 2.26 4.7 2.07 2.11 or 4.33 2.12 or 3.68 I, II
Brass 2.12 4.43 2.06 2.11 or 4.02 2.12 or 3.45 I, II
Aluminium 3.08 6.26 2.05 2.11 or 5.75 2.13 or 4.97 I, II
Lead 1.09 2.41 2.01 − 1.83 or 2.06 -
and for the function c
1
we get the equation
c
1
= b
11
+ 4k
2
(b
10
b
2
+b
3
), (4.57)
where the wave number k remains a free parameter.
4.2.5 Influence of the external medium on the propagation
of the strain solitary wave along the rod
Let us estimate the influence of the external medium on the solitary wave
propagation along the rod. First of all, we have to solve Eq.(4.56) for all
three possible cases (4.41) -(4.43). As ε must not exceed the yield point of
the elastic material (its usual value is less than 10
−3
) we have to compare
with c
l
and c
τ
the values obtained for c
0
, rather than for c.
For the case (4.41), the velocity c
0
is obtained from (4.57) as
c
2
0
=
(3λ + 2µ)µ +µ
1
(λ + 2µ)
ρ
0
(λ +µ +µ
1)
. (4.58)
It appears always higher than the wave velocity in a free rod.
For the model (4.42), Eq. (4.56) yields
c
4
0
−A
1
c
2
0
+A
2
= 0 (4.59)
where
A
1
=
(3λ + 2µ)µ +µ
1
(λ + 2µ) + 4µ
1
ρ
0
c
2
τ
ρ
0
(λ +µ +µ
1)
, A
2
=

1
c
2
τ
(λ + 2µ)
ρ
0
(λ +µ +µ
1)
.
Finally, for the model (4.43), Eq. (4.56) provides
c
4
0
−B
1
c
2
0
+B
2
= 0 (4.60)
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 105
Table 4.2 Phase velocities of waves in a lead rod embedded in differentexternal media.
All velocities are measured in 10
−3 m
sec
material c
τ
c
l
c
01
c
02
c
03
model
Quartz 3.78 6.02 2.06 2.55 or 4.39 7.51 I,II,III
Iron 3.23 5.85 2.2 2.47 or 4.91 2.73 or4.81 I, II
Copper 2.26 4.7 2.11 − − I
Brass 2.12 4.43 2.08 − − I
Aluminium 3.08 6.26 2.03 − − I
Polystyrene 1.01 2.1 1.83 0.38 or 1.81 1.84 or 2.06 II, III
with
B
1
=
(3λ + 2µ)µc
2
τ
+ (c
2
τ
−c
2
l

1
(λ + 2µ) + 4µ
1
ρ
0
c
4
τ
+c
2
τ
c
2
l
ρ
0
(λ +µ −3µ
1
)
ρ
0
(c
2
l
µ
1
−c
2
τ
(λ +µ +µ
1
))
B
2
=
c
2
τ
c
2
l
[3µ
1
(λ + 2µ) −µ(3λ + 2µ)] −4µ
1
c
4
τ
(λ + 2µ)
ρ
0
(c
2
l
µ
1
−c
2
τ
(λ +µ +µ
1
))
.
Table 4.1 contains some quantitative estimates for a polystyrene rod and
Table 4.2 for a lead rod, respectively, both embedded in different external
media. The quantities c
01
, c
02
and c
03
denote velocities calculated from
Eqs.(4.58), (4.59) and (4.60), respectively. Comparing velocities c
0i
relative
to c
τ
and c
l
we can justify the applicability of cases (4.41)- (4.43). This is
noted by symbols I-III, respectively, in the last column of Tables 4.1 and
4.2. Indeed, the model (4.41) is better for the contact with a polystyrene
rod, while no solitary wave may propagate when the external medium is
lead. However, a solitary wave may propagate along a lead rod embedded
in a polystyrene external medium, as it follows from Table 4.2. Note that
there exist pairs of materials, for which two or even all three models of
sliding contact allow a solitary wave propagation. Thus the balance between
nonlinearity and dispersion may be achieved at different phase velocities of
the strain nonlinear waves. This result is of importance when generating
strain solitary waves in a rod embedded in an external elastic medium.
Therefore, strain solitary waves can propagate only with velocities from
the intervals around c
0i
. Note that the solitary wave is a bulk (density)
wave inside the rod and, simultaneously, it is a surface wave for the exter-
nal medium. Then, an important difference appears relative to long non-
linear Rayleigh surface waves in Cartesian coordinates: in our case more
than one velocity interval exists where solitary waves may propagate. The
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106 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
main difference between modes lies in the different rate of wave decay in
the external medium, that follows from the different behavior of Bessel’s
functions at large values of their arguments.
Now let us consider the influence of the type of external medium on
the existence of either compression or tensile longitudinal strain localized
waves. Using the data from Table 4.1 to compute the value of A (4.55) for
a polystyrene rod, it yields that its sign may change according to the values
of the parameters of the material used for the external medium. Therefore
the solitary wave (strain!) amplitude (4.54) may change its sign. The
amplitude is negative for a free lateral surface rod and it remains negative
if the external medium is, say, quartz, brass, copper or iron. However, the
sign changes if c
0
= c
02
and the external medium is aluminium. Therefore,
one can anticipate, in particular, that for a rod embedded in aluminium
an initial pulse with velocity close to c
02
may transform only into a tensile
solitary wave while an initial pulse with velocity close to c
01
evolves to
become a compression solitary wave.
Finally, let us consider the influence on the sign of c
1
(4.57). For case I,
b
11
= 0, hence the sign is defined by the sign of the quantity (b
10
b
2
+b
3
)/b
4
.
For polystyrene it is, generally, negative for all the external media in Table
4.1, while for a free lateral surface it is positive. Thus, the velocity, c, of
a nonlinear wave in a rod embedded in an external medium is lower than
the linear wave velocity, c
0
, while for a free surface rod nonlinear waves
propagate faster than linear waves. On the other hand, the nonlinear wave
velocity, c, in a polystyrene rod embedded in external medium is higher than
the linear wave velocity for a rod with free lateral surface, c

=
_
E/ρ
0
.
4.2.6 Numerical simulation of unsteady strain wave prop-
agation
Numerical simulation of unsteady nonlinear wave processes in elastic rods
with free lateral surface shows that for A < 0 only initial compression
pulses provide a solitary wave (4.54) or a wave train, while tensile initial
pulses do not become localized and are destroyed by dispersion. On the
contrary, for A > 0 only tensile strain solitary waves may appear, see
Figs. 3.2, 3.3 , and initial compression pulses are destroyed like in Fig. 3.4.
Let us consider now the case when the rod lateral surface is partly free along
the axis and the other part is subjected to a sliding contact with an external
elastic medium, as it is shown in Fig. 4.5. Then the nonlinear strain wave
propagation is described in each part by its own equation (4.52). Matching
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 107
Fig. 4.5 Cylindrical rod partly embedded into an external elastic medium with sliding.
is provided by the continuity of strains and its derivatives. Assume that
for the free surface part ( k
1
= 0, k
2
= 0) A = A
1
, m = m
1
, while for
the embedded one, A = A
2
, m = m
2
. Let the initial solitary wave (4.54)
moves from left to right in Fig. 4.5 far from the embedded part, which is
supposed to be undeformed at the initial time. It was found in Samsonov
(1988) that the mass M conservation in the form
d
dt
M = 0, M =

_
−∞
v dx (4.61)
is satisfied by equation (4.52). Then using Eqs.(4.54) and (4.55) we get for
the mass M
1
M
1
= 2 A
1
m
1
, (4.62)
The wave evolution along the embedded part, depends on the ratio
between A
1
and A
2
. Similar to the unsteady processes inside a rod with
the free lateral surface, see Sec. 3.2, an initial strain solitary wave will be
destroyed in the embedded part, if sgnA
2
differs from sgnA
1
. Otherwise
another solitary wave or a wave train will appear. When the initial pulse is
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108 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Fig. 4.6 Amplification and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave.
not massive enough one can see in Fig. 3.2, that only one new solitary wave
appears but there is an oscillatory decaying tail. However, the contribution
of the tail to the mass M is negligibly small relative to the solitary wave
contribution, hence
M
2
= 2 A
2
m
2
. (4.63)
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 109
Comparing M
1
and M
2
, according to Eq.(4.61) it follows
A
1
m
1
= A
2
m
2
. (4.64)
Fig. 4.7 Attenuation and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave.
Therefore, if A
2
< A
1
the amplitude of the solitary wave increases while
its width, proportional to m
−1
, decreases, hence there is focusing of the soli-
tary wave. On the contrary, when A
2
> A
1
attenuation of the solitary wave
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110 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
is provided by the simultaneous decrease of the amplitude and the increase
of the wave width. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical estimates.
Fig. 4.8 Delocalization and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave.
In Fig. 4.6 the evolution of a strain tensile solitary wave is shown in a rod,
having a central part embedded in an external medium. The value of A
in the central part II, A
2
, is positive but smaller than the value of A
1
in
the surrounding free lateral surface parts I and III, A
1
> A
2
> 0. In the
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 111
embedded part II (Fig. 4.6(b)) the solitary wave amplitude exceeds the am-
plitude of the initial solitary wave in Fig. 4.6(a), while its width becomes
narrower than that of the initial wave. Therefore an increase in amplitude
of the elastic strain solitary wave is possible even in an uniformly elastic
rod. This may overtake the yield point inside the elastically deformed rod,
hence the possible appearance of cracks or plasticity zones. In our case
the deformations of the wave front and rear are equal. Hence, the solitary
wave remains symmetric on amplification at variance with the strain soli-
tary wave amplification in a rod with diminishing cross section. Moreover,
a plateau develops in the tail of the solitary wave in geometrically inhomo-
geneous rod. These differences could be caused by the absence of mass (and
energy) conservation for strain solitary waves in a narrowing (expanding)
rod.
In the case treated here, the solitary wave does not loose mass, M, hence
its original shape is recovered when traversing part III in Fig. 4.6(c,d). One
can see that an oscillatory tail of the solitary wave in Fig. 4.6(d) is less
pronounced than the tail in Fig. 4.6(c), in agreement with (4.64). Again
there is no solitary wave selection since the parameters of the recovered
wave depends upon that of the original one.
When A
2
> A
1
> 0, an initial tensile strain solitary wave, Fig. 4.7(a), is
drastically attenuated as soon as it enters the embedded area, Fig. 4.7(b),
and its amplitude decreases while its width becomes larger. Again both
the reconstruction of the initial wave profile and the damping of its tail
are observed in the third part of a rod with free lateral surface, part III in
Fig. 4.7(c,d).
Consider now the case of different signs of A
i
and assume that A
1
> 0
on both free surface parts. One can see in Fig.4.8 how an initial tensile
solitary wave, Fig. 4.8(a), is destroyed in the embedded part II, Fig. 4.8(b),
in agreement with our previous results on the unsteady processes occurring
for a free surface rod. However, a strain wave is localized again in the third
part of a rod with free lateral surface, Fig. 4.8(c), part III , and finally
recovers its initial shape in Fig. 4.8(d). Again damping of the tail behind
the solitary wave is observed. Accordingly, both compression and tensile
initial pulses may produce localized strain solitary waves in a rod partly
embedded in an external elastic medium with sliding.
Moreover, the amplitude of the solitary wave generated in such a man-
ner, may be greater than the magnitude of the initial pulse. This case is
shown in Figs. 4.9, 4.10 where A
1
< 0, A
2
> 0 and [A
1
[ < A
2
. One can see
in Fig. 4.9 how an initially localized rectangular tensile pulse, Fig. 4.9(a), is
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112 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Fig. 4.9 Generation of a tensile strain solitary wave train in a rod. The elastic properties
of the rod are chosen such that tensile wave propagation cannot occur in the absence of
contact with an external medium.
destroyed in the free surface part I, Fig.4.9(b). However, a wave train of soli-
tary waves appears, when a destroyed strain wave comes to the embedded
part, Figs. 4.9(c,d). The amplitude of the first solitary wave in Fig. 4.9(d)
exceeds the magnitude of the initial rectangular pulse in Fig. 4.9(a). In
the absence of surrounding external medium this rod wave-guide does not
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 113
Fig. 4.10 Delocalization of a strain solitary wave in the absence of external medium.
support tensile solitary wave propagation, and a strain wave is delocalized
as shown in Fig. 4.10.
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114 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
4.3 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod with microstruc-
ture
Classic elastic theory cannot account for phenomena caused by the mi-
crostructure of a material. A particular case is a dispersion of strain waves
in an elastic medium. The influence of microstructure may provide dissipa-
tive effects Cermelli and Pastrone (1997); Engelbrecht and Braun (1998);
Maugin and Muschik (1994), it will be studied in Chapter 6, now consid-
eration is restricted by the non-dissipative case.
The present section refers to the study of nonlinear solitary waves inside
cylindrical rod with microstructure following Porubov (2000). The problem
is solved using the ”pseudo-continuum” Cosserat model and the Le Roux
continuum model. A procedure is developed for derivation of the model
equation for long longitudinal strain waves inside the rod. The influence
of the microstructure on the solitary wave propagation and amplification is
studied.
4.3.1 Modelling of non-dissipative elastic medium with mi-
crostructure
The theory of microstructure has been developed recently, see Engel-
brecht and Braun (1998); Eringen (1968); Mindlin (1964); Nowacki (1975);
Nowacki (1986a) and references therein. Most of results belong to the linear
theory of elasticity, however, there are findings in the field of the nonlinear
theory Engelbrecht and Braun (1998); Eringen (1968). Strain waves were
studied mainly in the linear approximation Eringen (1968); Mindlin (1964);
Nowacki (1975); Nowacki (1986a). Only a few works are devoted to the
nonlinear waves in microstructured non-dissipative media Engelbrecht and
Braun (1998); Erbay et. al (1991); Erofeev and Potapov (1993); Erofeev
(2002); Savin et. al (1973a); Savin et. al (1973b). Waves in elastic wave
guides with microstructure were out of considerable investigation. Also
the values of the parameters characterizing microstructure, are unknown
as a rule, only a few experiments may be mentioned, Savin et. al (1973b);
Potapov and Rodyushkin (2001).
Recall some basic ideas following Eringen (1968). Suppose the macroele-
ment of an elastic body contains discrete micromaterial elements. At any
time the position of a material point of the αth microelement may be
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 115
expressed as
x
(α)
= x +ξ
(α)
,
where x is the position vector of the center of mass of the macroelement,
ξ
(α)
is the position of a point in the microelement relative to the center of
mass. The motion of the center of mass depends upon the initial position
X and time t, x = x(X, t), while for ξ
(α)
the axiom of affine motion is
assumed,
ξ
(α)
= χ
K
(X, t) Ξ
(α)
K
,
where Ξ
(α)
characterizes initial position of a point relative to the center
of mass. Then the square of the arc length is (ds
(α)
)
2
= dx
(α)
dx
(α)
, and
the difference between the squares of arc length in the deformed and unde-
formed body is
(ds
(α)
)
2
−(dS
(α)
)
2
= (x
k,K
x
k,L
−δ
KL
+ 2x
k,K
χ
kM,L
Ξ
M
+
χ
kM,K
χ
kN,L
Ξ
M
Ξ
N
)dX
K
dX
L
+
2 (x
k,K
χ
kL
−δ
KL

kL
χ
kM
Ξ
M
) dX
K

L
+
χ
kK
χ
kL

K

L
. (4.65)
where δ
KL
is the Kronecker delta. Let us introduce vector of macrodis-
placements, U(X, t) and tensor of microdisplacements, Φ(X, t),
x
k,K
= (δ
LK
+U
L,K

kL
,
χ
kK
= (δ
LK
+ Φ
LK

kL
Then three tensors characterizing the behavior of microstructured
medium follow from (4.65),
C
KL
=
1
2
(U
K,L
+U
L,K
+U
M,K
U
M,L
) ,
E
KL
= Φ
KL
+U
L,K
+U
M,K
Φ
ML
,
Γ
KLM
= Φ
KL,M
+U
N,K
Φ
NL,M
,
where C
KL
is the Cauchy-Green macrostrain tensor , E
KL
is the tensor
of a reference distortion, Γ
KLM
is the tensor of microdistortion. Tensor of
the second rank E
KL
accounts for the microelements motion relative to the
center of mass of the macroelement, while tensor of the third rank Γ
KLM
characterizes relative motion of the microelements of one another.
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116 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
The density of the potential energy Π should be the function of these
tensors, Π = Π(C
KL
, E
KL
, Γ
KLM
), more precisely upon the invariants of
them. The bulk density of the kinetic energy has the form Mindlin (1964)
K =
1
2
ρ
0
_
U
2
M,t
+J
KN
Φ
KM,t
Φ
NM,t
_
, (4.66)
where ρ
0
is macrodensity of the elastic material, J
KN
is the inertia tensor.
Elastic media with central symmetry posses simpler representation, J
KN
=
J

δ
KN
.
One of the main problem is to define integrity basis of three tensors
C
KL
, E
KL
, Γ
KLM
Spencer (1971); Eringen and Suhubi (1964). Moreover,
the basic invariants of the third and higher rank tensors have not been
studied. That is why the models were developed based on the additional
assumption on a relationship between U and Φ. One of them is the pseudo-
continuum Cosserat model . According to it
Φ
KL
= −ε
KLM
Φ
M
, Φ
M
=
1
2
ε
MLK
U
K,L
, (4.67)
where ε
KLM
is the alternating tensor. The first relationship represents
the classic Cosserat model when only rotations of solid microelements are
possible. The last expression in (4.67) accounts for the pseudo-continuum
Cosserat model when micro-rotation vector Φ coincides with the macro-
rotation vector. In this case the density of the potential energy my be
either Π = Π(C
KL
, Γ
KLM
) or Π = Π(C
KL
, Φ
K,L
) Nowacki (1975); Nowacki
(1986a); Savin et. al (1973b). Tensor E
KL
has the form
E
KL
=
1
2
(U
K,L
+U
L,K
+U
M,K
U
M,L
−U
M,K
U
L,M
) ,
and only linear part of E
KL
coincides with those of C
KL
. Assume the mi-
crostructure is sufficiently weak to be considered in the linear approximation
Nowacki (1975); Nowacki (1986a); Savin et. al (1973b), and the Murnaghan
model is valid for the macro-motion. Then the density of the potential en-
ergy may be written as
Π =
λ + 2µ
2
I
2
1
−2µI
2
+
l + 2m
3
I
3
1
−2mI
1
I
2
+nI
3
+ 2µM
2

K,L
Φ
K,L
+
ηΦ
K,L
Φ
L,K
+βΦ
K,K
Φ
L,L
), (4.68)
where λ and µ are the Lam´e coefficients, (l, m, n) are the third order elastic
moduli, or the Murnaghan moduli, M, η and β are the microstructure
constants, I
p
, p = 1, 2, 3 are the invariants of the tensor C, see Eq.(3.2).
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 117
Another simplified microstructure model was used by some authors, see
Erofeev and Potapov (1993); Mindlin (1964); Savin et. al (1973a). Some-
times it is referred to as the Le Roux continuum Erofeev (2002). According
to it
Φ
KL
= −U
L,K
, Γ
KLM
= −U
L,KM
.
When microstructure is weak and may be considered in the linear ap-
proximation the linear part of E
KL
is zero tensor. It means that there
is no difference between deformation of elastic microelement and elastic
macrostructure. In this case Π = Π(C
KL
, Γ
KLM
). Assume again the Mur-
naghan model for the macro part of the energy density and use the linear
Mindlin’s model Mindlin (1964) for its micro part one can obtain
Π =
λ + 2µ
2
I
2
1
−2µI
2
+
l + 2m
3
I
3
1
−2mI
1
I
2
+nI
3
+a
1
Γ
KKM
Γ
MLL
+
a
2
Γ
KLL
Γ
KMM
+a
3
Γ
KKM
Γ
LLM
+a
4
Γ
2
KLM
+a
5
Γ
KLM
Γ
MLK
.
(4.69)
where a
i
, i = 1 −5, are the constant microstructure parameters.
4.3.2 Nonlinear waves in a rod with pseudo-continuum
Cosserat microstructure
Let us consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an isotropic
cylindrical compressible nonlinearly elastic rod, see Fig. 3.1. We take cylin-
drical Lagrangian coordinates (x, r, ϕ) where x is directed along the axis of
the rod, −∞< x < ∞; r is the coordinate along the rod radius, 0 ≤ r ≤ R;
ϕ is a polar angle, ϕ [0, 2π]. Neglecting torsions the displacement vector
is U = (u, w, 0). Then nonzero components of the macrostrain tensor C
are
C
xx
= u
x
+
1
2
(u
2
x
+w
2
x
), C
rr
= w
r
+
1
2
(u
2
r
+w
2
r
), C
ϕϕ
=
w
r
+
w
2
2r
2
,
C
rx
= C
xr
=
1
2
(u
r
+w
x
+u
x
u
r
+w
x
w
r
) . (4.70)
while nonzero components of the rotation tensor Φ
K,L
are
Φ
ϕ,x
= w
xx
−u
rx
, Φ
ϕ,r
= w
xr
−u
rr
. (4.71)
The governing equations together with the boundary conditions are
obtained using the Hamilton variation principle (3.5), where the Lagrangian
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118 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
density per unit volume, L=K − Π, with K and Π defined by Eqs.(4.66)
(4.68) correspondingly.
The following boundary conditions (b.c.) are imposed:
w → 0, at r → 0, (4.72)
P
rr
= 0 , at r = R, (4.73)
P
rx
= 0, at r = R, (4.74)
where the components P
rr
, P
rx
of the modified Piola - Kirchhoff stress
tensor P are defined from (3.5) with (4.66), (4.68), (4.70) and (4.71) being
taken into account:
P
rr
= (λ + 2µ) w
r

w
r
+ λ u
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
u
2
r
+ (λ + 2l) w
r
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
w
2
r
2
+ (λ + 2l) u
x
w
r
+ (2l −2m+n) u
x
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
u
2
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
w
2
x
+ (µ +m) u
r
w
x
+
3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m
2
w
2
r
+ 4µM
2
(u
rrx
−w
xxr
), (4.75)
P
rx
= µ (u
r
+w
x
) + (λ + 2µ +m) u
r
w
r
+ (2λ + 2m−n) u
r
w
2r
+
(λ + 2µ +m) u
x
u
r
+
2m−n
2
w
x
w
r
+ (µ +m) w
x
w
r
+
(µ +m) u
x
w
x
+ 4µM
2
[w
xxx
−u
xxr
+
1
r
(r(w
xr
−u
rr
))
r

1
2
J

(u
rtt
−w
xtt
)]. (4.76)
Exception of torsions provides transformation of the initial 3D problem
into a 2D one. Subsequent simplification is caused by the consideration of
only long elastic waves with the ratio between the rod radius R and typical
wavelength L is R/L ¸ 1. The typical elastic strain magnitude B is also
small, B ¸ 1. Then the procedure from Sec. 3.2.2 is applied to find the
relationships between displacement vector components satisfying b.c. on
the lateral surface of the rod (4.73), (4.74) as well as the condition for w
(4.72). An additional parameter γ = M
2
/R
2
is introduced to characterize
the microstructure contribution. Accordingly, the longitudinal and shear
displacement in dimensional form are sought in the form (3.12), (3.13).
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 119
Substituting the linear parts u
L
and w
L
(3.12), (3.13) into the b.c. (4.72)
and in the linear parts of b.c. (4.73), (4.74), and equating to zero terms at
equal powers of r one obtains u
k
and w
k
. Using these results the nonlinear
parts u
NL
, w
NL
are similarly obtained from the full b.c. We get
u = U(x, t) +
νr
2
2
1 + 4γ
1 −4γ
U
xx
, (4.77)
w = −νrU
x

ν
2(3 −2ν)(1 −4γ)
[ν + 4γ(2 +ν)] r
3
U
xxx

(1 +ν)
_
ν
2
+
(1 −2ν)
E
_
l(1 −2ν)
2
+ 2m(1 +ν) −nν
_
_
rU
2
x
, (4.78)
where ν is the Poisson ratio, E is the Young modulus. Other terms from the
series (3.12), (3.13) for i > 3 may be found in the same way, however, they
are omitted here because of no influence on the final model equation for
the strain waves. Substituting Eqs.(4.77), (4.78) into Eq.(3.5), and using
Hamilton’s principle we obtain that longitudinal strains, v = U
x
, obey a
double dispersive nonlinear equation:
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
2
( v
2
)
xx

3
v
xxtt
−α
4
v
xxxx
= 0, (4.79)
where α
1
= c
2

= E/ρ
0
, α
2
= β/(2ρ
0
), β = 3E + 2l(1 − 2ν)
3
+ 4m(1 +
ν)
2
(1 −2ν) + 6nν
2
, α
3
= ν(1 −ν)R
2
/2,
α
4
=
νER
2

0
1 + 4γ
1 −4γ
.
Hence the microstructure affects only dispersion in Eq.(4.77). The soli-
tary wave solution of Eq.(4.77) is
v =
3E
β
_
V
2
c
2

−1
_
cosh
−2
(k (x −V t)), (4.80)
where V is a free parameter while the wave number k is defined by
k
2
=
ρ
0
(V
2
−c
2

)
2νER
2
_
1+4γ
1−4γ

(1−ν)V
2
c
2

_. (4.81)
Therefore the contribution of the microstructure results in the widening
of the permitted solitary wave velocities,
1 <
V
2
c
2

<
1
1 −ν
1 + 4γ
1 −4γ
.
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120 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Also the characteristic width of the solitary wave proportional to 1/k
becomes larger relative to the wave width in pure elastic case, γ = 0. We
consider γ to be rather small due to the experimental data from Savin
et. al (1973b). Then the type of the solitary wave (compression/tensile) is
defined by the sign of the nonlinearity parameter β like in the case without
microstructure, see Sec. 3.3.
4.3.3 Nonlinear waves in a rod with Le Roux continuum
microstructure
The procedure of obtaining the governing equations is similar to those used
in previous subsection. The nonzero components of the tensor Γ
KLM
are
Γ
xxx
= −u
xx
, Γ
xxr
= Γ
rxx
= −u
xr
, Γ
xrx
= −w
xr
,
Γ
xrr
= Γ
rrx
= −w
xr
, Γ
rxr
= −u
rr
, Γ
rrr
= −w
rr
.
The b.c. (4.73), (4.74) are satisfied for the strain tensor components
P
rr
= (λ + 2µ) w
r
+λ(
w
r
+ u
x
) +
λ + 2µ +m
2
u
2
r
+ (λ + 2l) w
r
w
r
+
+
λ + 2l
2
w
2
r
2
+ (λ + 2l) u
x
w
r
+ (2l −2m+n) u
x
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
u
2
x
+
λ + 2µ +m
2
w
2
x
+ (µ +m) u
r
w
x
+
3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m
2
w
2
r
+ 2J

(2u
xtt
+w
rtt
) −2a
1
u
xxx

2(a
1
+ 2a
2
)w
xxr
−2(a
1
+a
2
)
1
r
(r(w
rr
))
r
−a
1
1
r
(r(u
xr
))
r
, (4.82)
P
rx
= µ (u
r
+w
x
) + (λ + 2µ +m) u
r
w
r
+ (2λ + 2m−n) u
r
w
2r
+
(λ + 2µ +m) u
x
u
r
+
2m−n
2
w
x
w
r
+ (µ +m) w
x
w
r
+
(µ +m) u
x
w
x
+ 2J

u
rtt
−a
1
w
xrr
−2(a
1
+ 2a
2
)u
xxr

2a
2
1
r
(r(u
rr
))
r
. (4.83)
Then the approximations for the components of the displacement vector
have the form
u = U(x, t) +
νr
2
2
1
1 −N
U
xx
, (4.84)
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Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 121
w = −νrU
x

4J

(2 −ν)(1 +ν)(1 −2ν)
E(3 −2ν)R
2
r
3
U
xtt

ν
2
−(1 −2ν)(1 −N)(G(1 −ν) −2νN)
2(3 −2ν)(1 −N)
r
3
U
xxx

(1 +ν)
_
ν
2
+
(1 −2ν)
E
_
l(1 −2ν)
2
+ 2m(1 +ν) −nν
_
_
rU
2
x
, (4.85)
where G = 2a
1
/µR
2
, N = 2a
2
/µR
2
. Like in previous section the governing
equation for longitudinal strain v = U
x
is the double dispersive equation
(4.79) whose coefficients are defined now as
α
1
= c
2

, α
2
=
β

0
, α
3
=
νR
2
2(1 −N)

ν
2
R
2
2
+ 2J

ν(2 −ν), α
4
=
νc
2

R
2
2(1 −N)
,
while the solitary wave solution has the form
v =
3E
β
_
V
2
c
2

−1
_
cosh
−2
(k (x −V t)), (4.86)
where V is a free parameter, and the wave number k is defined by
k
2
=
(1 −N)ρ
0
(V
2
−c
2

)
2νER
2
[c
2

−V
2
(1 −ν(1 −N) + 4J

(1 −N)(2 −ν)/R
2
)]
. (4.87)
Physically reasonable case corresponds to rather small N, N < 1. Then
the influence of the microstructure yields an alteration of the permitted
solitary wave velocities interval,
1 <
V
2
c
2

<
1
1 −ν(1 −N) + 4J

(1 −N)(2 −ν)/R
2
.
The widening or narrowing of the interval depends upon the relationship
between N and the parameter of microinertia J

. Again the type of the
solitary wave is governed by the sign of the nonlinearity parameter β. At
the same time the characteristic width of the solitary wave proportional to
1/k turns out smaller than the wave width in a pure macroelastic case,
N = 0, J

= 0.
4.3.4 Concluding remarks
It is to be noted that the assumption of the linear contribution of the
microstructure is correct since its nonlinear contribution, being weaker,
may provide alterations only in the neglected higher-order nonlinear and
dispersion terms in the governing equation both the Cosserat and the Le
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122 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Roux models. Hence we don’t need in the additional nonlinear terms in
the density of the potential energy Π thus avoiding the additional un-
known parameters (like Murnaghan’s third order moduli) describing the
nonlinear contribution of the microstructure Eringen and Suhubi (1964);
Erofeev (2002).
The alterations of the amplitude and the wave width, caused by the
microstructure, have been found in both case under study. The important
result is in the opposite changing of the wave width which gives a possibility
to distinguish the Cosserat and the Le Roux models in possible experiments.
The dispersion caused by the microstructure may be observed experi-
mentally, and numerical data on microstructure parameters my be obtained
Savin et. al (1973b). In experiments on the solitary waves propagation, see
Sec. 3.4, the amplitude and the width of the wave may be measured. There-
fore expressions (4.80), (4.81) provide possible estimation of the parameter
M in the pseudo-continuum Cosserat model. In case of the LeRoux contin-
uum there is an extra parameter J

, see Eqs.(4.86), (4.87), and parameters
N and J

cannot be estimated separately.
The microstructure and the surrounding medium provide similar devi-
ations in the governing double dispersive equation. Hence the analysis in
Sec. 4.2.6 may be used if we consider a rod only part of which contains the
microstructure. Then the amplification/attenuation (but not a selection)
of the strain solitary wave occurs similar to that shown in Figs. 4.6-4.10.
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Chapter 5
Influence of dissipative (active)
external medium
Now we study the role played by dissipation/energy influx often present in a
realistic case. Dissipative/active effects may be caused by internal features
of the elastic material, hence, an irreversible part should be included into
the stress tensor in addition to the reversible one depending only upon the
density of the Helmholtz energy. Accordingly, the governing equations for
nonlinear strains will contain dissipative/active terms. Dissipation/energy
influx may also occur in an elastic wave guide through phenomena occurring
at or through its lateral surface, and this case is considered further in this
Chapter. Presence of external medium makes a problem more complicated.
However, the Hamiltonian formalism described in Chapter 3 may be applied
since a wave guide remains pure elastic, all dissipative/active factors come
through the elementary work done by the external forces, and therefore
Eq.(3.29) may be used.
5.1 Contact problems: various approaches
External medium affects the lateral surface of a wave guide through the nor-
mal and tangential stresses. In some cases only normal stresses may act like
in the slippage contact. Various contact problems are widely considered,
see, e.g., Galin (1980); Goryacheva (1998); Goryacheva (2001); H¨ahner
and Spencer (1998); Johnson (1985); Kalker et. al (1997); Kerr (1964);
Nikitin (1998). Both elastic and viscoelastic interactions are studied their
in the linear approximation. Main attention is paid to the static loading and
to the interaction forces caused by the relative movement of the contacting
bodies. Of special interest if the contact with friction Goryacheva (1998);
Goryacheva (2001); H¨ahner and Spencer (1998); Kalker et. al (1997);
Nikitin (1998); Stefa´ nski et. al (2000) . Various generalizations of the
123
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124 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Coulomb-Amonton law (dependence on the sliding velocity and the ap-
parent area of contact) are studied Elmer (1997); Goryacheva (2001);
H¨ahner and Spencer (1998); Nikitin (1998); P¨oschel and Herrmann (1993);
Stefa´ nski et. al (2000). However, it was noted in H¨ahner and Spencer
(1998); Nikitin (1998); Stefa´ nski et. al (2000) that the classical Coulomb-
Amonton approach is sufficient when the relative velocity of the sliding
bodies is small.
Sometimes the problem of the interaction with an external medium
may be solved directly. It means that we formulate the equation for a
wave guide and the medium and impose the corresponding continuity con-
ditions on the lateral surface of the wave guide. An example may be found
in Sec. 4.2 where dissipationless sliding contact with an elastic external
medium is considered. The difficulties of elastic contact stress theory may
arise because the displacement at any point in the contact surface depends
upon the distribution of pressure throughout the whole contact Johnson
(1985). In this case the solution of an integral equation for the pressure
is required. Another problem arises when an external medium is not elas-
tic, and its behavior cannot be described by the equations of elasticity.
The difficulties mentioned above may be avoided if the response of a wave
guide is more interesting then the displacements and stresses distribution
in the external medium. In this case the problem reduces to a develop-
ment of a relatively simple foundation models to account for an influence
of the external medium in terms of the wave guide displacements and/or
strains at the lateral surface. Variety of the foundation models are col-
lected in Kerr (1964). The models are designed replacing an external
medium with interacting spring and dissipative elements. In particular,
when only springs are considered and their shear interactions are assumed
the so-called Winkler-Pasternak model holds Kerr (1964); Pasternak (1954);
Winkler (1867). According to it the pressure p is expressed through the
shear displacement w
p = kw −G∇
2
w,
where ∇
2
is the Laplace operator in x and y, k and G are the constant
foundation moduli. One can see its similarity with the response of the
external medium in case of the sliding contact, see Sec. 4.2.3. Hence foun-
dation models are physically reasonable since they correspond to the results
obtained from the contact problem solutions.
It was Kerr (1964) who developed a viscoelastic foundation model.
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 125
Based on the results of footing load tests performed on a snow base
he proposed a viscoelastic model for the interaction between an elas-
tic body and the external snow (or permafrost) medium. He assumed
Newton’s law for the viscous behavior thus including a dissipative ele-
ments besides springs. This model will be studied in the following two
sections where its mathematical expression is presented. Now we only
mention it provides the influence on a wave guide only through the nor-
mal stresses. Classic case of a dissipative action through the tangential
stresses corresponds to the dry friction contact H¨ahner and Spencer (1998);
Nikitin (1998). Here the foundation model is proposed in Sec. 5.4 when the
external medium affects a lateral surface of an elastic rod both by the nor-
mal and the tangential stresses but dissipative (active) influence is provided
by the tangential stresses.
5.2 Evolution of bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of
active/dissipative external medium
5.2.1 Formulation of the problem
Let us consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an isotropic
cylindrical elastic rod embedded in an external medium subjected to Kerr’s
viscoelastic contact model. Most of results were first obtained by Porubov
and Velarde (2000)
1
. We take cylindrical Lagrangian coordinates (x, r, ϕ)
where x is directed along the axis of the rod, −∞< x < ∞, r is the radial
coordinate, 0 ≤ r ≤ R, ϕ is a polar angle, ϕ [0, 2π]. Assuming that
torsions can be neglected, then the displacement vector is

V = (u, w, 0).
According to Kerr (1964) the external medium yields a normal stress P

rr
on the lateral surface of the rod r = R :
P

rr
= −
k
r
w −η w
t
+χr
2
w
xxt
, (5.1)
where t is a time, k is the stiffness coefficient of the medium, η is the
viscocompressibility coefficient of the external medium, χ is the viscosity
coefficient of the external medium. All three coefficients, k, η and χ, are
positive and constant in framework of the Kerr model, however, we consider
a more general case with the coefficients of either sign.
The evolution of nonlinear waves is obtained in the reference configu-
ration using Hamilton’s principle Eq.(3.29)), where the Lagrangian density
1
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science
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126 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
per unit volume, L, is defined as before in the book. Again we choose Mur-
naghan’s approximation (3.1) for the deformation energy. Due to (5.1) the
elementary work, δA, is:
δA = 2π
_

−∞
P

rr
δwdx. (5.2)
The boundary conditions (b.c.) are:
w → 0, at r → 0, (5.3)
P
rr
= P

rr
, at r = R, (5.4)
P
rx
= 0, at r = R, (5.5)
where the components P
rr
, P
rx
of the Piola - Kirchhoff stress tensor P
are defined by Eqs. (3.10), (3.11).
5.2.2 Dissipation modified double dispersive equation
For the longitudinal and shear displacements inside the rod we assume that:
(i) pure elastic waves have strain magnitude B << 1;
(ii) a characteristic strain wave length L is greater then the rod radius
R, R/L << 1.
Let us obtain the approximations satisfying b.c. (5.3)- (5.5). Accord-
ing to the procedure developed in Chapter 3 the unknown functions u, w
are expanded in a power series (3.12), (3.13). Substituting them into the
boundary conditions and following the approach from Sec. 3.2 we get
u = U +a
2
r
2
U
xx
+a
3
r
3
U
xxt
, (5.6)
w = b
1
r U
x
+b
2
r
2
U
xt
+ r
3
(b
31
U
xxx
+b
32
U
xtt
) +
r
4
(b
41
U
xxxt
+b
42
U
xttt
) +B
1
r U
2
x
+B
2
r
2
U
x
U
xt
. (5.7)
where the explicit forms for the coefficients are given by
a
2
=
λ
2(2(λ +µ) +k)
, a
3
= −
λη
3(2(λ +µ) +k)(3λ + 4µ +k)
,
b
1
= −2 a
2
, b
2
= −3 a
3
, b
31
= −
λa
2
2(2λ + 3µ) +k
,
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 127
b
32
=
3η a
3
2(2λ + 3µ) +k
, b
41
= −
2χa
2
+η b
31
+λa
3
5λ + 8µ +k
, b
42
= −
η b
32
5λ + 8µ +k
,
B
1
= −
2 b
1
(λ + 4l −2m+n) + 8a
2
2
[3(λ +µ) + 2(2l +m)] +λ + 2l
2(2(λ +µ) +k)
,
B
2
= −
2η B
1
+ 12a
2
a
3
[3(λ +µ) + 2(2l +m)] −3 a
3
(λ + 4l −2m+n)
3λ + 4µ +k
.
Note that a
2
, b
2
, b
42
are always positive, while a
3
, b
1
, b
31
, b
32
are always
negative, while the remaining coefficients may have either sign. Due to (3.1)
we have to truncate the series (5.6), (5.7), hence, omitting nonlinear terms
of order three and higher. Neglecting cubic nonlinear terms we have to
neglect simultaneously the ”corresponding” higher order linear derivative
terms. It was shown in that solitary waves appear as a result of the bal-
ance between nonlinearity and dispersion when B is of order (R/L)
2
. The
”largest” of the cubic terms is rU
3
x
∼ RB
3
∼ R(R/L)
6
. Then, the ”corre-
sponding” comparable linear term is r
5
U
xxxxx
, while quadratic terms are
r
3
U
x
U
xxx
and r
3
(U
xx
)
2
. Similar terms with spatio-temporal mixed deriva-
tives are of the same order. Higher order terms may be added if terms like
I
4
1
are taken into account, see (3.4).
Using Hamilton’s principle we obtain that longitudinal strains, v =
U
x
, obey a dissipation modified double dispersive nonlinear equation
(DMDDE):
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
2
v
xxt
−α
3
( v
2
)
xx
−α
4
v
xxxx

5
v
xxtt

α
6
(v
2
)
xxt
−α
7
v
xxxxt

8
v
xxttt
= 0. (5.8)
The explicit forms of the coefficients α
i
, i = 1, ..., 8, are
α
1
=
8a
2
2
(2(λ +µ) +k) −8λa
2
+λ + 2µ
ρ
0
, α
2
=
8Rη a
2
2
ρ
0
,
α
3
=
3
ρ
0

_
1
2
+ 2B
1
−2a
2
(1 + 4B
1
) + 4a
2
2
(1 −4a
2
)
_
+
µ
_
1 −8a
2
B
1
−16a
3
2
_
−4ka
2
B
1
+
l
_
1
3
−4a
2
(1 −4a
2
+
16
3
a
2
2
)
_
+
2
3
m(1 −4a
2
2
(3 + 4a
2
)) + 4na
2
2
],
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
128 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
α
4
=
R
2
ρ
0
[(λ + 2µ −4λa
2
) a
2
+ 4(λ −2(2λ + 2µ +k) a
2
) b
31
] ,
α
5
=
R
2

0
[2ρ
0
a
2
(1 −2a
2
) −8λb
32
+ 9(9λ + 10µ + 4k)a
2
3
+
16(2λ + 2µ +k)a
2
b
32
], α
6
= −
8Ra
2
ηB
1
ρ
0
, α
7
= −
8R
3
a
2
ρ
0
[η b
31
+χa
2
] ,
α
8
=
4R
3
η
ρ
0
_
4a
2
b
32
+ 9a
2
3
¸
.
The coefficients in Eq.(5.8) may take either sign depending upon the mate-
rial properties of the rod and the values of k, η and χ. Higher order terms,
( v
3
)
xx
, v
6x
etc., have been neglected when deriving Eq.(5.8) in accordance
with the early given arguments.
5.2.3 Exact solitary wave solutions of DMDDE
In the moving frame, θ = x−V t, we assume that v = v(θ) and obtain from
(5.8) the following ODE:
(V
2
−α
1
)v+α
2
V v

−α
3
v
2
−(α
4
−α
5
V
2
)v


6
V (v
2
)

+V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)v

+
P +P
1
θ = 0, (5.9)
where a dash,

, denotes ∂/∂θ; P and P
1
are constants of integration. We
are interested in bell- shaped or kink- shaped solitary waves when v →
const at [ θ [→ ∞, hence, P
1
= 0. It is seen that Eq.(5.9) coincides
with the ODE reduction of the DMKdV Eq.(1.13) obtained in the study of
long waves in surface tension gradient-driven flows Nekorkin and Velarde
(1994); Nepomnyashchy and Velarde (1994). Its most general exact solution
expressed in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function has been obtained in
Sec. 2.1.3. Here we restrict consideration to its bell-shaped solitary wave
limit,
v = Ak
2
cosh
−2
(k θ) −B, (5.10)
with
A =
6(α
6
α
7
−α
1
α
6
α
8

2
α
3
α
8
)
α
2
6
, B =
A
3
k
2
+
α
2

6
,
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 129
V
2
= α
1

α
2
α
3
α
6
. (5.11)
provided
α
6

4
α
6
−α
3
α
7
) = (α
1
α
6
−α
2
α
3
)(α
5
α
6
−α
3
α
8
). (5.12)
Thus, the elastic features of the rod and the values of the parameters
k, η and χ of the external medium determine the existence of exact bell-
shaped strain wave solution (5.10) as well as the sign of its amplitude,
A, hence, the propagation of either compression or tensile strain solitary
waves. The relationship (5.12) provides simultaneously a balance between
nonlinearity ( v
2
) and dispersion (v

) and another balance between nonlin-
ear active/dissipative ((v
2
)

) and linear active/dissipative (v

) terms .
With Eqs.(5.11), (5.12) taken into account, Eq.(5.9) may be written as
(V

∂θ

α
3
α
6
)
_
α
2
v +α
6
v
2
+
α
6

4
−α
5
V
2
)
α
3
v


α
6
P
α
3
_
= 0. (5.13)
The ODE reduction of the Boussinesq (or KdV) equation appears in brack-
ets. However, here the wavenumber k is not a free parameter of the solution
(5.10), as it is prescribed by the behaviour as [ θ [→∞. In particular, when
a solution decaying at infinity is considered, then
k
2
= −
α
2
4(α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
, (5.14)
thus implying yet another restriction on the coefficients,
α
8
_
α
1

α
2
α
3
α
6
_
−α
7
> 0. (5.15)
Eq. (5.8) also admits kink-type solutions of the form
v = Ak
2
cosh
−2
(kθ) +Dk tanh(kθ) +C, (5.16)
with
A =
6(α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
α
6
, D =
6(α
3

7
−α
8
V
2
) −α
6

4
−α
5
V
2
))

6
,
C =
V
2
−α
1

3
. (5.17)
There are two possibilities for k and V . On the one hand
k =
1
10
¸
¸
¸
¸
α
4
−α
5
V
2
V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)

α
3
α
6
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (5.18)
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
130 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
where V is a solution of the cubic equation,
α
3
3
α
8
V
3
−α
6

2
6
−α
3
3
α
5
)V
2
−(α
3
3
α
7

2
α
3
α
2
6
)V +α
6

1
α
2
6

2
3
α
4
) = 0.
(5.19)
On the other hand,
k
2
=
1
4
_

2
3
α
2
6

(V
2
−α
1

6

2
α
3
V
α
3
V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
_
, (5.20)
where V is a solution of another cubic equation,

3
α
8
V
3

6
α
7
V
2
−6α
3
α
7
V +α
4
α
6
= 0. (5.21)
Therefore, we have in both cases the kink-shaped solution (5.16) with
prescribed parameters. An initial prestressed state of the rod may trans-
form into a different one as the wave passes. The loading or unloading of
the rod depends upon the sign of D, hence on the elastic features of the
rod and on the parameter values of the external medium.
5.2.4 Bell-shaped solitary wave amplification and selection
Let us consider the case when the influence of the external medium is weak,
and all coefficients of the active/dissipative terms in DMDDE (5.8) are
small relative to the other coefficients, i.e., α
2
= ε β
2
, α
6
= ε β
6
, α
7
= ε β
7
,
α
8
= ε β
8
, ε << 1. Then Eq.(5.8) may be written as
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
3
( v
2
)
xx
−α
4
v
xxxx

5
v
xxtt
=
ε
_
β
2
v
xxt

6
(v
2
)
xxt

7
v
xxxxt
−β
8
v
xxttt
_
. (5.22)
We see that the left hand side of Eq.(5.22) is the double dispersive
equation. Thus at ε = 0, Eq.(5.22) admits an exact bell-shaped solitary
wave solution. For nonzero ε we assume that a solution of Eq.(5.22) is a
function of the phase variable θ and the slow time T, v = v(θ, T), with
θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −V (T), T = ε t.
Then from (5.22) we get that
(V
2
−α
1
)v
θ
−α
3
( v
2
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
V
2
) v
θθθ
=
ε(2V [v
T

5
v
θθT
] +V
T
[v +α
5
v
θθ
] −V

2
∂θ
2

2
v +β
6
v
2
+

7
−β
8
V
2
) v
θθ
]) +O(ε
2
). (5.23)
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 131
The solution of Eq.(5.23) is sought using the method explained in
Sec. 2.2.2 in the form
v = v
0
+εv
1
+... (5.24)
Substituting (5.24) into (5.23) in the leading order we have
(V
2
−α
1
)v
0,θ
−α
3
( v
2
0
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
V
2
) v
0,θθθ
= 0 (5.25)
The exact solitary wave solution of Eq.(5.25) has the form
v
0
= A(T) cosh
−2
(k(T) θ), (5.26)
with
A =
3(V
2
−α
1
)
2 α
3
, k
2
=
V
2
−α
1
4(α
4
−α
5
V
2
)
. (5.27)
Accordingly, s = V
2
may lie either inside the interval
α
1
< s <
α
4
α
5
, if α
4
−α
1
α
5
> 0, (5.28)
or in
α
4
α
5
< s < α
1
, if α
4
−α
1
α
5
< 0. (5.29)
Only the interval (5.28) is acceptable for a free rod with positive Poisson
ratio. The interval (5.29) exists if the viscocompressibility coefficient is
greater than a given value, η > η

, with
η

=

ρ
0
(k + 3λ + 4µ)

4k + 9λ + 10µ
.
The correction v
1
(5.24) obeys the inhomogeneous linear equation
(V
2
−α
1
)v
1,θ
−2α
3
(v
0
v
1
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
V
2
) v
1,θθθ
= F, (5.30)
where F is
F = 2V [v
0,T

5
v
0,θθT
] +V
T
[v
0

5
v
0,θθ
]−
V

2
∂θ
2
_
β
2
v
0

6
v
2
0
+ (β
7
−β
8
V
2
) v
0,θθ
¸
.
The operator M acting on the function v
1
in Eq.(5.30) is adjoint to the
operator
M
A
= (α
1
−V
2
)∂
θ
+ 2α
3
v
0

θ
+ (α
4
−α
5
V
2
) ∂
3
θ
.
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
132 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Table 5.1 Selection of solitary wave velocity for the case α
4
−α
1
α
5
> 0.
q
1
s
1q
s
2q
s
0
s

> 0 (α
1
; s
Q
) (α
4

5
; ∞) (α
1
; s
Q
) s
1q
> 0 (α
1
; s
2q
) (s
1q
; s
Q
) (α
1
; s
2q
) s
1q
> 0 (α
1
; s
Q
) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) (α
1
; s
Q
) s
1q
> 0 (α
1
; s
Q
) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) s
2q
> 0 (s
Q
; s
2q
) (s
1q
; α
4

5
) (s
1q
; α
4

5
) s
2q
> 0 (0; α
1
) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) s
2q
< 0 (0; α
1
) (α
1
; s
Q
) (α
1
; s
Q
) s
2q
< 0 (α
1
; s
2q
) (s
1q
; s
Q
) (s
1q
; s
Q
) s
2q
< 0 (s
Q
; s
2q
) (s
1q
; α
4

5
) (s
Q
; s
2q
) s
1q
< 0 (s
Q
; α
4

5
) (α
4

5
; ∞) (s
Q
; α
4

5
) s
1q
Then using Eq.(5.25) one can obtain the solvability condition (2.43) for
Eq.(5.30),
_

−∞
v
0
F dθ = 0, (5.31)
which yields the equation for the function s,
s
T
Q
3
(s) = s (s −α
1
)
2
(q
1
s
2
+q
2
s +q
3
), (5.32)
with
Q
3
(s) = α
1
α
4
(5α
4
−α
1
α
5
) + 2α
4
(11α
1
α
5
−10α
4
) s−

5
(17α
4
−5α
1
α
5
) s
2
−30α
2
5
s
3
, (5.33)
q
1
= 12α
5
β
6
−5α
3
β
8
, q
2
= 12β
6

4
−α
1
α
5
) +α
3
(7β
2
α
5
−5β
7
+ 5α
1
β
8
),
(5.34)
q
3
= α
3
(7β
2
α
4
+ 5α
1
β
7
) −12α
1
α
4
β
6
.
Important features of the behavior of s may be established analyzing
(5.32) without integration. Note that Q
3

1
) = −15α
1

4
− α
1
α
5
)
2
while
Q
3

4

5
) = α
4

5

4
− α
1
α
5
)
2
, and Q
3
always changes its sign inside
the interval (α
1
, α
4

5
) permitted for s. The most interesting evolution of
s is realized when s tends to the finite constant value s

as T → ∞. The
values of s

are the solutions of equation
q
1
s
2
+q
2
s +q
3
= 0. (5.35)
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 133
First, consider the case α
4
−α
1
α
5
> 0. Then α
1
< s < α
4

5
, and Q
3
cannot have more than one root inside the interval (5.28). Assume that
the root of Q
3
is s
Q
while real roots of Eq.(5.35) are s
1q
< s
2q
. We denote
by s
0
the initial value of s. All possibilities of the solitary wave velocity
selection are collected in Table 5.1. The most interesting case corresponds
to q
1
positive when s
1q
∈ (α
1
; s
Q
), s
2q
∈ (s
Q
; α
4

5
). Table 5.1 shows (see
third and fourth rows) that two different solitary waves may be selected
depending on the initial value s
0
. Moreover, any initially initial solitary
wave with velocity s
0
from the permitted interval (5.28) transforms into
a dissipative solitary wave (5.26). Here we are dealing with the selection
of a symmetric solitary wave. It occurs according to Fig. 1.17, the only
difference is the presence of two thresholds, s
1q
and s
2q
.
When Eq.(5.35) has no multiple root, s
1q
= s
2q
= s
q
, s tends to s

= s
q
at q
1
> 0 if
α
1
< s
q
< s
Q
, α
1
< s
0
< s
q
, or s
Q
< s
q
< α
4

5
, s
q
< s
0
< α
4

5
.
For negative values of q
1
we also have two possibilities
α
1
< s
q
< s
Q
, α
1
< s
0
< s
Q
, or s
Q
< s
q
< α
4

5
, s
Q
< s
0
< s
q
.
The same analysis may be performed for the case α
4
−α
1
α
5
< 0. Under
conditions (5.12) the asymptotic solution (5.26) coincides with the exact
solution (5.10).
We consider here in details only the cases when the velocity tends to
one or another root of Eq.(5.35). Other possibilities corresponding to the
blow-up or the damping of the solitary wave (5.26) may be similarly studied.
There remains the problem of whether solitary wave selection is achieved
in finite or infinite time. Eq. (5.32) may be integrated in the general case
giving the implicit dependence of s on T. In order to avoid cumbersome
algebra we consider one particular case only, α
1
= 1, β
2
= 1, α
3
= 1, α
4
=
2, α
5
= 1, β
6
= 2, β
7
= 1, β
8
= 1, ε = 0.1. Then the permitted interval for
s is (1, 2) , and Q
3
(s) has only one root, s
Q
= 1.588, inside this interval. For
the roots of Eq.(5.35) we have s
1q
= 1.324, s
2q
= 1.745. Therefore, this is
the case of complete selection when all initially dissipationless solitons with
initial velocity from the interval 1 < s
0
< 1.588 transform into a dissipative
solitary wave with velocity s

= 1.588. When 1.588 < s
0
< 2 they go to a
dissipative solitary wave with s

= 1.745. Integration of Eq. (5.32) yields
exp T =
¸
¸
¸
¸
s
0
−s
1q
s −s
1q
¸
¸
¸
¸
p
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
s
0
−s
2q
s −s
2q
¸
¸
¸
¸
p
2
_
s −1
s
0
−1
_
p
3 _
s
0
s
_
p
4
exp
_
p
5
(s −s
0
)
(s −1)(s
0
−1)
_
,
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
134 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
with p
1
= 7.904, p
2
= 0.420, p
3
= 8.980, p
4
= 0.657, p
5
= 4.286. One can
see that s → s
1q
or s → s
2q
at T → ∞. Hence the wave amplitudes tend
to A
1
= 3(s
1q
−α
1
)/2 α
3
or to A
2
= 3(s
2q
−α
1
)/2 α
3
.
Of special interest is the evolution of an arbitrary initial pulse. It cannot
be described by the asymptotic solution. We already noted the similarity
between the governing equation (5.8) and the DMKdV equation (1.13).
For the last equation it was found that the single wave asymptotic solution
accounts for a behaviour of the solitary waves generated from an arbitrary
input, see Sec. 2.3.1. Hence we can anticipate the evolution of the initial
localized strains according to that shown in Figs. 2.4-2.6.
5.2.5 Concluding remarks
We have obtained a nonlinear equation, DMDDE (5.8), governing the evo-
lution of bulk longitudinal long nonlinear strain waves in an elastic rod
immersed inside an active/ dissipative medium. There is an interesting
similarity with the results found for free surface shear long waves in a ther-
moconvective liquid layer described by a dissipation modified Korteweg-
de Vries equation (DMKdV), see Christov and Velarde (1995); Garazo
and Velarde (1991); Nekorkin and Velarde (1994); Velarde et. al (1995);
Nepomnyashchy and Velarde (1994). Indeed, in the ”travelling wave” limit
the ODE reduction of our DMDDE (5.9) is functionally identical to the cor-
responding ODE reduction of the DMKdV equation Christov and Velarde
(1995); Nekorkin and Velarde (1994). Consequently, all exact travelling
wave solutions for the latter equation are valid in our case. The dynamical
system representation of Eq.(5.9),
.
v = y,
.
y
= z,
.
z = −β z −αv y −ν y −G(v) +P,
with
α =

6
α
7
−α
8
V
2
, β = −
α
4
−α
5
V
2
V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
, ν =
α
2
α
7
−α
8
V
2
,
G(v) =
α
1
−V
2
V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
v +
α
3
V (α
7
−α
8
V
2
)
v
2
.
coincides with the system studied by Nekorkin and Velarde (1994);
Velarde et. al (1995) when P = 0. Therefore, we can transfer to the lon-
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 135
gitudinal strain waves all the results about the existence of pulses, ”bound
solitons” and ”chaotic states” found for the DMKdV equation in Christov
and Velarde (1995); Nekorkin and Velarde (1994); Velarde et. al (1995).
In order to get conservation laws for DMDDE (5.8) we have to rewrite
it as
v
t
= −g
x
,
g
t
= α
1
v
x

2
v
xt

3
( v
2
)
x

4
v
xxx
−α
5
v
xtt
+
α
6
(v
2
)
xt

7
v
xxxt
−α
8
v
xttt
.
Then the time evolution of the wave energy for the solutions vanishing
at ±∞ is governed by the equation

∂t

_
−∞
v g dx = α
2

_
−∞
v
x
g
x
dx +α
6

_
−∞
v
2
x
g
x
dx−
α
7

_
−∞
v
xx
g
xx
dx +α
8

_
−∞
v
xt
g
xt
dx. (5.36)
Thus, instead of energy conservation we have an input-output energy
balance that at the steady state gives a vanishing l.h.s. Indeed, the first
term in the right-hand side of (5.36) accounts for the energy input while
energy output is provided by the third term. The second term in (5.36)
may play a stabilizing or a destabilizing role depending on the sign of
α
6
. The last term in (5.36) is absent in the corresponding balance law for
the DMKdV equation Garazo and Velarde (1991); Nepomnyashchy and
Velarde (1994). Here it diminishes the role of the third term in (5.36).
These linear mixed derivative terms in (5.8) appear due to the influence of
the Poisson effect on the kinetic energy density, K, and on the work, A,
done by external forces. These terms decide the existence of either exact
compression or tensile solitary wave solutions. Moreover, due to Eq.(5.15)
there is no exact solution decaying at [θ[ →∞if α
8
= 0. The corresponding
variation of velocity of the kink-shaped solution depends upon α
8
due to
Eqs.(5.19), (5.21). Both the compression and tensile asymptotic solutions
occur due to the mixed terms with the velocities from the intervals (5.28),
(5.29). Finally, two sets of the selected solitary wave parameters result from
the nonzero coefficient q
1
(5.34) in the equation (5.35).
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136 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Our predictions about strain solitary wave selection may help to the
possible experimental generation of active/dissipative solitary waves in a
rod partly embedding in an external medium with the Kerr contact. Indeed,
strain solitary waves may be effectively generated inside a rod with a free
boundary based on the analysis of the exact travelling solitary wave solution
of the governing double dispersive equation ( Eq.(5.8) with k, η and χequal
to zero). Also we have shown that the external medium, e.g., the permafrost
may be responsible for large wave amplification. Thus our results permit to
delineate the yield point of the material. The domain of validity of Kerr’s
model could be estimated comparing theory with experiments.
5.3 Strain kinks in an elastic rod embedded in an ac-
tive/dissipative medium
There are two main types of nonlinear solitary waves which could propa-
gate keeping its shape, bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary waves. The
bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a balance be-
tween nonlinearity and dispersion. Nonlinearity in a pure elastic rod is
caused by the finite stress values and the elastic material properties while
dispersion results from the finite transverse size of the rod. They are
in balance when, for instance, the strain wave magnitude, B, and the
wave length, L, are such that B = O(R
2
/L
2
) << 1, where R is the
rod radius. Here we address the question of whether besides bell-shaped
solitary waves also kink-shaped waves may propagate in an elastic rod.
The kink-shaped localized traveling structure may be sustained by dif-
ferent balances. There is a balance between cubic nonlinearity and dis-
persion, e.g., resulted in the kink solution of the modified Korteweg-de
Vries (MKdV) equation case Ablowitz and Segur (1981). Another pos-
sibility occurs when nonlinearity is balanced by dissipation (or accumu-
lation), e.g., the kink solution of the Burgers equation Sachdev (1987);
Whitham (1974). The inclusion of cubic nonlinearity requires to extend the
widely used so-called ”five constants” Murnaghan energy model, Eq.(3.1),
to a more general ”nine constants” Murnaghan model, Eq.(3.4). In view of
a possible experimental test of our predictions we consider dissipative (ac-
tive) phenomena occurring at the lateral boundary of an otherwise purely
elastic and hence non-dissipative rod in the bulk Kerr (1964). It allows us
to cover both possibilities for longitudinal strain kink propagation. There
is also interest in the analytical study of the simultaneous influence of dis-
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 137
persion, nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation) on the evolution,
particularly, amplification, of kinks. As we seen before, mathematically the
description of these processes requires inclusion of derivatives of high order
in the model equation. Below we shall use the results obtained in Porubov
and Velarde (2002)
2
.
5.3.1 Formulation of the problem
Again we consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an
isotropic cylindrical compressible elastic rod embedded in an external
medium subjected to Kerr’s viscoelastic contact on the lateral surface of
the rod r = R :
P

rr
= −
k
r
w −η w
t
, (5.37)
As will be seen later, the third term in Eq.(5.1) now does nor affect the
wave behavior. Again both k and η are assumed to be of either sign.
We choose nine constants Murnaghan’s approximation for the density of
the potential energy, Eq.(3.4). Thus besides the third order elastic moduli,
or the Murnaghan moduli (l, m, n) we are now dealing with the fourth order
moduli (a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
) account also for nonlinear elastic properties of the
isotropic material. Like Murnaghan’s third order moduli moduli, they can
be either positive or negative.
Otherwise the statement of the problem is similar to that of the previous
section with the exception of the components P
rr
, P
rx
of the Piola -
Kirchhoff stress tensor P that are now written in framework of the nine-
constants theory, Eq.(3.4),
P
rr
= (λ + 2µ) w
r
+λ (u
x
+
w
r
) +
λ + 2µ +m
2
(u
2
r
+ w
2
x
) +
3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m
2
w
2
r
+ (2l −2m+n) u
x
w
r
+
λ + 2l
2
(u
2
x
+
w
2
r
2
+ 2w
r
w
r
+ 2u
x
w
r
) + (µ +m) u
r
w
x
+
(l + 4a
1
+a
2
)
_
w
3
r
3
+
3ww
2
r
r
+u
3
x
+ 3u
x
w
2
r
_
+ (3m−a
2
)u
r
w
r
w
x
+
2l −2m+n + 24a
1
+ 10a
2
+ 2a
3
+ 4a
4
2
_
u
x
w
2
r
2
+
u
2
x
w
r
+
2u
x
ww
r
r
_
+
2
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
138 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
(2l −µ + 12a
1
+ 4a
2
+ 2a
4
)
_
u
2
x
w
r
+
w
2
w
r
r
2
_
+
(2m−n −2a
2
−a
3
−2a
4
)
u
r
ww
r
2r
+ 2(l + 2m+ 2a
1
)w
3
r
+
(2m+µ −a
2
−a
4
)u
r
u
x
w
x
+
4l −2a
2
−a
3
−2a
4
4
_
u
2
r
w
r
+
ww
2
x
r
_
+
2l + 5m−a
2
2
_
u
2
r
w
r
+w
r
w
2
x
_
+
2l + 2m−a
2
−a
4
2
_
u
2
r
u
x
+u
x
w
2
x
_
,
(5.38)
P
rx
= µ (u
r
+w
x
) + (λ + 2µ +m) (u
r
w
r
+u
x
u
r
) + (2λ + 2m−n) u
r
w
2r
+
2m−n
2
w
x
w
r
+ (µ +m) (w
x
w
r
+u
x
w
x
) +
2m+a
4
4
_
3u
2
r
w
x
+w
3
x
_
+
4l + 2m−n −4µ −2a
2
−2a
3
4
u
r
w
2
+
2m−n −2a
2
−2a
3
4
w
2
w
x
r
2
+
2m−n −2a
2
−a
3
−2a
4
2
_
u
x
w
x
w
r
+
w
r
w
x
w
r
_
+
4m+a
4
4
u
3
r
+
(2m+µ −a
2
−a
4
)u
x
w
r
w
x
+
4m−4µ + 3a
4
4
u
r
w
2
x
+
4l −2a
2
−a
3
−2a
4
2
_
u
x
u
r
w
r
+
u
r
w
r
w
r
_
+ (2l + 2m−a
2
−a
4
)u
x
u
r
w
r
+
2l + 5m−a
2
2
(u
r
u
2
x
+u
r
w
2
r
) +
3m−a
2
2
_
w
x
w
2
r
+u
2
x
w
x
_
. (5.39)
5.3.2 Combined dissipative double-dispersive equation
Besides assumptions (i), (ii) from Sec. 5.2.2, we now assume that (iii)
B ∼ R/L to provide a balance between nonlinearity and dissipation (or
accumulation).
Like before we first obtain the relationships between the longitudinal
and shear displacements,
u = U +q
2
r
2
U
xx
, (5.40)
w = b
1
r U
x
+b
2
r
2
U
xt
+ r
3
(b
31
U
xxx
+b
32
U
xtt
) +
+B
1
r U
2
x
+B
2
r U
3
x
+B
3
r
2
U
x
U
xt
. (5.41)
where the explicit forms for the coefficients are given by
q
2
=
λ
2(2(λ +µ) +k)
, b
1
= −2 q
2
, b
2
=
2 q
2
η
3λ + 4µ +k
,
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 139
b
31
= −
λq
2
2(2λ + 3µ) +k
, b
32
= −
η b
2
2(2λ + 3µ) +k
,
B
1
= −
2 b
1
(λ + 4l −2m+n) + 2b
2
1
[3(λ +µ) + 2(2l +m)] +λ + 2l
2(2(λ +µ) +k)
,
B
2
= −
1
(2(λ +µ) +k)
¦B
1
[λ + 4l −2m+n + 2b
1
(3λ + 3µ + 4l + 2m)] +
1 + 4a
1
+a
2
+
1
2
b
1
[6l −2µ −2m+n + 48a
1
+ 18a
2
+ 2a
3
+ 8a
4
] +
3
2
b
2
1
[2 + 2l −2m+n + 32a
1
+ 12a
2
+ 2a
3
+ 4a
4
] +
b
3
1
[4 −µ + 4l + 4n + 32a
1
+ 8a
2
+ 2a
4
]¦,
B
3
= −
2η B
1
−b
2
¦2q
2
[3(λ +µ) + 2(l +m)] −(λ + 4l −2m+n)¦
3λ + 4µ +k
.
Note that q
2
, b
2
are always positive, while b
1
, b
31
, b
32
are always negative
when the coefficients in (5.37) are positive (Kerr’s model), and the other
coefficients B
i
, i = 1 ÷ 3, have different signs. Due to the chosen nine-
constant model we have to truncate the series (5.40), (5.41), hence, omitting
higher order nonlinear terms and the ”corresponding” higher order linear
derivative terms due to the assumption (iii). The ”largest” of the quartic
terms is rU
4
x
∼ RB
4
∼ R(R/L)
4
. Then, the ”corresponding” comparable
linear term is r
4
U
xxxx
, while the cubic term is r
3
U
2
x
U
xxx
. Similar terms
with spatio-temporal mixed derivatives are of the same order.
Substituting (5.40), (5.41) into (3.29), and using Hamilton’s principle
(3.29) we obtain that longitudinal strains, v = U
x
, obey a combined dissi-
pative double-dispersive (CDDD) nonlinear equation:
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
2
v
xxt
−α
3
( v
2
)
xx
−α
4
v
xxxx

5
v
xxtt

α
6
(v
2
)
xxt
−α
7
( v
3
)
xx
= 0. (5.42)
The explicit forms of the coefficients α
i
, i = 1 ÷7, are
α
1
=
8q
2
2
(2(λ +µ) +k) −8λq
2
+λ + 2µ
ρ
0
, , α
2
=
8Rη q
2
2
ρ
0
,
α
3
=
3
ρ
0

_
1
2
+ 2B
1
−2q
2
(1 + 4B
1
) + 4q
2
2
(1 −4q
2
)
_
+
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140 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
µ
_
1 −8q
2
B
1
−16q
3
2
_
−4kq
2
B
1
+
l
_
1
3
−4q
2
(1 −4q
2
+
16
3
q
2
2
)
_
+
2
3
m(1 −4q
2
2
(3 + 4q
2
)) + 4nq
2
2
],
α
4
=
R
2
ρ
0
[(λ + 2µ −4λq
2
) q
2
+ 4b
31
(λ −2(2λ + 2µ +k) q
2
) ] ,
α
5
=
R
2
ρ
0

0
q
2
(1 −2q
2
) + 2k(b
2
2
+ 4q
2
b
32
) + (9λ + 10µ)b
2
2
/2 −4¦λ−
4q
2
(λ +µ)¦b
32
],
α
6
= −
8Rq
2
ηB
1
ρ
0
α
7
=
4 kB
2
ρ
0
[B
1
−4q
2
] +
4
ρ
0
¦l[1/2 + 4q
2
(16q
3
2
−8q
2
2
+ 3q
2
−1) +
2B
1
(1 −4q
2
)
2
] +m[1 −4q
2
2
+ 8q
2
(B
1
+ 2q
2
2
)(1 + 2q
2
)] +
2nq
2
[q
2
−4q
2
2
−2B
1
] +λ[1/8 + 2q
2
2
(1 + 4q
2
2
) +B
1
(1 + 2B
1
+ 8q
2
2
) +
2B
2
(1 −4q
2
)] +µ[1/4 + 8q
4
2
+ 2B
1
(B
1
−4q
2
−4q
2
2
) −8q
2
B
2
] +
a
1
[1 −16q
2
+ 96q
2
2
−256q
3
2
+ 256q
4
2
] + 4a
2
q
2
[16q
3
2
−24q
2
2
+ 9q
2
−1] +
4a
3
q
2
2
[1 −4q
2
] + 16a
4
q
2
2
[1 −q
2
]
2
¦.
All coefficients in Eq.(5.42) are always positive in framework of the Kerr
model, with the exception of α
3
and α
6
and α
7
that can be of different signs
depending upon the material properties of the rod.
Note that we have obtained Eq.(5.42) in dimensional form without use
of the multiple scales method and hence terms of different orders may occur,
simultaneously. Indeed, due to the above given assumptions, (i) and (ii), in
general, the last four terms in (5.42) are smaller than the others and hence
are considered small perturbations to the other four terms. We shall refer
to this case as the weakly dispersive limit. Note that the coefficients α
3
,
α
6
and α
7
depend on the third and fourth elastic moduli. In contrast to
the second order moduli (Lam´e coefficients) they may be of different signs
Lurie (1990). Accordingly, their combination in α
3
may be quantitatively
small while not so in α
7
, and then the terms α
3
( v
2
)
xx
and α
7
( v
3
)
xx
may,
quantitatively, be of the same order. Then the dissipative term, α
2
v
xxt
,
α
2
= O(1), will overcome the nonlinearity and drastically alter the wave
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 141
shape before the nonlinearity comes to play. However, if the influence of the
external medium is weak enough, k and η are small, α
2
<< 1, the significant
balance will be between the quadratic-cubic nonlinearities and dispersion,
slightly perturbed by the influence of dissipative terms. We shall call it
the weakly dissipative limit. Therefore, the advantage of equation (5.42)
is that it embraces different important cases, for which we shall below give
exact, asymptotic and numerical solutions.
5.3.3 Exact solutions
Assuming that the solution of Eq.(5.42) depends only upon the phase vari-
able θ = x− c t, then in the moving frame Eq.(5.42) becomes the O.D.E.
v


1
v


2
v +β
3
v
2

4
(v
2
)


5
v
3
= N, (5.43)
where a dash denotes differentiation with respect to θ; N is a constant, and
β
1
=
α
2
c
α
5
c
2
−α
4
, β
2
=
c
2
−α
1
α
5
c
2
−α
4
, β
3
=
α
3
α
4
−α
5
c
2
,
β
4
=
α
6
c
α
5
c
2
−α
4
, β
5
=
α
7
α
4
−α
5
c
2
.
Eq.(5.43) is a particular case of the equation (2.16) studied in Sec. 2.1.3.
Among exact solutions obtained there we consider two bounded solutions:
(i) kink-shaped solitary wave solution
v = Am tanh(mθ) +B. (5.44)
with
A =
β
4
±
_
β
2
4
−2β
5
β
5
, B = −
β
1
−Aβ
3

4
−3Aβ
5
,
m
2
=
(3A
2
β
5
−4Aβ
4
)(3β
2
β
5
−β
2
3
) + 4β
4

2
β
4
−β
1
β
3
) + 3β
2
1
β
5
2(1 −Aβ
4
)(2β
4
−3Aβ
5
)
2
. (5.45)
(ii) bounded periodic solution
v =
m

−β
5
cn(mθ, κ) sn(mθ, κ) dn(mθ, κ)
C
1
+cn
2
(mθ, κ)

β
3

5
. (5.46)
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142 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
with
C
1
=
1 −2κ
2
+

κ
4
−κ
2
+ 1

2
, m
2
=
β
2
+ 3β
2
1
4

κ
4
−κ
2
+ 1
,
and the following restrictions on the coefficients:
β
4
= −
1
2
_
−β
5
, β
3
= 3β
1
_
−β
5
. (5.47)
The periodic wave solution (5.46) has a functional form different from both
the KdV cnoidal wave and the MKdV bounded periodic solutionAblowitz
and Segur (1981). Note also that the solution (5.46) exists only for non
vanishing β
4
, hence only in the presence of the nonlinear dissipative term
β
4
(v
2
)

in Eq.(5.43). Equation (5.42), or its equivalent dynamical system,
exhibits a more complicated balance between nonlinearity, dispersion and
(linear and nonlinear) dissipation required for the periodic nonlinear wave
than the standard balance between nonlinearity and dispersion that sup-
plies both the KdV and the MKdV periodic solutions. When κ = 1 we
have C
1
= 0, and the solution (5.43) tends to the kink-shaped solution
(5.44) like the MKdV periodic solution, while the KdV cnoidal wave so-
lution becomes the bell-shaped or solitary wave solution in the analogous
limit, see Fig. 1.6.
The dissipationless limit of Eq.(5.43), β
1
= β
4
= 0, is
v


2
v +β
3
v
2

5
v
3
= N. (5.48)
It corresponds to the O.D.E. reduction of the combined KdV-MKdV
(CKdV) equation. The CKdV equation possesses the one-parameter kink
solution (5.44) with (5.45) if β
1
= β
4
= 0. However, a periodic solution of
Eq.(5.48), having a kink limit at κ = 1, has a form different from (5.46):
v =

2mκ

−β
5
sn(mθ, κ) −
β
3

5
,
with m
2
= (3β
2
β
5
− β
2
3
)/(3β
5
(1 + κ
2
)). Moreover, Eq.(5.48) has a variety
of bell-shaped solitary wave solutions.
If α
4
÷α
7
are equal to zero we get from Eq.(5.42) the O.D.E. reduction
of the Burgers equation,
α
2
c v

+ (c
2
−α
1
)v −α
3
v
2
= N. (5.49)
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 143
Its kink solution has the functional form like (5.44) but with
A = −
α
2
c
α
3

β
1
β
3
, B =
c
2
−α
1

3
≡ −
β
2

3
, m−free. (5.50)
There are two free parameters, the phase velocity c and the wave number
m. If the boundary conditions are
v →h
1
at θ →∞, v →h
2
at θ →−∞,
then for the kink-shaped solution of Eq. (5.43)
β
4
±
_
β
2
4
−2β
5
β
5
m =
h
1
−h
2
2
,
β
1
−Aβ
3

4
−3Aβ
5
= −
h
1
+h
2
2
while the Burgers model (5.49) gives
m =
(h
1
−h
2

3

1
,
β
2

3
= −
h
1
+h
2
2
.
The coefficients β
i
depend upon the phase velocity c, and the elastic fea-
tures of the material of the rod and the parameters of the external medium.
Hence, for the Burgers model any pair of h
j
define phase velocity and the
wave number, while in general for the one-parameter solution (5.44), (5.45)
as well as for the MKdV kink solution the boundary conditions imply ad-
ditional restrictions on the parameters of the problem.
5.3.4 Weakly dissipative (active) case
When the viscocompressibility coefficient η is small, i.e. when the external
medium is of little influence we can take α
2
= δ¯ α
2
, α
6
= δ¯ α
6
, δ << 1.
Then Eq.(5.42) is the perturbed combined double-dispersive equation,
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
3
( v
2
)
xx
−α
7
( v
3
)
xx
−α
4
v
xxxx

5
v
xxtt
=
δ(¯ α
2
v
xxt
+ ¯ α
6
(v
2
)
xxt
) (5.51)
For nonzero δ we assume that a solution of Eq.(5.51) is a function of
the phase variable θ = x −ct , v = v(θ). Then from Eq.(5.51) we get that
(c
2
−α
1
)v
θ
−α
3
( v
2
)
θ
−α
7
( v
3
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
c
2
) v
θθθ
=
−δ c

2
∂θ
2
_
¯ α
2
v + ¯ α
6
v
2
¸
+O(δ
2
). (5.52)
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144 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
The solution of Eq.(5.52) is sought in the form
v = v
0
+δv
1
+... (5.53)
Substituting (5.53) into (5.52) in the leading order we have the O.D.E.
underlying the CKdV equation,
(c
2
−α
1
)c
0,θ
−α
3
( v
2
0
)
θ
−α
7
( v
3
0
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
c
2
) v
0,θθθ
= 0. (5.54)
We look for a solution satisfying the boundary conditions
v
0
→h
±
, v
i
→0, i > 0, at θ →±∞,
and with all derivatives of v
i
with respect to θ vanishing at infinity. For a
kink h
+
,= h

.
The exact kink solution of Eq.(5.54) has the form
v
0
= Amtanh(mθ) −α
3
/(3α
7
), (5.55)
with
A =
¸
2(α
5
c
2
−α
4
)
α
7
m, m
2
=

1
α
7
−α
2
3
−3α
7
c
2
6(α
4
−α
5
c
2
)
. (5.56)
The correction v
1
(5.53) obeys the inhomogeneous linear equation
(c
2
−α
1
)v
1,θ
−2α
3
(v
0
v
1
)
θ
−3α
7
(v
2
0
v
1
)
θ
−(α
4
−α
5
c
2
) v
1,θθθ
=
−c

2
∂θ
2
_
¯ α
2
v
0
+ ¯ α
6
v
2
0
¸
, (5.57)
whose solution satisfies the b.c. only when
3¯ α
2
α
7
−2α
3
¯ α
6
= 0 (5.58)
and has the form
v
1
=
¯ α
6
mA
2(α
5
c
2
−α
4
)
θ v
0,θ
.
Numerical integration of Eq.(5.51) allows exploration of the kink evo-
lution outside the range imposed by condition (5.58). Case ¯ α
2
< 0, corre-
sponding to dominating damping in the linearized Eq.(5.51) is depicted in
Fig. 5.1 while Fig. 5.2 shows the evolution when ¯ α
2
> 0, hence correspond-
ing to accumulation. In both figures the steepness of the wave front (i.e.
m = const) and the phase velocity of the initial MKdV kink (5.55), left
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 145
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
x
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
v
Fig. 5.1 Numerical simulation of the MKdV kink evolution with weak dissipation.
profile, remain one and the same. The influence of dissipation (accumu-
lation) shows in the growth experienced by the shelves before and behind
wave fronts, with more dramatic effect in the wave front. The length of
the shelf increases like the length of the shelf behind the perturbed KdV
soliton Ablowitz and Segur (1981) but the height also increases. As a result
no quasistationary profile is possible during the evolution of the perturbed
MKdV kink at variance with the result found for the bell-shaped strain
solitary wave in Porubov and Velarde (2000).
5.3.5 Weakly dispersive case
Let us now take into account all assumptions from Sec. 5.3.2 to obtain
the dimensionless form of Eq.(5.42). Assume the scale for v is B, for x
is L, and for t is L/c
0
where c
0
is a characteristic velocity of the wave.
The small parameter of the problem is ε = B = R/L. Suppose that our
dimensionless solution v depends upon the phase variable θ = x − ct and
that c = 1 +εc
1

2
c
2
+.... Then from Eq.(5.42) we get
(c
2
0
−α
1
)v
θθ

_
2c
2
0
c
1
v
θθ
−α
3
( v
2
)
θθ

2
c
0
v
θθθ
_
+
ε
2
(c
2
0
c
1
[2c
2
+c
1
]v
θθ

2
c
0
c
1
v
θθθ
+
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146 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
x
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
v
Fig. 5.2 Numerical simulation of the MKdV kink evolution with weak accumulation

5
c
2
0
−α
4
]v
θθθθ
−α
7
v
3
θθ

6
c
0
v
2
θθθ
) = O(ε
3
). (5.59)
with α
2
= α
2
/R, α
4
= α
4
/R
2
, α
5
= α
5
/R
2
, and α
6
= α
6
/R. The solution
is sought in the form
v = v
0
+ε v
1
+.... (5.60)
The boundary conditions are the same as for the kink solution in the
weakly dissipative case. In the leading order we have c
0
=

α
1
, while the
next order yields the equation

2
∂θ
2
_

1
c
1
v
0
−α
3
v
2
0

2

α
1
v
0,θ
_
= 0. (5.61)
In brackets we have the O.D.E. reduction of Burgers equation whose
kink-shaped solution is
v
0
= −
α
2

α
1
α
3
m tanh(mθ) +
α
1
c
1
α
3
, (5.62)
In the following higher order we get an inhomogeneous linear ordinary dif-
ferential equation for v
1
(θ),

2
∂θ
2
(2α
1
c
1
v
1
−2α
3
v
0
v
1

2

α
1
v
1,θ
) =
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 147

4
−α
5
α
1
]v
0,θθθθ

7
v
3
0,θθ
−α
6

α
1
v
2
0,θθθ
−α
1
c
1
[2c
2
+c
1
]v
0,θθ

α
2

α
1
c
1
v
0,θθθ
,
whose solution, decaying at infinity, is
v
1
= v
0,θ
[b
1
θ +b
2
Log(cosh(mθ)) +b
3
] , (5.63)
provided that
c
2
=
1

2
3
c
1
_
α
7
[3α
1
c
2
1
−α
2
2
m] −c
2
1
_
,
where b
3
= const, while b
i
, i = 1, 2, depend upon the coefficients of
Eq.(5.59),
b
1
=
c
1
α
2
α
2
3
_
α
1

2
α
7
−2α
3
α
6
] −α
2
α
2
3
_
,
b
2
=
1

α
1
α
2
α
2
3
_
2[α
1
α
5
−α
4

2
3

1
α
2
[2α
3
α
6
−α
2
α
7
]
_
.
We see that b
1
, b
2
remain nonzero even when α
6
= α
7
= 0. The influence
of dispersion is provided by b
2
only. If b
2
= b
3
= 0 then v may be written
as
v = −
α
2

α
1
α
3
m tanh(m[1 +εb
1
]θ) +
α
1
c
1
α
3
+O(ε
2
). (5.64)
Then the first term in (5.63) affects the smoothness of the wave front in the
solution (5.60). Shown in Fig. 5.3(a) is the case b
1
> 0, while Fig. 5.3(b)
accounts for negative values of b
1
. The dashed line in Fig. 5.3 accounts for
the unperturbed Burgers kink (5.44), (5.50), while solution (5.64) is shown
with a solid line. Correspondingly, in Fig. 5.4 it is shown the influence
of the second term (b
1
= b
3
= 0) on the shape of the solution v (5.60)
vs Burgers kink (dashed line) for b
2
< 0 in Fig. 5.4(a) and for b
2
> 0 in
Fig. 5.4(b). Note the asymmetric disturbance of the profile near the upper
and lower states of the solution that are exchanged with the opposite sign
of b
2
. The case b
1
= b
2
= 0 corresponds to a constant phase shift of the
unperturbed Burgers kink solution.
The features of a quasistationary asymptotic solution can be observed
when studying the time-dependent process of the kink formation. Numeri-
cal integration of Eq.(5.42) with an initial condition in the form of a Burgers
kink-shaped wave (5.44), (5.50) shows that the wave attracts the profile de-
scribed by the asymptotic solution even at moderate ε. The time evolution
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148 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
5 10 15 20 25 30
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
v
b
5 10 15 20 25 30
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
v
a
Fig. 5.3 Smoothness of the Burgers kink profile due to the first term in the first order
asymptotic solution: (a) b
1
> 0, (b) b
1
< 0.
of the wave at ε = O(1) is shown in Figs. 5.5, 5.6 where the propagation of
the undisturbed Burgers kink is shown with a dashed line; the left profile
corresponds to the initial Burgers kink. The values of the coefficients in
Eq.(5.42) have been chosen such that b
2
, is negative for Fig. 5.5 and positive
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 149
5 10 15 20 25 30
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
v
b
5 10 15 20 25 30
x
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
v
a
Fig. 5.4 Disturbances on the Burgers kink profile due to the second term in the first
order asymptotic solution: (a) b
2
< 0, (b) b
2
> 0.
for Fig. 5.6. The three most right solid line profiles show that the quasista-
tionary perturbed kink-shaped waves are rather close to the corresponding
asymptotic profiles shown in Figs. 5.5, 5.6. The phase velocity remains one
and the same during the whole time and practically equal to the velocity of
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150 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
0.1
0.2
0.3
v
Fig. 5.5 Numerical simulation of the Burgers kink evolution into the quasistationary
profile in the weakly dispersive case at b
2
< 0.
the initial Burgers kink. Any other initial kink different from the Burgers
one, diverges even when dispersion is small.
5.3.6 Summary of results and outlook
We have shown that kinks can propagate in a compressible elastic rod, of
radius R, when the wave characteristics, amplitude and wavelength, are
such that B ∼ R/L << 1, a cubic nonlinearity of the elastic material is
taken into account and dissipation exists e.g. due to the rod being em-
bedded in an external viscoelastic medium. We have found in the weakly
dispersive limit how the kink-shaped wave is selected. In contrast to the
bell-shaped solitary wave selection in previous section now only the wave
number tends to a prescribed finite value, as Eq.(5.64) indicates. Other
possibilities exist for an exact travelling wave solution (5.44) of Eq.(5.42)
as well for the perturbed MKdV kink when the additional condition (5.58)
is satisfied.
High order terms do not significantly alter the wave structure in the
weakly dispersive case. In such circumstance Eq.(5.42) can be approxi-
mated with α
6
= α
7
= 0 and hence without using the fourth-order elastic
moduli, a
i
. This is very important from the point of view of application
because for most materials the values of a
i
are unknown. However, if dis-
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 151
20 40 60 80 100 120
x
0.1
0.2
0.3
v
Fig. 5.6 Numerical simulation of the Burgers kink evolution into the quasistationary
profile in the weakly dispersive case at b
2
> 0.
persion becomes significant those terms must be taken into consideration
for a correct description of the strain kinks. In particular they provide the
nontrivial condition 3α
2
α
7
− 2α
3
α
6
= 0, that allows the propagation of a
quasistationary perturbed kink in the weakly dissipative case.
The influence of dissipation on the balance between nonlinearity and dis-
persion appears affecting wave evolution much more drastically than what
dispersion does to the Burgers nonlinearity-dissipation balance. However,
we have no kink selection in the weakly dissipative (active) case when all
wave parameters tend to finite values. This seems due to the absence of ”dis-
sipative (active)” cubic nonlinear terms in the r.h.s. of Eq.(5.51). However,
adding a term like (v
3
)
xxt
is not permitted by the assumptions in Sec. 5.3.2.
Indeed, (v
3
)
xxt
and (v
4
)
xx
will be of the same order, and thus the corre-
sponding ”dissipative” quartic nonlinearity demands a simultaneous quintic
nonlinear term, and so on.
Exact solutions obtained account for the case when the dispersion, dis-
sipation and nonlinearity are of the same order. The existence of these
solutions require additional restrictions studied in Sec. 5.3.3. Moreover nu-
merical simulations in the weakly dispersive case point to a formal validity
of the results from Sec. 5.3.5 when dispersion is not small.
As a useful aspect of our analytical study is that obtaining exact and
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
152 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
asymptotic solutions allow reliable testing points for time-dependent nu-
merical integration. Analytic solutions could be also the starting points for
the numerical search of homoclinic and heteroclinic trajectories yielding
solutions of possibly more complicated form than those described in this
report. On the other hand, we have shown that an external medium, e.g.,
permafrost, may be responsible for the amplification of both the strain kink
and bell-shaped solitary waves, see Sec. 5.2. This may be used to locate
zones of potential plasticity. In view of the lack of experimental data on the
fourth order moduli our results may help in finding these moduli using the
linear algebraic relationships between them and the kink wave amplitude
and velocity obtained using B
2
.
Finally, note that our solutions may also be used to account for the
evolution of surface waves in a heated liquid layer subjected to variations
of surface tension. Indeed, when A/H = H/L << 1, the evolution of
surface waves with surface deformation η of amplitude A and wavelength
L in a layer of depth H is governed by the equation Porubov (1995):
η
t

1

2
)
x

2
η
xx

_
γ
3
η
xxx

4

2
)
xx

5

3
)
x
_
= 0, (5.65)
Eq.(5.65) describes waves past an instability threshold. Its O.D.E. reduc-
tion coincides with Eq.(5.43). Note that Eq.(5.65) accounts only for the
weakly dispersive case. Contrary to the elastic bulk dissipation–free rod
inside the liquid layer here the dissipation is caused by fluid viscosity and
heat diffusion.
5.4 Influence of external tangential stresses on strain soli-
tary waves evolution in a nonlinear elastic rod
5.4.1 Formulation of the problem
Let us use the same notations as in previous sections. The elementary work,
δA, done by normal and tangential external forces at the lateral surface of
the rod, r = R, now is:
δA = 2π
_

−∞
(P

rr
δw +P

rx
δu)dx. (5.66)
We assume the external medium yields a normal stress P

rr
,
P

rr
= −
k
1
r
w +k
2
r w
xx
, (5.67)
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 153
where k
i
are the stiffness coefficients of the external medium, both k
1
and
k
2
are positive and constant. It corresponds to the Pasternak (1954) model
based on the representation of the contact by means of the interacting
spring elements, see also Kerr (1964) and references therein. Tangential
stresses on the lateral surface are assumed in the form:
P

rx
= k
d
P

rr
, (5.68)
that relates to the Coulomb-Amonton law H¨ahner and Spencer (1998);
Nikitin (1998) when k
d
> 0 is a friction coefficient. We consider a more
general model, k
d
is of either sign, in order to account for the influence of
an active external medium providing an energy influx .
Hence the boundary conditions (b.c.) are:
w → 0, at r → 0, (5.69)
P
rr
= P

rr
, at r = R, (5.70)
P
rx
= P

rx
, at r = R, (5.71)
where the components P
rr
, P
rx
of the Piola - Kirchhoff stress tensor P
are defined by Eqs. (3.10), (3.11).
5.4.2 Derivation of the governing equation
Simplifications follows from the natural assumptions are similar to those
used in previous sections:
(i) pure elastic strain waves have magnitude B << 1;
(ii) long elastic strain waves have a characteristic length L such that
relative to the rod radius R, R/L << 1.
(iii)B ∼ R
2
/L
2
.
Let us obtain the relationships between longitudinal and shear displace-
ments satisfying b.c. (5.69)- (5.71). According to the procedure developed
in Sec. 3.2 the unknown functions u, w are expanded in a power series
(3.12), (3.13) that yields in our case:
u = U +k
d
a
1
r U
x
+a
2
r
2
U
xx
+k
d
A
1
r U
2
x
, (5.72)
w = b
1
r U
x
+k
d
b
2
r
2
U
xx
+b
3
r
3
U
xxx
+B
1
r U
2
x
. (5.73)
where
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154 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
a
1
= −
k
1
µ
b
1
, a
2
= −

2
(3λ + 4µ +k
1
) + 2 k
2
d
k
2
1
λ]b
1

2
(3λ + 4µ +k
1
)
,
b
1
= −
λ
2(λ +µ) +k
1
, b
2
=
k
1
λb
1
µ(3λ + 4µ +k
1
)
, b
3
=
(k
2
b
1
−λa
2
)
2(2λ + 3µ) +k
1
,
A
1
= −
k
1
µ
B
1
,
B
1
= −
λ + 2l + 2(λ + 4l −2m+n)b
1
+ 2[3(λ +µ) + 4l + 2m]b
2
1
2(2(λ +µ) +k
1
)
.
Note that a
1
, a
2
, are always positive, b
1
- b
3
are always negative, while
nonlinear term coefficients A
1
, B
1
have different but opposite signs. Due to
the chosen five-constant theory (3.1) we have to truncate the series (5.6),
(5.7) like before in order to omit negligibly small higher-order nonlinear
terms and the ”corresponding” higher order linear derivative terms due to
the assumption (iii).
Substituting Eqs.(5.72), (5.73) into Eq.(3.29) we obtain that longitudi-
nal strains, v = U
x
, obey a nonlinear dispersive-dissipative equation
v
tt
−α
1
v
xx
−α
2
( v
2
)
xx
−α
3
v
xxtt

4
v
xxxx
= k
d

1
v
x

2
(v
2
)
x

3
v
xxx
),
(5.74)
where
α
1
=
λ + 2µ + 4[λ +b
1
(λ +µ)]b
1
+ 2k
1
(b
2
−b
2
1
)
ρ
0
+
3 k
2
1
k
2
d
b
2
1
µρ
0
,
β
1
= −
2k
1
b
1
ρ
0
R
, β
2
= −
2k
1
B
1
ρ
0
R
α
2
=
3
ρ
0
[
1
2
(1 + 2b
1
)(1 + 2b
2
1
) +µ
_
1 + 2b
3
1
_
+
1
3
l
_
1 + 2b
3
1
_
+
2
3
m(1 + 2b
1
)(1 −b
1
)
2
+nb
2
1
+¦λ + 2b
1
(λ +µ) + 2k
1
b
1
¦B
1
+
k
2
1
k
2
d
b
2
1
µ
2
_
(λ +
1
2
m)(1 + 2b
1
) +µ(1 +b
1
) −
1
4
nb
1

µ
b
1
B
1
_
],
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 155
α
3
=
R
2
2
(b
2
1
−2a
2
)+
R
2
k
2
1
k
2
d
b
2
1

2
, β
3
=
2R[k
2
µb
1
−k
1
µ(a
2
b
1
+b
3
) − k
2
1
k
2
d
b
1
b
2
]
µρ
0
α
4
=
R
2

0
[a
2
¦4µa
2
−2(λ+2µ) −4b
1
(λ−µ)¦+µb
2
1
−8b
3
¦λ+2b
1
(λ+µ)¦]+
2R
2
b
1
ρ
0
[k
2
µb
1
−k
1
b
3
(µ −k
1
)] +
R
2
k
2
d

2
ρ
0
[b
2
2
(9λ + 10µ)µ
2
+
k
1
¦b
2
[4µ
2
(a
2
+ 1) + 2µ(µ −3λ)] −4k
2
µb
2
1
¦ +k
2
1
b
1
¦4µb
3
+ (λ + 2µ)b
1
¦].
When k
d
= 0 Eq.(5.74) becomes the double dispersive equation (DDE)
accounting for nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral surface rod.
5.4.3 Symmetric strain solitary waves
Even at k
d
= 0 Eq.(5.74) is nonitegrable by the Inverse Scattering Trans-
form method Ablowitz and Segur (1981). Hence, only particular, usually
travelling wave, exact solutions may be obtained. There exist different
approaches based on the assumptions of the appropriate ansatz for a solu-
tions. More general solutions are found in terms of the elliptic functions see
Sec. 2.1. However, up to now only localized strain waves were observed in
experiments, see Sec. 3.4, and main attention is paid here on the exact so-
lutions vanishing at infinity. Assume the solution of Eq.(5.74) depends only
upon the phase variable θ = x− c t, then in the moving frame Eq.(5.74)
becomes the O.D.E.
v

+k
d
γ
1
v


2
v


3
vv

+k
d
γ
4
v
2
+k
d
γ
5
v = 0, (5.75)
where a dash denotes differentiation with respect to θ, and
γ
1
=
β
3
α
3
c
2
−α
4
, γ
2
=
α
1
−c
2
α
3
c
2
−α
4
, γ
3
=

2
α
3
c
2
−α
4
,
γ
4
=
β
2
α
3
c
2
−α
4
, γ
5
=
β
1
α
3
c
2
−α
4
.
Following the procedure from Sec. 2.1. we compare the leading-order
derivative term, v

, and the nonlinear term, vv

. One can see they are in
balance when a solution has the second order pole. Hence, general periodic
solution may be expressed using either the Weierstrass elliptic function , v =
a
1
℘(θ, g
1
, g
2
) + b
1
, or the Jacobian elliptic function, v = a
2
cn
2
(pθ, κ) +b
2
.
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156 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Localized solitary wave solution are of interest here. Since they correspond
to the limit κ →1, one can assume the solution of the form:
v = Gcosh
−2
(pθ). (5.76)
Substituting (5.76) into Eq.(5.75) and equating to zero coefficients at
corresponding powers of tanh(pθ) one obtains
p
2
=
c
2
−α
1
4(α
3
c
2
−α
4
)
, G =
3(c
2
−α
1
)

2
, (5.77)

4
= γ
1
γ
3
, γ
5
= γ
1
γ
2
. (5.78)
The first of the conditions (5.78) defines the phase velocity,
c
2
=
α
4
β
2

2
β
3
α
3
β
2
,
while the second one imposes a restriction on the equation coefficients,
α
2
α
3
β
1
+ (α
4
−α
1
α
3

2

2
β
3
= 0.
When conditions (5.78) hold Eq. (5.75) may be rewritten as
[

∂θ
+k
d
γ
1
](v


2
v +
1
2
γ
3
v
2
) = 0,
whose solution vanishing at infinity is obtained from the equation
v


2
v +
1
2
γ
3
v
2
= 0. (5.79)
Eq. (5.79) is nothing but ODE reduction of the DDE integrated twice.
Its solitary wave solution is (5.76), (5.77), while the phase velocity c remains
a free parameter. Hence the general solution (5.76), (5.77), (5.78) is sup-
ported simultaneously by a balance between nonlinearity, γ
3
vv

, and disper-
sion, v

(like DDE’s solution), and by a balance between active/dissipative
terms, k
d
γ
1
v

, k
d
γ
4
v
2
, k
d
γ
5
v. The last balance is realized under conditions
(5.78).
The coefficients α
i
, β
j
depend on the elastic features of the material
of the rod and the parameters of the external medium. They define the
sign of the wave amplitude G, hence either compression, G < 0, or tensile,
G > 0, wave may propagate in the rod.
Solitary wave solution exists under specific initial condition in the form
of (5.76) at t = 0. It is known that in non-dissipative case even rather
arbitrary initial pulse splits into the train of solitary waves each being
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 157
accounted for the travelling solitary wave exact solution of the DDE, see
Sec. 3.3. When dissipation/accumulation predominates it destroys initial
pulse before balance between nonlinearity and dispersion become to play,
and no localized waves appear.
Consider now a weakly dissipative case, k
d
<< 1, when nonlinearity and
dispersion dominate over dissipation/accumulation. Assume a solution of
Eq.(5.74) depends upon the phase variable θ and the slow time T, v =
v(θ, T), with
θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −c(T), T = k
d
t.
Then asymptotic solution of Eq.(5.74) is sought in the form
v = v
0
(θ) +k
d
v
1
(θ) +...
In the leading order we get
(c
2
−α
1
)v
0,θ
−(α
3
c
2
−α
4
)v
0,θθθ
−2α
2
v
0
v
0,θ
= 0, (5.80)
whose one-parameter solution has the form of (5.76), but c now depends
upon T. At order O(k
d
) there is an inhomogeneous linear equation for v
1
,
(c
2
−α
1
)v
1,θ
−(α
3
c
2
−α
4
)v
1,θθθ
−2α
2
(v
0
v
1
)
θ
= F, (5.81)
where
F = 2cv
0,T
+c
T
v
0
−2α
3
cv
0,θθT
−α
3
c
T
v
0,θθθ

1
v
0

2
v
2
0

3
v

0
.
The operator acting on the function v
1
in Eq.(5.81) is adjoint to that in
Eq.(5.80). We look for a solution satisfying the boundary conditions
v
i
→0, i _ 0, at [θ[ →∞, (5.82)
Then the Fredholm alternative,
_

−∞
v
0
F dθ = 0, (5.83)
provides the absence of secular terms. It yields the equation defining the
phase velocity c,
α
2
c
T
Q
6
(c) = (α
1
−c
2
)(α
3
c
2
−α
4
)(6α
3
β
2
c
4
+ [5α
2
α
3
β
1


2

4

1
α
3
) −α
2
β
3
]c
2
−5α
2
α
4
β
1
+

1
α
4
β
2

1
α
2
β
3
). (5.84)
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158 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
where
Q
6
(c) = 30α
2
3
c
6
−3α
3
(11α
4
+ 10α
1
α
3
)c
4
+ 2α
4
(11α
1
α
3
+ 10α
4
)c
2

α
2
1
α
3
α
4
−5α
1
α
2
4
.
Eq. (5.84) may be integrated giving the dependence c on T in an implicit
form. However, important features of the evolution of c may be established
studying the sign of c
T
without integration. The stationary solutions of
(5.84) c
1
=

α
1
and c
2
=
_
α
4

3
correspond to p = 0 or p → ∞ in
(5.77). Other stationary solutions are defined from the equation

3
β
2
c
4
+ [5α
2
α
3
β
1
−6β
2

4

1
α
3
) −α
2
β
3
]c
2
−5α
2
α
4
β
1
+

1
α
4
β
2

1
α
2
β
3
= 0. (5.85)
Due to (5.77) (α
1
− c
2
)(α
3
c
2
− α
4
) < 0, and the sign of c
T
depends upon
the signs of the polynomial Q
6
(c) and the quartic polynomial in the r.h.s.
of Eq. (5.84). When c
T
keeps its sign as time passes possible scenarios for
evolution of c are either vanishing or diverging to infinity. More interesting
case is realized when, in particular, real roots of Eq.(5.85), c

1
< c

2
, are
located in the interval, q
1
< c

1
< c

2
< q
2
, where q
1
, q
2
are real neighboring
roots of Q
6
(c). If α
3
β
2
> 0 and Q
6
(c) > 0 at q
1
< c < q
2
, we have c
T
> 0
when c

1
< c < c

2
and c
T
< 0 when q
1
< c < c

1
or c

2
< c < q
2
. It means
that if an initial velocity, c(T = 0) ≡ c
0
lies in the intervals c

1
< c
0
< c

2
or
c

2
< c < q
2
, the velocity c(T) tends to the finite value c
s
= c

2
at T → ∞.
If Q
6
(c) < 0, c tends to c
s
= c

1
. To put this another way, the value of
velocity is selected according to the governing equation coefficients. The
wave amplitude G(c) is selected like velocity c according to (5.77). It was
called in Sec. 1.3 the selection from below when c
0
< c
s
, Fig. 1.17 (a), while
the case c
0
> c
s
is referred to by the selection from above, Fig. 1.17(b).
We see the waves remain symmetric with respect to their maximums, their
amplitudes increase (decrease) while their widths decrease (increase).
Based on Eq. (5.84) the solution of Eq.(5.81) is
v
1
=
C(α
1
−c
2
)

2
[1 −tanh(pθ)] + [C +

1
α
3
−α
4
)c
2
c
T

1
−c
2
)
2

3
c
2
−α
4
)
θ]v
0
+
[C
1
+
C
2
θ −

1
α
3
−α
4
)c
2
c
T

1
−c
2
)
2

3
c
2
−α
4
)
θ
2
]v
0,θ
,
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 159
where C
1
is a constant,
C = 12p[α
2
3
β
2
c
8

3
(5α
2
α
3
c
T
−2α
1
α
3
β
2
−2α
4
β
2
−α
2
β
3
)c
6
+

2
¦α
2
1
α
2
3
+ 4α
1
α
3
α
4

2
4
¦ +α
2
β
3
¦2α
1
α
3

4
¦ −
11α
2
α
3
α
4
c
T
)c
4
+ (α
2
α
4
c
T
¦2α
1
α
3
+ 5α
4
¦ −
α
1
¦2α
4
β
2

1
α
3

4
] +α
2
β
3

1
α
3
+ 2α
4
]¦)c
4

α
2
1
α
4

4
β
2

2
β
3
)]/¦5α
2

1
−c
2
)
3

3
c
2
−α
4

One can check that evolution of the solution v = v
0
(θ, T) + k
d
v
1
(θ, T)
does not significantly differ from that of the solution v = v
0
(θ, T). How-
ever, it does not vanish at θ → −∞, and a plateau appears behind the
solitary wave. The standard matching asymptotic procedure should be
used to complete the uniformly valid asymptotic solution satisfying bound-
ary conditions (5.82), see Ablowitz and Segur (1981) for details. Absence
of plateau requires additional restrictions on the equation coefficients. Note
that neither exact solitary wave solution (5.76) nor asymptotic selected soli-
tary wave solution exists at β
2
= 0, β
3
= 0, and two values of the selected
wave parameters exist thanks to the mixed dispersion term in Eq.(5.74),
when α
3
,= 0.
5.4.4 Evolution of asymmetric solitary waves
Another asymptotic solution may be found when k
d
<< 1 is considered but
now it is assumed that a solution of Eq.(5.74) is a function of the phase
variable θ and the slow coordinate X, v = v(θ, X), with
θ
x
= P(X), θ
t
= −1, X = k
d
x.
Then from (5.74) we get that
(1 −α
1
P
2
)v
θ
−2α
2
v v
θ
−(α
3
−α
4
P
2
) v
θθθ
= k
d
(2P[α
1
v
X

2
v
2
X
+

3
−2α
4
P
2
)v
θθX
]+
P
X

1
v+α
2
v
2
θ
+(α
3
−6α
4
P
2
)v
θθ
]+P[β
1
v+β
2
v
2
+p
2
β
3
v
θθ
])+O(k
2
d
). (5.86)
The solution of Eq.(5.86) is sought in the form
v = v
0
(θ, X) +k
d
v
1
(θ, X) +..., (5.87)
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
160 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
and satisfies boundary conditions (5.82). Substituting (5.87) into (5.86) we
have a nonlinear O.D.E. for v
0
in the leading order,
(1 −α
1
P
2
)v
0,θ
−2α
2
v
0
v
0,θ
−(α
3
−α
4
P
2
) v
0,θθθ
= 0. (5.88)
Its solution,
v
0
=
3(1 −α
1
P
2
)

2
P
2
cosh
−2
(pθ), p
2
=
1 −α
1
P
2
4P
2

3
−α
4
P
2
)
(5.89)
now accounts for a solitary wave with parameters varying with respect to
X. Depending upon the function P(X) the solitary wave (5.89) may be
symmetric or asymmetric with respect to its core (or maximum) at different
points in time, see Fig. 1.18. The evolution of the solitary wave may be
described solving the next order problem where an inhomogeneous linear
equation holds,
(1 −α
1
P
2
)v
1,θ
−2α
2
(v
0
v
1
)
θ
−(α
3
−α
4
P
2
) v
1,θθθ
= F, (5.90)
with
F = 2P[α
1
v
0,X

2
v
2
0,X
+ (α
3
−2α
4
P
2
)v
0,θθX
] +
P
X

1
v
0

2
v
2
0,θ
+ (α
3
−6α
4
P
2
)v
0,θθ
] +
P[β
1
v
0

2
v
2
0
+P
2
β
3
v
0,θθ
].
Like in previous section the solvability condition (5.83) yields the equation
for the function s = P
2
,
α
2
H
3
(s)s
X
= s (α
1
s −1)(α
3
−α
4
s)(6α
3
β
2
+ [5α
2
α
3
β
1


2

4

1
α
3
) −α
2
β
3
]s −[5α
2
α
4
β
1
−6α
1
α
4
β
2
−α
1
α
2
β
3
]s
2
), (5.91)
where
H
3
(s) = α
1
α
4

1
α
3
+ 5α
4
)s
3
−2α
4
(11α
1
α
3
+ 10α
4
)s
2
+

3
(5α
1
α
3
+ 17α
4
)s −30α
2
3
.
Analysis of the solutions of Eq.(5.91) may be done similar to that in the
previous section. Again besides decay or an infinite growth of s one can
describe its selection (from below and from above) to the values s
s
obtained
from the equation
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Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 161
-20 -10 10 20 30 40 50
x
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
v
-20 -10 10 20 30 40 50
x
-0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
v
Fig. 5.7 Selection of the solitary waves governed by the solution (5.89), (5.91): (a) from
below (b) from above.
[5α
2
α
4
β
1
−6α
1
α
4
β
2
−α
1
α
2
β
3
]s
2
−[5α
2
α
3
β
1
−6β
2

4

1
α
3
) −α
2
β
3
]s−

3
β
2
= 0. (5.92)
We see that after substitution s = 1/c
2
we get H
3
(s) = Q
6
(c)/c
6
while
Eqs. (5.92) coincides with Eq. (5.85). It means that parameters of the se-
lected solitary waves (5.76) and (5.89) are the same as well as the conditions
required for the selection.
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
162 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
In Fig. 5.7 it is shown the temporal evolution of the solitary wave (5.89)
whose amplitude and velocity vary according to Eq.(5.91). The parameters
are chosen so as an initial profile is symmetric. We see that the initial
wave increases, Fig. 5.7(a), or decreases, Fig. 5.7(b), into the asymmetric
solitary wave. However, it transforms back into the symmetric wave during
the selection both from below and from above as shown in the last two
stages in Fig. 5.7(a) and Fig. 5.7(b).
We have studied how the external tangential dissipative (active) forces
may support an evolution of the long strain solitary waves in an elastic rod.
The conditions are found analytically when the selection of the solitary wave
occurs both from below and from above. It is shown that both asymptotic
solutions predict evolution into the symmetric selected solitary waves.
Previously, it was found analytically and in experiments the formation
of asymmetric strain solitary wave in a narrowing rod, see Sec. 4.1 where
the governing equation corresponds to Eq.(5.74) with β
1
= β
1
(x), β
2
= 0,
β
3
= 0. In experiments only narrowing part of the rod was observed where
a conversion to an asymmetric wave occurs, and there is no solitary wave
selection.
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Chapter 6
Bulk active or dissipative sources of
the amplification and selection
Now the attention is paid on the situations when active/dissipative forces
act inside a solid body. It is known that variation formulations used be-
fore in the book cannot be applied in the presence of volume dissipative
effects unless some modifications are proposed. Thus Lord Rayleigh (1945)
involved so-called dissipation function describing forces which depend upon
temporal derivatives of the variables. Dissipation function is included into
variation formulation through its elementary work. Another idea has been
used in Maugin (2000) to develop a variation formulation in thermoelastic-
ity. New variable has been introduced, called thermacy, into the relation
for the free energy density.
Another approach is of phenomenological kind. The coupled govern-
ing equations are derived in the form of a hyperbolic equation of mo-
tion (or the equation with main hyperbolic part) and the equation for a
variable responsible for dissipation (e.g., microdisplacement, temperature
etc.). The last equation is usually parabolic and is obtained phenomenolog-
ically. This modelling is connected with the concept of internal variables
Engelbrecht and Braun (1998); Maugin (1990); Maugin (1999); Maugin
and Muschik (1994). Application of the internal variables to the wave
problems may be found in Engelbrecht (1997); Engelbrecht et. al (1999);
Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996); Maugin (1999). According to this theory,
elastic stress or strain may be considered as observable variables in the
usual sense of the word. Its behavior is described by the hyperbolic equa-
tion. In order to compensate our lack of description of the internal structure
of material or the heat processes, another variables are introduced called
internal variables. They are usually governed by the equations of parabolic
type (i.e., diffusive). Various phenomenologocal model for viscoelastic bi-
ologocal media are discussed in Alekseev and Rybak (2002).
163
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164 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Below some active/dissipative problems are considered, namely, waves
in microstructured solids, seismic waves, waves in a medium with moving
defects, and thermoelastic waves. All processes are governed by coupled
dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations. We do not consider here
viscoelastic materials describing by the integro- differential equations, see
about it, e.g., Christensen (1971); Engelbrecht (1979).
6.1 Nonlinear bell-shaped and kink-shaped strain waves in
microstructured solids
The classical theory of elasticity cannot account for effects caused by the
microstructure of a material. The theory of microstructures has been
developed recently, see Capriz (1989); Engelbrecht and Braun (1998);
Eringen (1968); Maugin and Muschik (1994); Mindlin (1964) and refer-
ences therein quoted. Most results belong to the linear theory of elastic-
ity, however, there are findings in the field of the nonlinear theory En-
gelbrecht and Braun (1998); Eringen (1968); Eringen and Suhubi (1964);
Erofeev and Potapov (1993); Maugin and Muschik (1994). An impor-
tant problem is the lack of data on the microstructure parameters, but
a few works can be mentioned Savin et. al (1973b) where attempts to mea-
sure them were done. Also experiments were performed in Potapov and
Rodyushkin (2001). Strain waves may be useful in developing a possible
method to estimate the microparameters since shape, amplitude and veloc-
ity of the strain wave can carry informations about the microstructure.
Strain waves in microstructured medium were studied mainly in the
linear approximation Eringen (1968); Mindlin (1964). Only a few works
are devoted to the nonlinear waves in microstructured non-dissipative me-
dia Engelbrecht and Braun (1998); Erofeev and Potapov (1993); Sillat
(1999) while the influence of the dissipative microstructure on the evo-
lution of non-linear waves has been discussed in Cermelli and Pastrone
(1997); Engelbrecht (1997); Engelbrecht and Braun (1998); Engelbrecht
and Khamidullin (1988) The influence of dissipation/accumulation may
be described by various methods, see Engelbrecht (1983) and references
therein. Recently in a series of papers Cermelli and Pastrone (1997);
Engelbrecht et. al (1999) the influence of dissipation on a shock propagation
was studied in the one dimensional case while inertia of the microstructure
was neglected into account together with the gradient of the microfield .
Later numerical simulations were performed to account for the evolution of
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 165
periodic waves Sillat (1999).
Below we follow Porubov and Pastrone (2001). The model discussed in
Cermelli and Pastrone (1997); Engelbrecht et. al (1999) is modified includ-
ing both the inertia of the microstructure and the gradient of the microfield
. As a result the nonlinear PDE with dispersion and dissipative (active)
terms is derived. It is shown that it is able to describe both the bell-shaped
and kink-shaped longitudinal strain solitary waves. The simultaneous in-
fluence of the accumulation/dissipation on the evolution is studied, and the
selection of quasistationary dissipative solitary waves is found. A possibil-
ity of the estimation of the microstructure parameters is proposed on the
basis of the results obtained here.
6.1.1 Modelling of a microstructured medium with dissipa-
tion/accumulation
Let us recall some basic ideas following Eringen (1968); Mindlin (1964). The
motion of a material particle is characterized by the displacement vector
with components U
J
(x
J
, t). We suppose that the material particle contains
discrete micromaterial elements whose displacements are accounted by the
microdisplacement vector with components U

J
(x

J
, t). Following Eringen
(1968); Mindlin (1964), we assume the microdisplacement depends linearly
on the microcoordinates x

J
: U

J
(x

J
, t) = x

K
ψ
KJ
(x, t). Hence the microdis-
placement gradient is given by ∂

I
U

J
= ψ
IJ
, thus avoiding dependence upon
microcoordinates. In a reference configuration, the fundamental strains are
given by: the Cauchy-Green macrostrain tensor , C
IJ
, the distortion tensor,
E
IJ
= ∂
I
U
J
− ψ
IJ
, and the microdisplacement gradient, Γ
IJK
= ∂
I
ψ
JK
.
This kinematical model is valid for particular families of microstruc-
tures only; if one needs a model to describe wider class of phenomena
(solids with affine microstructures, liquid crystals, fluid with micro-bubbles,
etc.), we refer to the references given in Cermelli and Pastrone (1997);
Engelbrecht et. al (1999).
Let us assume the following:
(i) the movement is one dimensional, all variables depend upon the coordi-
nate x and the time t;
(ii) the macromotion if small but finite. Then the geometrical nonlinear-
ity is described by the only macrostrain C
XX
= U
x
+ 1/2U
2
x
, while the
Murnaghan model is valid to account for the physical nonlinearity;
(iii) the microstructure is sufficiently weak to be considered in the linear
approximation, E
XX
= U
x
− ψ, ψ = ψ
XX
, Γ
XXX
= ψ
x
. Now and in the
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166 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
following small lower indices denote differentiation.
(iv) the external forces are negligible.
Then the one dimensional governing equations may be written as in
Mindlin (1964),
ρU
tt
= σ
x

x
, (6.1)
I ψ
tt
= η
x
+τ, (6.2)
where ρ is the macro-density, I characterizes micro inertia. In dissipation-
less case components σ
eq
, τ
eq
and η
eq
of the tensors σ
IJ
, τ
IJ
and η
IJK
are
defined through the derivatives of the free energy W,
σ
IJ
=
∂W
∂C
IJ
, τ
IJ
=
∂W
∂E
IJ
, η
IJK
=
∂W
∂Γ
IJK
,
which in the one dimensional limit Mindlin (1964); Murnaghan (1951) is
reduced to:
σ
eq
= (λ + 2µ)U
x
+βU
2
x
, τ
eq
= D(U
x
−ψ), η
eq
= Gψ
x
. (6.3)
Here λ, µ are the Lame coefficients, β = 3/2(λ + 2µ) + l + 2m, D and
G are constant parameters. Assume the following representations in the
general case,
σ = σ
eq
+AU
xt
+aψ
t
, τ = τ
eq
+BU
xt
+bψ
t
, η = η
eq
+FU
xxt
+f ψ
xt
. (6.4)
Note that Aand a, B and b, F and f have the same dimensions. Dissipation
inequality imposes some restrictions on the involved parameters Cermelli
and Pastrone (1997); Engelbrecht (1983); Engelbrecht et. al (1999); Maugin
and Muschik (1994). The reason of our assumption may be seen considering
the linearized case in absence of the microstructure. Then we have for σ:
σ = (λ + 2µ)U
x
+AU
xt
,
that relates to the Voigt model, see, e.g., Bland (1960), the simplest exten-
sion of the Hook law to the viscoelastic media Alekseev and Rybak (2002).
Our model may be considered as a generalization of the Voigt model of
microstructured solids. Let us remark that the Voigt model accounts for
the influence of the dissipation only. We would like to consider a more
general case to account also for the energy influx to the strain wave caused
by the microstructure. Hence the coefficients in Eq.(6.4) may be of differ-
ent signs. Certainly, constitutive equations (6.4) are of phenomenological
kind, since strictly speaking, they are not rigorously deduced within the
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 167
general framework of Rational Continuum Mechanics, but we do not want
to go further in details here. In the following a more general constitutive
equations will be derived according the basic assumptions and methods of
Continuum Mechanics. Equation (6.4) can be seen as a particular case,
obtained via proper additional assumptions.
Substituting Eqs.(6.3), (6.4) into Eqs. (6.1), (6.2) and introducing the
functions v = U
x
and ψ as unknown variables, we obtain the coupled equa-
tions
ρv
tt
= (λ+2µ+D)v
xx
−Dψ
xx
+β( v
2
)
xx
+(A+B)v
xxt
+(a+b)ψ
xxt
, (6.5)
I ψ
tt
= D(v −ψ) +Bv
t
+bψ
t
+Gψ
xx
+F v
xxt
+f ψ
xxt
. (6.6)
Further simplifications follow considering only long waves with charac-
teristic length L >> 1. Moreover, the macro strain v is elastic and does
not exceed the yield point. Since the Murnaghan model is chosen, we are
dealing with those elastic materials whose yield points are small, hence,
the characteristic strain magnitude V is also small, V << 1. Let us in-
troduce L as a scale for x, V - as a scale for v and ψ, L/c
0
, as a scale for
t, c
2
0
= (λ + 2µ)/ρ as a characteristic velocity. The microinertia term I
depends upon the square of a typical size p of a microstructure element.
Then I may be rewritten as I = ρp
2
I

, I

being dimensionless. Using di-
mensional analysis, one can assume G = p
2
G

, G

having the dimension of
stress. The influence of dissipation/accumulation may be conveniently de-
scribed supposing A = dA

, a = da

, B = dB

, b = db

, F = dF

, f = df

,
where d has the dimension of a length. Then three positive dimensionless
parameters appear in Eqs.(6.5), (6.6):
(a) ε = V << 1 accounting for elastic strains;
(b) δ = p
2
/L
2
<< 1, characterizing the ratio between the microstruc-
ture size and the wave length;
(c) γ = d/L, characterizing the influence of the dissipation.
Then the dimensionless governing equations are (we keep the notations for
variables):
v
tt
−(1 +
D
λ + 2µ
)v
xx
+
D
λ + 2µ
ψ
xx
= ε
β
λ + 2µ
( v
2
)
xx
+
γ
_
(A

+B

)c
0
λ + 2µ
v
xxt
+
(a

+b

)c
0
λ + 2µ
ψ
xxt
_
, (6.7)
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168 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Dψ = Dv +γc
0
[B

v
t
+b

ψ
t
] +δ [G

ψ
xx
−(λ + 2µ)I

ψ
tt
] +
γδc
0
[F

v
xxt
+f

ψ
xxt
] . (6.8)
In absence of the microstructure, B

, D, F

, G, a

, b

, and δ are equal
to zero, the only equation for v is of the form
v
tt
−v
xx
−ε
β
λ + 2µ
( v
2
)
xx
−γ
(A

+B

)c
0
λ + 2µ
v
xxt
= 0. (6.9)
Assume dissipation is weak. If we expand the solution of Eq.(6.8) in the
form :
ψ = ψ
0
+γ ψ
1
+δ ψ
2
+γδ ψ
3
+ γ
2
ψ
4
+..., (6.10)
with
ψ
0
= v, ψ
1
=
(B

+b

)c
0
D
v
t
, ψ
2
=
G

D
v
xx

(λ + 2µ)I

D
v
tt
,
ψ
3
=
[(F

+f

)D + (B

+ 2b

)G

]c
0
D
2
v
xxt

(λ + 2µ)(B

+ 2b

)c
0
I

D
2
v
ttt
,
ψ
4
=
b

(B

+b

)c
2
0
D
2
v
tt
. (6.11)
we obtain, by substituting (6.10), (6.11) into Eq.(6.7), the governing non-
linear PDE for the macrostrain v(x, t),
v
tt
− v
xx
−εα
1
( v
2
)
xx
−γα
2
v
xxt
+δ(α
3
v
xxxx
−α
4
v
xxtt
)+
γδ(α
5
v
xxxxt

6
v
xxttt
) +γ
2
α
7
v
xxtt
= 0, (6.12)
where
α
1
=
β
λ + 2µ
, α
2
=
(A

+a

)c
0
λ + 2µ
, α
3
=
G

λ + 2µ
, α
4
= I

,
α
5
=
[(F

+f

)D + (B

+b

−a

)G

]c
0
(λ + 2µ)D
,
α
6
=
I

(a

−B

−b

)c
0
D
, α
7
=
a

(B

+b

)
ρD
.
Comparing Eq.(6.12) with Eq.(6.9) we see that the inclusion of the gra-
dient of microdistortion provides the dispersion v
xxxx
, while the inertia of
the microstructure gives us mixed dissipation and dispersion terms. The
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 169
evolution of nonlinear strain wave depends upon the ratio between param-
eters ε, γ and δ. This is the reason we retain terms quadratic in these
parameters in the expansion of the solution (6.10). Sometimes they can
be considered ” negligibly small”, sometimes-not, according to the different
effects we want to point out, as it will be explained in the following.
There are two main types of nonlinear travelling solitary waves which
could propagate keeping its shape, bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary
waves. The bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a
balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. The kink-shaped localized
travelling structure may be sustained by different balances, one possibil-
ity occurs when nonlinearity is balanced by dissipation (or accumulation),
another case corresponds to the simultaneous balance between dispersion,
nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation). Typical shapes of the waves
are shown in Figs. 1.1–1.5.
6.1.2 Bell-shaped solitary waves
The balance between nonlinearity and dispersion takes place when δ =
O(ε). If in addition γ = 0, we have the nondissipative case governed by the
double dispersive equation,
v
tt
− v
xx
−ε(α
1
( v
2
)
xx
−α
3
v
xxxx

4
v
xxtt
) = 0. (6.13)
Its exact bell-shaped travelling solitary wave solution arises as a result of
balance between nonlinear and dispersive terms. It satisfies the boundary
conditions

k
∂x
k
v →0 for [x[ →∞, k = 0, 1, 2, 3, (6.14)
and takes the form (see section 3):
v =
6k
2

4
c
2
−α
3
)
α
1
cosh
−2
(k θ), (6.15)
where θ = x −ct, c is a free parameter,
k
2
=
c
2
−1
4ε(α
4
c
2
−α
3
)
. (6.16)
Hence, the solitary wave (6.15) exists when c
2
> max¦1, α
3

4
¦ or
when 0 < c
2
< min¦1, α
3

4
¦. In the first case longitudinal tensile waves
propagate, while in the second case only compressive waves propagate.
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170 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
In general, Eq.(6.12) possesses an exact travelling bell-shaped solution
vanishing at infinity Kudryashov (1988); Parkes and Duffy (1996),
v = −
60ck
3
γδ
εα
1

5

6
c
2
) cosh
−2
(k (x −ct))[tanh(k (x −ct)) ±1], (6.17)
where
k = ±
2γcα
2
δ(α
3
− ¯ α
4
c
2
)
,
¯ α
4
= α
4

2
/δ α
7
, the phase velocity c is defined from the overdetermined
system of bi-quadratic equations,
(δα
4
−γ
2
α
7
)c
4
−[δ(α
3
+ ¯ α
4
) + 24γ
2
α
2
2
]c
2
+δα
3
= 0,
(δ¯ α
4
2
+ 16γ
2
α
2
α
6
)c
4
+ (16γ
2
α
2
α
5
−2δα
3
¯ α
4
)c
2
+δα
2
3
= 0,
hence, the exact solution (6.17) exists only for particular values of the
coefficients in such equations.
When δ = O(ε), γ << 1, Eq.(6.12) is considered as dissipation per-
turbed double dispersive equation (6.13). The asymptotic solution is sought
as a function of the phase variable θ and the slow time T, v = v(θ, T), with
θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −c(T), T = γ t.
Then from (6.12) we get that
(c
2
−1)v
θ
−εα
1
( v
2
)
θ
+ε(α
3
−α
4
c
2
) v
θθθ
=
γ
_
2c[v
T
−εα
4
v
θθT
] +c
T
[v −εα
4
v
θθ
] −c

2
∂θ
2
_
α
2
v −ε(α
5

6
c
2
) v
θθ
¸
_
+
O(γ
2
). (6.18)
The solution of Eq.(6.18) is sought in the form
v = v
0
(θ, T) +γv
1
(θ, T) +... (6.19)
where v
i
, i = 0, 1, ..., satisfy boundary conditions (6.14) at [θ[ → ∞. Sub-
stituting (6.19) into (6.18) we have in the leading order
(c
2
−α
1
)v
0,θ
−εα
1
( v
2
0
)
θ
+ε(α
3
−α
4
c
2
) v
0,θθθ
= 0. (6.20)
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 171
The exact solitary wave solution of Eq.(6.20) has the form (6.15) with
c = c(T). The first order term v
1
in the solution (6.19) obeys the inhomo-
geneous linear equation
(c
2
−α
1
)v
1,θ
−2εα
1
(v
0
v
1
)
θ
+ε(α
3
−α
4
c
2
) v
1,θθθ
= F, (6.21)
where F is
F = 2c[v
0,T
−εα
4
v
0,θθT
] +c
T
[v
0
−εα
4
v
0,θθ
]−
c

2
∂θ
2
_
α
2
v
0
−ε(α
5

6
c
2
) v
0,θθ
¸
.
The operator M acting on the function v
1
in Eq.(6.21) is adjoint to the
operator
M
A
= (c
2
−1)∂
θ
−2εα
1
v
0

θ
+ε(α
3
−α
4
c
2
) ∂
3
θ
.
Then using (6.20) and boundary conditions at infinity one can obtain
the solvability condition for Eq.(6.21),
_

−∞
v
0
F dθ = 0, (6.22)
which yields the equation for the function s = c
2
,
7ε s
T
Q
3
(s) = 2s (s −α
1
)
2
(q
1
s
2
+q
2
s +q
3
), (6.23)
with
Q
3
(s) = 30α
2
4
s
3
+3α
4
(17α
3
+5α
4
) s
2
+2α
3
(10α
3
+11α
4
) s −α
3

4
+5α
3
),
q
1
= 5α
6
, q
2
= 5α
5
−7α
2
α
4
−5α
6
, q
3
= 7α
2
α
3
−5α
5
. (6.24)
Important features of the behaviour of s may be established analyzing
Eq.(6.23) without integration. There may be decay or infinite growth of the
initial velocity and the amplitude of the solitary wave (6.15). However, the
most interesting evolution of s is realized when s (and hence the amplitude
of the solitary wave) tends to the finite constant value s

as T →∞. Hence
the solitary wave in microstructured solids may be also selected. Indeed,
the values of s

are the real positive solutions of equation
q
1
s
2
+q
2
s +q
3
= 0. (6.25)
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172 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
Assume real roots of Eq.(6.25) are s
1q
< s
2q
. We denote by s
0
the initial
value of s while the real root of Q
3
is s
Q
. The sign of s
T
needed for s →
s
nq
depends upon the sign of Q
3
(s) around s = s
nq
, the sign of q
1
, and
the permitted interval defined from (6.16). When s
Q
is the only real root
of Q
3
, and s
Q
< s
1q
the amplification of the solitary wave with s

= s
1q
occurs at q
1
> 0 if s
Q
< s
0
< s
1q
while at q
1
< 0 it amplifies by s

= s
2q
if s
1q
< s
0
< s
2q
. The attenuation of the wave to s

= s
1q
happens when
q
1
> 0, s
1q
< s
0
< s
2q
, in case q
1
< 0 wave with initial velocity s
0
> s
2q
decreases to s

= s
2q
. When s
1q
< s
Q
< s
2q
there is no selection for
q
1
> 0, while for negative q
1
the double selection is realized. Thus, waves
with s
0
< s
1q
amplify up to s

= s
1q
, but waves with s
Q
< s
0
< s
2q
increase
up to s

= s
2q
. Similarly, the attenuation to s

= s
1q
happens for the waves
with s
1q
< s
0
< s
Q
, while the waves with s
0
> s
2q
attenuate by s

= s
2q
.
If s
Q
> s
2q
there is no double selection, the wave evolution is similar to
the case s
Q
< s
1q
. The situation when Q
3
has three real roots within or
outside the interval [s
1q
, s
2q
] may be analyzed in the same manner. Thus
the stationary values of the solitary wave parameters are prescribed by the
equation coefficients.
Amplification, attenuation and selection of the bell-shaped solitary wave
v = v
0
is shown in Fig. 1.17. One can see that the solitary wave keeps its
localized bell-shaped form. In the case of amplification, the wave ampli-
tude increases, while the width decreases; the attenuation is provided by
simultaneous decrease of the amplitude and the increase of the width. The
addition of correction γv
1
does not change significantly the profile of v = v
0
.
It is relevant to notice that the solution (6.19) is not uniformly valid: the
matching asymptotic expansions method Ablowitz and Segur (1981) should
be applied to complete the solution, even if it does not modify the behaviour
of the wave near its core.
6.1.3 Kink-shaped solitary waves
The equation (6.12) possesses also exact travelling kink-shaped solution
Kudryashov (1988); Parkes and Duffy (1996), in the form
v =
3

i=0
A
i
tanh
i
(k θ), (6.26)
with three possible sets of parameters A
i
, k . There are no free parameters
in the solution, and additional restrictions on the equation coefficients are
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 173
needed.
When dispersion is weak, i.e., ε
2
< δ < ε and γ = O(ε), the nonlinearity
is balanced by the dissipation/accumulation only. Then Eq.(6.12) may be
rewritten as
v
tt
− v
xx
−ε(α
1
( v
2
)
xx

2
v
xxt
) = −δ(α
3
v
xxxx
− ¯ α
4
v
xxtt
)−
εδ(α
5
v
xxxxt

6
v
xxttt
), (6.27)
whose solution is sought in the form
v = v
0
+δv
1
+... (6.28)
where v
i
= v
i
(θ = x −ct) satisfies the boundary conditions
v
0
→h
±
, v
i
→0, i > 0, for θ →±∞, (6.29)
and all derivatives of v
i
with respect to θ vanish at infinity. For a kink
h
+
,= h

. In the leading order the kink solution has the form
v = Am tanh(mθ) +B, (6.30)
with
A = −
α
2
c
α
1
, B =
c
2
−1
2εα
1
. (6.31)
There are two free parameters, the phase velocity c and the wave number
m which are defined from the boundary conditions,
m =
(h

−h
+

1
2cα
2
, c
2
= 1 +εα
1
(h
+
+h

).
Next order solution v
1
consists of two parts, v
1
= v
1d
+ v
1a
, where dispersive
perturbation of the kink vanishing at infinity is accounted for the solution,
v
1d
=
2(¯ α
4
c
2
−α
3
)m
2
εα
1
cosh
−2
(mθ) log sech(mθ), (6.32)
while higher order dissipative/active terms contribution is
v
1a
=
2(α
5

6
c
2
)cm
3
α
1
cosh
−2
(mθ) (3 tanh(mθ) −2mθ) . (6.33)
The alterations of the kink shape in absence of higher order dissipa-
tive/active terms, α
5
= α
6
= 0, depend upon the sign of (α
4
c
2
− α
3
)/α
1
.
Typical profiles of v = v
0
+ δv
1d
with v
1d
defined by (6.32) are shown
in Fig. 6.1 for different values of α
3
with other parameters values fixed:
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174 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
e
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
c
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
d
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
4
v
a
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
b
Fig. 6.1 Influence of weak dispersion on the shape of the kink-shaped wave. Shown by
dashed line is the unperturbed kink.
α
1
= 1, α
2
= −1, ¯ α
4
= 1, c = 1.5, m = 1.5, ε = 0.5, δ = 0.1. The ”non-
symmetric” disturbances of the kink shape are seen in Fig. 6.1(a), where
α
3
= −2.5; they become weaker when α
3
tends to zero. In Fig. 6.1(b) the
value is α
3
= −0.5, while undisturbed kink appears in Fig. 6.1(c) where
α
3
= 2.25. Then the disturbances develop on another ”side” of the kink,
as shown in Figs. 6.1(d,e) with α
3
= 5, 7, correspondingly, and we have the
mirror profile of those shown in Fig. 6.1(a, b). Fig. 6.1 shows the amplifi-
cation of the kink-shaped wave since the difference between its maximum
and its minimum is larger than in the undisturbed case. In contrast to the
bell-shaped wave now the amplification is accompanied by the alteration
of the wave profile. One can note the similarity with the profile in Fig. 1.5
of the exact kink-shaped solution of DMKdV equation. In Fig. 6.2 it
is shown what happens with the kink (6.30) when there is no dispersion,
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 175
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
v
e
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
c
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
d
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
a
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
x
-1
1
2
3
v
b
Fig. 6.2 nfluence of weak higher order dissipation on the shape of the kink-shaped wave
. Shown by dashed line is the unperturbed kink.
α
3
= α
4
= 0. The profiles of v = v
0
+ δv
1a
with v
1a
defined by (6.33)
correspond to α
1
= 1, α
2
= −1, α
5
= 1.5, c = 1.5, m = 1.5, ε = 0.5,
δ = 0.1. In Fig. 6.2(a) α
6
= −2.5, it varies from α
6
= −1.5, Fig. 6.2(b) to
α
6
= −0.5, Fig. 6.2(c) where there are no disturbances. We have α
6
= 0.5
in Fig. 6.2(d), while Fig. 6.2(e) corresponds to α
6
= 2.5. Two main dis-
tinctions may be mentioned in comparison with profiles shown in Fig. 6.1.
First, the disturbances of the kink shape are ”symmetric” independently of
the sign of α
6
. Second, there are no mirror profiles arising at distinct signs
of α
6
.
The case δ = O(ε), γ = O(ε) corresponds to the simultaneous balance
between nonlinearity, dispersion and dissipation/accumulation, perturbed
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176 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
by the higher order dissipative/active terms,
v
tt
− v
xx
−ε[α
1
( v
2
)
xx

2
v
xxt
−α
3
v
xxxx
+ ¯ α
4
v
xxtt
] =
−ε
2

5
v
xxxxt

6
v
xxttt
), (6.34)
The solution of Eq.(6.34) is sought in the form
v = v
0
+εv
1

2
v
2
... (6.35)
where boundary conditions (6.29) hold. Substituting (6.35) into (6.34)
in the leading order we obtain the D’Alembert equation. Consider only
one wave travelling to the left and assume v depends upon phase variable
θ = x − ct with c = 1 + εc
1
+ ε
2
c
2
.... Then at order ε the ODE equation
for v
0
is,
2c
1
v
0,θ
−α
1
( v
2
0
)
θ

2
v
0,θθ
+ (α
3
− ¯ α
4
) v
0,θθθ
= 0. (6.36)
Equation (6.36) possesses the exact kink-shaped solution Vlieg-
Hultsman and Halford (1991),
v
0
= A tanh(mθ)sech
2
(mθ) +B tanh(mθ) +C, (6.37)
with
A =

2
2
50α
1
(¯ α
4
−α
3
)
, B =

2
2
25α
1
(¯ α
4
−α
3
)
, C =
c
1
α
1
, m =
α
2
10(α
3
− ¯ α
4
)
.
It follows from (6.29) that
h
+
−h

= 2B, c
1
=
α
1
2
(h
+
+h

),
and the solution exists under special boundary conditions. The influence of
higher order terms may be studied in a similar way as done for the solution
(6.28).
6.1.4 Concluding remarks
We have found that various features of the microstructure provide corre-
sponding terms in the governing equation (6.12). Thus inertia yields mixed
derivative terms v
xxtt
, v
xxttt
, while dispersion v
xxxx
and higher order dissi-
pative/active term v
xxxxt
are due to the micro-deformation gradient. Dis-
persion is required for the existence of the bell-shaped solitary waves in an
elastic microstructured medium. The dispersive term v
xxtt
determines, in
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 177
particular, the existence of either exact compression or tensile solitary wave
solutions (see Eqs.(6.15), (6.16)), while the higher order dissipative/active
term α
6
v
xxttt
provides nonzero q
1
in Eq.(6.25), namely two stationary fi-
nite velocities of the solitary wave. Dispersion terms also account for the
alterations in the kink-shaped wave profile, see Fig. 6.1, while higher or-
der dissipative/active terms are responsible for a saturation which prevents
unbounded growth of the bell-shaped solitary wave.
We see that pairs B

, b

and F

, f

appear in the expressions for the
equation coefficients only in combinations B

+ b

, F

+ f

. Hence, one
could reduce the number of the microstructure parameters in the model
(6.4). At the same time there is a need of both A and a, since a

appears
in the expression for α
4
independently fromA

. The ratio between the small
parameters, ε, δ and γ, allows to estimate the size p of the microstructure
and the parameter d which influence the dissipation/accumulation effects.
According to this ratio the governing equation (6.12) may describe either
bell-shaped or kink- shaped solitary waves.
The solutions of Eq.(6.12) allow to describe in an explicit form the
amplification of both types of the waves, as well as the selection of the
solitary wave, when its parameters tend to the finite values prescribed by
the coefficients of the governing equation. The relationships among these
parameters define the thresholds that separate the parameters of the initial
solitary waves which will be amplified or attenuated. The wave amplitude
and velocity depend upon macro- and micro-properties of the microstruc-
tured medium through the analytical relationships, explicitly given above.
An application of the results obtained here consists in a possible esti-
mation of the microstructure parameters on the basis of the strain wave
behaviour. In principle, the measurements of the solitary wave amplitude
and velocity allow to obtain the parameters of the microstructure using
elastic macro-moduli known beforehand.
The asymptotic solution (6.19) describing bell-shaped solitary wave se-
lection may help to explain transfer of the strain energy by the microstruc-
ture. Let us assume one single solitary wave with initial velocity

s
01
,
so that it will be attenuated propagating in the microstructured medium.
Hence, it looses its energy which is absorbed by the microstructure. If an-
other wave travels with an initial velocity

s
02
, it will be amplified and
it means that we need a source of energy to justify the amplification. A
possible explanation could be that the energy stored by the microstructure
is released because of the passing wave. Certainly the solution cannot de-
scribe an energy exchange between the waves but it gives us the range of
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178 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
the microstructure parameters when the energy transmission is possible.
The predictions of the asymptotic solution may be valid even in a more
complicated unsteady process of the formation of solitary waves from an
arbitrary input, see, e.g., Sec. 2.3.1. where the equation is considered rather
similar to ours. Like here its single solitary wave asymptotic solution has
been obtained in Sec. 2.2, and the conditions were found for the decay or a
selection of a single solitary wave. Then the evolution of an initial arbitrary
pulse has been studied numerically. It was found that the initial pulse splits
into a sequence of solitary waves but each of them evolves according to the
single solitary wave analytical solution.
6.2 Nonlinear seismic solitary waves selection
6.2.1 Modelling of nonlinear seismic waves
The influence of microstructure may explain phenomena caused by the
energy input/output. Thus, recently the phenomenological theory has been
developed in Engelbrecht (1997); Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) to
account for the seismic waves propagation in a horizontal layer. It was
proposed to describe longitudinal strain waves evolution by the nonlinear
equation,
u
t
+uu
x
+d u
xxx
= εf(u), (6.38)
where f is the body force related to the so-called dilation mechanism,
f(u) = −
_
a
1
u −a
2
u
2
+a
3
u
3
_
, (6.39)
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
are positive constants and ε is a small parameter. Eq. (6.38)
may describe an appearance of microseisms. The internal energy is stored
in a geophysical medium, while propagating seismic waves may release the
locked-in internal energy. Additional energy influx yields an amplification
of the wave.
The basic idea of the seismic waves modelling is originated from the di-
lation theory in fracture mechanics Zhurkov (1983). It was assumed there
that negative density fluctuations play an essential role in the strength of
solids. These fluctuations are called dilatons. They may be considered
as short-lived objects which are able to absorb energy from a surround-
ing medium. Accumulation of the energy may happen only up to a cer-
tain threshold value, then it is released, and the dilaton breaks generating
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 179
a crack. Qualitatively similar phenomena were recognized in Koz´ak and
ˇ
Silen´ y (1985) studying seismic energy release to explain the earthquake
mechanism. The necessary condition for the fracturing of the medium
under load is the existence of an inhomogeneity like a tectonic fault, an
inclusion etc. Hence it was assumed in Koz´ak and
ˇ
Silen´ y (1985) to consider
a medium as a two-dimensional homogeneous space containing a linear in-
homogeneity compressed uniaxially, which is the structure that simulates
commonly occurring geological faults subjected to tectonic stress with a
predominant orientation. The area, affected by the loading, increases until
the stress field achieves a threshold. Then a seismic-energy-releasing events
occur. A similar dilatancy model has been proposed in Gusev (1988) to
explain the nature of earthquake precursors. In particular, it was assumed
that the mechanism of seismic radiation is connected with rapid dilatancy
variations.
The theory developed in Gusev (1988); Koz´ak and
ˇ
Silen´ y (1985) is
linear. Preliminary results, mainly qualitative, were obtained in Niko-
laev (1989) to clarify the role of the simultaneous influence of nonlinear-
ity and dissipation on the seismic waves evolution. However, the most
important contribution to nonlinear description of the seismic waves has
been done in Engelbrecht (1997); Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988).
In order to govern a medium that may store and release the energy it
was proposed in Engelbrecht (1997); Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988)
to consider the Earth crust as a certain hierarchy of elastic blocks con-
nected by thin interface layers. The layers are inhomogeneities where
the energy is pumped, stored and released. Hence the interface lay-
ers behave like dilatons. Derivation of Eq.(6.38) in Engelbrecht (1997);
Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) is based on a model where the classic
elasticity basic equations are complemented by the inclusion of the body
force to account for the dilaton mechanism, and the phenomenological ex-
pression for the body force (6.39) closes the basic equations.
In absence of the body force, f = 0, Eq.(6.38) is the celebrated
Korteweg-de Vries equation, whose exact travelling one-parameter solitary
wave solution arises as a result of a balance between nonlinearity, uu
x
, and
dispersion, d u
xxx
. Body force f plays a dissipative/active role destroy-
ing this balance. When all terms in the expression for f are dissipative,
the solitary wave decays, while there is an infinite growth in a pure ac-
tive case. The most interesting scenario happens in the mixed dissipative-
active case. In particular, numerical results in Engelbrecht (1997);
Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) demonstrate transformation of an ini-
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180 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
tial KdV soliton into a new stable localized bell-shaped wave with the
amplitude and velocity prescribed by the equation coefficients.
The nature of the terms in f depend upon the values of the coefficients
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, but numerical simulations cannot describe the intervals of their
values required for the appearance of the stable localized waves. In order to
obtain this information a procedure is developed below. Most of the results
were first published in Porubov et. al (2003). First, the unsteady process
of the transformation of the KdV soliton into the solitary wave with pre-
scribed parameter values is described analytically. Then it is demonstrated
numerically that solitary waves selection
(i) in presence of the solitary waves interactions;
(ii) when an initial profile is arbitrary;
(iii) when the parameter ε is not small
happens in quantitative agreement with asymptotic solution.
6.2.2 Asymptotic solution of the governing equation
Let us assume that ε << 1. Furthermore the function u depends upon a
fast variable ξ and a slow time T , such as
ξ
x
= 1, ξ
t
= −V (T), T = ε t.
Then equation (6.38) becomes
d u
ξξξ
−V u
ξ
+uu
ξ

_
u
T
+a
1
u −a
2
u
2
+a
3
u
3
¸
= 0. (6.40)
The solution u of Eq.(6.40) is sought in the form:
u(ξ, T) = u
0
(ξ, T) +ε u
1
(ξ, T) +... (6.41)
In the leading order we have
d u
0,ξξξ
−V u
0,ξ
+ u
0
u
0,ξ
= 0. (6.42)
Equation (6.42) contains coefficients V = V (T), hence, its exact solitary
wave solution will have slowly varying parameters,
u
0
= 12 d k(T)
2
cosh
−2
(k(T) ξ) (6.43)
with V = 4dk
2
.
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 181
In the next order an inhomogeneous linear differential equation for u
1
appears,
d u
1,ξξξ
−V u
1,ξ
+ (u
0
u
1
)
ξ
= F, (6.44)
with
F = −
_
u
0,T
+a
1
u
0
−a
2
u
2
0
+a
3
u
3
0
¸
.
Due to (6.43)
u
0,T
=
2k
T
k
u
0
+
k
T
k
ξ u
0,ξ
.
The solvability condition for Eq.(6.44) is

_
−∞
u
0
F dξ = 0. (6.45)
Then it follows from (6.45) that k obeys the equation
k
T
= −
2
105
k
_
3456a
3
d
2
k
4
−336a
2
dk
2
+ 35a
1
_
, (6.46)
that may be rewritten in terms of the solitary wave amplitude Q =
12 d k(T)
2
as
Q
T
= −
4
105
Q(24a
3
Q
2
−28a
2
Q+ 35a
1
). (6.47)
The roots of the equation,
24a
3
Q
2
−28a
2
Q+ 35a
1
= 0,
are
Q
1
=
14a
2
−2
_
49a
2
2
−210a
3
a
1
24a
3
, Q
2
=
14a
2
+ 2
_
49a
2
2
−210a
3
a
1
24a
3
.
(6.48)
The behavior of the solitary wave amplitude, Q, depends on the value of
Q
0
≡ Q(T = 0). Indeed, Q will diverge at Q
0
< Q
1
, when Q
1
< Q
0
< Q
2
parameter Q will grow up to Q
2
, while if Q
0
> Q
2
it will decrease by Q
2
.
Hence parameters of the solitary wave tends to the finite values prescribed
by the equation coefficients a
i
and is selected.
A more quantitative description of the variation of Q can be given in
order to see at what time the selected values are achieved. Equation (6.47)
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182 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
may be directly integrated over the range (0, T) giving the implicit depen-
dence of Q on T:
T =
35
32a
3
Q
1
Q
2
(Q
2
−Q
1
)
_
Q
2
log
(Q−Q
1
)
(Q
0
−Q
1
)
−Q
1
log
(Q−Q
2
)
(Q
0
−Q
2
)
+ (Q
2
−Q
1
) log
Q
Q
0
_
(6.49)
One can see that T tends to infinity when Q → Q
2
, and expression
(6.49) provides an analytical description of the time-dependent process of
the parameter-value selection of the solitary wave (6.43).
With Eq.(6.47) being taken into account, the solution for u
1
is
u
1
= A
1
[tanh(kξ) −1] + [3A
1
+ 2A
2
ξ] cosh
−2
(kξ) + [C −3kA
1
ξ −
A
2
ξ
2
−A
3
log(cosh(kξ))] tanh(kξ) cosh
−2
(kξ), (6.50)
where C = const,
A
1
=
1152a
3
d
2
k
4
−168a
2
dk
2
+ 35a
1
35k
,
A
2
=
3456a
3
d
2
k
4
−336a
2
dk
2
+ 35a
1
35
, A
3
=
1728a
3
d
2
k
3
35
.
We see that u
1
does not vanish at ξ →−∞, and a plateau appears behind
a solitary wave. It may be of negative or positive amplitude depending
upon the sign of A
1
. A uniformly valid solution vanishing at ξ →−∞ may
be obtained by the standard procedure described in Ablowitz and Segur
(1981).
One can make now some important conclusions. If we formally assume
a
2
= 0, a
3
= 0, both the behavior of the solitary wave parameters and
the sign of the amplitude of plateau are defined by the sign of a
1
. Indeed
when a
1
> 0, the amplitude and velocity of the wave decreases in time
according to Eq.(6.47), while A
1
> 0, and the plateau is negative. On the
contrary, at negative a
1
we have an increase of the wave amplitude and
positive plateau. In general case the plateau may be negative both in case
of an increase and a decrease of the solitary wave. We also see that the
increase of the amplitude is accompanied by the decrease of the wave width.
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 183
50 100 150 200 250 300
x
0
5
10
u
0
5
10
Fig. 6.3 Evolution of three solitary waves in absence of their interaction.
6.2.3 Numerical simulations
An asymptotic solution requires specific initial conditions while an evolution
of an arbitrary initial disturbance as well as interactions between nonlinear
localized waves are of practical interest. It may be described only numeri-
cally, however, it is important to know whether analytical predictions may
be used for a design of numerics, since the behavior of the waves is sensitive
to the values of the equation coefficients and the initial conditions.
We use for computations a pseudo-spectral method whose computation
code was designed in Kliakhandler (1999). The program computes solutions
of 1D scalar PDEs with periodic boundary conditions. It evaluates spatial
derivatives in Fourier space by means of the Fast Fourier Transform, while
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184 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
50 100 150 200 250
x
0
10
u
0
10
Fig. 6.4 Selection of two solitary in presence of their interaction.
the time discretization is performed using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta
method. This scheme appears to have a good stability with respect to
the time step and was already successfully used for the modelling of the
solitary wave selection in a convective fluid, see Sec. 2.3.1. More detailed
information about the code may be found in Kliakhandler (1999).
We choose the parameter values identical to that used in numerics in
Engelbrecht (1997): a
1
= 1, a
2
= 0.5, a
3
= 0.0556, d = 0.5, ε = 0.1.
Following the analysis from the previous section one obtains Q
1
= 4.11,
Q
2
= 6.38, and the selection occurs for single solitary waves with initial
amplitudes from the interval 4.11 < Q
0
< 6.38. Numerical results for
the single wave evolution confirm analytical solutions and agree with the
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 185
50 100 150 200 250
x
0
10
u
0
10
Fig. 6.5 Selection of one solitary wave and decay of another one in presence of their
interaction.
numerical results in Engelbrecht (1997).
Then the initial conditions are changed to the profile containing three
solitary waves each accounting for Eq.(6.43) at T = 0. First, the waves
are located so as to avoid their interactions, see the first stage in Fig. 6.3.
The initial amplitudes are chosen so as the values of the amplitudes of
the first two solitary waves are brought into the selection interval, while
the amplitude of the last one is below Q
1
= 4.11. For convenience here
and in the following figures thresholds 4.11 and 6.38 are shown by dashed
lines at each stage. One can see in Fig. 6.3 that the amplitudes of the
first two solitary waves tend to the value Q
2
= 6.38, while the last solitary
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186 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
x
0
5
10
u
0
5
10
Fig. 6.6 Evolution of an initial Gaussian profile and formation of two selected solitary
waves.
wave decays. Hence each solitary wave evolves according to the asymptotic
solution.
Let us re-arrange the initial positions of the solitary waves in order to
include their interactions. First we take two larger initial solitary waves.
One can see in Fig. 6.4 that the interaction does not affect the selection,
and again both solitary waves evolve in agreement with the theory. When
the second initial solitary wave from Fig. 6.3 is moved behind the third one,
its selection occurs despite the interaction, while the smaller wave decays.
The process is shown in Fig. 6.5.
One can see in Fig. 6.6 that an initial Gaussian pulse produces a train
of solitary waves of different magnitude in agreement with the KdV theory.
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 187
1 3 5 7 9
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
u
1 3 5 7 9
c
1 3 5 7 9
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
u
1 3 5 7 9
d
1 3 5 7 9
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
u
1 3 5 7 9
a
1 3 5 7 9
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
u
1 3 5 7 9
b
Fig. 6.7 Comparison of asymptotic (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) solutions at
various ε: a)ε = 0.1, b)ε = 0.3, c)ε = 0.5, d)ε = 1.
Then, the selection of those solitary waves occurs whose amplitudes come
to the selection interval prescribed by the theory. Note that two leading
solitary waves are selected from below while other solitary waves generated
from the input, vanish.
Finally, the influence of the small parameter value is studied. In Fig. 6.7
we see that the solitary waves continue to evolve according to the asymp-
totic solution with growth in ε. Two main deviations are observed. First is
the difference in amplitudes, it is caused by the increase of the contribution
of u
1
into the asymptotic solution. The difference in the shape of plateau is
shown in Fig. 6.8 where we see the decrease of its length. At larger ε = 10
the plateau almost disappears, see Fig. 6.9, however, the initial solitary
wave amplitude Q
0
= 5 still tends to the value Q
2
= 6.38. Selection from
above still occurs for Q
0
> Q
2
. At the same time we observe a decay of
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188 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
1 3 5 7 9 11 13
x
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
u
1 3 5 7 9 11 13
c
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
x
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
u
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
d
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
x
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
u
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
a
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
x
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
u
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
b
Fig. 6.8 Comparison of plateau in asymptotic (dashed line) and numerical (solid line)
solutions at various ε: a)ε = 0.1, b)ε = 0.3, c)ε = 0.5, d)ε = 1.
the initial solitary wave with the amplitude less than Q
0
= 3 that already
differs from the theoretical predictions, Q
0
< Q
1
= 4.11.
6.3 Moving defects induced by external energy flux
6.3.1 Basic concepts and derivation of governing equations
Recently it was found that point defects may be generated in a solid sub-
jected to the laser radiation, see Mirzoev et. al (1996) and references therein.
Point defect is described as a distortion in a crystal lattice in the area equal
to the atomic volume. The simplest point defects in the crystal are the
interstitial atom, or an atom occupying a position among the atomic equi-
librium positions in an ideal lattice, and the vacancy, or a specific site in the
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 189
16 18 20 22 24
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
u
Fig. 6.9 Evolution of an initial KdV soliton (dashed line) at ε = 10.
lattice of the crystal where atoms are absent Kosevich (1981). Generation
of defects due to the laser radiation may be explained using interaction of
strain, temperature and defect-concentration fields Mirzoev et. al (1996).
Let us consider an isotropic solid where a concentrated energy influx
(e.g., laser beam) produces moving point defects. Following Mirzoev et. al
(1996) assume n
j
(x, t) be the concentration of defects of the kind j (j = v
for vacancies, j = i for interstitial atoms) at a point r(x, y, z) at time t.
The main processes responsible for the temporal evolution of a defect are
generation, recombination and diffusion. Then the kinetics of the point
defects is governed by the equation
n
j,t
= q
0
+q
ε
U
x
+D
j
n
j,xx
−β
j
n
j
, (6.51)
where q
0
is a velocity of the defects generation in absence of the strain, next
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190 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
term in the r.h.s. of Eq.(6.51) accounts for a contribution of a strain into
the defects generation, D
j
is the diffusion coefficient of the defect of the
kind j, β
j
is a recombination velocity at sinks Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001).
Volume mutual recombination of the defects of different kind is neglected.
It is important that point defects cause deformation of a medium at
macroscopic distances. In elasticity single defect is described by the volume
density of the force, f ,
f (r) = −K Ω
0
∇δ(r),
where K is the bulk modulus, Ω
0
is a dilatation parameter representing
the change in the volume of a crystal as a result of a formation of the one
defect, while defect is located in the coordinate origin Kosevich (1981). For
vacancies we have Ω
0
< 0, while Ω
0
> 0 corresponds to the interstitial
atoms. Combinations of the point defects yield defect of the dipole kind
that may be accounted for
f (r) = −K Ω
ik

k
δ(r),
where Ω
ik
is a symmetric tensor. When dipole is axi-symmetric, we have

ik
= Ω
0
δ
ik
+ Ω
1
(l
i
l
k
−1/3δ
ik
),
where l is a unit vector of the dipole axis, Ω
1
defines deviator of the tensor

ik
Kosevich (1981). The average parameters of the crystal specimen may
be introduced if a typical distance between defects is considerably less than
the gradient of a strain field. Then we have in one-dimensional case
f = −K Ω
j
n
j,x
, (6.52)
where evolution of the concentration of defects is accounted for Eq. (6.51).
6.3.2 Nonlinear waves in a medium
One-dimensional governing equation in an elastic medium with moving de-
fects may be obtained similar to Eq.(6.12) for a microstructured medium.
We start with the coupled equations for n
j
, Eq.(6.51), and for nonlinear
longitudinal displacement U(x, t),
ρU
tt
= σ
x
, (6.53)
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 191
where σ,
σ = (λ + 2µ)U
x
+ (3/2(λ + 2µ) +l + 2m)U
2
x
−K Ω
j
n
j
.
is written with Eq. (6.52) being taken into account. Equations (6.53),
(6.51) are simply uncoupled yielding the governing equation for the strain
waves v = U
x
,
v
tt
−a
1
v
xx
−a
2
( v
2
)
xx
−a
3
v
xxt
+a
4
v
ttt
−a
5
v
xxtt
+a
6
v
xxxx

a
7
( v
2
)
xxt
+a
8
( v
2
)
xxxx
= 0, (6.54)
where
a
1
=
λ + 2µ
ρ

K Ω
j
q
ε
ρβ
j
, a
2
=
3(λ + 2µ) + 2(l +m) + 3n

, a
3
=
(λ + 2µ)
β
j
ρ
,
a
4
=
1
β
j
, a
5
=
D
j
β
j
, a
6
=
(λ + 2µ)D
j
ρβ
j
, a
7
=
a
2
β
j
, a
8
=
a
2
D
j
β
j
.
We see from Eq. (6.54) that presence of the moving defects provides
a dispersion in an elastic medium, a
5
v
xxtt
and a
6
v
xxxx
, as well as dissipa-
tive/active terms. The coefficients in Eq.(6.54) do not depend upon K Ω
j
with the exception of a
1
. Equation (6.54) is similar to Eq.(5.42) in Sec. 5.3
describing the influence of an external dissipative/active medium on the
waves evolution in a rod. Various simplified cases may be considered:
(i) β
j
>> 1;
(ii) D
j
<< 1;
(iii) β
j
>> 1, D
j
<< 1, D
j
= O(1/β
j
).
In case (i) recombinations at sinks are strong, quadratic nonlinearity in
Eq.(6.54) predominates, and the formation of shocks is possible. Weakly
dispersive case (ii) corresponds to the weak defects diffusion. An analy-
sis is already done in Sec. 5.3 where stable kink waves with a ”hat” are
found, see Figs. 5.5, 5.6. Simultaneous weak diffusion and strong recombi-
nations in case (iii) provide weakly dissipative/active case which has been
also studied in Sec. 5.3. When dissipation is negligibly small, the influ-
ence of the higher-order nonlinear term a
8
( v
2
)
xxxx
may affect the wave
behavior. Nondissipative limit of Eq.(6.54) is similar to a particular case
of Eq.(1.3) that possesses oscillatory and multi-humps solitary wave solu-
tions. However, it was shown in Sec. 1.2 that no stable bell-shaped solitary
waves arise in absence of higher-order derivative terms (like a
9
v
6x
or cor-
responding mixed derivative terms) in Eq.(6.54).
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192 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
6.3.3 Nonlinear waves in a plate
Equation for longitudinal displacements in a plate already includes a dis-
persion even in absence of defects Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001):
U
tt
−c
2
s
U
xx
−β
N
U
x
U
xx
−l
2
(U
ttxx
−c
2
τ
U
xxxx
) = −
K Ω
j
ρ
n
j,x
(6.55)
where
c
2
s
=
E
ρ(1 −ν
2
)
, β
N
=
3E
ρ(1 −ν
2
)
+
2(1 −2ν)
ρ(1 −ν)
3
[(1 −2ν)
2
l +2(1 −ν +ν
2
)m],
l
2
=
ν
2
h
2
12(1 −ν)
2
, c
2
τ
=
µ
ρ(1 −ν
2
)
,
where h is the width of the plate. Again the evolution of the defects is
accounted for Eq.(6.51). Note that nonlinearity parameter β
N
does not
depend upon the Murnaghan modulus n.
Uncoupling of Eqs. (6.51), (6.55) in case of the elastic plate is per-
formed similar to the previous case giving the governing equation for the
longitudinal strains of the form
v
tt
−a
1
v
xx
−a
2
( v
2
)
xx
−a
3
v
xxtt
+a
4
v
xxxx

b
1
v
xxt
+b
2
v
ttt
−b
3
( v
2
)
xxt
−b
4
v
xxttt
+b
5
v
xxxxt
+
c
1
( v
2
)
xxxx
+c
2
v
xxxxtt
−c
3
v
xxxxxx
= 0, (6.56)
where
a
1
= c
2
s

K Ω
j
q
ε
ρβ
j
, a
2
=
β
N
2
, a
3
=
D
j
β
j
+l
2
, a
4
=
c
2
s
D
j
β
j
+c
2
τ
l
2
,
b
1
=
c
2
s
β
j
, b
2
=
1
β
j
, b
3
=
β
N

j
, b
4
=
l
2
β
j
, b
5
=
c
2
τ
l
2
β
j
,
c
1
=
β
N
D
j

j
, c
2
=
l
2
D
j
β
j
, c
3
=
c
2
τ
l
2
D
j
β
j
.
Equation (6.56) is close to Eq. (5.8) when the c
i
’s terms in Eq.(6.56)
are negligibly small. Now dispersion appears as a result of the plate finite
width also, and no weakly dispersive case is considered. Case β
j
>> 1
now corresponds to the perturbed double-dispersive equation. There are
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 193
two kinds of perturbations. Active/dissipative perturbations are accounted
for the b
i
’s terms while c
i
’s terms in Eq.(6.56) play the role of higher-
order nonlinearity and dispersion. Hence weakly active/dissipative case is
realized if additionally D
j
<< 1. Then we can use the results obtained
in Sec. 5.2 to account for the bell-shaped solitary wave selection. When
D
j
>> 1, c
i
’s terms dominate over b
i
’s terms, and we obtain from Eq.
(6.56) the hyperbolic analog of Eq.(1.3) studied in Chapter 1. Thanks to
nonzero dispersion, now stable oscillatory and multi-humps strain solitary
wave solutions are realized, see Figs. 1.7–1.16.
Eqs. (6.51), (6.55) are uncoupled in a different manner if β
j
<< 1. In
this case Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001) derived the governing equation for
the strain v = U
x
,
v
t
+c
s
v
x

d
v
xxx

N
v
2
x
= gv −ζv
xx
+µv
xxxx
, (6.57)
where
β
d
=
l
2
(c
2
s
−c
2
τ
)
2
, γ
N
=
β
N
ρc
s
, g =
q
ε
K Ω
j
ρc
2
s
, ζ = β
j
l
2
, µ = D
j
l
2
.
Equation (6.57) may be considered as a perturbed KdV equation. Then
its asymptotic solution is obtained using the procedure explained in Chap-
ter 2. The most interesting case is realized when small parameters q
ε
, D
j
and β
j
are of the same order. Then one can write g = εg

, ζ = εζ

, µ = εµ

,
ε << 1. The fast variable θ and the slow time T are introduced as before,
θ
x
= 1, θ
t
= −V (T), T = εt, and the solution of Eq.(6.57) may be obtained
using the procedure from Chapter 2 to describe the selection of localized
longitudinal strain wave as a result of the interactions with moving defects.
6.4 Thermoelastic waves
In thermoelasticity the deformation and temperature fields affect each
other. As a result governing equations for the strains and the tempera-
ture should be coupled. Very often the influence of the temperature on
the strains is negligibly small. However, thermoelasticity is important to
study attenuation of the waves that is observed in experiments. Of special
interest are the processes in polymers arising due to the laser irradiation
Kartashov and Bartenev (1988). Linear thermoelastic waves were studied
extensively, analytical results for a medium may be found in Kartashov and
Bartenev (1988); Nowacki (1975); Nowacki (1986b), while numerical simu-
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194 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
lations are performed in Berezovski et. al (2000); Berezovski and Maugin
(2001). Nonlinear surface wave attenuation is considered in Mayer (1990);
Mayer (1995), nonlinear bulk waves are studied in a medium in Engelbrecht
and Maugin (1996) and in a rod in Potapov and Semerikova (1988).
Derivation of the equations may be done by various approaches. First,
the balance laws are used. In contrast to liquid, the transfer of heat in
solids is caused by the heat conduction only. Usually the equation of the
heat conduction is obtained from the energy conservation law Engelbrecht
(1983); Engelbrecht and Nigul (1981); Landau et. al (1987); Maugin (1995);
Maugin (1999); Nowacki (1975); Nowacki (1986b):
T
∂S
∂t
= div(κ∇T), (6.58)
where S is the entropy per unit volume, T is the absolute temperature,
κ is the thermal conductivity. Usually the last coefficients is assumed to
be constant while the entropy is expressed through the temperature and
the displacements u
i
. Then Eq. (6.58) is rewritten in the form, see, e.g.,
Landau et. al (1987),
C
v
∂T
∂t
+
C
p
−C
v
α
T

∂t
div(u) = κ∇T, (6.59)
where C
p
, C
v
are the specific heat per unit volume at fixed density and
volume respectively, α
T
is the heat extension coefficient. The Fourier law
of thermal conduction, Q = −κ∇T, is used to obtain Eqs. (6.58), (6.59).
However, it predicts an infinite velocity of a thermal wave. In order to
describe the finite velocity, the modification of the law is needed. In par-
ticular, the generalized law has been proposed in Likov (1967)
Q = −κ∇T −τ

Q
t
,
that takes into account an inertia of the heat flux, τ

is a time of the heat
flux relaxation.
Balance of linear momentum provides the second equation of thermoe-
lasticity,
ρ
0
u
tt
= DivP

, (6.60)
where P

is the Piola-Kirchoff tensor expressed through the free energy
density W(u,T), P

= ∂W/∂∇u. Usually only the term linear in ∇u,
α
T
(T − T
0
)∇u, is included into W. Hence Eq.(6.60) contains the linear
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 195
term depending on the temperature while nonlinearity is caused by the
same reasons as in pure elastic case, see Chapter 3.
Equations of thermoelasticity may be derived using the variational
methods Fares (2000); Maugin (2000); Nowacki (1975); Nowacki (1986b);
Rayleigh (1945). However, usually only Eq.(6.60) is derived from the
Hamilton principle while the heat equation is introduced additionally Fares
(2000). It was Maugin (2000) who proposed the modification of the free
energy density so as to get all field equations, balance laws and constitutive
relations for the theory of materially inhomogeneous, finitely deformable,
thermoelastic conductors of heat, in the same manner. The main idea is to
assume a dependence upon an additional variable called thermacy whose
temporal derivative is the temperature. As a result all equations obtained
turn out strict conservation laws. Classical dissipative thermoelastic equa-
tions are obtained by isolation the contribution of the thermacy.
6.4.1 Nonlinear waves in thermoelastic medium
Below we follow Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996) where one-dimensional
model is considered using the notion of thermodynamic internal variables.
The evolution nonlinear equation is obtained for the observable variable
(longitudinal strain v = U
x
(x, t)) in a medium when temperature T(x, t)
effects are considered as internal process. The equation of motion,
ρ
0
U
tt
−(λ+2µ)U
xx
−[3(λ+2µ)+2l+4m]U
x
U
xx
= −(3λ+2µ)α
T
T
x
, (6.61)
is coupled with the energy equation for the temperature,
ρ
0
C
v
T
t
+T
0
(3λ + 2µ)α
T
U
xt
= κT
xx
. (6.62)
Single nonlinear model equation may be obtained in case of a weak coupling,
ε = (3λ + 2µ)α
T

0
, ε << 1. Introducing fast and slow variables, ξ =
c
0
t −X, τ = εX, one obtains for w = U
t
w
t
+a
1
ww
ξ
+ Λ w = 0, (6.63)
where
a
1
=
3(λ + 2µ) + 2l + 4m
(λ + 2µ)εc
0
, Λ =
T
0
((3λ + 2µ)α
T
)
2
2ερ
0
c
0
κ
, c
2
0
=
λ + 2µ
ρ
0
.
Exact solution of Eq.(6.63) is known Whitham (1974), it may include shocks
when the gradient of the initial excitation is large enough.
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196 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
When the coupling is not weak, Eqs. (6.61), (6.62) are transformed by
another way, the case was not considered in Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996).
First, the temperature gradient, T
x
, is expressed through the displacement
using Eq.(6.61). Then it is substituted into Eq.(6.62) differentiated with
respect to x, yielding nonlinear equation for U

0
C
v
c
2
0

1
)U
xxt
−ρ
0
C
v
U
ttt
+a
2
(U
2
x
)
xt
+κ(U
xxtt
−c
2
0
U
xxxx
−a
2
(U
2
x
)
xxx
) = 0,
(6.64)
where
a
2
=
3(λ + 2µ) + 2l + 4m

0
, Λ
1
=
T
0
((3λ + 2µ)α
T
)
2
ρ
0
.
In the reference frame, ξ = x −V t, the ODE reduction of Eq.(6.64) is
written for the function v = U
ξ

2
∂ξ
2
_
b
1
v +b
2
v
2
+b
3
v
ξ
+b
4
(v
2
)
ξ
_
= 0,
with
b
1
= V (ρ
0
C
v
V
2
−ρ
0
C
v
c
2
0
−Λ
1
), b
2
= −a
2
V,
b
3
= κ(V
2
−c
2
0
), b
4
= −a
2
κ.
There is a similarity with the Burgers equation model if the last non-
linear term is negligibly small. The Burgers model has been developed in
Engelbrecht (1983), with the relaxation tame taken into account. Compar-
ison of the Burgers equation model and the model governed by Eq.(6.63)
is done in Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996).
6.4.2 Longitudinal waves in thermoelastic rod
As already noted, thermal conduction weakly affects strain waves in solids.
More promising looks the influence of a heat transfer through the lateral
surface of a wave guide, especially caused by a laser irradiation, see Kar-
tashov and Bartenev (1988); Mirzoev et. al (1996) and references therein.
The influence of the external heat transfer on nonlinear longitudinal strain
waves in a rod has been studied in Potapov and Semerikova (1988). Esti-
mations done there demonstrate the dominant role of the heat transfer in
comparison with the thermal conduction mechanism.
The coupled equations of thermoelasticity are used in Potapov and Se-
merikova (1988) with the heat transfer boundary conditions on the rod
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Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 197
lateral surface being taken into account:
U
tt
−c
2
s
U
xx
−β U
x
U
xx
+ 0.5R
2
(ν(1 −ν)U
ttxx
−νc
2
s
U
xxxx
) = −α
T
c
2
s
T
x
,
(6.65)
ρ
0
C
v
R T
t
−κR T
xx
+ 2h(T −T
0
) = −α
T
ET
0
R U
xt
, (6.66)
where β is a nonlinear coefficient, β = ρ
−1
0
(3E+l(1−2ν)
3
+4m(1−2ν)(1+
ν) + 6nν
2
), R is a radius of the rod, T
0
is a constant temperature of an
external medium, h is a heat transfer coefficient, c
2
s
= E/ρ
0
is a velocity of
the linear waves in a rod. Note that the dispersion terms coefficient from
Potapov and Semerikova (1988) are corrected here in accordance with the
procedure from Chapter 3.
Let us differentiate Eq.(6.66) with respect to x and substitute T
x
from
Eq.(6.65). Then the governing equation for longitudinal displacements
holds,

∂t
¦ρ
0
U
tt
−E
_
1 +
α
2
T
ET
0
ρ
0
C
v
_
U
xx
−β U
x
U
xx
+
ρ
0
ν(1 −ν)R
2
2
U
ttxx

νER
2
2
U
xxxx
¦ =
_
κ
ρ
0
C
v

2
∂x
2

2h
ρ
0
C
v
R
_
¦ρ
0
U
tt
−EU
xx

β U
x
U
xx
+
ρ
0
ν(1 −ν)R
2
2
U
ttxx

νER
2
2
U
xxxx
¦. (6.67)
We are dealing with elastic strain waves whose magnitude B is small,
B << 1, and with long waves with typical length L, so as R/L << 1. As
usual we consider the case of a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion
introducing small parameter ε = B = (R/L)
2
. Contribution of the terms
in the r.h.s. of Eq.(6.67) is weak, they may be considered as small pertur-
bations. Then nonlinear and dispersive terms may be omitted in the r.h.s.
Obviously,
U
xx
=
ρ
2
0
C
v
E(ρ
0
C
v

2
T
ET
0
)
U
tt
+O(ε).
Hence the simplest equation accounting for the influence of both the
heat transfer and thermal conduction on longitudinal strain waves v = U
x
is
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
198 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids
v
tt
−c
2
s
(1 +
α
2
T
c
2
s
T
0
C
v
)v
xx

β

0
(v
2
)
xx
+
ν(1 −ν)R
2
2
v
ttxx

νc
2
s
R
2
2
v
xxxx
=
α
2
T
c
2
s
T
0
C
v

2
T
c
2
s
T
0
_
κ
ρ
0
C
v
v
ttx

2h
ρ
0
C
v
R
v
t
_
. (6.68)
Certainly Eq.(6.68) may be studied by the methods developed in Chap-
ter 2 to account for an amplification, attenuation and selection of longitu-
dinal thermoelastic waves.
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
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Porubov, A.V. and Samsonov, A.M. (1993) ”Refinement of the model for the
propagation of longitudinal strain waves in a rod with nonlinear elasticity”,
Tech. Phys. Lett. 19, 365.
Porubov, A.V. , Samsonov, A.M. , Velarde, M.G. and Bukhanovsky, A.V. (1998)
”Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod embedded in another elastic external
medium with sliding”, Phys.Rev. E 58, 3854 .
Porubov, A.V. and Velarde, M.G. (1999) ”Exact Periodic Solutions of the Com-
plex Ginzburg-Landau Equation”, J. Math. Phys. 40, 884.
Porubov, A.V. and Velarde, M.G. (2000) ”Dispersive-dissipative solitons in non-
linear solids”, Wave Motion 31, 197.
Porubov, A.V. and Velarde, M.G. (2002) ”Strain kinks in an elastic rod embedded
in a viscoelastic medium”, Wave Motion 35, 189.
P¨oschel, T. and Herrmann, H.J. (1993) ”A simple geometrical model for solid
friction”, Physica A 198, 441.
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Samsonov, A.M. (1988) ”On existence of longitudinal strain solitons in an infinite
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208 Book Title
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210 Book Title
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Index
acoustic resistance, 85
action functional, 66
analysis of singular points, 34
ansatz, 31, 34
auto-B¨acklund transformation, 36
balance
between nonlinearity and
dispersion, 1, 27, 71, 79, 87,
100, 105, 127, 129, 136, 142,
156, 157, 169, 197
between nonlinearity and
dissipation, 1, 9, 129, 136,
138, 156, 169, 173
between nonlinearity, dispersion
and dissipation, 1, 10, 142,
169, 175
of linear momentum, 194
balance laws, 194
blow-up, 51, 53, 133
body force, 178
Boussinesq equation, 57, 129
breather-like solution, 47
Burgers
equation, 9, 12, 26, 136, 142, 146,
196
kink, 147, 148
perturbed kink, 149
Cauchy-Green tensor, 64, 115, 165
cnoidal wave, 12, 13, 27, 38, 41, 49
conservation laws, 135, 194
Cosserat model, 116
Coupled nonlinear Schr¨odinger
equations, 42
D’Alembert solution, 80
dilation mechanism, 178
dilaton, 178
dissipation-modified
double dispersive equation, 127
Korteweg-de Vries equation, 6, 11,
12, 27, 36, 49, 52, 54, 134,
174
dissipative elements, 124
double-dispersive equation, 57, 71,
79, 90, 103, 155, 156
dynamical system, 134, 142
elementary work, 79, 98, 123, 126, 152
elliptic
integrals, 12, 43, 61
Jacobi functions, 12, 32, 51, 155
Weierstrass function, 32, 36, 42, 59,
128, 155
energy
free, 65, 163, 194
influx, 25, 123, 153, 166, 178, 189
internal, 65, 178
kinetic, 67, 71, 103, 116, 135
potential, 71, 102, 116, 122, 137
seismic, 179
entropy, 194
envelope wave solution, 44
211
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212 Book Title
experiments on
strain solitary wave amplification,
93
strain solitary wave propagation,
75
strain solitary wave reflection, 84
fifth-order KdV equation, 3, 7, 15, 53
generalized, 3, 15, 52
finite-difference methods, 52
foundation models, 124
Fredholm alternative, 157
friction contact, 123, 153
fringe shift, 76
geophysical medium, 178
Ginzburg-Landau equation, 45
Hamilton principle, 66, 70, 79, 88,
117, 195
heat conduction, 194
heat transfer, 196, 197
holographic interferometry method,
75
inertia of the microstructure, 165, 168
internal variables, 163, 195
interstitial atom, 188
invariants of the strain tensor, 65
isotropic, 63, 65, 87, 96, 117, 125,
137, 189
Kawahara equation, 6
Kerr model, 124, 125, 136, 137, 140
Korteweg-de Vries equation, 2, 12,
179
modified, 11, 136
Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation,
10, 26
laser radiation, 189
Le Roux model, 114, 117
Love hypothesis, 70
matching asymptotic procedure, 47
microdisplacement, 165
microfield, 164
gradient, 165
Mindlin model, 117
Mooney-Rivlin model, 66
movable singularities, 35
Murnaghan
five constants model, 65, 71, 96,
116, 117, 126, 165
moduli, 65, 73, 98, 116, 137, 192
nine constants model, 65, 137
nonlinearity
cubic, 136, 150
geometrical, 64
physical, 64
permafrost, 125, 136, 152
Piola-Kirchoff stress tensor, 64, 68,
98, 126, 137, 153, 194
in presence of microstructure, 118
plane cross section hypothesis, 69
plate, 192
plateau, 51, 93, 111, 159, 182
point defects, 188
kinetics, 189
Poisson ratio, 71
pseudo-spectral methods, 15, 52, 53,
183
reference configuration, 64, 65, 125,
165
reference distorsion, 115
rod
clamped end, 79, 83
free end, 79, 82
free lateral surface, 66
semi-infinite, 79
with varying cross section, 87
Runge-Kutta method, 52, 184
secularity conditions, 48
shock, 26, 75, 78, 93, 164, 191, 195
sliding contact, 98, 105, 124
solitary waves interaction, 186
soliton, 3, 16, 53
spring elements, 124, 153
February 11, 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6
Chapter Title for Bibliography 213
surface tension, 95
thermacy, 195
thermal conduction, 196, 197
Fourier law, 194
thermoelasticity, 193
coupled equations, 196
Thomas method, 58
thresholds, 133, 152, 177, 185
truncated expansion, 36
uniformly valid solution, 49
vacancy, 188
variables
fast, 47
slow, 47
viscoelastic, 123, 124, 137, 150, 164,
166
Voigt, 166
Young modulus, 71

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2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 To my parents .February 11.

February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 vi .

the theory has been developed to account for long longitudinal strain solitary waves propagating in a free lateral surface elastic rod with permanent cross section. Recently. presence of a dissipation (accumulation) destroys the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. The nonlinearity. that despite of almost similar description of stresses in fluids and solids. It was the most surprising fact. made by J. However. Hence it was proven that bulk long localized nonlinear strain waves of permanent form really exist. however. One of reason of the lack of the results on nonlinear wave in solids is that the complete description of a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear continuum is a difficult problem. Certainly the cylindrical elastic rod seems to be a suitable real-life 1-D wave guide. solitons in fluids were observed and generated many times. Motivated by analytical theoretical predictions. when in balance allow the propagation of the bulk strain solitary waves. bulk longitudinal strain solitary waves have not been observed in nonlinearly elastic wave guides.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Preface It is known that the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion may result in an appearance of localized long bell-shaped strain waves of permanent form (solitary waves or solitons) which may propagate and transfer energy over the long distance along.Scott Russell yet in 1834. and the dispersion resulting from the finite transverse size of the rod. caused by both the finite stress values and elastic material properties. there has been successful experimental generation of strain solitary waves in a polystyrene free lateral surface rod using the holographic interferometry. and nonlinear strain wave in the rod vii . Starting with the first documented water surface solitary wave observation. That is why initial 3-D problems are usually reduced to the one-dimensional (1-D) form in order to clarify the simplest but qualitatively new analytical solutions.

they usually have no free parameters. dispersion and dissipation. Dissipative (active) effects may be caused by internal features of the elastic material. growth of the amplitude) may cause the appearance of plasticity zones or microcracks in a wave guide. many works were done in a collaboration. Hence the wave is selected. The . Dissipation (accumulation) may also come in an elastic wave guide through phenomena occurring at its lateral surface. I would like to achieve two tasks in this monograph. hence.dissipative governing equations that are nonintegrable as a rule. However.e. It may attract the attention of the specialists in various fields since the structure of the governing equations is rather universal. One possibility occurs when the radius of the rod varies. Another task is to demonstrate the use of even particular analytical solutions for the description of unsteady nonlinear wave processes. First. an irreversible part should be included into the stress tensor in addition to the reversible one depending only upon the density of the Helmholtz energy. solutions may be obtained analytically. it is planned to provide the sequential analytical consideration of the strain waves amplification/attenuation and selection in solids. methods of non-destructive testing. polymeric solids. Hence. these solutions require specific initial conditions. Inclusion of dissipation (accumulation) yields nonlinear dispersive. The content is essentially based on the author previous research. and ceramics. Moreover. usually travelling wave.February 11. only particular. The amplification of the waves (i. point moving defects. thermal effects. This wave has the form of a shock and is often called kink-shaped wave or simply kink. mainly in an elastic rod. When dissipation and activation act together there may be another balance resulted in a formation of a bell-shaped wave with the amplitude and the velocity prescribed by the condition of the dissipative/active balance. Among the volume sources of dissipation/accumulation one can mention a microstructure. This is of importance for an assessment of durability of elastic materials and structures. and additional relationships between the equation coefficients are required for the existence of the solutions. particularly. Note that there exist another kind of nonlinear wave of a permanent shape sustained either by a balance between nonlinearity and dissipation or by a balance between nonlinearity. It may be of interest for those working in the field of solid mechanics. determination of the physical properties of elastic materials. Certainly.. That is why the obtaining of the exact solutions is often considered as useless by many authors preferring to apply numerical methods only. Bulk waves provide better suited detection requirements than surface strain waves in setting up a valuable non-destructive test for pipelines. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 viii Book Title may attenuate or amplify.

L.V.M.V.G. The book preparation has been supported by the INTAS grant 99-0167 and by the RFBR under Grant 2000-01-00482. A.A. Velarde. December. Gursky and Mrs.V.F. Saint-Petersburg. G. Maugin. D. I dedicate this book to my parents. I. They always believe in my efforts and expected this book more than whoever it may be. Dreiden. G. Kliakhandler. M. Semenova for a long time fruitful collaboration.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter Title for Preface ix author thanks a lot Profs. Pastrone. V. Samsonov.V. F. I. Parker. Mr. Porubov . 2002 A.

February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 x Book Title .

. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nonlinear evolution equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Kink-shaped and periodic waves formation . . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .3 Single travelling wave solutions . . . . . attenuation and selection of nonlinear waves Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 2. . . . . . .3 Kink-shaped waves . . .1. . . . . . . . . e 2. 1. . . . .4 Exact solutions of more complicated form . . 2. . .1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Amplification. . . . . . . .2 Asymptotic solutions . . 2. . . . . .4 Periodic nonlinear waves . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .3 Numerical methods . . . . .1 Single nonlinear waves of permanent shape . . .1. .2 Oscillatory bell-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .2. . . . . . . . xi vii 1 2 2 6 9 12 13 15 26 27 31 31 31 35 36 42 47 51 52 57 59 2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Contents Preface 1. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 2. . . . .2 Formation of nonlinear waves of permanent shape from an arbitrary input . . . . . 1.2 Nonlinear hyperbolic equations . . . . Basic concepts 1. . . . 2.February 11. . .1. . . .1.1 Bell-shaped solitary wave formation from an initial localized pulse . . .2 Painlev´ analysis . . . . . .1 Monotonic bell-shaped solitary waves . . . .4 Use of Mathematica .1 Exact solutions . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 2.1 Direct methods and elliptic functions . 1. . .

3. . .2. . . . . . . .2.5 Reflection of solitary wave from the edge of the rod . .3 Double-dispersive equation and its solitary wave solution . . . . 4. . 3. . . . . 3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 xii Book Title 3. . .3. . .5 Influence of the external medium on the propagation of the strain solitary wave along the rod .1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . 4. . . . . .1 Governing equation for longitudinal strain waves propagation . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Statement of the problem .1. . . 4. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 3. . .1 Longitudinal strain solitary wave amplification in a narrowing elastic rod . . . . . . .2 Modelling of nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral surface elastic rod . . . 4. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 3. .3 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod with microstructure . . 3. 87 87 87 90 93 95 96 99 100 102 104 106 114 114 4. . . . . .4 Observation of longitudinal strain solitary waves . . . . .2 Evolution of asymmetric strain solitary wave . .3. . . . . . .2 Nonlinear waves in a rod with pseudo-continuum Cosserat microstructure . . . . 4. . .2 Derivation of the governing equation . . . . .3 Experimental observation of the solitary wave amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 Nonlinear evolution equation for longitudinal strain waves along the rod and its solution . . . . Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 4. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .1 The sources of nonlinearities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4. . . . . . . . . . . 63 64 66 66 69 70 75 79 4. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Modelling of non-dissipative elastic medium with microstructure . .3 Derivation of strain-displacement relationships inside the rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nonlinear waves in a rod with Le Roux continuum microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . . . . 4. .February 11. . . . . 120 . . . . .1. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 External stresses on the rod lateral surface . .6 Numerical simulation of unsteady strain wave propagation . 4. . . .2.2 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod embedded in another elastic external medium with sliding . . .1. .2. . . . .

. .4. . 180 6. . . 183 6. . . . . . .3 Numerical simulations . . .3. . .3. .1 Nonlinear bell-shaped and kink-shaped strain waves in microstructured solids . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2 Evolution of bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of active/dissipative external medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Modelling of nonlinear seismic waves . . . .1 Contact problems: various approaches . 5. . . .4 Influence of external tangential stresses on strain solitary waves evolution in a nonlinear elastic rod .3 Exact solutions . . . . . . . .2.3 Kink-shaped solitary waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5.2 Combined dissipative double-dispersive equation . . .1 Modelling of a microstructured medium with dissipation/accumulation . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . 178 6. . . .2 Bell-shaped solitary waves .3 Moving defects induced by external energy flux . . . . 5. . .1. . .5 Concluding remarks . . . .2 Derivation of the governing equation .February 11. . 5. .3 Strain kinks in an elastic rod embedded in an active/dissipative medium . . . . . . . 5. . . .4. . 169 6. . . . 5.5 Weakly dispersive case . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .3. .4 Weakly dissipative (active) case . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 5. . 188 . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . 121 123 123 125 125 126 128 130 134 136 137 138 141 143 145 150 152 152 153 155 159 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 5. . . . . .2.6 Summary of results and outlook . . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter Title for Front Matter xiii 4. . . . . . 172 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .2. . . . . . . .4 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . .1 Formulation of the problem . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .4 Evolution of asymmetric solitary waves . . . . 5. . .2 Asymptotic solution of the governing equation . . . . . . . . . .3 Symmetric strain solitary waves . . . .4 Bell-shaped solitary wave amplification and selection 5. . . 165 6.1 Formulation of the problem . 5. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonlinear seismic solitary waves selection . . . . .4. . . . . 164 6. . . 6. 176 6. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection163 6. . . .3. . . .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .3.2 Dissipation modified double dispersive equation .2.3 Exact solitary wave solutions of DMDDE . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. . 178 6. . . . . . .1. . . . .4 Concluding remarks 5.

. . . . . 6. . . . .3 Nonlinear waves in a plate . . . . .2 Longitudinal waves in thermoelastic rod . .3.4. . . . . . . . . . . 6.4. . 188 190 192 193 195 196 199 211 . . Bibliography Index equations .February 11. . . . . . . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 xiv Book Title 6. . .2 Nonlinear waves in a medium . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nonlinear waves in thermoelastic medium 6. . . 6. . .1 Basic concepts and derivation of governing 6. . . .3.4 Thermoelastic waves . .

This unsteady process may be described analytically for the integrable equations or numerically for others. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter 1 Basic concepts This chapter is focused on some features of nonlinear waves to be used further in the book. they have infinitesimal amplitude. like Ablowitz and Segur (1981). The governing equations for the nonlinear strain waves to be considered are nonitegrable by the inverse scattering transform method. The bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. another case corresponds to the simultaneous balance between dispersion. a velocity and a wave number of the nonlinear waves are connected to one another. More general information about nonlinear waves may be found in numerous special books. nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation). and only particular exact solutions may be obtained. Linear waves are accounted for the linear equations. We illustrate all mentioned above further in this Chapter. Whitham (1974) etc. bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary waves. Calogero and Degasperis (1982). one possibility occurs when nonlinearity is balanced by dissipation (or accumulation) . Sachdev (1987). Newell (1985). There are two main types of the nonlinear travelling solitary waves which could propagate keeping its shape. In contrast to the linear waves. 1 . However. The kink-shaped wave may be sustained by different balances.February 11. This is a result of the balances between various factors affecting the wave behaviour. an amplitude. one can show that these solutions account for the final quasistationary part of an arbitrary initial pulse evolution. The single travelling wave solution requires specific initial conditions. Bhatnagar (1979). Of special interest are the single travelling wave solutions that keep their shapes on propagation. Nonlinear waves are described by nonlinear equations.

de Vries (KdV) equation Korteweg and de Vries (1895).(1.1).2) travelling solitary wave one since it depends upon the phase variable θ = x − V t only. Typical shape of the wave is shown in Fig. ut + 2b u ux + d uxxx = 0. 1. A particular case arises for water waves when surface tension suppresses coefficient d Hunter and Scheurle (1988) and fifth-order dispersion u5x is added in Eq.1 1. u 0.February 11.6 0.(1. and monotonic solitary wave since it decays monotonically when |θ| → ∞. b (1.1.1).1 Single nonlinear waves of permanent shape Monotonic bell-shaped solitary waves The simplest celebrated model equation containing nonlinear and dispersive terms is the well-known Korteweg.order derivative (dispersion) or nonlinear terms into Eq.8 0.1) The wave amplitude A = 6dk 2 /b and the velocity V = 4dk 2 depend upon the wave number k which is a free parameter.1 Monotonic solitary wave (solid line) and its first derivative (dashed line) Sometimes there is a need for the inclusion of higher.order derivative terms model weak nonlocality Engelbrecht . whose exact one-parameter single solitary wave solution is d u = 6 k 2 cosh−2 k(x − 4dk 2 t).2 x -30 -20 -10 10 20 30 Fig.4 0. Also higher. 1. One can call the solution (1.2) (1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 2 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 1.1 where one can see also that the wave is symmetric with respect to its maximum.

An example of the inclusion of higher. In the general case the exact solitary.. Benilov et. the resulting equation models the LC ladder electrical transmittion lines. see also references therein. d and f results in changing only the wave propagation direction. Kawahara (1972). Kano and Nakayama (1981).3) is obviously nonintegrable by the Inverse Scattering Transform method.wave solution has a form similar to the KdV soliton (1. Its solutions were obtained in Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981). Karpman and Vanden-Broeck (1995). Grimshaw et. Hence the width of the wave is prescribed by the dispersion coefficients d and f which should be of opposite sign. to say nothing of dissipative (active) generalizations.3) a fifth-order (in space derivatives) KdV equation Hunter and Scheurle (1988) when c = r = s = 0. al (1994). Maugin and Muschik (1994). the following nonlinear equation may be considered: ut + 2b u ux + 3c u2 ux + r u uxxx + s ux uxx + d u3x + f u5x = 0. For the wave velocity we have V = 144dk 2 /13 = −36d2 /(169f ). Hence.2). A special integrable case corresponds to the SawadaKotera equation with b = d = 0. e. f = 1 Sawada and Kotera (1974). in addition d = 0. see. (1.(1. When. c = −r = −s/2 = 10. Hence. Important particular cases are: (1.3) We get from Eq. and only particular exact solutions may be obtained. Karpman (1998). Karpman (1993). This equation was studied in many papers. u = A cosh−2 k(x − V t). Let us consider an exact solution vanishing at infinity. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 3 and Braun (1998). provide an improvement of bad dispersive properties Christov et. simultaneous triggering of the signs of b.5) . Its solitary wave solutions may be found in Parkes and Duffy (1996). Kawahara and Takaoka (1988). In case of the fifthorder KdV equation it has the form Kano and Nakayama (1981): u= 210d 2 k cosh−4 k(x − V t).4) with k 2 = −d/(52f ).g. al (1993). Equation (1.February 11. account for a continuum limit of discrete models with far neighbour interactions Kosevich and Savotchenko (1999). 13b (1. al (1996).order nonlinearity is the SawadaKotera equation Sawada and Kotera (1974).

θ = x − V t): b u2 + d u − V1 u + s 2 u +fu 2 − V2 u = 0.3) the Gardner equation whose solution is Grimshaw et. V1 = 4dk 2 and V2 = 16f k 4 .order term r uuxxx is taken into account.(1.February 11.7) into Eq.k = .5) are A= 30f k 2 2(50b2 f 2 + 5bdf r − 3d2 r2 ) 2 5bf − dr . we get the solution with fixed parameters. s (1. We also see that the wave velocity consists of two parts. Then the amplitude coincides with that of the KdV soliton (1. V = 4k 2 (d + 4f k 2 ). b −30f /c − 3d 30f −5d−116f k 2 ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 4 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids (i) In presence of only cubic nonlinear term.10) One can see that s may be excluded from the amplitude expression using the third formula from (1. cosh m(x− V t) + 1 = 2 cosh2 m(x − V t)/2.3) yields B1 = 1. Let us rewrite the ODE reduction of the equation (1. (iii) In case c = r = 0 the parameter k is free but an additional restriction on the equation coefficients holds.5).6) with m = 2k. B1 = √ . r = s = 0. at nonzero f a substitution of Eq. (ii) When only quadratic higher. al (1999): A=2 − 30f 2 k . and we get the solution (1. However. A1 = √ 2 + 9cd m2 2 + 9cd m2 2b 2b (1.9) Note that the solution exists at d = 0.8) An important feature of the solution is the existence of the finite limiting amplitude when B is large Slyunyaev and Pelinovsky (1999).2). V = 4k 2 (2b c − u= where A1 . . (1.6) In this case the existence of solution vanishing at infinity is provided by the linear fifth order term f u5x .7) √ √ 2b 3 2d m2 . 2 r 25f r 10f r (1. Indeed at f = 0 we get from Eq. A= 60f k 2 . k 2 = .3) in the form ( = ∂/∂θ.V = . the fixed parameters of the solution (1. V = dm2 . cosh m(x − V t) + B1 (1.(1.(1. c = s = 0. the first of which being exactly the KdV soliton velocity. 10b f = d s.10). c 60f (1.

10) satisfies separately b u2 + d u − V1 u = 0.1) having a one-parameter solitary. The parameters of the solution (1. provided that the restriction 30cf − r(r + s) = 0 is satisfied.k = .5). c 3c(r + s) V = s(2r + s)[4k 4 (r + s)2 − b2 ] . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 5 One can check that the solution (1. b + 2k 2 (r + s) while k satisfies the equation 4[30cf − r(r + s)]k 4 + 2bsk 2 + b2 = 0. 3c(r + s)2 (1. s 2 u + f u − V2 u = 0.order nonlinear terms provide bounded localized solutions at d = 0 in contrast to the case c = r = s = d = 0 Kano and Nakayama (1981). it was recently found Garazo and Velarde (1991). V = 16f k 4 .February 11.5) are A= 120f k 4 . In particular.B = − . . b = 0. Higher. Thanks to the higher order terms the solitary. Then k may be a free parameter.V = .wave solution may exist even in the absence of the KdV’s nonlinear term. 2 (1. Instead the solution in the form of a solitary wave on an ”pedestal” may be obtained as u = A cosh−2 k(x − V t) + B. When f = 0 we have A= 3cd − 2b(2r + s) 2d[3cd − 2b(2r + s)] 2 3cd − 2b(2r + s) .11) where the first of these equations is the ODE reduction of the KdV equation (1. (iv) Higher order nonlinear terms may support the existence of solitarywave solutions even in absence of the linear dispersion terms. c(r + s) (r + s)(2r + s) 2(r + s)(2r + s) There is no exact solution vanishing at infinity in the case d = f = 0. with A= 2k 2 (2r + s) (2r + s)[b + 2k 2 (r + s)] .12) Even equations with dissipation may possess bell-shaped solitary wave solution. (1.wave solution.

2. al (1991).4).(1. (1.13) with α5 = 0) whose exact solution is Kudryashov (1988): u= 3 15α3 ∼2 128α1 α4 cosh−2 ( ∼ α3 8 α4 ∼ θ)(1 − tanh( α3 8 α4 ∼ θ)). The exact travelling bell-shaped solitary wave solution have been obtained in the form (1. al (1995) that appropriately heating a shallow horizontal liquid layer long free surface waves u(x.16) of the Kawahara equation is monotonic but asymmetric. Particular ∼ case corresponds to the Kawahara equation (Eq.13) may be rewritten as ∼ (α2 α4 α5 ∂ 2α1 α2 + ∼ ) uθ + ∼ uθθθ + ∼ (u2 )θ ∂θ α5 α2 2 α2 ∼ ∼ ∼ = 0. Indeed.14) The meaning of the last expression in (1. (1.de Vries (DMKdV) equation ut + 2α1 u ux + α2 uxx + α3 uxxx + α4 uxxxx + α5 (u ux )x = 0.11). see Fig.1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 6 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Rednikov et. (1.16) 3 2 where V = 5α3 .14) is similar to that in case c = r = 0 for Eq.February 11. (1.(1. temperature gradient across the layer.(1. and its depth.2 Oscillatory bell-shaped solitary waves The solitary wave does not decay necessarily in a monotonic manner.). α3 = 2α1 α4 / α5 . Porubov (1993) with A = 12 α4 k 2 / α5 . ∼ ∼ ∼ (1. ∼ 1. V = −2α1 α2 / α5 .1.13) depend upon parameters characterizing the liquid (Prandtl number etc.(1. the ODE reduction Eq. t) can be excited whose evolution is governed by a dissipation-modified Korteweg.3).5). when the relationships for V and α3 hold.7) account for monotonic and symmetric solitary waves. All solutions (1. (1.13) The coefficients in Eq. 1. In contrast to them exact solitary wave solution (1.12) Lou et. Despite difference in their functional form they have one and the same shape shown in Fig. B = −(α2 +4 α4 k 2 )/ α5 . ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ (1. 1.15) The restrictions on the equation coefficients do not necessary provide an evidence of the KdV ODE reduction like Eqs.(1. α2 = α3 /(16 α4 ).15). Thus Kawahara (1972) studied decay at infinity of the wave solution of the fifth- .

05 -0. 1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 7 u a 0. order KdV equation using linearized equation analysis phase analysis.(1. which is proportional (in our notations) to d and is inverse proportional by the product of f and the wave velocity.3) does not possess exact oscillatory solitary wave solution. It was found that the wave decays monotonically or oscillatory depending upon the parameter ε.8 0. The oscillatory solitarywave solution is shown in Fig. How- . b)their first derivatives. Eq.6 0.1 Fig. The profile of the first derivative with respect to the phase variable reveals its symmetric nature.05 -30 -20 -10 10 20 30 x -0.2 Symmetric (solid line) vs asymmetric monotonic solitary wave (dashed line).4 0.February 11. The same technique has been used in Karpman (2001) when nonlinear term in the fifth-order KdV equation is of the form up ux . 1.3. a) profiles.2 -30 -20 -10 10 20 30 x u b 0.

order nonlinear terms as small perturbations assuming f = δF .1) for the function u0 whose travelling solitary wave solution is (1. 2b (u0 u1 )θ + d u1.θ = −F u0. is sought in the form u = u0 (θ) + δ u1 (θ) + . c = δC. First the asymptotic solution is obtained which consists of the KdV solitary wave solution and a small perturbation that oscillates but does not vanish at infinity or a non-local solution Benilov et.18) .February 11. s = δS.19) (1. r = δR.3 Oscillatory solitary wave (solid line) and its first derivative (dashed line) ever. it may be described asymptotically.θ − R u0 u0. The asymptotic solution u = u(θ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 8 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 1 0.25 2 4 -0.17) with ui → 0 at |θ| → ∞. In the next order an inhomogeneous linear equation results for u1 .θθ . Karpman (1993). Karpman (1998). 4b 2d 4d b b d b d (1. In the leading order we get the KdV equation (1.5 Fig.order derivative term and higher. δ << 1..θ .2). 1. Certainly the fifth-order KdV equation is often considered as a perturbed KdV equation.75 0.θθθθθ − 3C u2 u0.25 x -4 -2 -0..5 0. Hunter and Scheurle (1988). θ = x − V t. (1.θ u0. Let us consider the fifth.θθθ − 0 S u0..θθθ − 4dk 2 u1. al (1993). Its solution vanishing at infinity is u1 = ( 3C 5bF 2R + S 2 S 4R 14F 9Cd 2 2k 2 F + 2− ) u0 +( + − − 2 )k u0 − θ u0.

23) .3 Kink-shaped waves The celebrated Burgers’ equation Burgers (1948) is the simplest equation that models the balance between nonlinearity and dissipation. usually they are asymmetric and may be found only numerically. (1. Finally.3. The equation coefficients should be connected by d g = 37. B = .1. what corresponds to the Case IV in Kawahara (1972). ut + 2b u ux + g uxx = 0. it possesses the exact travelling solution of permanent form. 1. (1. In the case of the fifth-order KdV equation. In particular. It may account for an oscillatory solitary wave solution first obtained numerically in Kawahara (1972). however. m − f ree.21) In particular. this profile exists at positive d and f .3).February 11. there exist nonlinear equations having exact travelling wave solutions in the form of an oscillatory solitary wave. an equation ut + a ux + 2b u ux + 3c u2 ux + d u3x + f u5x + g u7x = 0. (1. possesses the exact solution u= 35g 3 288 k cosh−1 k(x − V t) 24 cosh−2 k(x − V t) − c 17 . Oscillatory solitary waves of permanent shape arise also in dissipative problems. b 2b (1. k 2 = 17f /(581g).405 f 2 . see Fig. V = a + 102825k 6 g/289.(1.20) where b = 0. 1.22) If the boundary conditions are u → h1 at θ → ∞. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 9 The shape of the solution u = u0 (θ) + δ u1 (θ) depends upon the values of the coefficients of Eq. where A= V g . u = A m tanh(m θ) + B. u → h2 at θ → −∞.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 10 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids then m= (h1 − h2 )b .24) whose exact solution was obtained independently by many authors VliegHultsman and Halford (1991) u = A tanh(m θ)sech2 (m θ) + 2A tanh(m θ) + C.25) It follows from the boundary conditions (1. 50V d 2b 10d (1. m= . is shown in Fig. C= . V = b(h1 + h2 ).22). with A= V g 6g 2 . 1.4 Burgers’ kink-shaped wave The shape of the solution (1. (1. Kinks may arise also due to the balance between nonlinearity. called kink. dispersion and dissipation like in the case of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation (KdVB). ut + 2b u ux + g uxx + duxxx = 0. . V = b(h+ + h− ).4.February 11. 1. 2g u 5 4 3 2 1 x -4 -2 -1 2 4 Fig.23) that h+ − h− = 2B.

while the kink (1. Thus the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (MKdV).February 11. has an exact solution u= − 2d m tanh(m θ). (1. Dissipative equation may possess the same property. V = 2α1 C + 24α1 α4 while m is a free parameter if α3 = 12α1 α4 / α5 or m=− (α3 α5 −2α1 α4 )2 300 α4 α5 The shapes of the kink solutions (1. ∼2 ∼2 ∼ ∼ . In particular. 25bd Equations without dissipative terms may also possess the kink-shaped solutions.28) may have also different profile shown by solid and dashed lines in Fig.27) (1.13) has exact kink-shaped solution Lou et. 1. ut + 3c u2 ux + duxxx = 0. al (1991). c (1.25).5. Note that the MKdV equation has both the bell-shaped and the kink-shaped solutions. (1. 1. .4. Porubov (1993) u = C+ 36 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ ∼ √ m cosh−2 ( −3m θ)+ 12(α3 α5 −2α1 α4 ) √ 5 α5 where C= 12 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ √ −3m tanh( −3m θ).26) where V = −dm2 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 11 and the solution exists under h2 − h2 = + − 12g 2 . the DMKdV equation (1.27) are similar to that shown in Fig. ∼ ∼ ∼3 ∼ ∼ + (α3 α5 −2α1 α4 )2 25 α4 α5 ∼ ∼3 ∼ ∼ .28) m− α2 α5 α5 ∼ ∼ ∼ + ∼ 2α1 (α3 α5 −2α1 α4 ) 5 α5 m.

13). Thus Korteweg and de Vries (1895) found the periodic solution of the KdV equation (1.4 Periodic nonlinear waves Usually single bell-shaped solitary wave solutions are the particular cases of more general periodic solutions.29) where K and E are the complete elliptic integrals of the first and the second kind respectively .1).6 1 . 1. They called Eq. Thus the MKdV periodic solution 1 Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science . Newille (1951). d E u = 6 k 2 1 − κ2 + + κ2 cn2 (kθ. BKdV and DMKdV equations have not exact bounded periodic solutions that transform into the kinkshaped ones. 1.29) the cnoidal wave solution since it is expressed through the Jacobi elliptic function cn . Exact periodic and bell-shaped solitary wave solutions correspond in the same manner in case of the generalized 5th-order KdV equation (1. It tends to the single solitary wave solution (1.3) and the DMKdV equation (1. like Burgers’. there exist exceptions.February 11. κ is the modulus of the Jacobian elliptic function Bateman and Erdelyi (1953-54).(1.5 Fig. Byrd and Friedman (1954). Although many equations.2) at κ → 1 as shown in the right column in Fig. κ) b K (1.5 Kink-shaped waves with a ”hat” 1.1.5 -1 -1. Cnoidal wave is not a linear superposition of the bell-shaped solitary waves.5 x -4 -2 2 4 -0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 12 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 1 0.

3. 1.32) has a functional form different from both the KdV cnoidal wave and the MKdV bounded periodic solution. c (1. κ) b u= √ − . Analytical solutions of unsteady problems may be obtained if governing nonlinear equations are integrable Ablowitz and Segur (1981). and the solution (1. 2 3κ 4 κ4 − κ2 + 1 √ 1√ −c. In practice more important is to know how an arbitrary finite amplitude input evolves.31) tends to the kink-shaped solution (1. Often initial input transforms into the stable quasistationary wave structures of . C1 + cn2 (m θ. m2 = √ .2 Formation of nonlinear waves of permanent shape from an arbitrary input All solutions presented in previous section require specific initial conditions. Calogero and Degasperis (1982). (1.30) transforms into the kink solution (1.31) This evolution equation represents an analog of the hyperbolic equation to be derived further in Sec. otherwise only numerical solutions are available. Its bounded periodic solution Porubov (1996) is m cn(m θ.6 in comparison with the transformation of the KdV cnoidal wave solution to the bell-shaped solitary wave. 2 √ (1. al (1982). b = 3g −c. Newell (1985). κ) sn(m θ. Bhatnagar (1979). κ).32) and the following restrictions on the coefficients: f =− The periodic wave solution (1.27) at κ → 1. Dodd et. 1. Another example is a dissipative nonlinear equation ut + 2bu ux + 3c u2 ux + duxxx + f (u2 )xx + guxx = 0. κ) 3c −c with C1 = 1 − 2κ2 + 3g 2 − V κ4 − κ2 + 1 .27) as it is shown in the left column in Fig.February 11. When κ = 1 we have C1 = 0. 5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 13 Ablowitz and Segur (1981) u= − 2d m sn(m θ. κ) dn(m θ.

After Porubov and Velarde (2002).995.32) (left column) and the KdV cnoidal wave (1.4 0. (d)κ2 = 1.99995.2 -10 -5 -0.25.4 0. (b) κ2 = 0.6 Comparison of the periodic solution (1.4 5 10 x u 0. 1. .February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 14 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids a u 0. Also the analysis gives the conditions when the formation of them is possible. In this section we illustrate it using some instructive examples.2 -0.29)(right column) for different values of the Jacobi modulus: (a)κ2 = 0.2 -0. (c)κ2 = 0. permanent form which may be described by the analytical solutions.2 -10 -5 -0.4 b u 2 1 -10 -5 -1 -2 c u 2 1 -10 -5 -1 -2 d u 2 1 -10 -5 -1 -2 5 10 x -10 -5 -1 u 3 2 1 5 10 x 5 10 x -10 -5 -1 u 3 2 1 5 10 x 5 10 x -10 -5 -1 u 3 2 1 5 10 x 5 10 x Fig.

(1.7 is the formation of the train of solitary waves from a Gaussian initial pulse in the KdV case. e. localized pulse evolution into an oscillatory solitary wave was considered in Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981) for the equation ut + u ux − γ 2 u5x = 0. The evolution of the initial monotonic solitary wave into radiating or oscillatory solitary waves was simulated in Benilov et. al (1997). Nagashima and Kuwahara (1981). f = 0. rectangular. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 15 1. Influence of the fifth-order dispersive term.5. −50 respectively.01.wave solution (1. The oscillatory travelling solitary. Shown in Fig. d = 0.. b = 1. Below only those results are shown that were obtained using both numerical methods.10 demonstrate the decrease of the solitary waves for f = −1. Karpman and Vanden-Broeck (1995). al (2001) the solitary wave formation from a periodic input was studied for an equation similar to Eq. Both the amplitude and the velocity decrease with the increase of the absolute value of f in qualitative agreement with the exact solution (1.4). Salupere et. In a series of papers Salupere et. Gaussian distribution etc.3. We have tried various shapes of the initial localized pulses.1 Bell-shaped solitary wave formation from an initial localized pulse The fifth-order KdV was extensively studied numerically. −10. 1. finite-difference and pseudo-spectral. Following Porubov et. Figs.February 11.4) and the analysis of the dispersion relation Karpman (1993). However. 2. Since the role of the fifth-order derivative term is of interest the coefficients b and d in Eq.8-1. Previously.2.(1. f = 0. For both coefficients positive the initial rectangular profile is dispersed without formation of any localized waves. Below we consider the formation of solitary waves in the systems governed by Eq. d and f . are of opposite sign.3).3) were fixed for all computations. We shall study the evolution of a localized initial pulse. The dependence upon the sign of the ratio d/f is in agreement with the exact solitary. al (1993).2. al (2002) we use two methods for computations.(1. see Sec.3).g. more smooth Gaussian initial profiles provide the appearance of solitary waves even for positive coefficients when f is rather small. We found that the rectangular initial pulse splits into a sequence of solitary waves when the coefficients of dispersive terms.wave solutions were found in Boyd (1991).The ratio between the amplitude and the velocity . First the 5th-order KdV equation was studied. 1. The next result we have obtained is the dependence of the number of solitary waves upon the value of f when d/f < 0.

Fig.4) is 1.4 0.11(B).order KdV exact solution (1. respectively.33 at f = −50. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 16 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 0. Only at small f = −0.1 ÷ −0. 1. from 1. A similar tendency is revealed by the phase analysis of single travelling wave solutions. 1.7 is equal to 1. the amplitude and the velocity for given b and d are −105/(1352f ). 1. The ratio for the 5th.7 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the KdV case.7-1.2 0 40 80 x 120 160 200 Fig. This ratio (and the amplitude) decreases with the decrease of f .2) to the oscillatory solitary waves. In case f = −1.43 at f = −1 to 1.February 11.11. For convenience the last stages from Figs. the higher leading solitary wave . −9/(169f ). f = 0.4).5 just as for the KdV soliton (1.15 are the numerical results for the leading solitary wave in quantitative agreement with the exact solution (1. 2 in Kawahara (1972). More important is that the decrease of f affects the solitary.2) . 1. Fig. of each solitary wave in Fig. cf. 1.10 are collected in Fig.wave transformation from monotonic KdV solitons (1.46.

c = 0. Finally.8 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case. d.2 0 60 120 x 180 240 300 Fig. is oscillatory while other solitary waves remain monotonic. They simply evolve to the opposite direction according to the analysis of the exact solution (1. its velocity) found in Kawahara (1972). Also the solution is sensitive to the ratio between nonlinear terms contributions.February 11. we have found that simultaneous triggering of the signs of b. Influence of the cubic nonlinearity. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 17 u 0.4). 1. while r = s = 0.4 0. Now we add cubic nonlinearity. The analytical solutions predict an action of the cubic nonlinear term depends upon the sign of c. and the . 1. f = −1. Fig. then the transformation occurs also for the second solitary wave.11(C) . f doesn’t affect the shapes of the solitary waves. Alternate transformation of the solitary waves confirms the dependence of the kind of solitary wave upon the value of the product of f and the wave amplitude (hence. b/c.

(1.9 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case. (1. c = 1. at smaller b. f = −10.4 0.2). 1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 18 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 0.5). Indeed we have found that at b = 1. the stage of forthcoming evolution of already gen- . However. b = 0.2 0 80 160 x 240 320 400 Fig.5. f = −1 the train of solitary waves arises only from positive initial pulse with amplitude equal to 0. A similar tendency is observed when the initial amplitude becomes close to 1 or higher when predominant cubic nonlinearity excludes an influence of the quadratic one on the sign of the wave amplitude like in the exact solution (1. At the same time.6). Dependence of the amplitude on the sign of b is very typical for the exact solutions of the equation with quadratic nonlinearity.5 while a negative one is dispersed. the formation of solitary waves no longer depends upon the sign of the initial pulse amplitude.4). see (1.2 or b = −0. value of the amplitude of an initial pulse. d = 0.2.February 11.

6). The number of solitary waves generated from the initial localized pulse increases with the increase of the value of c and fixed values of d = 0. there is f /c < 0 resulted from the nonlinear exact solution (1. f = −50. Moreover.8). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 19 u 0.February 11. while other analytical restrictions on the coefficients become more important.5. Kawahara (1972). the width (proportional to 1/k) decreases.2. The velocity of the waves increases also.5).4 0. at small f one can anticipate an evidence of the condition d/c > 0 given by Eq. f < 0 all above mentioned inequalities are satisfied. erated solitary waves is not so sensitive to the value of b.2 0 100 200 x 300 400 500 Fig. while the amplitude remains practically one and the same.(1. When c > 0. (1. We also observed the alternate transformation of the solitary .10 Evolution of the initial Gaussian profile in the 5th-order KdV case. f = −1 and also b = 1 or b = 0. 1. Besides the condition d/f < 0 following from the linear analysis Karpman (1993).

The third formula in (1.04 0. waves from monotonic to oscillatory when c increases for both values of b. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 20 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 0. Assume b = 1.February 11.1 u 0.02 0. Independence of the amplitude of c doesn’t follow from the exact solution (1. we have tried simultaneous variations of c and f in order to sustain one .2 giving negative values for b = 1. 1. (C) f = −10.15 0.6) predicts growth of positive values of k 2 only for b = 0.05 0 70 90 110 0 x 130 150 170 100 130 160 x 190 220 250 0. the decrease of the negative f values affects the decrease in the number of solitary waves.5.08 0.1 0 140 180 220 0 260 300 340 160 210 260 310 360 410 x x Fig. As found in previous subsection. (B) f = −1.1 u 0.2 A 0.15 0.11 Transformation of the kind of solitary waves in the 5th-order KdV case.06 u 0. d = 0.6) as well as from the asymptotic solution.2 C 0.2 0. However. (D) f = −50.4 D 0.1 B 0. Then one can exhibit for both values of b the similarity of the variation of the velocity with respect to c with that obtained in numerics. (A) f = 0.3 u 0. let us express k through the amplitude A and substitute it into the expression for the velocity V .05 0.

(A) c = 0. Suppose c = r = 0 . (C) c = 75. (B) c = 15.15 u 0.1 0. and solitary wave formation is observed only for small f .05 0. f /c < 0. 1.05 0 40 60 80 100 x 120 140 160 0.12(B. This confirms that the amplitude depends upon the ratio f /c but velocity is proportional to f .12. We see that the wave amplitude keeps its value from Fig. When both c and f are positive no solitary waves appear.15 0.1 u 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 21 0. 1.2 C 0. and the same number. f = −10. f = −50. f = 0. Influence of nonlinearities s ux uxx and r uuxxx . is satisfied.12(A) to Fig.February 11.05 0 100 150 200 0 x 250 300 350 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 x Fig. At c < 0. see Fig.1 0.2 B 0. f > 0 only one inequality.12(A) to oscillatory Fig.15 u 0.12 Conservation of the number of solitary wave thanks to the simultaneous presence of cubic nonlinearity and fifth-order derivative term.2 A 0. d > 0. 1. 1. C). otherwise the initial pulse is dispersed in this case. 1. The kind of solitary wave alters from monotonic Fig. 1. On the contrary small absolute values of c provides the solitary waves formation at c < 0. f < 0. d > 0.12(C) while the velocity growths.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 22 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids r=-1.3 0. . The wave amplitude decreases with the increase of s while the velocity keeps its value.4 r=-1.60 0.6 0.4 u 0.10).4 0. f = −1 . Certainly. and vary s at fixed b. solitary waves exist outside the restriction from (1. that we choose b = 1.50 0.6 0. Wave behavior is not sensitive to the sign of s.5 0. d = 0. It is found that the amount of solitary waves and its transition from monotonic to oscillatory don’t depend upon the value of s.5.5 0.1 0 80 100 120 140 160 x Fig.57 u 0. The fact the velocity doesn’t depend upon s is in agreement with the exact solution. 1.5 0.2 0.13 Equalization of the first and the second solitary waves and subsequent exceeding of the second wave due to the alteration of the negative values of the coefficient r.6 0.10). The condition for the solitary wave formation d/f < 0 remains valid.1 0 80 100 120 140 160 u 0. d and f .3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 80 100 120 140 160 x x r=-1. A comparison of the velocities with those obtained numerically demonstrates the more agreement the less is the value of b. We also used numerical values of the amplitude to define k and then V using (1.February 11.3 0.

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Asymptotic solution (1.17), (1.19) also predicts the decrease of amplitude at permanent velocity. Indeed, we get that umax = u0 (0)+δu1 (0) = 6dk 2 /b(1+ k 2 [f /d − s/(2b)]). At coefficient values we used the value of umax decreases with the increase of s (s is not large in the asymptotic solution), while the exact solution predicts the same behavior only for positive values of s. When s = c = 0 the behavior of the solution differs from the previous one. Having the same values for b, d, f we obtain that increase of positive values of r yields a decrease in the velocity and an increase in the amplitude of the solitary waves. The number of solitary waves decreases. However, at negative values of r we found that at the initial stage of the splitting of the Gaussian profile the amplitude of the second solitary wave becomes equal to that of the first one at r = −1.57, see Fig. 1.13. At lesser r second solitary wave becomes higher, and two solitary waves form a two-humps localized structure shown in Fig. 1.14. It is no longer quasistationary since amplitudes of the humps vary in time. It looks like an interaction of two solitary waves when the second higher solitary wave surpasses the first one, then it becomes lower, and the process repeats. Decreasing r we achieve formation of a three-humps localized structure shown in Fig. 1.15. Its evolution is similar to those presented in Fig. 1.14. Finally, only multi-humps localized structure arises from an initial pulse as shown in Fig. 1.16. The localized multi-humps structures in Figs. 1.14-1.16 keep their width, while their shapes vary in time. Certainly, unsteady multi-humps localized structures are not governed by the ODE reduction of Eq.(1.3) and, hence cannot be explained either by the phase portraits analysis or by the exact travelling wave solution (1.5), (1.9). Moreover, at negative values of f the exact solution doesn’t predict propagation to the right of the solitary wave with positive amplitude. Absence of linear dispersive terms. We have found an exact solitary wave solution that may be supported by higher -order nonlinear terms even without linear dispersive terms, at d = 0 or f = 0. Numerical simulations show that there are no solitary waves at both zero d and f . Some solutions from previous subsections keep their features at d = 0, in particular, this relates to the case r = 0. At the same time cubic nonlinearity at d = r = s = 0 supports two-humps localized waves for c > 0. At negative c the wave picture is similar to those at d = 0. No stable solitary waves propagate in absence of only the fifth-derivative term, d = 0, f = 0 with the exception of the Gardner equation case where Slyunyaev and Pelinovsky (1999) found generation of the limiting amplitude solitons.

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Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids

u

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 60 120 180 240 300

x

Fig. 1.14

Two-humps solitary wave formation at r = −1.6.

To sum up, both higher order nonlinear and dispersive terms affect the formation of localized nonlinear waves their shape and their parameters. Thus, the number of solitary waves and the transition from monotonic to oscillatory wave are under responsibility of both 5th- order linear dispersive term, cubic nonlinearity and higher- order quadratic nonlinearity r u uxxx . More important is the formation of an unsteady but localized multi-humps wave structure thanks to r u uxxx and cubic nonlinearity at d = 0. The sign of the coefficient b of the KdV quadratic nonlinear term is important for choosing the sign of the input amplitude. At the same time the nonlinearity s ux uxx doesn’t affect the formation and behavior of solitary waves. Certainly, the shapes of the resulting solitary waves are not obviously governed by the exact and asymptotic travelling wave solutions. Some

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u

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 60 120

x

180

240

300

Fig. 1.15

Three-humps solitary wave formation at r = −3.2.

other features of numerical solutions, like the dependence of the number of solitary waves upon the values of the equation coefficients or a transition from monotonic wave to an oscillatory one, are not predicted by analytical solutions. However, the combinations of equation coefficients required for the existence of solitary wave are realized in numerics. Also numerical wave amplitude and velocity relate like in the analysis. Evidence of all these predictions even qualitatively is very important for a justification of the numerical results. Formation of the bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of dissipation or an energy influx will be considered further in the book.

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u

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 60 120

x

180

240

300

Fig. 1.16

No solitary waves other than multi-humps one at r = −12.

1.2.2

Kink-shaped and periodic waves formation

The formation of the kink-shaped waves was studied considering the evolution of the Taylor shock from discontinuous (step) initial conditions under the governance of the Burgers equation Sachdev (1987); Whitham (1974). It was found the appearance in due time the steady state kink solution (1.22). A quasihyperbolic analog of the Burgers equation was studied in Alexeyev (1999) where it was found that kink may be formed from suitable initial conditions. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation (1.24) also extensively studied but mainly in the direction of generation of the triangle profiles and oscillating wave packets Berezin (1987), see also references therein. Of special interest is the formation of the kinks with a

hence the width of the wave inverse proportional to k(T ). It turns out that an asymptotic solution may be found in this case whose leading order part is defined as a solitary wave with slowly varying parameters. or slow coordinate. X = εx. decreases. Usually periodic waves are generated in finite domains from a harmonic input. 1. we have an attenuation of the solitary wave when its . Salupere et. also Kawahara (1983) obtained numerically periodic wave structures in a system governed by Eq.1 that the bell-shaped wave may exist even in presence of dissipation but under strong restrictions on the equation coefficients. Thus the KdV cnoidal waves (1.2. What happens with the wave when dissipation/accumulation destroys this balance? It was shown in Sec.13) ∼ with α5 = 0. Assume the influence of dissipation/ accumulation is weak and is characterized by a small parameter ε << 1. 2. Now only general features of the wave behaviour are considered. al (1995). In the former case the solitary wave solution is u(θ. Depending on the problem either slow time. al (1997). al (1994). 5. may be used. Note that harmonic input in the finite domains is used also for the study of the bell-shaped solitary waves interactions where no periodic wave structure of permanent shape arises Salupere et. In the latter case we have u(θ. θt = −V (T ).3. On the contrary. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 27 ”hat” shown in Fig.33) where θx = P (X).34) (1. One possibility will be considered in Sec.(1. T = εt.February 11. attenuation and selection of nonlinear waves As already noted the bell-shaped solitary wave is sustained by a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. This is an amplification of the solitary wave. (1. θt = −1. while at nonzero coefficient similar results were found in Rednikov et. T ) = A(T ) cosh−2 (k(T )θ). where θx = 1. When A(T ) increases in time k(T ) usually increases also. Salupere et. 1.29) are realized numerically and in experiments in a paper by Bridges (1986).3 Amplification. Next order solutions give us the functional form of the dependence of the wave parameters upon the slow variable. Derivation of the asymptotic solution will be described in Sec. al (2001). 1.5. X) = A(X) cosh−2 (k(X)θ).

6 0. To put . 1.5 3 2. hence. amplitude decreases while its width increases.6 1.5 -10 10 20 10 a 20 30 40 50 x b 30 40 50 x Fig.5 1 0.February 11.17 Temporal evolution of an initial solitary wave resulting in a selection: a) from below.2 -10 u 4 3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 28 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 1.4 0. b) from above.2 1 0.5 2 1.4 1.8 0. Sometimes it happens that the increase/decrease of A(T ) takes place not up to infinity/zero but to the finite value A∗ . by the physical parameters of the problem. Usually this value is defined by the governing equation coefficients.

Shown in Fig. One can see that the wave (1.18 is the profile of the wave (1. Selection provided by an amplification of an initial wave. 1. . 1. will be called selection from below. Cnoidal wave evolution may be accounted for an asymptotic solution similar to that of the bell-shaped solitary waves Rednikov et.8 0. see Fig. al (1995). only initial stages of the temporal evolution of (1. see Fig.34) in comparison with the symmetric solitary wave solution (1. the final stage of the selection both from below and above.2 x -20 -10 10 20 Fig. 1.33). As follows from Fig.34) differs from that of Eq. is the symmetric bell-shaped solitary wave like shown in the last stages in Fig. However. this another way.17(b). 5.17(a).33) (dashed line) vs solitary wave (1.17. the parameters of the resulted steady wave are selected. 1. it will be shown in Sec.19. while selection from above happens as a result of an attenuation of an initial wave.6 0.34) ( solid line).February 11.33) at t = 0.34) is asymmetric with respect to its core (or maximum). Svendsen and Buhr-Hansen (1978). 1. 1.18 Solitary wave (1.4 0.3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Basic concepts 29 u 0.(1. The amplification/attenuation of the kink may be described asymptotically and numerically Sachdev (1987).

5 2 1. b) from .5 -20 -10 10 b 20 30 40 50 x Fig.19 above.5 1 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 30 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 2 a 1.February 11.5 1 0.5 -20 -10 10 20 30 40 50 x u 3.5 3 2. 1. Selection of the asymmetric monotonic solitary wave: a) from below.

The choice of the analytical and numerical procedures is based on an experience of the author and does not claim a completeness. When we are interested in a self-similar solution of a partial differential equation one can use well developed theory of the solutions of ordinary differential equations. periodic. Not only the numerical realization and graphical representation of the solution is provided by this method but also multi phase quasiperiodic solutions as well as purely periodic ones may be represented using the algebrogeometrical approach as illustrated in Belokolos et.1 2. The significant point in direct methods is to build in advance the appropriate functional form of the solution (ansatz) of the equation studied.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter 2 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis As a rule governing equations for nonlinear strain waves are nonitegrable by the inverse scattering transform method. Hence the study of real physical processes requires a combined analytico-numerical approach. Among the recently developed general methods the algebrogeometrical approach may be used in an efficient way to find such solutions. Ince (1964).. e. Exact solutions of nonlinear nonintegrable partial differential equations are obtained usually using various direct methods. see. For example. The aim of this chapter is to describe methods to be used in this book.g. the usage of ansatz in the form 31 . and only particular analytical solutions may be obtained. al (1994).1. 2. particularly.1 Exact solutions Direct methods and elliptic functions Most of the mathematical work in the realm of nonlinear phenomena refers to integrable equations and their exact solutions.

According to its definition Whittaker and Watson (1927). However most of dissipative equations cannot be transformed to the bilinear form.g. Korpel and Banerjee (1984).Chow (1995). k). For this purpose various elliptic functions were proposed recently.g. In order to see it let us first give some properties of the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ to be used below. e. g2 . Samsonov (2001). with appropriate forms for the ansatz suggested by information about the poles of the solution. One would like to apply the same procedure to find more general periodic solutions. sn(ζ. When compared to the use of theta functions or Jacobi elliptic functions. Another advantage is that two apparently distinct solutions are readily recognized as equivalent. Parkes and Duffy (1996) and references therein). Jacobian elliptic functions (see. a prime advantage of using the function ℘ is that the algebra is drastically simplified. the most popular were theta functions (see.. and solution parameters are obtained from the algebraic equations appearing after equating to zero coefficients at each order of tanh . Samsonov (1995). At the same time single travelling wave solution derivation looks very complicated even for non-dissipative equations Chow (1995).Kostov and Uzunov (1992). First of all another appropriate ”basic” function is required instead of the tanh . the Weierstrass function is analytical in the complex plane other than in the points where . Moreover we have to deal with four theta functions that results in additional difficulties for the ansatz construction.. The efficient choice is caused by the simplest procedure of the ansatz construction and the least complicated algebra for determining solution parameters. It is well known that theta functions may be included in the Hirota bilinear method in order to get N-periodical solutions Nakamura (1979).February 11. Porubov (1993). k) and dn(ζ. e. Nakamura (1979)). g3 ).. Porubov and Parker (2002). The ansatz for the solution involves only one Weierstrass function ℘(ζ. periodical solutions could be obtained in terms of any of these functions.g. Explicit periodic travelling wave solutions may be found for many nonintegrable equations and systems by using an ansatz in terms of ℘. In principle. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 32 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids of a hyperbolic tangent (tanh) power series resulted in finding of new exact travelling wave solutions (see. Then the equation studied becomes polynomial of the tanh after substituting the ansatz. e. instead of four theta functions or three Jacobi elliptic functions cn(ζ. k). Parker and Tsoy (1999)) and the Weierstrass elliptic function Kascheev (1990). Porubov (1996). The choice of tanh is caused by the fact that any derivatives of tanh may be expressed as a polynomial with respect to the tanh itself. Nakamura (1979).

3 e1 = 2 − k2 2 κ . sn and dn which are bounded on the real axis.4) connecting the Weierstrass function with the Jacobi function cn. g3 ) = e2 − (e2 − e3 )cn2 ( e1 − e3 ζ. the familiar link is obtained in Whittaker and Watson (1927) but using the singular function sn−2 .2) where A and B are rational functions with respect to ℘.February 11. (2. 2. g2 . (2.3) However. The bounded periodic solutions are more conveniently expressed by writing them in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions cn. 3 e2 = 2k 2 − 1 2 κ . e3 ≤ e2 ≤ e1 ) are the real roots of the cubic equation 4τ 3 − g2 τ − g3 = 0. regular along the real axes. we have e3 = − 1 + k2 2 κ . (2. g2 . √ ℘(ζ. 3 . The governing equation for the function ℘ is: {℘ (ζ)}2 = 4℘3 − g2 ℘ − g3 (2. Indeed. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 33 it has double poles. k). √ the wave number κ = e1 − e3 and the Jacobian elliptic modulus k. Depending on the ratio between g2 and g3 the Weierstrass function may be bounded or unbounded inside the domain under study. (2. following the method introduced in Whittaker and Watson (1927) one can check that the following formula is valid: √ ℘(ζ. and that any elliptic function f may be expressed using ℘ it and its first derivative as Whittaker and Watson (1927) f = A(℘) + B(℘)℘ . k). For this purpose the relation between the Weierstrass function and the Jacobian functions is used as a special case of (2. Remarkable features of the function ℘ are that all of its derivatives can be written by means of itself. Here k = (e2 − e3 )/(e1 − e3 ) is the modulus of the Jacobian elliptic function. g3 ) = e3 + (e1 − e3 )sn−2 ( e1 − e3 ζ. while τ = em ( m = 1.1) where g2 and g3 are constant parameters.2). 3 .5) Expressing these results in terms of an appropriate choice of parameters.

3).7) and (2.8) are essentially equivalent solutions. m) − r r . 12 216 (2. m) ± r cn(ˆζ. Porubov (1993). . Therefore we really deal with two functions.7) z2 = r2 m ˆ r2 (1 + m2 ) ˆ r2 m2 2 ˆ sn (ˆζ. Porubov (1996). In Parker and Tsoy (1999). and it is unlikely to get the solution using the ansatz proposed in the form of power series with respect both of the ℘ and ℘ as it was done for the tanh. Accordingly. the solution (2.6) The localized both the bells-shaped and the kink-shaped solitary wave solutions appear in the limit k → 1 of the Jacobi elliptic functions. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 34 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids g2 = 8 4 4 6 2 κ (1 − k 2 + k 4 ). m) are appropriately r related to (r.type series about the singular manifold. However. Samsonov (1995). In order to check the poles of a solution we shall use the WTK method Weiss et. Another idea may be used. e It will be explained in details in Sec.1.1) when the parameters r and m are defined as solutions to ˆ r4 ˆ r6 ˆ (1 + 14m2 + m4 ) = g2 . al (1983) looking for the solution in the form of Laur´nt.9) Therefore z2 is also a solution satisfying the same governing equation (2. m)dn(ˆζ.7) is a representation of the Weierstrass function (2. (1 − 33m2 − 33m4 + m6 ) = g3 . Samsonov (2001). k). provided that (ˆ. 3 27 (2. Obviously. working with ℘ reveals links between seemingly distinct forms of solution. The two expressions (2.1) defining the Weierstrass function. based on the singular point analysis of the possible solution and the well known fact that the Weierstrass function ℘ has the second order poleWhittaker and Watson (1927). g3 = κ (k + 1)(2 − k 2 )(1 − 2k 2 ). It is to be noted that the first Weierstrass function derivative ℘ cannot be expressed as a polynomial of the Weierstrass function itself Whittaker and Watson (1927). and we have to equate zero separately coefficients at each order of ℘ and at products of ℘ and corresponding orders of ℘ Kascheev (1990). solutions were sought in terms of powers and products of Jacobi functions and thereby two solutions were obtained √ z1 = e2 − (e2 − e3 ) cn2 ( e1 − e3 ζ.8) which appear different. 2 2 12 (2. k). (2. 2.February 11.8) also satisfies equation (2. Now consider an instructive example Porubov and Parker (2002).2. one can check by direct substitution that the solution (2.

Then the theory has been extended to partial differential equations. Weiss et. t) = 0 is the ”singular” or ”pole” manifold on which a solution u(x. Recursion relations for x the qj are (j + 1)(j − 4)(j − 6)qj = F (ϕt . 4 and 6 are called resonances..10) into Eq. qk . al (1993). t) = 1 ϕα ∞ qj (x. When all these conditions are satisfied the equation under study has the Laur´nt property. Usually these equations are called ”equations with the Painlev´ property”. Here we concentrate on the one aspect of the theory-the singular manifold method or WTC method for partial differential equations Newell et. Substituting the ansatz (2. Conte et. Also it is necessary to assume that neither ϕx e nor ϕt vanish on ϕ(x. al (1987). Weiss et. ϕx . (ii) ϕ is analytic in x and t and (iii) the equations for the coefficients qj have self-consistent solutions. 2. d = 1.1) one can find α = 2 and q0 = −2ϕ2 . Let ϕ(x. Following Newell et.(1. t)ϕj j=0 (2.. k < j). Porubov and Parker (1999). Conte (1989). Newell et. and additional relationships on the equation coefficients are required for the existence of the solutions Porubov (1993). This requires (i) α is an integer. Moreover. al (1983) we assume b = 3.10) is single valued. Levi and Winternitz (1992). Weiss et. At each such . al (1987). usually belong to the class of travelling wave solutions which require special initial conditions.1. . al (1987). j = −1. In case of the solitary wave solution the initial condition should be have the shape of the solitary wave itself. The e achievements of the theory may be found in Cariello and Tabor (1989). Porubov (1996). The main idea of the WTC is to demonstrate that the expansion u(x.February 11. Porubov and Velarde (1999). other than poles. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 35 The exact solutions obtained in this manner. travelling wave solutions for the dissipative equations usually have not free parameters. Samsonov (2001). (2. al (1983).. Porubov and Parker (2002). Samsonov (1995).11) The values of j.2 Painlev´ analysis e Recently it was developed the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose solutions have not movable singularities. t) is singular. t) = 0.1). al (1983). Let us illustrate how the methods works on an example of the KdV equation (1.

∼ ∼ ∼ (2.(1.11) vanishes thus ensuring the indeterminancy of the corresponding qj . in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ and ℘ .13) to the third-order ODE of the form: α4 u + α3 u + α2 u + α5 u u + α1 u2 − V u + P = 0. θ = x − V t. one can reduce Eq. Some examples are presented below. al (1983). 2. the phase velocity and the Weierstrass function parameters g2 .11) Newell et.(2.(2. ℘+C (2. Certainly this procedure is of phenomenological kind but it allows to obtain the solutions of nonitegrable nonlinear equations in an explicit form.1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 36 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids resonance the right-hand side of Eq.(1. As a result we obtain using Eq. Based on Eq. However. a u(x.13) obtained in Porubov (1993). Substituting the proposed form of the solution into the equation under study and equating to zero coefficients at each order of ℘ and at products of ℘ and corresponding orders of ℘ one can get the algebraic equations on the solution parameters. t) = 2 ∂ log ϕ + q2 .12) possible solution may contain simple and secondorder poles that may be modelled in terms of ℘ as Porubov (1993): u = A℘ + B℘ + D. t) u= ∼ 12 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ (log ϕ)xx + 12 5 α5 ∼ (α3 − 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ )(log ϕ)x + u.11) an autoB¨cklund transformation for the solution of Eq. Weiss et. g3 . ∼ (2. Also the Lax pair for the KdV equation follows from the solution of Eq.February 11.(1.13) where P = const. Concerning only tavelling wave solutions. the expansion (2.12) where u (x.(2. ∂x2 where q2 satisfies the KdV equation.(1. the Lax pair cannot be obtained for nonitegrable equations as opposed to a truncated expansion that carries an information about possible pole orders of a solution.(2.14) . al (1987). in particular.10) may be truncated at O(ϕ0 ). Using this information the anzats for the solution may be proposed. prime denotes differentiation with respect to θ.1). Moreover.13). t) satisfies Eq. It was found there the following auto-B¨cklund transformation for a the solution u(x.3 Single travelling wave solutions First we consider exact solutions of DMKdV Eq.

A(12 α4 + α5 A) = 0.(2. The solutions of these equations are: ∼ ∼ (i) when g2 . D. phase velocity V and Weierstrass function parameters g2 . α1 A2 + 6α3 A + 12 α4 B + 6 α5 AB = 0. . B(2α1 (D − AC) − V ) = 0. (α3 − ∼ + ∼ (α3 − ∼2 α5 C− α5 ∼ 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ )+ 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ 25 α4 α5 − ∼ ∼ ∼ )2 . C is a free parameter A=− D=− V = 12 α4 α5 α2 α5 ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ . A=− (ii) when either C=− ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ ∼ 12 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ .14) into Eq. V =− 2α1 α2 α5 ∼ ∼ . D = − α2 α5 ∼ ∼ . 24α1 α4 α5 2α1 25 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ 2α1 α2 ∼ + 2 4α1 α5 (α3 ∼2 2α1 α4 α5 )+ (α3 − 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ )2 . B=− 2α1 6 5 α5 ∼ (α3 − ∼ 2α1 α4 α5 1 ∼ ∼ ). C. g3 = 8C 3 . g3 are free parameters and α3 = 2α1 α4 / α5 . B.February 11. 2α1 (2B 2 + AD) − V A + 2 α2 B + 2 α5 (BD − ABC) = 0. or α3 = 12α1 α4 / α5 . 1 300 α4 (α3 ∼2 − 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ )2 . (12C 2 − g2 )B = 0.13) one can derive a system of algebraic equations in A. B = 0. g3 : (g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )B = 0. 2α1 AB + 2α3 B+ α2 A+ α5 (AD + 2 α5 B 2 ) = 0. g2 = 12C 2 . P = V D + 8α1 B 2 C − α1 D2 − α3 g2 A/2 − 2 α2 BC + 12 α4 BC 2 − α5 (2ABC 2 + g2 AB/2 − 2BCD). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 37 Substituting Eq.(2.

15) where k is a free parameter.February 11.14) with parameters defined by (ii) accounts for a bounded kink-shaped solution (1. the solution (2. this equation may be transformed into the O.31) was considered. i. κ) − α2 α5 ∼ ∼ − 4 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ k 2 (2κ2 − 1) (2. One can see that there exist at least one more solution of the form: u=− where y = exp(γθ).28). The solution (2.28).. solutions depending only on the phase variable θ = x − V t. Besides bounded solutions (2. When the Jacobian elliptic functions modulus κ → 1 the solution (2. propagating with fixed phase velocity.14) with parameters defined by (i) may describe a particular bounded cnoidal wave. kink propagates with any phase velocity value. g3 ). G and g3 are free parameters.12). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 38 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Using (2.e.17) . The transformation is obtained here using the WTK method of the form u = f± f 2 − 2cd (log ϕ) + u.14) also describes unbounded ones in the form of localized and periodic discontinuities. which results in the following equation after integrating once with respect to θ: dη + gη − V η + b(η 2 ) + f (η 2 ) + c(η 3 ) = N. γ = − 1 5 α4 ∼ 12 25 ∼ ∼ α4 α5 (α3 − 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ )2 exp(2y)℘(exp(y) + G.D.4) the solution (2.28).32) of the equation (1. (2. When C is a free parameter.16) Further we follow the results obtained in Porubov (1996).15) and (1. In previous Chapter the bounded periodic solution (1.E. of the form: u= 12 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ k 2 κ2 cn2 (kθ. Finally it is to be noted that the functional form (2. At the same time it accounts for a new periodically discontinious solution. c (2. (α3 − 2α1 α4 α5 ∼ ∼ ). When studying travelling wave solutions. 0. This solution allows to describe only the bounded kink-shaped wave (1.15) transforms to the solitary wave solution (1.14) in terms of the Weierstrass function is not unique.

The first of them is u = A℘ + B.(2. For the wave amplitude γ two formulaes are valid γ = A1 m.18) In order to find the solution parameters the formula (2. and the bounded kink-shaped solitary wave solution follows from Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 39 Therefore possible solution should contain first order pole.18) will have the form of localized discontinuity under positive C values. B. A1 = (f + (f − 2cd)1/2 )/(6c). phase velocity V and the Weierstrass function parameters g2 . g3 : (℘ + C)−4 : (g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )2 (6Af − 3A2 c − 6d) = 0.(2. (2. When the parameter C is negative we get κ = 1. The first appears when 12C 2 − g2 = 0. (℘ + C)−2 : 4(g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )(2bB − V + 48ACf + 3c(12A2 C − B 2 ) − 48Cd) − 3(12C 2 − g2 )2 (2f − 2Ac − d) = 0.18): u = γ tanh(mθ) + u0 . C. (℘ + C) : 2Bb − V + 24ACf + 6(B 2 − 12A2 C)c − 12Cd = 0.16). and no periodical solution exists. In this case two of three roots ei of Eq. The Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ possesses second order pole. Then the solution (2. Then equating to zero coefficients at each order of ℘+C and ℘ one can derive the algebraic equations on A.19) .5) are equal to one another. (℘ + C)−1 : 4(g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )(10f − 4f + 3Ac + 6d) − (12C 2 − g2 )(2Bb − V + 24ACf + 3(B 2 − 12A2 C)c − 12Ad) = 0. ℘+C (2. ℘ : 2Ab + g + 2Bf + 6ABc = 0. ℘ (℘ + C)−3 : (g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )(g + 2Bf − Ab − 3ABc) = 0. and we shall propose three solution forms. g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 = 0.February 11. ℘ (℘ + C)−2 : (12C 2 − g2 )(2Ab − g − 2Bf + 6ABc) = 0.18) is substituted into the Eq. (℘ + C)2 : 2Af + d + 2A2 c = 0. Three solutions of algebraic equations are obtained. (℘ + C)−3 : (g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 )(12C 2 − g2 )(14Af − 9A2 c − 12d) = 0. ℘0 : 4(12C 2 − g2 )qA2 = N.(2.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 40 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids γ = A2 m. V2 are V1 = 2u01 b + 6c(u2 + 4A2 m2 ) − 4m2 (2f A1 − d). The bounded cnoidal wave solution arises when C = −e1 and has the form u = ± − 2d 2 cn(mθ.(2. Then for u0 we have u0 = 2bAj − g . 1. see Fig. In this case the bounded cnoidal wave solution (1. that transforms into the kink-shaped soluiton (2.16).6. (2.22) Substitution Eq.21) where m2 = e1 − e3 . κ)sn(mθ. and it transforms into the kink-shaped solution (2.February 11. 2. g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 = 0. 2(3cAj + f ) and phase velocities V1 .19) when κ = 1.D.E.(2. Now we shall consider the second possible solution’s form in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘: η= A℘ + B.16) allows us to conclude that solution may now exist only when f = g = 0. κ) 3c (2. j = 1.20) In this case the solution may exist under additional conditions on the equation coefficients f = g = 0.(2. (2. A2 = (f − (f − 2cd)1/2 )/(6c). propagating with the phase velocity V = −b2 /(3c) − 6e1 d. reduction of the Gardner equation. Hence it becomes now the O. 12C 2 − g2 = 0. Finally. 2 02 while m2 = −3C = 3e1 is a free parameter. c dn(mθ.22) into the Eq. It governs the travelling cnoidal wave.32) holds. that results in absence of the dissipative terms in Eq.19). When κ = 1 we have C ∗ = 0. 01 1 V2 = 2u02 b + 6c(u2 + 4A2 m2 ) − 4m2 (2f A2 − d). Then one can get the algebraic . κ) b κ m − . the third solution arises when 12C 2 − g2 = 0. The second solution corresponds to the situation when g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 = 0.

c (2.22) if B = 2de3 /c and has the form u = 2d m κ sn(mθ. κ).D. (2.23) where m2 = e1 − e3 and for the phase velocity we have V = dm2 (2κ2 − 1).24) Solution (2. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 41 equations for the solution parameters equating to zero coefficients at the terms ℘ ℘k . reduction of the Gardner equation. however now one can obtain its another bounded solutions. Thus for d/f c > 0 we find cnoidal wave solutions of the form: (I) for B = 2de2 /c u = 2d m κ cn(mθ. It is to be noted that at κ = 1 both the solutions (2. c (2. i = 1 ÷ 3.25) . κ). When d/c > 0 the bounded solution appears from (2.February 11.E. V = − cB. c (2. and (A℘ + B)5/2 : ℘ ℘3 : cA + 2d = 0 ℘ ℘2 : 9cAB − V A + +15dB = 0 ℘ ℘ : 9cAB − 2V A + +12dB = 0 ℘ : 12cB 3 − 4V B 2 + dA(Bg2 − Ag3 ) = 0 (A℘ + B)5/2 : N = 0 One can obtain the following solution of these equations: A = − 2d 2dei 1 .24) transform to the bell-shaped solitary wave u= 2d m ch−1 (mθ. B = . (II) for B = 2de1 /c we obtain u = 2d m κ dn(mθ. c propagating with the velocity V = dm2 . κ).23) and (2. κ).5). We again deal with the O.24) represents cnoidal wave propagating with the phase velocity V = dm2 (2 − κ2 ). k = 0 ÷ 3. c c 2 where ei are the real roots of Eq.

(2. hence only travelling wave solutions may be found. η = σ = ±1).February 11.(2. (2. However.23). ρ. Recently the coupled nonlinear Schr¨dinger equations (CNLS) o iWt + sWxx + (ηW W ∗ + σU U ∗ )W = 0.28) into equations (2.25) transforms to the kink-shaped solution (2.27) with r. ζ = ζ(θ.19).24) the solution (2. Changing variable in auto-B¨cklund transformation (2.19) when κ = 1.g. have attracted considerable interest because of their role in governing various physical wave-guiding systems.27) allows to separate the real and imaginary . σ. t).26) Substituting it into Eq.27) in the form W = w(ζ) eiζ . These equations are not generally integrable by the inverse scattering transform method. and more complicated profiles are decsribed. iρUt + rUxx + (η −1 U U ∗ + σW W ∗ )U = 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 42 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids For the phase velocity we find V = − dm2 (1 + κ2 ). The solution of the form (2. w. 2.26) for the last equation was already obtained previously in Samsonov (1995). In contrast to solutions (2.1. The machinery of the Weierstrass function is applied in the search for travelling wave solutions of equations (2.16) one can find that solution may exist under f = 0.4 Exact solutions of more complicated form The procedure of the obtaining exact solutions is based on the reduction to the ODE. Substitution (2. s = ±1. sometimes this procedure is applied to obtain only the part of a solution. ℘+C (2. except in cases of high symmetry (e. Consider some examples. ζ and φ real. Therefore we now deal with the O. t).E. ρ = 1. φ = φ(θ. η real. U = u(ζ) eiφ . with u. reduction of the Gardner equation with linear dissipation. (2.D.17) a one can see that the following solution may be proposed: u = A y℘y + B. Finally one can construct the third possible solution in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ depending now on new independent variable y = exp(kθ).28) where θ = x − c t. It was found that this solution may correspond either to discontinuous periodical solution or to the bounded kink-shaped solution of the form similar to the solution (2.

An example of the behavior of Re W is shown in Fig. A 1 − σ2 where B. we find for W of the form: W = w exp ı Y.34) 2(s σ − r η) σ(E A − B D) − 3s B . We get an interesting wave.32) (2. ϕ = arcsin(sn(κθ)).D = . c ∼ κ and at t = 0.February 11. (2. n. Therefore.1(a) for the case H1 ∈ [e2 . k) + B/A . The solutions for u and w are sought in the form w= F ℘2 + A℘ + B. w2 dθ + φ0 (t) . consisting of the carrier wave slightly modulated and with superposed periodic disturbances. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 43 parts.31) while for the phase function Y we have Y = csθ sC1 Π[ϕ. The shape of the wave (2. when Ci = 0. C1 = 2) η(1 − σ 4 γ= 4 B A 3 − g2 B + g3 A . 3 (2. (2. This introduces significant features into the profiles of the real and imaginary parts of W and of U . The most notable difference from previous solutions is the dependence of the “frequency” and “phase” on w and u. Thus. k] c2 s − + (γ + )t. e3 ].2.33) Π[ϕ. n. g2 and g3 are free parameters. E. u2 (2. 2 κ A(H1 − e3 ) 4 (2. n = −κ2 k 2 /(B/A + e3 ) and C1 is defined by A= 2(σ r η − s) A2 2 . where w is defined by Porubov and Parker (1999) w= A 2k 2 − 1 2 κ − k 2 κ2 cn2 (κθ. k and H1 . .30) where Ci (i = 1. k] is the elliptic integral of the third kind.29) while for ζ and φ we have ζ = 1 s c θ − s C1 2 1 φ = 2 r c ρ θ − r C2 dθ + ζ0 (t) . 2) are free parameters.31) depends strongly on the values of the parameters κ. u= G℘2 + D℘ + E.

1 Exact solutions of the CNLS. 2.1(b). b) almost envelope wave solution. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 44 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Re W 2 a 1 20 40 60 80 100 x -1 -2 Re W 2 b 1 20 40 60 80 100 x -1 -2 Fig.February 11. When c considerably exceeds the wave number κ we get the profile closer to the usual envelope wave solution. the wave shape is not determined solely by the amplitude wave shape. a) profile with moving disturbances. Another interesting profiles correspond to the exact solutions of the . 2. see Fig.

g. 2.36) where ζ = x − c t. we decompose the solution u(x. 2. θ. both real. Substituting (2. with pj . Fig. q) ∈ C. p. This equation appears in the description of a large variety of physical phenomena. Like in case of CNLS equations. κ) − δ1 . θ = θ(ζ. . the situation changes dramatically when C = 0. whose position vary in time. y Z (2. Then periodic and pulse solutions of the CGLE may be found Porubov and Velarde (1999). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 45 complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.38) When C = 0. first of all.. (u. u = y(ζ) eıθ . A typical situation is shown in Fig.February 11. γ ∈ R. lasers. non-equilibrium pattern formation. In this case Z never vanishes. 2. Z = pr 2 y 2 yx + C 2 .2. and the zeroes of the first derivative are defined by the zeroes of the sin function only. CGLE. and for u we have harmonic temporal oscillations of the spatially periodic state defined by the amplitude parts of the solutions (2. qj = 0. During half of the time period the shapes of these parts vary. t). and we get in Fig.37) (2. is v= with y= 2qr 2 2 2 k1 dn (k1 ζ.36) into (2. respectively. t) in its amplitude.37) are defined by the zeroes of the function yx and correspond to the zeroes of the Jacobi functions cn and sn. Their positions do not change in time. and phase.36).2(a). q = qr +ı qi . However.35) and equating to zero the real and imaginary parts one obtains two coupled equations for the functions y and z ≡ θζ . (2. y. 2 ı ut + p uxx + q |u| u = ı γ u (2.2(d) a profile which is practically the mirror image to Fig. Z y yx sin θ + arcsin( ) . Qualitatively this evolution does not depend upon the value of the modulus κ of Jacobi functions. e.35) where the constant coefficients are p = pr +ı pi . v = (Re u)x . 2. The first derivative of the real part of the periodic solution with respect to x. the zeroes of the first derivative (2. in nonlinear optics. The subscripts t and x denote temporal and spatial derivatives. superconductivity etc.2(a) shows a structure with four spatially repeated parts.

5 1 0.5 1 0.5 1 0.2 Evolution of the periodic solution (2. c)m = 2.5 20 -0.5 -2 Re u 2 1. d)m = 3.5 -1 -1. δ1 = 0.5 20 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 Re u 2 1.5 -2 Re u 2 1.5 -1 -1. a)m = 0.5 -2 40 60 40 60 40 60 40 60 a 80 100 120 x b 80 100 120 x c 80 100 120 x d 80 100 120 x Fig.5 20 -0.5 20 -0.36) Re u vs x for times t = m pi π/(3pr γ). b)m = 1.9.5 1 0. 0 < m < 3 with k = 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 46 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Re u 2 1.5 -1 -1. .February 11. 2.5.

Therefore. such as phase variable θ in the unperturbed problem. l2 (2. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 47 Consider now the pulse solution Porubov and Velarde (1999). Often straight asymptotic expansions are incorrect Cole (1968). (2.39) is 6Al1 (1 + 4A2 ) 2 1 k cosh−1 (kζ) tanh(kζ) sin θ − arctan( ) . The basic idea of the perturbation approach is to look for a solution of a perturbed nonlinear equation in terms of certain natural fast and slow variables. there is a pulse solution whose spatial behavior is determined by the function cosh−1 (kζ) only with one extremum at ζ = 0. 2.3(a) disappear. Often there is a need in only one fast variable. or slow coordinate.41) The evolution of the real part of the solution (2. 2. our solution is breather. l2 = pr qi − pi qr . r i 2(pi + 4A pr − 4A2 pi ) 6Al1 k cosh−1 (kζ) exp ıθ.40) it follows that additional zeroes of the first derivative may appear if (Re u)x = k> l2 exp 6A l1 arctan(1/(2A)) 2A . Jeffrey and Kawahara (1982).like. while two minima arise. and the matching asymptotic procedure Ablowitz and Segur (1981). Sometimes additional terms may be considered as small perturbations.41) is not satisfied. l1 = p2 + p2 . One can see that many equations consist in generalisations of the integrable equations like the KdV equation.39) is illustrated in Fig. Kodama and Ablowitz (1981) may be applied to find a solution in this case. from (2. If (2. T = ε t. l2 2A (2. 2.40) Thus. Fig. 2. Again we see that two initial maxima in Fig. Depending upon the problem either slow time. Fig.39) The first derivative for the real part of (2. then an initial minimum at ζ = 0 is changed into a maximum.February 11. ε << 1 are . u= with κ2 = − γ . 2.3. Nayfeh (1973).2 Asymptotic solutions Particular exact solutions are insufficient for understanding physical processes.3(f-h). X = ε x.3(e).

θt = −1.04 x c Re u 4 2 0. g)m = 7. h)m = 8. Fast variable is generalized in a perturbed problem assuming either θx = 1.04 x -0. 2.04 x e Re u 4 2 0. The functions V (T ) or P (X) are defined to remove secular terms.04 -2 -4 d 0.04 -2 -4 Re u 4 2 -0. Some of the appropriate secularity conditions are formed from Green’s identity as follows. Assume a solution u = u(θ.February 11.04 -2 -4 Re u 4 2 -0.04 x Fig.04 -2 -4 Re u 4 2 -0.04 -2 -4 a Re u 4 2 0. T ) is of the form . c)m = 2. θt = −V (T ) or θx = P (X).04 x -0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 48 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Re u 4 2 -0.04 -2 -4 b 0. d)m = 4.04 -2 -4 h 0.04 x -0. b)m = 1.39) Re u vs x for times t = mπ/β.3 Evolution of the pulse solution (2. introduced. 0 < m < 8.04 x g Re u 4 2 0.04 -2 -4 f 0. f)m = 6. e)m = 5.04 x -0. a)m = 0.

. LA (vi ) = 0.43) is carrying over the period Rednikov et. In this case integration in (2.43).. i = 1. T ) + ε u1 (θ. al (2000). |θ| ∼ 1/ε Ablowitz and Segur (1981). we obtain that L(u1 )vi − LA (vi )u1 = F vi is always a divergence.44) . Following Kliakhandler et.43) Then either V (T ) or P (X) are obtained from Eq. Method may be used for finding perturbed cnoidal wave solutions. and suppose that u depends upon a fast variable θ and a slow time T . Here L(u1 ) is a linearized leading-order equation operator..February 11.(2.. Using the boundary conditions it may be integrated to give the secularity conditions. (2. T ) + .. In particular. ε << 1. Kodama and Ablowitz (1981)..g. Complete solutions is obtained using matching quasistationary solution to a nonstationary one for large |θ|. M ) the M solutions of the homogeneous adjoint problem. al (1995) assume that αi = ε α i . Let us apply this method for a perturbed solitary wave solution of the DMKdV equation (1. Then in the next order an inhomogeneous linear equation for u1 holds L(u1 ) = F (u0 ). when vi → 0 as |θ| → ∞ while u1 is bounded the secularity condition is: ∞ vi F dθ = 0. Then equation (1.. Denoting by vi (i = 1. (2.. such as θx = 1. M. where LA is the adjoint operator to L. al (1995). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 49 u(θ. It is to be noted that a simple quasistationary expansion is not uniformly valid on |x| → ∞.. θt = −V (T ). T ) = u0 (θ. T = ε t.13) becomes α3 uθθθ − V uθ + 2α1 u uθ + ε [uT + α2 uθθ + α4 uθθθθ + α5 (u uθ )θ ] = 0.13).42) The leading order problem is nonlinear equation for u0 whose solution is known. Svendsen and Buhr-Hansen (1978). e. . Rednikov ∼ et. −∞ (2.

Then the leading order solution is u0 = 6 α3 b(T )2 cosh−2 (b(T ) θ) α1 (2.(2.45).47) The behavior of b (or the sign of bT ) depends on the signs of A and B and on the value of b0 ≡ b(T = 0). α1 (2.θ = 0. Here b tends to −A/B independent of b0 .θθθ − V u1.T + α2 u0. The most interesting case occurs when A > 0.50) We see that b tends to infinity in finite time.47) is adjoint to that of the Eq. Equation (2.θθθθ + α5 (u0 u0. F = − u0. For A < 0.(2.(2.49) 8 3 b A + B b2 .48) may be directly integrated giving the implicit dependence of b on T : T = b2 (A + B b2 ) 4B 4(b2 − b2 ) 0 ln 0 .44) is sought in the form (2. B = 4 7 6α3 α5 − 5α4 .February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 50 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids The solution of Eq. Indeed. T∗ = 4B b2 B 4 0 ln + . 2 15A (A + B b2 ) 15A b2 0 0 (2. (2.42).θ + 2α1 u0 u0. B > 0.θ )θ .θ + 2α1 (u 0 u1 )θ = F.43) with vi = u0 yields the equation for b: bT = with A = α2 .45) We are interested in studying localized solutions vanishing together with its derivatives at |θ| → ∞.48) (2. B < 0. In the leading order we get α3 u0.θθ + α4 u0. 15 (2. T = T ∗ for A > 0. Then the secularity condition (2. At order ε. B > 0 the parameter b vanishes if b0 < −A/B while it diverges if b0 > −A/B. The operator acting on the function u1 in the lhs of Eq. we have α3 u1.51) . − 2 2 (A + B b2 ) 15A b 15A b2 b2 0 0 (2.θθθ − V u0. when both A and B are positive b diverges while for both negative values it will vanish. A quantitative description of the variation of b can be given.46) with V = 4α3 b2 .

corresponding expressions for the derivatives of the elliptic functions with respect to modulus may be found in Byrd and Friedman (1954). the asymptotic ”dissipative” solitary wave (2. and expression (2. al (1995).46) will tend to the exact travelling solitary wave solution (1.g. In this case the modulus of the Jacobian elliptic functions should be a function of a slow variable. Higher order approximations may be studied similarly. b0 < −A/B. the quantity b approaches −A/B when T tends to infinity. On the other hand. B > 0. al (1995) of the form: u1 = A1 u0. in Rednikov et. Perturbations of cnoidal wave solutions were studied. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 51 A similar scenario occurs when A < 0.θ + A2 θ cosh−2 (b(T ) θ) + A3 u0. al (1995). with our asymptotic approximation we can predict when blow-up could occur. Its definition allows to satisfy solvability condition in the next order problem and to avoid secular terms in the asymptotic expansion. 1. if we additionally assume α3 = 2α1 α4 /α5 .February 11. Therefore numerical simulations should be used. see Fig. e.. Finally.12). Two kinds of nonlinear equations. Svendsen and BuhrHansen (1978). hence. Uniformly valid solution is found using the matching asymptotic procedure may be found in Rednikov et..E. In particular they satisfy specific initial conditions and do not allow to account for an arbitrary initial disturbance evolution. . One can see it predicts a plateau behind the solitary wave and does not vanish at minus infinity. Newille (1951). the quantity b0 > −A/B.50) provides an analytical description of the time-dependent process of the parameter-value selection of the solitary wave (2.17. Function u1 (θ. al (1995). 2. B > 0. B < 0 and A < 0. B < 0.3 Numerical methods One can see that both exact nor asymptotic solutions have severe limitations. for both A < 0. where Ai may be found in Rednikov et. The first-order solution u1 has been obtained in Rednikov et. when A > 0. it will contain free parameters depending on T like b(T ) in the leading order problem. T ) is a solution of a linear inhomogeneous O. In the last case.D. Hence.θ log(cosh (b(T ) θ))+ A4 (1 − tanh(b(T ) θ)). b vanishes when T tends to infinity.46).

al (1997). pseudo-spectral approach and finite-difference approach. 2. may be written either ut = L(u) or utt = L(u) (2. Sachdev (1987). Equations of the kind (2. see also references therein. Dodd et. it takes place for a simulation of the generalized fifth-order KdV equation (1. It becomes the smaller the higher is the order of a highest derivative term in NEE. this method was effectively applied to study the evolution and interaction of Marangoni-B´nard solitary waves governed by Eq. As noted in Berezin (1987) implicit three-levels schemes are rather simple and suitable for a realization. . The implicit predictor-corrector method has been applied to nonlinear diffusion equations in Sachdev (1987). see Berezin (1987). Further only numerical methods are described which are used by the author and his coworkers in solving the problems considered in the book.52) where L(u) is a certain nonlinear differential operator. al (2002). Besides simulation of Eq. Fletcher (1984).(1. Two main schemes are used. the fourth-order RungeKutta finite-difference method. while long-time evolution should be studied. some of the straight finite-difference methods require rather small time step for stability. in particular. al (1982).53). The problem of an increase of the time step may be solved either by a modification of a difference scheme or by using a more effective solving procedure. Dodd et. However.53) (2. al (1982) where various difference schemes are discussed.3) in Porubov et. In particular. Mayer (1995). Zwillenger (1989).52) will be called nonlinear evolution equations while nonlinear hyperbolic equations correspond to the class (2.3).February 11.(1. The same equation has been numerically solved in Christov and Velarde (1995) using a four-stage scheme providing thirdorder approximation in time.1 Nonlinear evolution equations Among the equations of the kind (2. More detailed information about numerical modelling of nonlinear wave equations may be found.52) main attention has been paid to numerical solutions of the KdV equation. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 52 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids considered here. in Berezin (1987). in particular. another example has been studied in Christov et.13) e in Marchant (1996).3.

in particular.13). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 53 Pseudo-spectral methods have been adopted recently. The corresponding wavelength is λc = 2π/kc . we define the typical wavenumber kc = α2 /2α4 corresponding to the most unstable linear mode in Eq. Finally. The use of the pseudo-spectral approach to account for an evolution of an initial localized pulse in framework of Eq. 1.3). and the selection have been observed at the αi values prescribed by the theory in previous . The fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme may be used for the time derivative Kliakhandler (1999). al (1994) is devoted to the KdV soliton detection from a harmonic input. The control of the simulations in the Fourier space shows the good resolution of the computed solutions.e. al (2001) the solitary wave formation from a periodic input was studied for an equation similar to Eq. The latter ensures fair resolution of the whole solutions computed. The pseudo-spectral numerical scheme has proved very efficient in solving dispersive and dissipative equations.(1. 2. see also Zwillenger (1989) and references therein. rather long.e. At the same time. Salupere et.4(a). this method allows to study an evidence of the selected solitary waves Kliakhandler et. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear diffusion equations are considered in Fletcher (1984). it has been checked that the tendency to blow-up. i. al (1993) for the fifth-order KdV equation. The pseudo-spectral technique was employed for the spatial discretization and the Runge-Kutta fourth order scheme for the time advance. by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. al (2000) predicted on the basis of the asymptotic analysis of Eq. al (1997). Fig.13) in previous section.(1. Fig. the following numerical technique has been employed. i. 2.3) is demonstrated in Sec. The tests with smaller time steps and better resolution gave indistinguishable results. there already exist monographs Fletcher (1984).(1.(1. To reveal the expected behaviour of the solutions. Periodic boundary conditions have been used for simulations.February 11. the number of discretization points was chosen to be 4096. It provides very mild stability restrictions on the time step.4(b).01. λc is covered by 16 points. while the paper Salupere et. the damping.2. In a pseudospectral scheme the space derivatives are approximated very accurately by means of the Fourier transforms. The time step was chosen to be 0. The length of spatial domain was chosen to be 256λc . The evolution of the initial monotonic solitary wave into radiating or oscillatory solitary waves was simulated in Benilov et. Sachdev (1987). In a series of papers Salupere et. First. Since at the very late stage of the evolution the unstable waves are expected to be controlled by the finite-amplitude waves found in Kawahara (1983). Sachdev (1987) where they are explained in details.1.

51). α5 = −2.46). This observation allows to find analytically “time-of-life” of the blowing solutions of Eq. In the case of ”blow-up”. section.583 and the veloc(2. −A/B. we found that the pulse tends to grow rapidly at the time t∗ rather close to the predicted t∗ = T ∗ /ε from (2. We consider both the selection occurring from ”below” when the magnitude of an initial Gaussian pulse is smaller than that of the eventually selected solitary waves and the selection from ”above” when the selected solitary wave amplitude is smaller than that of the initial pulse magnitude. (1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 54 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids (a) time Blow-up (b) time Damping distance distance Fig. B < 0. 6α3 b2 /α1 = 0. The amplitude.February 11.389.49) and b = ity V = 4α3 b2 = 0. Choosing the parameter values ε = 0. α1 = 1.13). α4 = 6/5. α3 = 1.4 Blow-up (a) and damping (b) of the initial conditions. α2 = 1.1. the resulting amplitude of the selected solitary wave is obtained using (2. al (2000) let us discuss in detail the selection of ”dissipative” solitary waves occurring at A > 0. Following Kliakhandler et. 2. This would permit to separate the selection mechanism from .

February 11. Due to smallness of ε.5 that up to the time t ∼ 120 an initial Gaussian pulse with the magnitude 0.3 < 0.5 ”Dissipative” solitary wave selection from an initial Gaussian profile with amplitude 0. 2.583 and width 36 breaks into a train of three localized pulses aligned in row of decreasing magnitude. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 55 720 Time 480 240 0 200 400 600 800 Distance Fig.3 and width 36 units. Oron and Rosenau (1997). This may be seen by compar- . One can see in Fig. those originating from the growing unstable disturbances Kawahara (1983). the influence of the dissipative non-KdV terms is small at this stage. 2.

As a result. shown as solid lines. ”Dissipative” solitary waves form a bound state Christov and Velarde (1995). while each of three KdV solitons continues propagation with its own amplitude and velocity. with pure KdV case.6 ”Dissipative” solitary wave selection from an initial Gaussian profile with amplitude 1 and width 12 units. At later stages the initial pulse transforms into a train of the solitary waves.(1.38 in agreement with the theory of single solitary wave selection.February 11. At nonzero ε each solitary wave amplitude and velocity tend to the values 0. Nekorkin and Velarde (1994) whose unequal spacing between equally high crests reflects the original separation of the solitary waves in the KdV stage when higher ideal solitons travel faster. The tail behind the train of solitary waves appear as a result of short wave instability similar to Kawahara (1983). However. α2 = α4 = α5 = 0. 2.585 and 0.13). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 56 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 480 420 360 Time 300 240 180 120 60 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Distance Fig. the solitary waves bound state es- . ison of solutions of Eq. shown by dashed lines. the solitary waves have higher velocity than the velocity of growing wave packets.

2 Nonlinear hyperbolic equations Among the equations of kind (2.585 and velocity 0. Christov and Velarde (1995) to account for numerical solutions of the Boussinesq equation and its generalizations where Newton’s quasi-linearization of the nonlinear terms is employed. Again the comparison with pure KdV case is shown by dashed lines. They are robust and remain the same under the mesh refinement and smaller time steps. The selection process realized from ”above” is shown in Fig. al (1987) is obtained using the Gauss elimination.583 and the width 12. An implicit difference scheme was developed in Christov and Maugin (1995). al (1996).38 appear as a result of decrease of the magnitude of the initial pulse. that may be written in the form of so-called double-dispersive equation Erofeev and Klyueva (2002).3. All features of the selection process are similar to the selection from ”below”. Samsonov (2001) utt − α1 uxx − α2 ( u2 )xx − α3 uxxtt + α4 uxxxx = 0. which are not reported here. Two equal solitary waves with amplitude 0.13) with other values of parameters ε. al (1987). αi such that A > 0.53) we are especially interested in various Boussinesq-like long waves equations. There is an another method developed independently the USSR in 1953 Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987). A similar finding for the GKS equation was reported in Chang et.(2. We see on the last stages that the magnitude of the tail saturates. A Fourier-Galerkin method were applied to computing localized solutions in Christou and Christov (2000). (2. Christou and Christov (2002).54) At α3 = 0 it corresponds to the classic Boussinesq equation. also higher-order derivative terms may be incorporated in Eq.February 11.54) Christou and Christov (2000). 2. Christov et.(1. cubic or higher-order nonlinearities may be considered Christou and Christov (2002). The solution in Soerensen et. Christov and Velarde (1994). Besides quadratic nonlinear term. B < 0. Soerensen et. Samarskii and Nikolaev (1989) and in the . α2 ( u2 )xx . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 57 capes the destruction induced by the radiation that lags behind. 2. al (1984). Simulations of Eq. Oron and Rosenau (1997). show the same features of the selection process as described above. al (1984). All these structures are quite well resolved and similar to those found in Kawahara (1983). Soerensen et.6 when initial Gaussian pulse has the magnitude 1 > 0. al (1995). Soerensen et.

However. Then coming back from n = N − 1 to n = 1 one can find every un from (2. Kn+1/2 . with Ln+1/2 = − fn − an Ln−1/2 cn . Thomas (1949). Let us assume u0 = L1/2 u1 + K1/2 .54). Using (2. one can obtain uN −1 . Since the Thomas algorithm is not widely used for solutions of the nonlinear waves problems. One can see further in the book that it gives numerical results in a good agreement with analytical predictions. It was noted . uN = ψ. with L3/2 = −c1 /b1 .(2. u0 = ϕ. K1/2 = (f1 − a1 ϕ)/b1 . where L1/2 = 0. Kn+1/2 = . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 58 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids USA by L. Richtmyer and Morton (1967). It allows to exclude u0 from the equation (2. Kn+1/2 . Following this procedure one can obtain un = Ln+1/2 un+1 + Kn+1/2 . Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973) consider a boundary problem: an un−1 + bn un + cn un+1 = fn . it is useful to describe it in a more elaborate manner.57) and the boundary conditions (2.57) (2. giving u0 = L3/2 u2 + K3/2 .H. Recently it was successfully applied in Bukhanovsky and Samsonov (1998). That is why it is known in the West as the Thomas method Morton and Mayers (1994). this method is justified for the solutions of linear problems. al (1998) for computing rather complicated hyperbolic nonlinear elastic systems. 0 < n < N.55) at n = 1.56) Hence going from 1 to N one can calculate the coefficients Ln+1/2 . As noted in Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973). bn + an Ln−1/2 bn + an Ln−1/2 (2. Porubov et.55) (2. Following Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987). the author applied it more than ten years ago for a numerical solution of Eq.February 11.57) using already known Ln+1/2 . K1/2 = ϕ. Previously the Thomas method was used for both nonlinear evolution equationsBerezin (1987) and hyperbolic equationAlexeyev (1999).56) at n = N .

These equations may be too complicated for manual operations.54) while vn = u(xn .(2. 2. Among the advantages of the Mathematica one can mention variety of the build-in mathematical functions. Then we have for discretization of Eq. where t. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 59 in Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1987). x are time and space steps respectively.4 Use of Mathematica Recently various symbolic mathematical programs were developed to provide huge analytical operations. Indeed. tj−2 ) correspond to the mesh functions on previous time steps. The difference scheme is similar to those used in Soerensen et. fn = x2 (wn −2vn )−α1 t2 (vn−1 −2vn +vn+1 )+α3 (2vn−1 −4vn +2vn+1 − wn−1 + 2wn − wn+1 ) − α4 t2 / x2 (vn−2 − 4vn−1 + 6vn − 4vn+1 + 2 2 2 vn+2 ) − α2 t2 (vn−1 − 2vn + vn+1 ). One of the most powerful is the Mathematica developed by Wolfram (1999) that is used by the author on all stages of his studies. is always satisfied at positive α3 . This section is not focused on the detailed description of the magnificent abilities of the program. Assume un = u(xn . tj−1 ).1 is based on the transformation of the problem of a solution of a PDE to the problem of the solution of algebraic equations for the ansatz parameters. Soerensen et.(2. Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973) that small amount of arithmetic operations together with a weak sensitivity to the calculation errors are the main advantages of the method. Only some important features are considered in relation to the problems studied here. An example may be found in Parkes and Duffy (1996) where a package is presented to obtain . 2. Design of the Mathematica package provides an automatic finding of a solution.54) an = cn = α3 . al (1984). Uniqueness condition. wn = u(xn . In particular. tj ) is a mesh function of a solution of Eq. the procedure described in Sec. al (1987) in the case α4 = 0 and with higher order nonlinearities being taken into account. it works efficiently with the Weierstrass elliptic function ℘ that may be used for obtaining exact solutions. and use of the Mathematica allows to obtain solutions avoiding errors. |bn | > |an | + |cn | Godunov and Ryaben’kii (1973).February 11. bn = − x2 − 2α3 .

3. 2. solutions in terms of the hyperbolic tanh-function. Hence. The Mathematica cannot do it automatically. First.1. However.7 a) Incorrect and b) correct representations of the function y.February 11. it is necessary to introduce the rules for the elliptic functions derivatives. see Sec. Second. it is better to manage the substitution procedure step by step manually introducing the commands that provide the most efficient line of attack on the problem. The algebraic manipulations should be used also for a check of the asymptotic solutions and for derivation of the governing nonlinear equa- . it works simultaneously with all possible solutions of the algebraic equations that yields huge expressions at the intermediate stages of a solution and may result in falling down the evaluation. Finally. sometimes combinations like g2 C − g3 − 4C 3 or 12C 2 − g2 should be kept in the solution for its convenient analysis. it is unlikely that an automated method may be applied for finding periodic solutions. 2. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 60 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids y 6 4 2 2 -2 -4 -6 4 a 6 8 10 x y b 30 20 10 2 4 6 8 10 x Fig.

2.2.7(b) around which the profiles are developed in Figs.2 requires calculation of the function y = Π[ϕ. where x0 = K(κ)/k. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Mathematical tools for the governing equations analysis 61 tions. Sometimes. 5 x0 ≤ x ≤ 7 x0 ] = 3π − ϕ. 0 ≤ x ≤ x0 ] = ϕ. Numerical abilities may be efficiently used for the analysis of analytical relationships. 0. 2. e. Kliakhandler (1999). In particular. see. n. κ]. C++ or other languages are preferable for numerical simulations of nonlinear PDEs. the construction of the profiles shown in Figs. numerical data obtained using Fortran or C++ programs.7(a). Direct Mathematica command Plot[y. The Mathematica possesses high-level graphic facilities. In order to obtain correct smooth profile it is necessary to define y as y = Π[ψ. where ψ is obtained using the Mathematica commands ψ[x /. x0 ≤ x ≤ 3 x0 ] = π − ϕ. it admits representation of graphics in many formats including PostScript and Encapsulate PostScript. ψ[x /. K(κ) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. n.February 11. ψ[x /. the Mathematica gives incorrect results..1. κ].1 and 2. One can see it contains the points where there is no first derivative of y. Almost all figures in the book are prepared using the Mathematica. Then we obtain required smooth profile for y shown in Fig. may be represented by an automated procedure. ψ[x /. 2. . etc. 10}] yields the profile shown in Fig. 3 x0 ≤ x ≤ 5 x0 ] = 2π + ϕ. κ is the elliptic functions modulus. while Fortran. ϕ = arcsin(sn(k x)) expressed through the elliptic integral of the third kind. {x. In particular. Like analytical procedures graphics may be automatized. 2.g. 2.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 62 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids .February 11.

Parker and Maugin (1987) etc. solid may be considered as a crystalline material in which the constituent atoms are arranged in a 3D lattice with certain symmetries. these definitions complement each other allowing to take into account a model of elastic potential of atomic interactions. Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994). e. in design of nonlinear acoustic devices Oliner (1978). From the point of view of the theory of discrete media.. During the long period only linear theory of elasticity was considered since because of the engineering needs and poor experimental facilities. Samsonov (2001). Murnaghan (1951). Engelbrecht (1997). Now the study of the material properties Lurie (1990). Parker and Maugin (1987). acoustic signals Biryukov et. Maugin (1993). Lurie (1990). Oliner (1978). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter 3 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod The theory of strain waves in solids began to develop over two hundred years ago. As noted previously Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994).February 11. Erofeev and Klyueva (2002). Murnaghan (1951). Strain waves in solids may be classified as follows. Mayer (1995). Comparing the direction of the wave propagation with the particle motion one can distinguish longitudinal and shear waves. and to cover amorphous. When elastic features are one and the same in any direction we have isotropic solids. In macroelasticity solid may be defined as a substance having a definite volume and shape and resisting forces that tend to alter its volume or shape. Sometimes anisotropy is important. al (1991). The former wave propagates along the direction of the 63 .g. while nonlinear waves in solids were considered in Engelbrecht (1983). see about it Love (1927). Maugin (1995). McNiven and McCoy (1974). Erofeev (2002). In order to go further it is necessary to define a notion of the word solid. require mathematical models based on the nonlinear elasticity. Samsonov (2001). porous or granular media. Recent developments in general elastic theory may be found in Bland (1960). Parker (1994). Parker and Maugin (1987).

not only the positions of the particles vary during the deformation but also the distances between them. Waves propagating inside solid are called bulk waves. 3. Samsonov (2001). However. Other kinds of nonlinearities are considered in Engelbrecht (1997). In rectangular Cartesian coordinates xi the components of C may be written in a more familiar form Cik = 1 ∂ui ∂uk ∂ul ∂ul ( + + ). As a result of a deformation process there appear stresses. Loading forces provide the displacement of particle yielding the current or actual configuration characterized by an another vector-radius − → R . It was found more than hundred years ago that Hook’s linear law of elasticity is insufficient.r . In this book main attention is paid to the longitudinal bulk waves in isotropic media and wave guides. The geometrical nonlinearity is described by the exact expression of the strain tensor always used in the theory of large deformations. 2 ∂xk ∂xi ∂xi ∂xk where uk are the components of the displacement vector V . In order to describe the alteration of the distance a deformation or strain tensor is introduced. whose general form is C= → V +( → V )T + → → V ·( → V )T /2 → (written in terms of a vector gradient V and its transpose ( V )T ). Since Piola-Kirchoff stress tensor is defined . the latter -perpendicular to it. see about it in Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994). Initially the position of a particle − is accounted for a vector-radius →. Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994). V = − − → → R . Then the movement is described by the displacement vector.February 11. In the reference configuration the Cauchy-Green finite deformation tensor C is defined Lurie (1990). and this is a source of the physical nonlinearity. In presence of a lateral surface. It is obtained from the difference between the squares of the arc length in the deformed (actual) and undeformed (reference) configuration. surface strain waves are possible. or an initial or reference configuration r is defined.1 The sources of nonlinearities Among the possible sources of nonlinearity we briefly consider so-called geometrical and physical nonlinearities since they affect the strain wave propagation to a greater extent. Certainly they should be connected with the strains. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 64 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids particle motion.

hence the second order elastic moduli. It was Murnaghan (1951) who supposed to develop the energy as a power series in the three invariants of the strain tensor. J1 (C) = trC. 2 1 6 (3. µ). I2 (C) = [(trC)2 − trC2 ]/2. J3 (C) = trC3 .(3. in the form Lurie (1990) Π = Since 2 J1 (C) = I1 (C) . ν3 = n/4. ν1 3 λ 2 J + µJ2 + J1 + ν2 J1 J2 + ν3 J3 . Accordingly. ν2 = m − n/2. k = 1. In some cases there is a need in more terms in Eq.1) where Ik .3) coincide if ν1 = 2l − 2m + n. Π = λ + 2µ 2 l + 2m 3 I1 − 2µI2 + I1 − 2mI1 I2 + nI3 . or the Lam´ coefficients (λ.1): Π= l + 2m 3 λ + 2µ 2 I1 − 2µI2 + I1 − 2mI1 I2 + nI3 + 2 3 .1)account for linear elasticity. The energy of deformation must be insensitive to the rotation of the reference frame. Other terms in (3. 2 3 (3.February 11. Pik = ∂Π . 3 are the invariants of tensor C: I1 (C) = trC. The energy may be written using another set of invariants.2) The first two terms in (3. the third order elastic moduli. J2 (C) = trC2 . 3 J3 (C) = I1 (C) − 3I1 (C)I2 (C) + 3I3 (C). ∂Cik one can say the physical nonlinearity depends upon the structure of the internal (or free) strain energy density Π. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 65 in the reference configuration. through the volume density of the internal energy Π in adiabatic processes (or through the Helmgholtz free energy in thermoelastic processes).3) Eqs. Murnaghan (1951).1) and (3. 2.(3. (3. I3 (C) = det C. n) account for nonlinear elastic properties of the isotropic material. m. J2 (C) = I1 (C) − 2I2 (C). or the Murnaghan moduli (l. characterize linear elastic e properties of the isotropic material.1) describe material or physical nonlinearity Lurie (1990).

4) are convenient to account for the deformation of compressible materials (metals. When torsions are neglected. (3.2. there exist another models. like rubber.1 material Polystyrene Steel Hecla 37 Aluminium 2S Pyrex glass SiO2 melted Lame’s and Murnaghan’s modulii. 3. ϕ [0.1 27..5 15. the displacement vector is V = (u. whose yield point is small. a3 .3 l -18. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 66 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Table 3. However. free lateral surface cylindrical elastic rod.). mainly the third-order moduli data may be found in the literature Frantsevich et. Once the reference configuration is defined we use Hamilton’s variation principle to obtain the governing equations together with the boundary conditions. the Mooney-Rivlin model. t1 ∞ R δS = δ t0 dt2π −∞ dx 0 r Ldr = 0.2 Modelling of nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral surface elastic rod Statement of the problem 3.5) .1. (3. a2 . a4 ) can be either positive or negative. r. ϕ). Axi-symmetry leads to using cylindrical Langrangian coordinates (x. in Dai (1998).g.1 Let us consider an isotropic.. the Mooney model Lurie (1990).3 -461 -311 92 71 n -10 -358 -228 420 -44 4 2 2 a1 I1 + a2 I1 I2 + a3 I1 I3 + a4 I2 .g. w. see Fig.9 µ 0. e. may be used even for compressible materials. The series expansions (3. setting to zero the variation of the action functional. e. etc.6 27. axially infinitely extended. its application to nonlinear strain waves in a rod may be found.71 111 57 13. (3.1. 3. where x is the axis of the rod.1).5 31. 2π]. al (1982). 0 ≤ r ≤ R. For incompressible materials. 0). polymers. ∗10−9 N/m2 λ 1. Its generalization. Lurie (1990).4) The fourth order moduli (a1 .95 82. some of them are collected in Table 3.February 11.9 -459 -299 14 129 m -13. We shall consider the propagation of longitudinal strain waves of small but finite amplitude in the rod.

5) is carried out at the initial time t = t0 .February 11.1). In absence of torsions non-zero . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 67 Fig. 3. equilibrium state. L=K − Π.6) where ρ0 is the rod material density at t = t0 . L is the Lagrangian density per unit volume. For the kinetic energy density K we have ρ0 2 ∂u ∂t 2 K= + ∂w ∂t 2 (3.1 Free lateral surface cylindrical rod where. The integration in brackets in (3. the rod is supposed to be in its natural.(3. Initially. with Π defined by Eq.

2 x 2 r r 2r 1 Crx = (ur + wx + ux wr + wx wr ).2) may be written as I1 (C) = Cxx + Crr + Cϕϕ . (3. The following boundary conditions (b. at r → 0.Kirchhoff stress tensor P are defined as Prr = (λ + 2µ) wr + λ w λ + 2µ + m 2 + λ ux + ur + r 2 3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m 2 w λ + 2l w2 wr + (λ + 2l) wr + + 2 r 2 r2 w λ + 2l 2 ux + (λ + 2l) ux wr + (2l − 2m + n) ux + r 2 λ + 2µ + m 2 wx + (µ + m) ur wx . at r = R.7) (3. 2 I2 (C) = Cxx Crr + Cxx Cϕϕ + Crr Cϕϕ − Crx . Crr = wr + (u2 + wr ). Prx = 0. (3.c.8) (3. Prr = 0 . 2 I3 (C) = Cϕϕ (Cxx Crr − Crx ).February 11. are 1 1 1 1 2 2 Cxx = ux + (u2 + wx ). 2m − n w wx + (µ + m) wx wr + 2 r (3.11) . at r = R.) are imposed for a free lateral surface rod: w → 0.9) where the components Prr . Prx of the Piola . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 68 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids components of the Cauchy-Green deformation tensor C. Cϕϕ = w + 2 w2 .10) 2 2λ + 2m − n w ur + 2 r Prx = µ (ur + wx ) + (λ + 2µ + m) ur wr + (λ + 2µ + m) ux ur + (µ + m) ux wx . 2 Hence the invariants in (3.

t) does not change along .9). Finally. An alternative is to simplify the problem making some assumptions about the behavior of longitudinal and/or shear displacements and/or strains in the elastic wave-guide. Then every cross section of the rod remains flat. one can assume B 1. t. the coefficients of the nonlinear terms usually contain combinations of elastic moduli which may be also small in addition to the smallness of B something not predicted beforehand. are not well defined. while general equations for displacements u and w are of the second order in time. leading to an asymptotic solution of the problem. This equation is of the second order of time. hence. this procedure gives equations of only first order in time.2 Derivation of the governing equation Exception of torsions provides transformation of the initial 3D problem into a 2D one. Further. solitary wave has an infinite wave length. Referring to the elastic rod these relationships give explicit dependence of u and w upon the radius. In particular. the simplest assumption is the plane cross section hypothesis McNiven and McCoy (1974): the longitudinal deformation process is similar to the beards movement on the thread. For an elastic rod.2. this procedure has some disadvantages. Therefore the solution of the model equation will not satisfy two independent initial conditions on longitudinal strains or displacements Samsonov (2001). Subsequent simplification is caused by the consideration of only long elastic waves with the ratio R/L 1 between the rod radius R and typical wavelength L.c. u = U (x.8).5) yields the governing equation in dimensional form for this function. while their variations along the rod axis are described by some unknown function and its derivatives along the axis of the rod. hence. Since Murnaghan’s material have small yield points. The typical elastic strain magnitude B does not exceed the yield point of the material. comparison of the predictions from the dimensionless solution to the experiments suffers from the fact that both B and L.February 11. subsequent scaling may take into account their orders when introducing small parameters. Any combinations of elastic moduli appear in the coefficients of the equation. In particular.5) yields a set of coupled equations for u and w together with the b. hence. (3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 69 3. To obtain a solution in universal way one usually proceeds to the dimensionless form of the equations and looks for the unknown displacement vector components in the form of power series in the small parameters of the problem (for example R/L). However. Then the application of Hamilton’s principle (3. hence its solution can satisfy two independent initial conditions. The Hamilton principle (3. (3.

t). In contrast to the theory based on the plane cross section hypothesis and the Love hypothesis.8). uL = u0 (x. (3. longitudinal and shear deformations are related.. t) + . uN L = uN L0 (x. for the stresses on the lateral surface of the rod.c. However.. with ν the Poisson coefficient.12) w = wL + wN L . (3.. Unfortunately. t) + .3 Double-dispersive equation and its solitary wave solution In order to derive the governing equation for longitudinal strain waves in a free lateral surface rod we assume that B ∼ R2 /L2 .. We get u0 (x.12). Later it was developed in Porubov and Velarde (2000).9) as well as the condition for w (3. the present theory allows to account for nonzero b.8).7). t) + r2 w2 (x..13) Substituting the linear parts uL and wL (3. t) = U (x..c. on the lateral surface of the rod (3.. the ”linear” and ”nonlinear” parts of the relationships may be obtained separately. this assumption is not enough due to the Poisson effect. B 1.. (3.1) and (3. (3.. wN L = wN L0 (x. t) + .. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 70 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids the radius r. i.c.c.e.. Accordingly.6).. This assumption . t) + r uN L1 (x. t) + r u1 (x.12).13) into the b. t) + .February 11. and equating to zero terms at equal powers of r one obtains uk and wk . (3.c. A power series approximations is used. the plane cross-section hypothesis and Love’s hypothesis do not satisfy the boundary conditions that demand vanishing of both the normal and tangential stresses. t) while other uk and wk are expressed through U and its derivatives. (3. (3.9). the longitudinal and shear displacement in dimensional form are: u = uL + uN L . t) + r wN L1 (x.7) and in the linear parts of b. Another theory has been proposed in Porubov and Samsonov (1993) to find the relationships between displacement vector components satisfying b. (3. at the lateral surface of the rod with prescribed precision. Prr and Prx . That is why Love (1927) proposed to use a relationship between w and u: w = −r ν Ux . Since pure elastic wave are studied. wN L are similarly obtained from the full b. wL = w0 (x. as generally done for long wave processes.. t) + r w1 (x. Using these results the nonlinear parts uN L . 3.13) are substituted into (3. t) + r2 u2 (x. Then (3.5) we obtain the single governing equation for the unknown function U (x. Running the Hamilton principle (3.

17) Here ν and E are the Poisson ratio and the Young modulus correspondingly. while terms 2 b3 r3 Uxxx and B1 r Ux are needed to satisfy the boundary conditions on the lateral surface with prescribed accuracy.15) where a2 = ν ν2 .13) into the boundary conditions and equating to zero combinations at each power of the radius. 2 2(3 − 2ν) B1 = ν(1 + ν) (1 − 2ν)(1 + ν) + [l(1 − 2ν)2 + 2m(1 + ν) − nν]. B1 = 0. β = 3E + l(1 − 2ν)3 + 4m(1 − 2ν)(1 + ν) + 6nν 2 . (3. (3. DDE. (3.5) one can obtain the so-called doubledispersive equation. 2(λ + µ) λ+µ while β is a nonlinear coefficient.17) in order to be in an agreement with the five-constant Murnaghan approximation (3.(3. 2 w = b1 r Ux + b3 r3 Uxxx + B1 r Ux .1). vtt − α1 vxx − α2 ( v 2 )xx − α3 vxxtt + α4 vxxxx = 0. 2 t 2 EUx + Then kinetic and potential energy truncated approximations are K= 1 2 (3.E = .18) . (3. a2 = 0.16). one can see that only the term a2 r2 Uxx makes its contribution into Eqs. Substituting power series (3. we get u = U + a2 r2 Uxx .15).February 11. Substituting (3. We have to truncate the approximations (3. (3. where cubic nonlinear terms are neglected.16) Π= β 3 U + νEr2 Ux Uxxx 3 x (3. (3.14) (3. b3 = 0.17). b3 = . 2 E ρ0 2 2 (U + νr2 [Ut Uxxt + νUxt ]).12).14). Comparing these relations with those obtained using cross-section and Love’s hypothesis. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 71 provides a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion required for existence of the bell-shaped solitary waves of permanent shape. for a strain function v = Ux . b1 = −ν. (3.16).17) into (3. (3.16). ν= λ µ(3λ + 2µ) .

3.5 1 0. The important difference is only in the values of the dispersive terms coefficients α3 and α4 .5 -0. see about it Erofeev and Klyueva (2002).2 Formation of solitary waves from an initial rectangular tensile pulse.5 1 0.February 11. α4 = µν 2 R2 /(2ρ0 ).(3. 1 0. α3 = . v = A cosh−2 (k (x − V t)).19) . ρ0 2ρ0 2 2ρ0 For the first time DDE was derived independently by some authors.5 -0.5 -0. Samsonov (2001).5 -0.5 1 0.5 1 0.5 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 Fig.5 -0. Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 72 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids where α1 = β ν(ν − 1)R2 νER2 E . α4 = − . α2 = . in framework of the plane cross section and Love’s hypothesis.18) possesses exact travelling solitary wave solution that may be obtained by direct integration.5 -0. in Samsonov (1988) it was α3 = −ν 2 R2 /2.5 1 0.5 -0. (3.5 -0.5 1 0.5 1 0.

The nonlinearity coefficient is the only coefficient carrying an information about the Murnaghan moduli. V 2 lies either inside the interval E E < V 2 < c2 = . they define whether tensile or compression solitary wave .5 1 0.5 -0.5 -0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 73 with A= 3(ρ0 V 2 − E) 2 E − ρ0 V 2 . if − 1 < ν < 0.5 -0. ∗ ρ0 (1 − ν) ρ0 or in c2 < V 2 < ∗ E .5 1 0.5 1 0. When positive Poisson ratio is positive.5 1 0.5 1 0. Hence.20) Accordingly. the sign of the amplitude is defined by the sign of β.3 Formation of a train of solitary waves from an initial rectangular tensile pulse.5 1 0.February 11.5 -0. k = .5 -0.5 1 0.5 -0.5 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 50 100 150 200 Fig. if ν > 0.5 -0.22) (3. more precisely.21) 1 0. β 2νR2 (E + ρ0 (ν − 1)V 2 ) (3. 3. 1/2 ≥ ν > 0.5 -0. ρ0 (1 − ν) (3.

4 Delocalization of an initial compression pulse. 2.5 0.5 50 -0.3. To this purpose numerical simulation of the equation has been performed using numerical method explained in Sec. Shown in Fig.5 50 -0. We see that it is the mixed dispersive term α3 vxxtt .5 50 -0. It was found that rather arbitrary initial pulse splits into the train of solitary waves or evolves into small amplitude oscillating wave-packet according to the predictions about wave parameters done on the basis of exact single travelling solitary wave solution. while massive initial pulse splits into the sequence of solitary waves. 0. who establishes the permitted finite interval for the wave velocity. It is of interest to know how rather arbitrary localized initial pulse evolves.5 0.5 0.5 50 -0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 74 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids may propagate for a given elastic material of the rod.February 11.5 50 -0. 3.2 is the evolution of an initial tensile rectangular pulse into single solitary wave.5 0.5 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 100 150 200 Fig.5 50 -0.5 50 -0. see Fig. Exact solution requires specific initial conditions. Indeed. 3. However.5 50 -0.3.5 0.5 0. .5 0.2. 3. assume the material elastic features of the rod yield β > 0.

when studying optically transparent phase inhomogeneities. the choice of an optical . the curvature h of the profile of longitudinal strain u along the radius of the rod is h = 2 |urr | /(1 + u2 )3/2 = |νUxx | /(1 + ν 2 r2 Uxx )3/2 . Interferometry is the most appropriate for such waves study because it allows to observe and measure with sufficient accuracy even small refractive indices alterations. Finally. caused by a strong shock wave propagation. Figure 3.4 demonstrates no solitary wave generation from the initial compression pulse. In particular. being contactless. It was found in Porubov and r Samsonov (1993)that the variation of longitudinal strain u along the radius is negligibly small when Ux is the solitary wave (3.February 11.4 Observation of longitudinal strain solitary waves We briefly consider the recent successful experiments on solitary wave observation in a transparent rod. However. They allow not only to visualize inhomogeneity but also to determine its parameters. has several advantages in comparison with the conventional optical interferometry.19). For this reason both waves are distorted to the same extent and possible defects in optical elements and experimental cell do not affect the resulting interference pattern. al (1995). Holographic interferometry method. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 75 each solitary wave is accounted for the exact single travelling wave solution (3. All optical methods record the alterations of refractive index in an object. single travelling wave exact solution provides correct predictions about solitary waves formation in an unsteady process of an arbitrary localized input evolution.19) that is important for the experimental observation of the waves.14). details may be found in Dreiden et. used in the experiments Dreiden et. let us estimate the deviation from the plane cross section caused by the second terms in the expression (3. Samsonov (2001). To sum up. It was shown theoretically in our case that a strain solitary wave is a propagating long density wave of small amplitude. limitations to the optics quality are considerably lower because wave fronts to be compared pass through the same optical path. 3. Indeed. The optical methods were used because they are preferable to study transparent optical phase inhomogeneities. when the material of the rod possesses β < 0. for example. Shadowgraphy is more convenient to record a considerable refractive index gradient. they do not introduce any disturbances in an object under study. al (1995). and on the other side. only compressive solitary wave arises from an initial compression localized input. However.

The solitary wave parameters are calculated based on the data of the holography interferograms obtained. The experimental set-up used to generate and observe the strain solitons. it will be sufficient to detect the constant shape wave propagation at much shorter distance.February 11. Curved interference fringe is extracted from the area inside the rod and placed below the interferogram. see Fig. The waves inside the rod are generated from a primary shock wave produced in the water near the edge of the rod by laser vaporization of a metal target. al (1982). and two cut-off were made parallel to the rod axis in order to make transparent the central part of the rod. The elastic properties of it are given by a set of parameters ν = 0.5. that are attained by the cell displacement along the axis of wave propagation. To check that the excited strain wave possesses indeed the solitary wave feature to conserve its shape. it is necessary to follow in observations a propagation along an extended elastic wave guide. Observations are carried out in the transversal direction. Only central part of the PS rod is transparent thanks to the vertical cuts. consists of a basin where the rod is submerged into the water. Let 2h .35. β = − 6 · 1010 N/m2 . a device to produce the initial shock wave. The first exposure of the hologram is carried out to obtain the hologram of undisturbed wave guide. The carrier fringes on interferograms. in a wave guide made of material highly absorbing linear elastic waves. 3. only elastic materials. a holographic interferometer for the recording of a wave pattern.8 · 103 m/sec. a longitudinal density wave in solids. obtained due to the reconstruction of doubly exposed holograms. that are transparent for the given light wave length.3. a synchronizer and a laser radiation energy meter. in general. in fact. c∗ = 1. The longitudinal strain wave patterns are recorded at various distances from the input edge of the rod. Typical interferogram is shown in Fig . However. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 76 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids recording method allows to study. The solitary wave amplitude can be calculated using the interferometry fringe shift ∆K measured in the interference pattern.5. Based on the results of the analysis presented above the transparent polystyrene SD-3 has been chosen as an appropriate material for a wave guide manufacturing. The second exposure is produced by a laser pulse synchronized with the prescribed stage of the wave propagation. Note that the interferometric pattern does not exhibit a standard bell-shaped image of a shallow water solitary wave since the strain solitary wave is. see Frantsevich et. occur due to the wedge turn between the exposures.

23) Here n0 . is caused by the laser light propagation along the distance q − 2h through the water and the distance 2h through the rod ( where q is the distance between the cell walls) Samsonov et. al (1995)). 3. the distance. precisely.5 Experimental observation of longitudinal strain solitary wave in an elastic rod(after Dreiden et. the distance between two longitudinal cut-off. which light passes through the rod and water. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 77 Fig. As a result we obtain the formula for the magnitude of the light wave phase variation ∆φ2 : λ ∆φ2 .February 11.e. varies due to the deformation of the rod. Moreover. i. n1 are the refraction indices of water and the elastic material before deformation. 2π n0 (q − 2h − 2∆h) + n2 (2h + 2∆h) = (3. be a distance passed by the recording light across the rod. al (1998): λ ∆φ1 .. After the deformation the refraction index value of the rod changes to n2 .24) . 2π n0 (q − 2h) + 2hn1 = (3. Before the deformation the phase variation ∆φ1 of the light wave having the length λ.

and as a result the following relationship is valid: ∆ρ = Ux (2ν − 1). that proves the wave that is measured propagates inside the rod. undisturbed.27) The amplitude is determined by the maximal fringe shift value. hence full quantitative comparison with the theory is impossible. the theory developed for an infinite cylindrical rod allows to predict an existence of solitary waves in a finite-length rod with vertical cuts. 2h[(n1 − 1)(1 − 2ν) + ν(n1 − n0 )] (3. As follows from (3. 149 mm long.25): Ux = − λ∆K .28) shows that the length L of the solitary pulse may be directly determined from the interferogram as the length of the fringe shift perturbation between two undisturbed areas. The unsteady process of the solitary wave generation cannot be accounted for the theory. The nonlinearity parameter β < 0 for polystyrene. see Lurie (1990).e. moreover. one can obtain the density variation from the solution of a static linear problem on uniaxial compression (or tension)..28) (3.25) The new value of the refraction index of the deformed rod n2 is caused by the local density variation: ∆ρ n2 − n1 = . Therefore. It is fairly long and keeps its shape on propagation. Derivation of the relationship (3. Unfortunately only the wave amplitude may be measured more or less precisely.26) On the other side. The propagation of a shock wave before the solitary wave . i.5 is indeed a longitudinal compression wave. 3.28) the wave shown under interferogram in Fig. 2π ∆K = (3.February 11. al (1995) we used a long polystyrene rod. ρ n1 − 1 (3. the interferometry fringe shift ∆K is defined as ∆φ2 − ∆φ1 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 78 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Evidently. ρ Then we get finally from (3. In our experiments Dreiden et. and we can anticipate the appearance of only compression solitary wave. in the water surrounding the rod the interference patterns remains horizontal. There is no any tensile wave around the observed wave.

it is necessary to apply an asymptotic technique. 3. The procedure developed in section 3. U = 0. A small parameter ε is chosen as ε = B = R2 /L2 << 1.February 11. (3. (3. δA = 0. If the rod end is assumed free. L for x. 3. vx = 0. the elementary work of external forces at the end of the rod.5 Reflection of solitary wave from the edge of the rod Following Dreiden et.29) variation principle since external forces are not necessary potential ones. al (2001) let us consider a semi-infinite homogeneous rod. while on the rod end.32) (3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 79 contradicts numerical results shown in Fig.29) The Lagrangian density per unit volume. is defined as before. . According to Lurie (1990) we cannot call Eq. L/c0 for t. Ut = 0. L=K − Π. t1 X R t1 δ t0 dt 2π −∞ dx 0 r Ldr + t0 δA dt = 0. vxx = 0.29) yields v = 0.(3. and B/L for v. but obvious kinematic reasons require zero displacement and its velocity. x = X.2 may be applied but now the elementary work done by the external forces should be included into the Hamilton principle. they depend upon the type of clamping. Very recently they were generated also in a plexiglas rod Samsonov et. is zero.2. and Eq. −∞ < x < X. reducing DDE to a nondimensional form. For a long time solitary waves were observed only in a wave guide made of polystyrene. Introducing the scales. where c0 = E/ρ0 is the so-called rod velocity.30) When the end is clamped. x = X.31) Since DDE does not possess an exact solution describing interacting waves moving in opposite directions. Use of the Hamilton principle yields the DDE (3. the elementary work is not determined. al (2003). that may be rewritten in terms of strains.18) as a governing equation for longitudinal waves together with the boundary conditions requiring zero values for v and its derivatives as x → −∞. (3. vxt = 0. to balance nonlinearity and dispersion. and the integration with respect to x is carried out over −∞ < x < X. (3.

on a slow time τ = εt. 2E 2 β 2 ν2 (v02 )ψ + v02. in addition to x.32) on the clamped end are satisfied if x02 = 2X −x01 .ψτ + β 2 2 (v01 )θθ + 2v01.θθθθ + v02. τ ) + v02 (ψ. It follows from (3. 2v1. one cannot satisfy boundary conditions (3. (3. τ ) + v12 (ψ.37) and the bounded solution of Eq. .38) Substituting the soliton solutions of the KdV equations (see Chapter 1) into the leading order solution (3.34) where θ = x + t. τ ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 80 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Assume the asymptotic solution v depends.30) at a free end of . At order ε there is a linear equation for v1 . The solution is sought in power series in ε: v = v0 + εv1 + . E (3.ψψψψ ) 2 The absence of secular terms leads to two uncoupled KdV equations for the functions v01 and v02 .33) Substituting (3. and equating the terms with the same power of ε we obtain the D’Alembert solution for v0 : v0 = v01 (θ. ψ = x − t. 2E 2 (3. Both conditions (3.33) into dimensionless DDE.36) 2v02.ψ + (v02 )ψψ + 2E (3.February 11. (3.39) that the type of the strain wave depends upon the sign of β like in previous section. we obtain v0 = 6Eν 2 2 k [cosh−2 k[x + (1 + εν 2 k 2 )t − x01 + β cosh−2 k[x − (1 + εν 2 k 2 )t − x02 ] ].ψψψ = 0.θθθ = 0. (3. .θτ − 2v02.35) ν2 (v01.θ v02. t.τ + (3. 2v01.θψ = 2v01. (3. In this case reflection of the solitary wave occurs with no change of its shape.35) is v1 = β v01 v02 + v11 (θ. τ ).τ − β 2 ν2 (v01 )θ − v01.34).39) where x01 are the constant phase shifts. On the contrary. .

5 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 Fig.5 -0.5 0.5 0. so that the area of calculation would occupy the interval 0 < x < 2X.3. Initial pulses are assumed to be the equal magnitude KdV . 2. It means that the reflected solitary wave does not propagate but disappears due to dispersion. It may be clearly seen from numerical simulation of the reflection Dreiden et.5 0. Again the implicit finite-difference scheme explained in Sec.2.5 0. al (2001).5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0. is used.5 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.February 11.5 -0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 81 0.5 -0. In case of free end of the rod the sign of β in the interval X < x < 2X is chosen opposite to that used in the interval 0 < x < X.5 -0. 3.5 0. Implementation of the boundary conditions at the end of the rod is effected by means of symmetric continuation of the calculation area beyond the real rod end.5 -0.6 Reflection of the solitary wave from a free end of the rod.5 0. the rod.

The type of an initial solitary wave depends upon the sign of β. In particular. Initial velocities of the solitary waves are chosen equal and taken to be directed towards each other. 3.7 Reflection of the solitary wave from a fixed end of the rod. while in the interval 0 < x < 2X we impose the same tensile solitary wave for the clamped end or the compression solitary wave for the free end.25 5 0. solitons located centrally symmetric relative to the genuine end x = X.5 0.February 11.5 0.25 5 0. The reflection from the free end is shown in Fig. It is seen that the amplitude of the solitary wave propagating from left to right decreases as it reaches . 3.25 5 0.25 5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0. if β > 0 the initial solitary wave in the interval 0 < x < X is a tensile wave.5 0.5 0.5 0. The right-hand side of the figure corresponds to the free end.25 5 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 Fig.5 0.25 5 0.25 5 0.6.25 5 0.25 5 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 82 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 0.5 0.25 5 0.

In agreement with the theory the amplitude of the solitary wave is seen to be nearly twice as large when it reaches the end of the rod. 3. The reflected wave has the same amplitude and velocity as the incident one. Keeping its . then the wave is dispersed. its amplitude grows. and no localized strain wave is observed near the input end of the rod. first. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 83 Fig.February 11. 3.8 Observation of a reflection of the solitary wave from a free end of the rod. The reflected wave is of opposite.7. the end of the rod. In case of the clamped end numerical results are shown in Fig.

It was found in experiments the absence of any reflected localized waves .7. Footnotes in Fig. Shown in Fig. al (2001) using the same technique as for the study of the solitary wave propagation. shape.8 is the reflection from the free end. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 84 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Fig. 3. 3. 3.9 Reflection of the solitary wave from a clamped end of the rod. the reflected wave propagates towards the input end of the rod.8(a). cf. 3. with the first and the fifth stages in Fig.8(b) demonstrate the decrease of the amplitude of the initially generated compression localized wave shown in Fig. 3. 3.February 11. Experimental observation of the solitary strain wave reflection were carried out in Dreiden et.8(a) and Fig.

10 demonstrate the reflection of the strain solitary wave from the rod end attached to the right to a massive brass plate.10 Reflected wave comes back to the input end of the rod. cf. moving towards the input end of the rod. It is seen that the amplitude of the . It was found experimentally in Dreiden et.9.6. 3. The material of the plate is chosen so as to avoid penetration of the wave energy outside the rod. Figures 3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod 85 Fig. al (2001) that the acoustic resistance of the plate should be much greater than that of the material of the rod (polystyrene).February 11. Hence all observations verify theoretical predictions. 3. 3. with the last stage of Fig.

The wave observed in experiments demonstrates the main feature of the solitary waves to keep their shapes after collisions. Fig. is almost doubled by the fixed end of the rod. the last stages in Fig.10 shows the reflected solitary wave moving to the left at a distance of 140 mm from the fixed end. 3. 3. hence it confirms also the fact that the observed localized wave is indeed the strain solitary wave predicted by the theory.7.9(b)in an agreement with the first and the fifth stages in Fig.10). 3.10) from the fringe shift measured inside the rod (marked by A in Fig. Fig. Figure 3. It has the same amplitude and velocity as the incident one. 3.7.February 11. cf. 3.9(a). In order to see it is necessary to subtract the fringe shift outside the rod (marked by B in Fig. 3. . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 86 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids incident solitary wave.

ϕ). one can write the displacement vector V = (u. 0). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter 4 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx As we seen in the previous chapter. The simplest reason is the varying cross section of the rod. However. We call it an inhomogeneous rod in the following for convenience. Basic equations.1 Governing equation for longitudinal strain waves propagation Let us consider the wave propagation problem for an isotropic infinite nonlinearly elastic compressible rod with varying cross section.1 Longitudinal strain solitary wave amplification in a narrowing elastic rod The section is devoted to the theoretical and experimental description of the propagation and amplification of the strain solitary wave (soliton) in a cylindrical nonlinearly elastic rod with varying cross section. ϕ [0.February 11. r.1. the shape of the wave varies when the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is destroyed. describing the nonlinear wave propagation in the initial 87 . where x is the axis along the rod.1. We follow Samsonov et. w. 4. if torsions are neglected. Introducing the cylindrical Lagrangian coordinate system (x. 4. al (1998) where the results presented below were published for the first time. 0 ≤ r ≤ R(x) ≤ R0 . At the same time. 2π]. while the rod with permanent cross section will be called the homogeneous one. 4. the wave may still exist even in presence of an external medium or when a material of the rod is microstructured. see Fig. R0 − const. strain solitary wave propagates without change of the shape in an uniform rod with a free lateral surface.

configuration.7)-(3. B << 1. We are studying long nonlinear longitudinal strain waves (density waves).1 Free lateral surface cylindrical rod with varying cross section. The most important case occurs when both nonlinear and dispersive features are in balance and small enough: R0 L 2 ε = B = << 1. as well as sufficiently long waves with the length L.5). the relationships between longitudinal and transversal displacements u and w. To find them one needs to satisfy the boundary conditions on the free lateral rod surface r = R(x). where R0 is the maximal value of r(x) along the rod . the absence of both the normal and tangential stresses at every moment. 4. that allows to do some simplifications.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 88 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Fig. are obtained from the Hamilton variation principle (3. (4. namely.9). The unknown func- . so as the ratio R0 /L << 1. namely. taking into account that the waves under study should be elastic waves with sufficiently small magnitude B. We introduce the small parameter ε.1) The boundary conditions have the form (3.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 89 tions u.12).5) where β = 3E + 2l(1 − 2ν)3 + 4m(1 + ν)2 (1 − 2ν) + 6nν 2 becomes the only coefficient depending on the nonlinear elasticity of the rod.2.5) and calculating δS = 0. γ << 1. however. (3.3) into the formulas for K and Π. (4.2) 2 Ux .6) R ∂x 4 ∂x2 4 where c∗ is the so-called ”rod” wave velocity. 3. (4.6) on x. (3.3) Higher order terms may be obtained by the same way.13) with (4.7) . w are expanded in a power series (3.2.13). Substituting them into the boundary conditions and following the procedure explained in Sec.5). (4. one can find respectively: K = 1 2 ρ0 2 Ut2 + νr2 Ut Uxxt + νUxt 2 2 EUx + . Substituting (4.5) into (3. t) + r2 Uxx . they will be omitted here because of no influence on the final model equation for the longitudinal strain waves equation to be derived using the Hamilton principle (3. (4. one can obtain the following nonlinear equation: Utt − c2 ∂ 1 ∂ β 2 2 ν ∂ ν2 ∗ R2 Ux = 2 R Ux − (R4 Utt ) + R4 Uxtt R2 ∂x R ∂x 2ρ0 4 ∂x 2 1 ∂ νc2 ∂2 νR2 ∗ + 2 R4 Uxxx + R4 Ux − Uxxtt . ∗ Let us consider now the rod which cross section varies slowly along the x− axis.February 11. Substituting expansions (3. 3 x (4.12). 2 2(3 − 2ν) wN L = r ν(1 + ν) (1 − 2ν)(1 + ν) + l(1 − 2ν)2 + 2m(1 + ν) − nν 2 E (4. Introducing the notation: v = Ux . which is described by a function R = R(γx). 3.2). one can obtain ν ν2 uL = U (x. (4.4) Π = β 3 U + νEr2 Ux Uxxx . wL = −r νUx − r3 Uxxx .4). we obtain an equation ∂ 1 ∂ ∂x R2 ∂x βR2 2 (v ) + aR4 vτ τ − bR4 vxx − 4bR3 Rx vx 2E vτ τ − R2 v + = 0. τ = tc∗ and differentiating the equation (4. c2 = E/ρ0 .3. it coincides with that obtained in Sec. (4.

the wave is asymmetric like shown in Fig. 2E 0 whose solitary wave solution is Samsonov (2001): 3E α cosh−2 (k(X)[θ − θ0 (X)]) . while the last term. 1+α 4R2 [a(1 + α) − b] (4.θθ − A2 β 2 (v )θθ − R2 A4 (a − b)v0.8) Using the asymptotic method explained in Sec. . . as follows: θτ = − 1. . while A.9) into the equation (4. 1.11) Since the parameters of the solitary wave depends upon the slow coordinate.February 11.12) . 4. looks like a dissipative one. it occurs due to the cross section variation. and the two following terms are responsible for dispersive features of the rod.9) Substitution (4. k2 = .2. θx = A(X).18.2 Evolution of asymmetric strain solitary wave To describe the evolution of a travelling strain wave v we introduce the phase variable θ and the slow variable X ≡ γx. α > 0. b = −ν/2.7) is obtained in new variables in the power series in γ: v = v0 + γv1 + . being of the same order.10) depending upon the varying parameter α = α(X). (4.18) for v0 : (1 − A2 )v0.11) for most standard elastic materials (having the Poisson coefficient ν > 0) if the value of the function α is inside an interval : 0 < α < ν .θθθθ = 0. k are expressed through it: A2 = α(1 + α) 1 .1. (4. the solution of Eq.(4. a = −[ν(1 − ν)]/2. 1−ν (4. the third governs the nonlinearity. β v0 = (4.7) gives in leading order of γ the ODE reduction of the nonlinear double dispersive equation (3. Both A and k will be real in Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 90 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids with the dispersion terms coefficients a and b. (4. 2. Two first terms here describe a common linear wave.

the amplitude and the velocity of the solitary wave remain constant.θθθX ).43): ln R 2 α2 2kA3 + X 4bk 2 R2 A4 ln 2R4 α2 Ak 5 X = 0. see Fig.(4. a (1 − ν) 5(1 − ν) Taking the restrictions for α.15) is always positive.10) (compression or tensile one) is defined only by the sign of the nonlinear coefficient β.θθθ ) + 2E 0 2 β 2 ν−1 A(2v0.θθθθ = F. which depends on the elasticity of the rod material.February 11.θθθ ) + R E β 2 ν−1 AX (v0.(4. (4. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 91 Then the type of the strain wave (4.19.(4.12). Indeed an inmogeneous linear equation holds for v1 at order O(γ) (1 − A2 )v1. 4. into account. we conclude that the expansion in the brackets on the right.θX + (v0 )θX + νR2 [ + 2A2 ]v0.θθ − A2 where F = RX β 2 A(2v0. while the increase of the radius is accompanied by the decay of the amplitude. E 2 β (v1 v0 )θθ − R2 A4 (a − b)v1. However. Eq. E (4.θ + (v )θ + νR2 [ + 3A2 ]v0. respectively.θ + (v0 )θ + νR2 [3(ν − 1) + 5A2 ]v0. The solitary wave evolution in this case is similar to that shown in Fig. Let us study a distortion of the solitary strain wave due to the ”geometrical” inhomogeneity considered. When the radius no longer alters at X > X ∗ . there is no tendency to a finite value .15) √ b 1 2 ± 9 − 5ν D = = . D1.2 = . Therefore the unbounded growth of the amplitude of the solitary wave occurs with the radius decrease.1.11) is reduced to a nonlinear first order ODE for an amplitude variation RX = αX R where: 1 1 1 1 − − − . 6(1 − D + α) 2α 3(1 − D1 + α) 3(1 − D2 + α) (4.14) that after use of Eq.13) Then the equation for the amplitude α arises from the secular term absence condition (2. 1.hand side of Eq.

its front side becomes steeper while the back one becomes smoother.17) R shows that for the wave propagation along the narrowing rod (RX < 0) the extremum is achieved for θ − θ0 (X) > 0. (4. while the back one . Then the asymmetric solitary wave accelerates in the narrowing rod and decelerates in the expanding one in comparison with the same solitary wave moving along a uniform (homogeneous) rod. Direct integration of Eq. (4. The equation for the determination of an extremum of a derivative v0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 92 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids α∗ in the solutions of Eq.February 11. and the values of the wave parameters at X > X ∗ are not fixed by the equation coefficients.(4. al (1982). (4.3. (4. k 2 = α α . while in an expanding rod (RX > 0) .11).16): A = 1.x γ RX + [k(1 − γθ0. and the following approximations follow from Eqs.18) where e0 is the yield point of a material.15). see Sec. becomes smoother.X ) + γkX [θ − θ0 (X)]] tanh (k[θ − θ0 (X)]) = 0.19) . Hence this is not a selection of the solitary wave when any initial conditions provide one and the same solitary waves.(4.steeper.10).16) Routine analysis of the functions v0 . and v0. Eq.x shows that the distortion of the wave shape takes place apart from the amplitude variation. 1.16) may be easily simplified to describe the wave parameters variations. Therefore α will have to be small enough. moving along the expanding rod. and for most of elastic materials its value lies in the interval 10−4 −10−3 Frantsevich et.for an inverse sign. = 4R2 (a − b) α0 R0 R 2 . Vice versa. When the bell-shaped solitary wave propagates along the narrowing rod.15) yields R6 α3 ν + α(2ν − 6/5) − α2 (1 − ν) (1 − ν)[ν − α(1 − ν)] 2 = const.11). (4. the front side of the solitary wave. The exact formulas (4.(4. The range of the strain wave amplitude is restricted by a physical condition of the strain elasticity: | 1 + 2Cxx − 1 | < e0 . (4. (4. they are defined by the initial condition.

Based on this analysis. showed that a solitary wave appears even at the distance of 60 mm (ca. Experiments on the solitary wave generation in a homogeneous rod. secondly. Measurements of the solitary wave amplitude in a homogeneous rod resulted in an estimation of the parameter ε = O(10−3 ). Therefore the inhomogeneity parameter should be chosen as γ >> ε.10) with much less velocity Samsonov (2001). see Sec. 3. the experimental setup limitations should be taken into account. and the strain solitary wave will hardly appear from an initial shock. 3.2. we were going to observe a geometrical inhomogeneity influence just on the strain solitary wave.February 11.1. then the possible variation of the initial rod radius (R0 = 5 mm) at the distance 100 mm along the axis will be of order 0. 4. however. When γ >> ε the inhomogeneity will change the initial pulse earlier than both nonlinearity and dispersion. a rod of 140 mm long was made of polystyrene with uniform and narrowing parts. as is shown in Fig. The amplitude of the plateau is negative for the narrowing rod and positive when the wave propagates along the expanding rod.3.(4.4.1 mm or 2 % from the initial value. First. 4. In this case the inhomogeneity parameter γ = 0. Thus the rod cross section should remain constant at the distance required for the solitary wave generation and separation. It has to be noted. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 93 The most important feature of the solution of Eq. and begin vary only after it. The rod radius decreases linearly from the value R0 = 5 mm to the value R = 2.032 is .13) is in the appearance of a plateau. and two cut offs were made on the lateral surface for the observation purposes. 10 R0 ) approximately from the input edge of the rod. that an unsteady process takes place in experiments in contrast to the quasistationary process governed by the asymptotic solution obtained above. When the inhomogeneity parameter γ is chosen to be γ << ε. The choice of the rod cross sections variation is caused by two reasons. al (1995). propagating behind the solitary wave (4. So it seems hardly possible to detect such a deviation using our experimental setup.3 Experimental observation of the solitary wave amplification We used the same experimental technique as used for the study of the strain solitary wave propagation in a homogeneous rod.19) shows that such a magnitude corresponds to the oscillations of the observed solitary wave front Dreiden et. see Sec. The estimation of the amplitude change in this case by means of an approximation (4.75 mm along the distance 70 mm.

At the interval where the cross section remains uniform . Some features predicted by our theory appear in experiments. 4.3.125 mm interval. 4. the steepness .February 11. ν = 0.(3. 4. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 94 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Fig.6. al (1998). The shape of the strain wave was reconstructed by means of Eq.33.75 · 10−3 m. while the measured cross section for the tapered rod part as well as the inteferograms may be found in Samsonov et. The enlargement Fig. the increase of the amplitude. of the amplitude scale allows to visualize the main features of the solitary wave in the tapered rod. al (1995) for the homogeneous rod. Two graphs ”strain v vs. solitary pulse width L” are drawn after interpolation. n1 = 1.28) using the following values of parameters: n0 = 1. we have 2h = 2h0 = 7. Solid circles • and the dashed interpolative line both correspond to experimental data measured on a 40-60 mm interval of the rod length.2 Polysteryne rod with variable cross section and cut-offs. namely. much greater than the typical solitary wave amplitude ≈ 10−4 Dreiden et. Λ = 7 · 10−7 m. It must be taken into account that light passes the different distances 2h in different cross sections.35. open triangles and the solid interpolative line correspond to them on a 75 . see Fig.3 Amplification of longitudinal strain solitary wave.

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of the wave front and smoothness of its back, i.e., asymmetric deformation of the bell-shaped solitary wave. Moreover, the characteristic width of the pulse, L1 = 25, 2 mm, in the homogeneous part of the rod at the one-half amplitude level is visibly greater than the similar value, L2 = 22, 3 mm, in the narrowing part, hence the width of the localized strain solitary pulse decreases along the tapered rod. The measurement of the wave amplitude is supposed to be quite plausible for the comparison with the theory. One can see that the maximal amplitude of the strain solitary wave is achieved at the distances 60 and 95 mm from the rod input edge, respectively. Then from the estimation (3.28) we obtain the solitary wave magnitudes equal to 3.29 · 10−4 in the interval 40-90 mm, and to 3.83 · 10−4 for the interval 75-125 mm. Therefore the solitary wave magnitude increases 1.16 times. The estimation using the simplified formulas (4.19), and a length dependence of the kind R = R0 − γ(x − 70) gives the amplification as 1.31 times, which is in a good agreement with the experimental data. However, some new theoretical results cannot be checked in experiments, namely: -The experimental setup does not allow to measure directly the solitary wave acceleration caused by the narrowing cross section along the rod. -Like in case of the homogeneous rod, the precise measurement of the wave width is impossible. -There is no observation of a plateau.

4.2

Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod embedded in another elastic external medium with sliding

Stresses on the lateral surface of an elastic wave guide, e.g., an elastic rod, may appear due to its interaction with the surrounding external medium, as in some technological devices. Various types of contact models can be used at the interface between the rod and the external medium. The full (strong) contact model is used when there is continuity of both normal and shear stresses, and displacements. Alternatively, in a weak contact, friction may appear at the interface, hence a discontinuity in the shear stresses. Slippage provides another form of contact at the interface, in which only the continuity of the normal stresses and displacements is assumed. Surface stresses may also arise due to the imperfect manufacturing of the lateral surface of the wave guide and are formally like the ”surface tension” on the

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Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids

free surface of a liquid Biryukov et. al (1991), Nikolova (1977). The analytical solution of the contact problem is rather difficult even in the framework of the linear elasticity theory, see Kerr (1964) and references therein. However, considerable progress has been achieved to account for short nonlinear surface acoustic waves propagating along the interface between elastic media Parker (1994); Parker and Maugin (1987). Recently, in the studies of strain waves in a rod interacting with an elastic external medium, attention was mostly focused on the propagation ofsurface strain waves along the lateral rod surface perpendicular to its axis (see, e.g., Gulyaev and Polsikova (1978); Shevyakhov (1977)). Here, however, we shall consider bulk density strain waves, propagating along the rod axis. Although rather useful in the study of free lateral surface rods, the so- called plane cross section hypothesis and Love’s relationship fail to properly account for contact problems, because they rule out normal stresses at the rod lateral surface, hence there is discontinuity of normal stresses at the interface of the rod and the external medium. Most of the results in this section were first published in Porubov et. al (1998).

4.2.1

Formulation of the problem

Let us consider an isotropic, axially infinitely extended, elastic rod surrounded by another albeit different elastic medium, in which it may slide without friction, see Fig. 4.4. We shall consider the propagation of longitudinal strain waves of small but finite amplitude in the rod. Axi-symmetry leads to using cylindrical Lagrangian coordinates (x, r, ϕ), where x is the axis of the rod, ϕ [0, 2π], 0 ≤ r ≤ R. When torsions are neglected, the displacement vector is V = (u, w, 0). We choose Murnaghan’s approximation (3.1) for deformation energy for the rod. The displacement vector for the linearly elastic external medium may be written as V1 = (u1 , w1 , 0). Its density is noted by ρ1 , and its elastic properties are characterized by the Lam´ coefficients (λ1 , µ1 ). Any disturbances due to the wave prope agation inside the rod are transmitted to the external medium through displacements and stresses normal to the rod surface only when contact with slippage is considered. Disturbances are assumed to decay to zero in the external medium far from the rod. The normal strains as well as the displacements inside the rod are smaller than those along the rod axis. Thus we assume that displacements and strains are infinitesimal in the external medium, hence as already said it is a linear elastic one. Then for the

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Fig. 4.4

Cylindrical rod surrounded by an external elastic medium.

external medium we have: ρ1 u1,tt − (λ1 + 2µ1 ) u1,zz − (λ1 + µ1 ) w1,rz + λ1 w1,x r u1,r w1,x u1,rr + + w1,rx + r r − = 0 (4.20)

ρ1 w1,tt − (λ1 + 2µ1 ) w1,rr +

w1,r w1 − 2 − µ1 w1,xx − r r (λ1 + µ1 ) u1,rx = 0

(4.21)

The following boundary conditions (b.c.) are imposed: w → 0, w = w1 , Prr = σrr , at r → 0, at r = R, at r = R, (4.22) (4.23) (4.24)

February 11, 2004

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Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids

Prx = 0, σrx = 0,

at r = R,

(4.25)

u1 → 0, w1 → 0

at r → ∞.

(4.26)

where Prr , Prx denote the components of the Piola - Kirchhoff stress tensor P, see Eqs. (3.10), (3.11). The quantities σrr and σrz are the corresponding components of the linear stress tensor in the surrounding, external medium: σrr = (λ1 + 2µ1 ) w1,r + λ1 w1 + λ1 u1,x r (4.27)

σrx = µ1 (u1,r + w1,x )

(4.28)

The conditions (4.23)-(4.25) define the sliding contact, while the longitudinal displacements u and u1 are left free at the interface r = R. The Piola- Kirchhoff tensor coincides with the linear stress tensor for infinitesimally small strains. Note that the coefficients in Prr and Prx depend upon both the second order Lam´ coefficients λ and µ and the e Murnaghan moduli, l, m, n. Hence the tensor P takes into account both the geometrical and material nonlinearities. The linear equations (4.20) and (4.21) are solved together with the boundary conditions (4.23), (4.25), (4.26), assuming that the displacement w at the interface is a given function of x and t, hence w(x, t, R) ≡ W (x, t). Then the linear shear stress σrr at the interface r = R is obtained as a function of W and its derivatives, thus providing the dependence only on the rod characteristics in the right hand side of the b.c. (4.24). The same is valid for the elementary work done by external forces at r = R:

δA = 2π
−∞

σrr δw dx .

(4.29)

Satisfaction of the b.c. on the rod lateral surface yields the relationships between displacements and strains inside the rod, see Sec. 3.2, allowing to derive only one nonlinear equation for long longitudinal waves using Hamilton’s principle (3.29) with the Lagrangian density per unit volume, L=K − Π, with Π, K and δA defined by Eqs. (3.1), (3.6) and (4.29) correspondingly.

23). respectively. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 99 4. (4. r cl 1 1 c2 Ψrr + Ψr − 2 Ψ + (1 − 2 ) Ψθθ = 0. (4.c. (4. (4. (4.34) with α = 1−c2 /c2 . vanishing at infinity due to b.we obtain the following relationships for the Fourier images of normal stresses at the lateral surface r = R : . r u1 = Φθ + Ψr + w1 = Φr − Ψθ . They depend on the density and the Lam´ coefficients. Assuming that the unknown functions u1 .25). r r cτ (4. where c is the phase velocity of the wave.33) Ψrr + ∼ ∼ 1 ∼ 1 ∼ 2 Ψr − 2 Ψ −k β Ψ= 0. c2 = (λ1 + 2µ1 )/ρ1 .25). (4. (4.32) where cl and cτ are the velocities of the bulk longitudinal and shear linear waves in the external medium.2.32) to the Bessel equations : Φrr + ∼ ∼ 1 ∼ 2 Φr −k α Φ= 0.21) will be solved with the boundary conditions (4.26).32)we introduce the Fourier transforms of Φ and Ψ: Φ= −∞ ∼ ∞ Φ exp(−k θ) dθ. hence three possible sets of solutions to the equations (4.2 External stresses on the rod lateral surface First.February 11. Using the boundary conditions (4.26). (4. w1 are Ψ . and c2 = µ1 /ρ1 . (4. r (4.31). and β = 1−c2 /c2 . As we focus attention on travelling waves along the axis of the rod we assume that all variables depend only upon the phase variable θ = x − ct.20). r r (4. e τ l To solve equations (4. the linear problem (4.31).23).34) appear.33).31) (4. (4. The ratios between c.30) then Φ and Ψ satisfy the equation: 1 c2 Φrr + Φr + (1 − 2 )Φθθ = 0. cl and cτ define τ l the signs of α and β. Ψ= −∞ ∼ ∞ Ψ exp(−k θ) dθ that reduces Eqs.

37) where Ji and Ki (i = 0. Note that the dependence of the strain wave behavior on the velocities of bulk linear waves. for acoustic transverse Love waves propagating in an elastic layer superimposed on an elastic half-space Jeffrey and Engelbrecht(1994). namely.February 11. 1) denote the corresponding Bessel functions. Parker and Maugin (1987). and a long wavelength relative to the rod radius R. is known. An interesting case appears when there is balance between (weak) nonlinearity and (weak) dispersion as for . L scales the wavelength along the rod. cl .(4. We shall see in the next section that in the long wave limit the normal stress σrr has one and the same functional form at the lateral surface of the rod in all three cases (4. using conditions on the free lateral surface r = R.37).3 Derivation of strain-displacement relationships inside the rod To solve the nonlinear problem inside the elastic rod. we have to simplify the relationships between longitudinal and shear displacements u and w following the procedure explained in Sec.2. 3.35) < c < cl √ √ √ 2(β − 1) k(1 + β)2 K0 ( αkR) 4k βJ0 ( −βkR) √ √ √ + − R α K1 ( αkR) J1 ( −βkR) (4.36) III) when c > cl µ1 W 1−β ∼ √ √ √ 2(β − 1) k(1 + β)2 J0 ( −αkR) 4k βJ0 ( −βkR) √ √ + √ − R −α J1 ( −αkR) J1 ( −βkR) (4. We search for elastic strain waves with sufficiently small magnitude B << 1. This depends on the monotonic decay of Ki and the oscillatory decay of Ji when R → ∞. R / L << 1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 100 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids I) when 0 < c < cτ : ∼ σ rr = µ1 W 1−β ∼ II) when cτ ∼ σ rr = √ √ √ 2(β − 1) k(1 + β)2 K0 ( αkR) 4k βK0 ( βkR) √ √ √ + − R α K1 ( αkR) K1 ( βkR) (4. in particular. These relationships are obtained. ∼ σ rr = µ1 W 1−β ∼ 4. the simultaneous absence of the tangential stresses and the continuity of the normal ones. The main difference in the stress (and strain) fields in the external medium is how they vanish at infinity. cτ .35).2.

The linear part of longitudinal strain along the rod axis. Cxx .5(2λ + 2m − n) ur w + (λ + 2µ + m) ux ur ) + ε2 (0. (4. 2 (c2 − c2 ) cτ l 4c2 τ (4. (4.February 11.43) with γ = 0.39) 2 (λ + 2µ) wr + (λ − k1 ) w + λ ux + µ ur + ε(µ wx + (λ + 2µ + m) ur wr + 0.37). Then with |kR| << 1 in (4. Then ε = B = R L 2 << 1.40) At the rod lateral surface W ≡ w. We use the scale B R for the displacement w.41) and for c > cl : k1 = 2µ1 [c2 (c2 − c2 ) + 3c2 c2 − 4c4 ] µ1 c2 τ τ l l τ . Wxx ≡ wxx . is wr . is ux . Crr . the linear part of transverse strain. k2 = . for 0 < c < cτ : k1 = − 2µ1 .5(2m − n) w wx + (µ + m) (wx wr + ux wx )) = O(ε3 ) (4. c2 τ (4. by choosing R as a length scale along the rod radius. (4. k2 = while for cτ < c < cl : k1 = 2µ1 (4c2 − c2 ) µ1 c2 τ τ . we have a power series expansion in kR. one gets B L as a scale for the displacement u.(4. Moreover.38) is the smallness parameter of the problem.35) . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 101 a rod with free lateral surface. Then choosing L as a scale along x. k2 = c2 c2 1− c2 c2 + (2 − 2 )2 (γ − log 2) .5772157 Euler’s constant. . It allows to obtain analytically an inverse Fourier transform for σrr = k1 r2 w + k2 r−1 wxx and to write the conditions (4.42) µ1 c2 (γ − log 2) . Similarly. c2 cτ τ (4.24).25) in dimensionless form at the lateral surface r = 1 as: λ + 2µ + m 2 ur + 2 3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m 2 λ + 2l 2 ε( wr + (λ + 2l) w wr + w + (λ + 2l) ux wr + 2 2 λ + 2l 2 ux − k2 wxx ) + (2l − 2m + n) ux w + (µ + m) ur wx + 2 λ + 2µ + m 2 ε2 wx = O(ε3 ).

45) Q= λ + 2l + 2C(λ + 4l − 2m + n) + 2C 2 (3λ + 3µ + 4l + 2m) 2(k1 − 2(λ + µ)) (4.39). w0 = r C Ux . t). .4 Nonlinear evolution equation for longitudinal strain waves along the rod and its solution Now we can derive the equation for the strain waves along the rod. 2 (4. k1 − 2(λ + µ) (4.44) Substituting (4. .44) into the potential deformation energy density Π (3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 102 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids The unknown functions u.40).46) (4. 4.February 11.48) C 2 Uxx . (4. w will be found in power series of ε: u = u0 + εu1 + ε2 u2 + . substituting (4. . w1 = r3 D Uxxx + r Q Ux . w = w0 + εw1 + ε2 w2 + .44) in (4. we find that the plane cross-section hypothesis and Love’s relation are valid in the leading order only: u0 = U (x. First of all. .44) may be obtained in a similar way.50) with a1 = λ + 2µ + 2λC + 2(λ + µ)C 2 .49) The higher order terms in the series (4.2. one can get in dimensionless form that 2 3 Π = a1 Ux + ε a2 r2 Ux Uxxx + a3 Ux + O(ε2 ). .1). and equating to zero all terms of the same order of ε. . (4. 2 .47) λ . but are omitted here being unnecessary to obtain an evolution equation for the strain waves. with C= To order O(ε) we get: u1 = − r2 with coefficients D= λ(λ + 2k2 ) 2(k1 − 2(λ + µ))(2(2λ + 3µ) − k1 ) (4. (4.

due to (4.February 11.41).55) (4. Then the solitary wave solution has the form: v = A m2 cosh−2 (m θ) . and consider the coefficients 0 b2 − b4 depending on c0 only.29) and using Hamilton’s variational principle. Note that the coefficients depend now upon the wave velocity.51) Substituting (4. v = Ux : vtt − b1 vxx − ε b2 vxxtt + b3 vxxxx + b4 (v 2 )xx = 0.53) Equation (4. b4 = . The terms of order O(ε2 ) have been neglected. with A= 6(b10 b2 + b3 ) . c. we obtain the following equation for a longitudinal strain wave. in particular.52). b2 = .54) To leading order the phase velocity is obtained from the equation c2 = b10 (c0 ).50).(4. exact travelling solitary wave solution. when deriving equation (4.56) . 0 (4..52) is nothing but the double dispersive equation (3. with 2(a1 − k1 C 2 ) C(1 + C) .. (4. ρ0 ρ0 b1 = (4. while the coefficient b1 may depend also on c1 as b1 = b10 (c0 ) + ε b11 (c0 . it admits.29) into (3.52) (4. 3 3 3 3 ρ0 2 Ut2 − ε r2 C(Ut Uxxt − CUxt ) + O(ε2 ) 2 For the kinetic energy we have: K= (4. b4 (4.18).43). Therefore we assume c2 = c2 + ε c1 + . 2 a3 = λ + 2µ + λ C + λ C 2 + 2(λ + µ)C 3 + 2Q [λ + 2(λ + µ)C] + 2 1 8 2 4 l + 2C + 4C 2 + C 3 + m − 2C 2 + C 3 + n C 2 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 103 a2 = − λ + 2µ C − λ C 2 + 4λ D + 8(λ + µ) C D.51) and (4. ρ0 2 a2 − 2C(k2 C + 2 k1 D) 3(a3 − k1 C Q) b3 = . c1 ).

43).33 2.13 2. II I. A2 = . rather than for c.68 3.43 6. Eq.78 3.11 or 4.45 4. 4. First of all.58) It appears always higher than the wave velocity in a free rod.08 1.43).09 cl 6.February 11. ρ0 (λ + µ + µ1) ρ0 (λ + µ + µ1) (4.12 2.75 − c03 2. the velocity c0 is obtained from (4.56) provides c4 − B1 c2 + B2 = 0 0 0 (4.12 3.(4.42).59) Finally.56) for all three possible cases (4.1 Phase velocities of waves in a polystyrene rod embedded indifferent media.83 or or or or or or 5.97 2. For the case (4.02 5.11 or 5.11 or 4.41).06 model I I I.41 c01 2. m All velocities are measured in 10−3 sec material Quartz Iron Copper Brass Aluminium Lead cτ 3.15 2. where the wave number k remains a free parameter.01 c02 2. As ε must not exceed the yield point of the elastic material (its usual value is less than 10−3 ) we have to compare with cl and cτ the values obtained for c0 . we have to solve Eq.13 1.56) yields c4 − A1 c2 + A2 = 0 0 0 where A1 = 4µ1 c2 (λ + 2µ) (3λ + 2µ)µ + µ1 (λ + 2µ) + 4µ1 ρ0 c2 τ τ .12 2.2.57) Let us estimate the influence of the external medium on the solitary wave propagation along the rod.7 4. (4.23 2. II I. For the model (4.32 2. (4.08 2.06 2.57) as c2 = 0 (3λ + 2µ)µ + µ1 (λ + 2µ) .26 2.15 3. for the model (4.41) -(4.5 Influence of the external medium on the propagation of the strain solitary wave along the rod (4. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 104 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Table 4.1 or 6.1 or 7.07 2.26 2.60) .06 2.85 4.11 2. ρ0 (λ + µ + µ1) (4.05 2. Eq.02 2.77 5. II - and for the function c1 we get the equation c1 = b11 + 4k 2 (b10 b2 + b3 ).

simultaneously. Indeed.2. Then. respectively.06 model I.06 2.55 or 4.59) and (4.83 c02 2.2 for a lead rod. The . an important difference appears relative to long nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in Cartesian coordinates: in our case more than one velocity interval exists where solitary waves may propagate. This result is of importance when generating strain solitary waves in a rod embedded in an external elastic medium. a solitary wave may propagate along a lead rod embedded in a polystyrene external medium. Comparing velocities c0i relative to cτ and cl we can justify the applicability of cases (4. for which two or even all three models of sliding contact allow a solitary wave propagation.2 2.73 or4.12 3. II I I I II.11 2.2.43).39 2. However. strain solitary waves can propagate only with velocities from the intervals around c0i . Thus the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion may be achieved at different phase velocities of the strain nonlinear waves.1 and 4. respectively. as it follows from Table 4. Note that the solitary wave is a bulk (density) wave inside the rod and.41) is better for the contact with a polystyrene rod. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 105 Table 4. m All velocities are measured in 10−3 sec material Quartz Iron Copper Brass Aluminium Polystyrene cτ 3.43 6. This is noted by symbols I-III. in the last column of Tables 4.60).1 contains some quantitative estimates for a polystyrene rod and Table 4.85 4.51 2.38 or 1.23 2.7 4.2 Phase velocities of waves in a lead rod embedded in differentexternal media. respectively. both embedded in different external media.(4.08 1.08 2. ρ0 (c2 µ1 − c2 (λ + µ + µ1 )) τ l Table 4. while no solitary wave may propagate when the external medium is lead.81 − − − 1. (4.1 c01 2.February 11.02 5. c02 and c03 denote velocities calculated from Eqs. it is a surface wave for the external medium. Note that there exist pairs of materials.47 or 4. III with B1 = (3λ + 2µ)µc2 + (c2 − c2 )µ1 (λ + 2µ) + 4µ1 ρ0 c4 + c2 c2 ρ0 (λ + µ − 3µ1 ) τ τ τ τ l l ρ0 (c2 µ1 − c2 (λ + µ + µ1 )) τ l B2 = c2 c2 [3µ1 (λ + 2µ) − µ(3λ + 2µ)] − 4µ1 c4 (λ + 2µ) τ l τ .(4. The quantities c01 .III I.01 cl 6.81 c03 7. the model (4.26 2.84 or 2.91 − − − 0. Therefore.26 2.58).41).78 3.II.03 1.

For case I. Thus.57). in a polystyrene rod embedded in external medium is higher than the linear wave velocity for a rod with free lateral surface. Then the nonlinear strain wave propagation is described in each part by its own equation (4. However. 3.2. hence the sign is defined by the sign of the quantity (b10 b2 + b3 )/b4 . 4. 4.52). the nonlinear wave velocity.1 to compute the value of A (4. copper or iron. and initial compression pulses are destroyed like in Fig. the velocity. Therefore the solitary wave (strain!) amplitude (4. On the other hand.February 11. let us consider the influence on the sign of c1 (4. b11 = 0. Matching . quartz. c. The amplitude is negative for a free lateral surface rod and it remains negative if the external medium is. while for a free lateral surface it is positive.54) may change its sign. brass. Now let us consider the influence of the type of external medium on the existence of either compression or tensile longitudinal strain localized waves. c. Using the data from Table 4. in particular. 3. while for a free surface rod nonlinear waves propagate faster than linear waves.5.1. Finally. c0 . that for a rod embedded in aluminium an initial pulse with velocity close to c02 may transform only into a tensile solitary wave while an initial pulse with velocity close to c01 evolves to become a compression solitary wave.2. For polystyrene it is. c∗ = E/ρ0 . Therefore. the sign changes if c0 = c02 and the external medium is aluminium. it yields that its sign may change according to the values of the parameters of the material used for the external medium. as it is shown in Fig. for A > 0 only tensile strain solitary waves may appear. Let us consider now the case when the rod lateral surface is partly free along the axis and the other part is subjected to a sliding contact with an external elastic medium. 3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 106 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids main difference between modes lies in the different rate of wave decay in the external medium.54) or a wave train. generally. that follows from the different behavior of Bessel’s functions at large values of their arguments. while tensile initial pulses do not become localized and are destroyed by dispersion. of a nonlinear wave in a rod embedded in an external medium is lower than the linear wave velocity. one can anticipate.55) for a polystyrene rod.6 Numerical simulation of unsteady strain wave propagation Numerical simulation of unsteady nonlinear wave processes in elastic rods with free lateral surface shows that for A < 0 only initial compression pulses provide a solitary wave (4. see Figs. negative for all the external media in Table 4. say. On the contrary.4.3 .

5 Cylindrical rod partly embedded into an external elastic medium with sliding. an initial strain solitary wave will be destroyed in the embedded part. if sgnA2 differs from sgnA1 .54) moves from left to right in Fig.5 far from the embedded part.2. Let the initial solitary wave (4. When the initial pulse is . 4.(4.February 11. Assume that for the free surface part ( k1 = 0. while for the embedded one. see Sec.52).62) The wave evolution along the embedded part. (4. Similar to the unsteady processes inside a rod with the free lateral surface. 4. is provided by the continuity of strains and its derivatives. k2 = 0) A = A1 . which is supposed to be undeformed at the initial time. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 107 Fig. Otherwise another solitary wave or a wave train will appear.54) and (4. depends on the ratio between A1 and A2 . m = m1 . A = A2 .61) is satisfied by equation (4. It was found in Samsonov (1988) that the mass M conservation in the form d M = 0. 3.55) we get for the mass M1 M1 = 2 A1 m1 . m = m2 . M = dt ∞ v dx −∞ (4. Then using Eqs.

(4.2. hence M2 = 2 A2 m2 . 3. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 108 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Fig. that only one new solitary wave appears but there is an oscillatory decaying tail. the contribution of the tail to the mass M is negligibly small relative to the solitary wave contribution. not massive enough one can see in Fig. However. 4.6 Amplification and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave.February 11.63) .

hence there is focusing of the solitary wave. when A2 > A1 attenuation of the solitary wave .64) Fig. Therefore. according to Eq. On the contrary. if A2 < A1 the amplitude of the solitary wave increases while its width.(4. 4.February 11.7 Attenuation and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave. proportional to m−1 .61) it follows A1 m1 = A2 m2 . (4. decreases. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 109 Comparing M1 and M2 .

8 Delocalization and reconstruction of a strain solitary wave.6 the evolution of a strain tensile solitary wave is shown in a rod. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical estimates. 4. A1 > A2 > 0. 4. The value of A in the central part II. A2 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 110 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids is provided by the simultaneous decrease of the amplitude and the increase of the wave width. Fig. In the . is positive but smaller than the value of A1 in the surrounding free lateral surface parts I and III. In Fig. having a central part embedded in an external medium.February 11.

is . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 111 embedded part II (Fig. Fig. 4. A2 > 0 and |A1 | < A2 .d). When A2 > A1 > 0. and finally recovers its initial shape in Fig. In our case the deformations of the wave front and rear are equal.8(a).8(c). Hence.6(c. 4. Fig. One can see in Fig.9 how an initially localized rectangular tensile pulse. Moreover. However. the solitary wave does not loose mass. Therefore an increase in amplitude of the elastic strain solitary wave is possible even in an uniformly elastic rod. 4. hence the possible appearance of cracks or plasticity zones. Again both the reconstruction of the initial wave profile and the damping of its tail are observed in the third part of a rod with free lateral surface. a strain wave is localized again in the third part of a rod with free lateral surface.d).8(b). part III . 4.9.8 how an initial tensile solitary wave.6(d) is less pronounced than the tail in Fig.7(c. the amplitude of the solitary wave generated in such a manner.6(b)) the solitary wave amplitude exceeds the amplitude of the initial solitary wave in Fig. while its width becomes narrower than that of the initial wave.4.9(a). an initial tensile strain solitary wave. may be greater than the magnitude of the initial pulse. Again damping of the tail behind the solitary wave is observed.7(a). Moreover. Again there is no solitary wave selection since the parameters of the recovered wave depends upon that of the original one. is drastically attenuated as soon as it enters the embedded area. M . in agreement with (4. Accordingly. One can see that an oscillatory tail of the solitary wave in Fig. in agreement with our previous results on the unsteady processes occurring for a free surface rod.February 11. 4. 4. is destroyed in the embedded part II. 4. and its amplitude decreases while its width becomes larger. Fig. 4. both compression and tensile initial pulses may produce localized strain solitary waves in a rod partly embedded in an external elastic medium with sliding. This may overtake the yield point inside the elastically deformed rod. 4. Fig. In the case treated here. part III in Fig.7(b). 4. This case is shown in Figs. Consider now the case of different signs of Ai and assume that A1 > 0 on both free surface parts. 4. a plateau develops in the tail of the solitary wave in geometrically inhomogeneous rod. 4. hence its original shape is recovered when traversing part III in Fig.6(a).64). the solitary wave remains symmetric on amplification at variance with the strain solitary wave amplification in a rod with diminishing cross section. Fig. One can see in Fig. Fig. 4.8(d). These differences could be caused by the absence of mass (and energy) conservation for strain solitary waves in a narrowing (expanding) rod. 4. 4. 4.6(c).10 where A1 < 0.

9(a).February 11. The elastic properties of the rod are chosen such that tensile wave propagation cannot occur in the absence of contact with an external medium. Figs. However. Fig.d). a wave train of solitary waves appears.9(c.9(b). The amplitude of the first solitary wave in Fig. when a destroyed strain wave comes to the embedded part. 4. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 112 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Fig.4.9(d) exceeds the magnitude of the initial rectangular pulse in Fig. 4.9 Generation of a tensile strain solitary wave train in a rod. In the absence of surrounding external medium this rod wave-guide does not . destroyed in the free surface part I. 4. 4.

10. .10 Delocalization of a strain solitary wave in the absence of external medium. 4.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 113 Fig. 4. support tensile solitary wave propagation. and a strain wave is delocalized as shown in Fig.

3. 4.1 Modelling of non-dissipative elastic medium with microstructure The theory of microstructure has been developed recently. Savin et. Nowacki (1975). Eringen (1968). now consideration is restricted by the non-dissipative case. Nowacki (1975). only a few experiments may be mentioned. however. Erbay et. The influence of the microstructure on the solitary wave propagation and amplification is studied. see Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Recall some basic ideas following Eringen (1968). The problem is solved using the ”pseudo-continuum” Cosserat model and the Le Roux continuum model. it will be studied in Chapter 6. Savin et. At any time the position of a material point of the αth microelement may be . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 114 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 4. al (1973b). A procedure is developed for derivation of the model equation for long longitudinal strain waves inside the rod. Mindlin (1964).3 Strain solitary waves in an elastic rod with microstructure Classic elastic theory cannot account for phenomena caused by the microstructure of a material. Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Nowacki (1986a) and references therein. al (1973b). al (1991). there are findings in the field of the nonlinear theory Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Most of results belong to the linear theory of elasticity. Also the values of the parameters characterizing microstructure. Maugin and Muschik (1994). Waves in elastic wave guides with microstructure were out of considerable investigation. Only a few works are devoted to the nonlinear waves in microstructured non-dissipative media Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). A particular case is a dispersion of strain waves in an elastic medium. Eringen (1968). Potapov and Rodyushkin (2001). Erofeev and Potapov (1993). Strain waves were studied mainly in the linear approximation Eringen (1968). Savin et. al (1973a). The influence of microstructure may provide dissipative effects Cermelli and Pastrone (1997). Mindlin (1964). Erofeev (2002). are unknown as a rule. Suppose the macroelement of an elastic body contains discrete micromaterial elements. Nowacki (1986a).February 11. The present section refers to the study of nonlinear solitary waves inside cylindrical rod with microstructure following Porubov (2000).

Tensor of the second rank EKL accounts for the microelements motion relative to the center of mass of the macroelement. where Ξ(α) characterizes initial position of a point relative to the center of mass. U(X.K ΦM L .K χkM.K xk. where CKL is the Cauchy-Green macrostrain tensor .K )δkL .K χkL − δKL + χkL χkM ΞM ) dXK dΞL + χkK χkL dΞK dΞL .K + UM. where x is the position vector of the center of mass of the macroelement. The motion of the center of mass depends upon the initial position X and time t. ξ (α) = χK (X. x = x(X.L ΞM ΞN )dXK dXL + 2 (xk.M + UN. EKL is the tensor of a reference distortion.K UM. while tensor of the third rank ΓKLM characterizes relative motion of the microelements of one another. t).L − δKL + 2xk.February 11. Φ(X. ΓKLM = ΦKL. Then the square of the arc length is (ds(α) )2 = dx(α) dx(α) . and the difference between the squares of arc length in the deformed and undeformed body is (ds(α) )2 − (dS (α) )2 = (xk. 2 = ΦKL + UL. while for ξ (α) the axiom of affine motion is assumed. ΓKLM is the tensor of microdistortion.M .L ) .65). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 115 expressed as x(α) = x + ξ (α) .K = (δLK + UL.65) (α) where δKL is the Kronecker delta. t). CKL = EKL 1 (UK. xk.L + UL.K χkN.K + UM.L ΞM + χkM. χkK = (δLK + ΦLK )δkL Then three tensors characterizing the behavior of microstructured medium follow from (4. (4. t) ΞK . Let us introduce vector of macrodisplacements. t) and tensor of microdisplacements.K ΦN L. . ξ (α) is the position of a point in the microelement relative to the center of mass.

more precisely upon the invariants of them.67) accounts for the pseudo-continuum Cosserat model when micro-rotation vector Φ coincides with the macrorotation vector.67) where εKLM is the alternating tensor. n) are the third order elastic e moduli.K ΦL. Savin et. JKN is the inertia tensor. That is why the models were developed based on the additional assumption on a relationship between U and Φ. 2.K + βΦK. Nowacki (1986a). 2 and only linear part of EKL coincides with those of CKL .L + 2 3 ηΦK. Ip . ΦM = 1 εM LK UK. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 116 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids The density of the potential energy Π should be the function of these tensors. Savin et. and the Murnaghan model is valid for the macro-motion. The bulk density of the kinetic energy has the form Mindlin (1964) K= 1 2 ρ0 UM.L − UM. Assume the microstructure is sufficiently weak to be considered in the linear approximation Nowacki (1975).K UL. Π = Π(CKL .L . ΓKLM ). (4.February 11.68) where λ and µ are the Lam´ coefficients. the basic invariants of the third and higher rank tensors have not been studied. or the Murnaghan moduli. Tensor EKL has the form EKL = 1 (UK. Nowacki (1986a). EKL . Elastic media with central symmetry posses simpler representation. 2 (4.K + UM.L ΦK.t + JKN ΦKM. (l. Moreover. see Eq. One of the main problem is to define integrity basis of three tensors CKL . One of them is the pseudocontinuum Cosserat model . M . In this case the density of the potential energy my be either Π = Π(CKL .t .M ) . 2 (4. m. Eringen and Suhubi (1964). . p = 1. 3 are the invariants of the tensor C. Then the density of the potential energy may be written as Π= l + 2m 3 λ + 2µ 2 I1 − 2µI2 + I1 − 2mI1 I2 + nI3 + 2µM 2 (ΦK. EKL . The first relationship represents the classic Cosserat model when only rotations of solid microelements are possible. ΓKLM Spencer (1971). al (1973b).L ΦL. The last expression in (4.L + UL. al (1973b). According to it ΦKL = −εKLM ΦM . η and β are the microstructure constants.2). ΓKLM ) or Π = Π(CKL .66) where ρ0 is macrodensity of the elastic material. ΦK.L ) Nowacki (1975).K UM. JKN = J ∗ δKN .L ).t ΦN M.(3.

KM .71) The governing equations together with the boundary conditions are obtained using the Hamilton variation principle (3. see Erofeev and Potapov (1993). Savin et. r is the coordinate along the rod radius. i = 1 − 5.2 Nonlinear waves in a rod with pseudo-continuum Cosserat microstructure Let us consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an isotropic cylindrical compressible nonlinearly elastic rod. When microstructure is weak and may be considered in the linear approximation the linear part of EKL is zero tensor. r. ΓKLM = −UL. ϕ [0. −∞ < x < ∞.x = wxx − urx . al (1973a). Mindlin (1964).70) 2 while nonzero components of the rotation tensor ΦK.3. 3. Crr = wr + (u2 + wr ). Sometimes it is referred to as the Le Roux continuum Erofeev (2002). where the Lagrangian .69) where ai .5). 0).L are Φϕ. In this case Π = Π(CKL . 2π]. Then nonzero components of the macrostrain tensor C are 1 1 w w2 2 2 Cxx = ux + (u2 + wx ). ϕ) where x is directed along the axis of the rod. 0 ≤ r ≤ R. (4. see Fig. Neglecting torsions the displacement vector is U = (u. Cϕϕ = + 2 . w. ΓKLM ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 117 Another simplified microstructure model was used by some authors. Assume again the Murnaghan model for the macro part of the energy density and use the linear Mindlin’s model Mindlin (1964) for its micro part one can obtain Π = λ + 2µ 2 l + 2m 3 I1 − 2µI2 + I1 − 2mI1 I2 + nI3 + a1 ΓKKM ΓM LL + 2 3 a2 ΓKLL ΓKM M + a3 ΓKKM ΓLLM + a4 Γ2 KLM + a5 ΓKLM ΓM LK . ϕ is a polar angle.1. It means that there is no difference between deformation of elastic microelement and elastic macrostructure. According to it ΦKL = −UL. Φϕ. (4. x r 2 2 r 2r 1 Crx = Cxr = (ur + wx + ux ur + wx wr ) . 4. (4. We take cylindrical Lagrangian coordinates (x. are the constant microstructure parameters.February 11.r = wxr − urr .K .

Prr = 0 . Then the procedure from Sec.72) (4. The following boundary conditions (b. Subsequent simplification is caused by the consideration of only long elastic waves with the ratio between the rod radius R and typical wavelength L is R/L 1. . The typical elastic strain magnitude B is also small.75) 2 w + 2r Prx = µ (ur + wx ) + (λ + 2µ + m) ur wr + (2λ + 2m − n) ur (λ + 2µ + m) ux ur + (µ + m) ux wx 1 ∗ J (urtt − wxtt )].73).13).74) where the components Prr .71) being taken into account: Prr = (λ + 2µ) wr + λ w λ + 2µ + m 2 w + λ ux + ur + (λ + 2l) wr + r 2 r λ + 2l w2 w + (λ + 2l) ux wr + (2l − 2m + n) ux + 2 r2 r λ + 2l 2 λ + 2µ + m 2 ux + wx + (µ + m) ur wx + 2 2 3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m 2 wr + 4µM 2 (urrx − wxxr ). Accordingly.c.76) Exception of torsions provides transformation of the initial 3D problem into a 2D one. at r = R.) are imposed: w → 0. on the lateral surface of the rod (4. B 1.72).73) (4.2.68). Prx of the modified Piola . (4.70) and (4. the longitudinal and shear displacement in dimensional form are sought in the form (3.February 11.2 is applied to find the relationships between displacement vector components satisfying b.(4.12). 2 w 2m − n wx + (µ + m) wx wr + 2 r 1 2 + 4µM [wxxx − uxxr + (r(wxr − urr ))r − r (4. An additional parameter γ = M 2 /R2 is introduced to characterize the microstructure contribution. at r → 0. (4.5) with (4. (4.74) as well as the condition for w (4. Prx = 0. at r = R. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 118 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids density per unit volume.Kirchhoff stress tensor P are defined from (3.66). (4.68) correspondingly.c.66) (4. (4. 3. L=K − Π. (3. with K and Π defined by Eqs.

(4. (4. 2ρ0 1 − 4γ Hence the microstructure affects only dispersion in Eq. < c2 1 − ν 1 − 4γ ∗ .74).79) where α1 = c2 = E/ρ0 .(4.13) into the b.73). (3. α3 = ν(1 − ν)R2 /2. 1< V2 1 1 + 4γ .13) for i > 3 may be found in the same way.77) w = −νrUx − ν [ν + 4γ(2 + ν)] r3 Uxxx − 2(3 − 2ν)(1 − 4γ) (1 − 2ν) ν 2 + l(1 − 2ν)2 + 2m(1 + ν) − nν rUx .72) and in the linear parts of b. (4.77) is v= 3E β V2 −1 c2 ∗ cosh−2 (k (x − V t)). (4. (4. E is the Young modulus. α4 = νER2 1 + 4γ . α2 = β/(2ρ0 ).80) where V is a free parameter while the wave number k is defined by k2 = ρ0 (V 2 − c2 ) ∗ 2νER2 1+4γ 1−4γ (1−ν)V 2 c2 ∗ − .5).(4. (4. The solitary wave solution of Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Amplification of strain waves in absence of external energy influx 119 Substituting the linear parts uL and wL (3. however. Using these results the nonlinear parts uN L .(3.81) Therefore the contribution of the microstructure results in the widening of the permitted solitary wave velocities. t) + νr2 1 + 4γ Uxx .(4.c. and equating to zero terms at equal powers of r one obtains uk and wk . Substituting Eqs. β = 3E + 2l(1 − 2ν)3 + 4m(1 + ∗ ν)2 (1 − 2ν) + 6nν 2 .c.78) (1 + ν) 2 E where ν is the Poisson ratio. (4. 2 1 − 4γ (4.77).February 11. wN L are similarly obtained from the full b.c. v = Ux . (4.77).12). (3.78) into Eq. obey a double dispersive nonlinear equation: vtt − α1 vxx − α2 ( v 2 )xx + α3 vxxtt − α4 vxxxx = 0. We get u = U (x. Other terms from the series (3. they are omitted here because of no influence on the final model equation for the strain waves. and using Hamilton’s principle we obtain that longitudinal strains.12).

The nonzero components of the tensor ΓKLM are Γxxx = −uxx . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 120 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Also the characteristic width of the solitary wave proportional to 1/k becomes larger relative to the wave width in pure elastic case. 2 1−N (4. Γrxr = −urr .82) r r w + 2r Prx = µ (ur + wx ) + (λ + 2µ + m) ur wr + (2λ + 2m − n) ur (λ + 2µ + m) ux ur + (µ + m) ux wx 1 2a2 (r(urr ))r .84) . Γxxr = Γrxx = −uxr . Then the type of the solitary wave (compression/tensile) is defined by the sign of the nonlinearity parameter β like in the case without microstructure.3. γ = 0. (4.c.83) Then the approximations for the components of the displacement vector have the form u = U (x.3. Γxrr = Γrrx = −wxr .February 11. (4. Γrrr = −wrr . 3. (4. r 2m − n w wx + (µ + m) wx wr + 2 r + 2J ∗ urtt − a1 wxrr − 2(a1 + 2a2 )uxxr − (4.74) are satisfied for the strain tensor components Prr = (λ + 2µ) wr + λ( w λ + 2µ + m 2 w + ux ) + ur + (λ + 2l) wr + r 2 r λ + 2l w2 w + + (λ + 2l) ux wr + (2l − 2m + n) ux + 2 r2 r λ + 2l 2 λ + 2µ + m 2 ux + wx + (µ + m) ur wx + 2 2 3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m 2 wr + 2J ∗ (2uxtt + wrtt ) − 2a1 uxxx − 2 1 1 2(a1 + 2a2 )wxxr − 2(a1 + a2 ) (r(wrr ))r − a1 (r(uxr ))r . We consider γ to be rather small due to the experimental data from Savin et. t) + 1 νr2 Uxx . 4.3 Nonlinear waves in a rod with Le Roux continuum microstructure The procedure of obtaining the governing equations is similar to those used in previous subsection. The b. see Sec. Γxrx = −wxr .73). al (1973b).

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121

w = −νrUx −

4J ∗ (2 − ν)(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 3 r Uxtt − E(3 − 2ν)R2 ν 2 − (1 − 2ν)(1 − N )(G(1 − ν) − 2νN ) 3 r Uxxx − 2(3 − 2ν)(1 − N ) ν (1 − 2ν) (1 + ν) + l(1 − 2ν)2 + 2m(1 + ν) − nν 2 E

2 rUx , (4.85)

where G = 2a1 /µR2 , N = 2a2 /µR2 . Like in previous section the governing equation for longitudinal strain v = Ux is the double dispersive equation (4.79) whose coefficients are defined now as α1 = c2 , α2 = ∗ β νR2 ν 2 R2 νc2 R2 ∗ , α3 = − + 2J ∗ ν(2 − ν), α4 = , 2ρ0 2(1 − N ) 2 2(1 − N ) 3E β V2 −1 c2 ∗

while the solitary wave solution has the form v= cosh−2 (k (x − V t)), (4.86)

where V is a free parameter, and the wave number k is defined by k2 = 2νER2 [c2 ∗ (1 − N )ρ0 (V 2 − c2 ) ∗ . − V (1 − ν(1 − N ) + 4J ∗ (1 − N )(2 − ν)/R2 )]
2

(4.87)

Physically reasonable case corresponds to rather small N , N < 1. Then the influence of the microstructure yields an alteration of the permitted solitary wave velocities interval, 1< V2 1 < . c2 1 − ν(1 − N ) + 4J ∗ (1 − N )(2 − ν)/R2 ∗

The widening or narrowing of the interval depends upon the relationship between N and the parameter of microinertia J ∗ . Again the type of the solitary wave is governed by the sign of the nonlinearity parameter β. At the same time the characteristic width of the solitary wave proportional to 1/k turns out smaller than the wave width in a pure macroelastic case, N = 0, J ∗ = 0. 4.3.4 Concluding remarks

It is to be noted that the assumption of the linear contribution of the microstructure is correct since its nonlinear contribution, being weaker, may provide alterations only in the neglected higher-order nonlinear and dispersion terms in the governing equation both the Cosserat and the Le

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Roux models. Hence we don’t need in the additional nonlinear terms in the density of the potential energy Π thus avoiding the additional unknown parameters (like Murnaghan’s third order moduli) describing the nonlinear contribution of the microstructure Eringen and Suhubi (1964); Erofeev (2002). The alterations of the amplitude and the wave width, caused by the microstructure, have been found in both case under study. The important result is in the opposite changing of the wave width which gives a possibility to distinguish the Cosserat and the Le Roux models in possible experiments. The dispersion caused by the microstructure may be observed experimentally, and numerical data on microstructure parameters my be obtained Savin et. al (1973b). In experiments on the solitary waves propagation, see Sec. 3.4, the amplitude and the width of the wave may be measured. Therefore expressions (4.80), (4.81) provide possible estimation of the parameter M in the pseudo-continuum Cosserat model. In case of the LeRoux continuum there is an extra parameter J ∗ , see Eqs.(4.86), (4.87), and parameters N and J ∗ cannot be estimated separately. The microstructure and the surrounding medium provide similar deviations in the governing double dispersive equation. Hence the analysis in Sec. 4.2.6 may be used if we consider a rod only part of which contains the microstructure. Then the amplification/attenuation (but not a selection) of the strain solitary wave occurs similar to that shown in Figs. 4.6-4.10.

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Chapter 5

Influence of dissipative (active) external medium

Now we study the role played by dissipation/energy influx often present in a realistic case. Dissipative/active effects may be caused by internal features of the elastic material, hence, an irreversible part should be included into the stress tensor in addition to the reversible one depending only upon the density of the Helmholtz energy. Accordingly, the governing equations for nonlinear strains will contain dissipative/active terms. Dissipation/energy influx may also occur in an elastic wave guide through phenomena occurring at or through its lateral surface, and this case is considered further in this Chapter. Presence of external medium makes a problem more complicated. However, the Hamiltonian formalism described in Chapter 3 may be applied since a wave guide remains pure elastic, all dissipative/active factors come through the elementary work done by the external forces, and therefore Eq.(3.29) may be used. 5.1 Contact problems: various approaches

External medium affects the lateral surface of a wave guide through the normal and tangential stresses. In some cases only normal stresses may act like in the slippage contact. Various contact problems are widely considered, see, e.g., Galin (1980); Goryacheva (1998); Goryacheva (2001); H¨hner a and Spencer (1998); Johnson (1985); Kalker et. al (1997); Kerr (1964); Nikitin (1998). Both elastic and viscoelastic interactions are studied their in the linear approximation. Main attention is paid to the static loading and to the interaction forces caused by the relative movement of the contacting bodies. Of special interest if the contact with friction Goryacheva (1998); Goryacheva (2001); H¨hner and Spencer (1998); Kalker et. al (1997); a Nikitin (1998); Stefa´ski et. al (2000) . Various generalizations of the n
123

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Coulomb-Amonton law (dependence on the sliding velocity and the apparent area of contact) are studied Elmer (1997); Goryacheva (2001); H¨hner and Spencer (1998); Nikitin (1998); P¨schel and Herrmann (1993); a o Stefa´ski et. al (2000). However, it was noted in H¨hner and Spencer n a (1998); Nikitin (1998); Stefa´ski et. al (2000) that the classical Coulombn Amonton approach is sufficient when the relative velocity of the sliding bodies is small. Sometimes the problem of the interaction with an external medium may be solved directly. It means that we formulate the equation for a wave guide and the medium and impose the corresponding continuity conditions on the lateral surface of the wave guide. An example may be found in Sec. 4.2 where dissipationless sliding contact with an elastic external medium is considered. The difficulties of elastic contact stress theory may arise because the displacement at any point in the contact surface depends upon the distribution of pressure throughout the whole contact Johnson (1985). In this case the solution of an integral equation for the pressure is required. Another problem arises when an external medium is not elastic, and its behavior cannot be described by the equations of elasticity. The difficulties mentioned above may be avoided if the response of a wave guide is more interesting then the displacements and stresses distribution in the external medium. In this case the problem reduces to a development of a relatively simple foundation models to account for an influence of the external medium in terms of the wave guide displacements and/or strains at the lateral surface. Variety of the foundation models are collected in Kerr (1964). The models are designed replacing an external medium with interacting spring and dissipative elements. In particular, when only springs are considered and their shear interactions are assumed the so-called Winkler-Pasternak model holds Kerr (1964); Pasternak (1954); Winkler (1867). According to it the pressure p is expressed through the shear displacement w p = kw − G
2

w,

where 2 is the Laplace operator in x and y, k and G are the constant foundation moduli. One can see its similarity with the response of the external medium in case of the sliding contact, see Sec. 4.2.3. Hence foundation models are physically reasonable since they correspond to the results obtained from the contact problem solutions. It was Kerr (1964) who developed a viscoelastic foundation model.

2π]. Assuming that torsions can be neglected. −∞ < x < ∞. a Nikitin (1998). k. k is the stiffness coefficient of the medium. Here the foundation model is proposed in Sec. we consider a more general case with the coefficients of either sign. w. Classic case of a dissipative action through the tangential stresses corresponds to the dry friction contact H¨hner and Spencer (1998). ϕ is a polar angle. Most of results were first obtained by Porubov and Velarde (2000) 1 . r is the radial coordinate.1 Let us consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an isotropic cylindrical elastic rod embedded in an external medium subjected to Kerr’s viscoelastic contact model. Now we only mention it provides the influence on a wave guide only through the normal stresses. r. 0). He assumed Newton’s law for the viscous behavior thus including a dissipative elements besides springs. 5.February 11. are positive and constant in framework of the Kerr model. ∗ According to Kerr (1964) the external medium yields a normal stress Prr on the lateral surface of the rod r = R : k ∗ Prr = − w − η wt + χ r2 wxxt .2 Evolution of bell-shaped solitary waves in presence of active/dissipative external medium Formulation of the problem 5. η is the viscocompressibility coefficient of the external medium. η and χ. where the Lagrangian density 1 Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science . The evolution of nonlinear waves is obtained in the reference configuration using Hamilton’s principle Eq.4 when the external medium affects a lateral surface of an elastic rod both by the normal and the tangential stresses but dissipative (active) influence is provided by the tangential stresses. This model will be studied in the following two sections where its mathematical expression is presented. 5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 125 Based on the results of footing load tests performed on a snow base he proposed a viscoelastic model for the interaction between an elastic body and the external snow (or permafrost) medium.(3.1) where t is a time. r (5. All three coefficients. χ is the viscosity coefficient of the external medium.29)). ϕ) where x is directed along the axis of the rod. 0 ≤ r ≤ R. ϕ [0. then the displacement vector is V = (u.2. however. We take cylindrical Lagrangian coordinates (x.

δA.c.7) where the explicit forms for the coefficients are given by a2 = λ λη . (3. (5.1) the elementary work. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 126 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids per unit volume.1) for the deformation energy. 5. at r = R.(5. (ii) a characteristic strain wave length L is greater then the rod radius R.6) (5.3). Due to (5.2 Dissipation modified double dispersive equation For the longitudinal and shear displacements inside the rod we assume that: (i) pure elastic waves have strain magnitude B << 1. 2(2λ + 3µ) + k . at r → 0.c. Let us obtain the approximations satisfying b. ∗ Prr = Prr . where the components Prr . is defined as before in the book. Substituting them into the boundary conditions and following the approach from Sec.5) Prx = 0. is: ∞ δA = 2π −∞ ∗ Prr δw dx . w = b1 r Ux + b2 r2 Uxt + r3 (b31 Uxxx + b32 Uxtt ) + 2 r4 (b41 Uxxxt + b42 Uxttt ) + B1 r Ux + B2 r2 Ux Uxt .5).) are: w → 0. Prx of the Piola . (3. L.2 we get u = U + a2 r2 Uxx + a3 r3 Uxxt . w are expanded in a power series (3.11). Again we choose Murnaghan’s approximation (3.2. at r = R.13). b31 = − λ a2 .Kirchhoff stress tensor P are defined by Eqs. (5. According to the procedure developed in Chapter 3 the unknown functions u. (5.4) (5. (5. a3 = − . b2 = −3 a3 . 3.3) (5. 2(2(λ + µ) + k) 3(2(λ + µ) + k)(3λ + 4µ + k) b1 = −2 a2 .12).February 11.10). R/L << 1. (3.2) The boundary conditions (b.

Neglecting cubic nonlinear terms we have to neglect simultaneously the ”corresponding” higher order linear derivative terms.8) α3 = . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 127 b32 = 3η a3 2χ a2 + η b31 + λ a3 η b32 . b2 . The 3 ”largest” of the cubic terms is rUx ∼ RB 3 ∼ R(R/L)6 . It was shown in that solitary waves appear as a result of the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion when B is of order (R/L)2 . b41 = − . b32 are always negative.. obey a dissipation modified double dispersive nonlinear equation (DMDDE): vtt − α1 vxx − α2 vxxt − α3 ( v 2 )xx − α4 vxxxx + α5 vxxtt − α6 (v 2 )xxt − α7 vxxxxt + α8 vxxttt = 0. the ”corresponding” comparable linear term is r5 Uxxxxx .6). α2 = . (5. Then. while a3 . ρ0 ρ0 3 [λ ρ0 1 + 2B1 − 2a2 (1 + 4B1 ) + 4a2 (1 − 4a2 ) + 2 2 µ 1 − 8a2 B1 − 16a3 − 4ka2 B1 + 2 l 16 2 1 − 4a2 (1 − 4a2 + a2 ) + m(1 − 4a2 (3 + 4a2 )) + 4na2 ]. 2(2(λ + µ) + k) B1 = − B2 = − 2η B1 + 12a2 a3 [3(λ + µ) + 2(2l + m)] − 3 a3 (λ + 4l − 2m + n) . . are α1 = 8a2 (2(λ + µ) + k) − 8λ a2 + λ + 2µ 8R η a2 2 2 . Similar terms with spatio-temporal mixed derivatives are of the same order. 3λ + 4µ + k Note that a2 . i = 1.. 8. v = Ux .7). see (3. The explicit forms of the coefficients αi . 2 2 3 3 2 3 (5. b42 are always positive. 2(2λ + 3µ) + k 5λ + 8µ + k 5λ + 8µ + k 2 b1 (λ + 4l − 2m + n) + 8a2 [3(λ + µ) + 2(2l + m)] + λ + 2l 2 . Due to (3.4). omitting nonlinear terms of order three and higher. Using Hamilton’s principle we obtain that longitudinal strains.1) we have to truncate the series (5. while quadratic terms are r3 Ux Uxxx and r3 (Uxx )2 . b42 = − . b1 . Higher order terms may be added if terms like 4 I1 are taken into account..February 11. hence. b31 . while the remaining coefficients may have either sign.

Higher order terms. α6 = − α8 = 4R 3 η 4a2 b32 + 9a2 .8) the following ODE: (V 2 −α1 )v+α2 V v −α3 v 2 −(α4 −α5 V 2 )v +α6 V (v 2 ) +V (α7 −α8 V 2 )v + P + P1 θ = 0.2.(5.8) in accordance with the early given arguments. Its most general exact solution expressed in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function has been obtained in Sec. 5. α7 = − [η b31 + χ a2 ] .10) . Here we restrict consideration to its bell-shaped solitary wave limit. (5. 2.8) may take either sign depending upon the material properties of the rod and the values of k. 3 ρ0 The coefficients in Eq. η and χ. It is seen that Eq. hence.shaped solitary waves when v → const at | θ |→ ∞.1. ( v 3 )xx .(5. have been neglected when deriving Eq.3. B = k2 + 2 α6 3 2α6 (5.(5. we assume that v = v(θ) and obtain from (5. We are interested in bell.(1.February 11. v6x etc. θ = x − V t. P and P1 are constants of integration. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 128 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids α4 = R2 [(λ + 2µ − 4λ a2 ) a2 + 4(λ − 2(2λ + 2µ + k) a2 ) b31 ] .shaped or kink. . . denotes ∂/∂θ. P1 = 0. ρ0 ρ0 α5 = 16(2λ + 2µ + k)a2 b32 ]. ρ0 R2 [2ρ0 a2 (1 − 2a2 ) − 8λ b32 + 9(9λ + 10µ + 4k)a2 + 3 2ρ0 8R a2 ηB1 8R3 a2 . with A= 6(α6 α7 − α1 α6 α8 + α2 α3 α8 ) α2 A . Nepomnyashchy and Velarde (1994).. v = A k 2 cosh−2 (k θ) − B.3 Exact solitary wave solutions of DMDDE In the moving frame.13) obtained in the study of long waves in surface tension gradient-driven flows Nekorkin and Velarde (1994).9) where a dash.9) coincides with the ODE reduction of the DMKdV Eq.

10).14) 4(α7 − α8 V 2 ) thus implying yet another restriction on the coefficients. (5.15) Eq. when a solution decaying at infinity is considered. with 6(α7 − α8 V 2 ) 6(α3 (α7 − α8 V 2 ) − α6 (α4 − α5 V 2 )) .18) (5. then α2 k2 = − .17) 2α3 A= There are two possibilities for k and V . In particular. (5. D= . η and χ of the external medium determine the existence of exact bellshaped strain wave solution (5. (5. the propagation of either compression or tensile strain solitary waves.16) .8) also admits kink-type solutions of the form v = A k 2 cosh−2 (kθ) + D k tanh(kθ) + C. Eq.(5.11). A. α8 α1 − α2 α3 α6 − α7 > 0. α6 5α6 V 2 − α1 C= .13) The ODE reduction of the Boussinesq (or KdV) equation appears in brackets.12) Thus. On the one hand k= 1 α3 α4 − α5 V 2 − .11) α6 (α4 α6 − α3 α7 ) = (α1 α6 − α2 α3 )(α5 α6 − α3 α8 ).10) as well as the sign of its amplitude. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 129 V 2 = α1 − provided α2 α3 . α6 (5. hence. With Eqs.12) taken into account. However. (5. The relationship (5.12) provides simultaneously a balance between nonlinearity ( v 2 ) and dispersion (v ) and another balance between nonlinear active/dissipative ((v 2 ) ) and linear active/dissipative (v ) terms . the elastic features of the rod and the values of the parameters k. (5. (5. as it is prescribed by the behaviour as | θ |→ ∞.February 11.9) may be written as (V ∂ α3 α6 (α4 − α5 V 2 ) α6 P − ) α2 v + α6 v 2 + v − ∂θ α6 α3 α3 = 0. 10 V (α7 − α8 V 2 ) α6 (5. (5. here the wavenumber k is not a free parameter of the solution (5.(5.

Eq.8) are small relative to the other coefficients. 6α3 α8 V 3 + α6 α7 V 2 − 6α3 α7 V + α4 α6 = 0.(5. α7 = ε β7 .21) Therefore.16) with prescribed parameters. with θx = 1.22) we get that (V 2 − α1 )vθ − α3 ( v 2 )θ − (α4 − α5 V 2 ) vθθθ = ε(2V [vT + α5 vθθT ] + VT [v + α5 vθθ ] − V (β7 − β8 V 2 ) vθθ ]) + O(ε2 ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 130 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids where V is a solution of the cubic equation. we have in both cases the kink-shaped solution (5.(5. T ). The loading or unloading of the rod depends upon the sign of D.(5. (5.4 Bell-shaped solitary wave amplification and selection Let us consider the case when the influence of the external medium is weak.2. v = v(θ.22) is the double dispersive equation. and all coefficients of the active/dissipative terms in DMDDE (5. α2 = ε β2 . An initial prestressed state of the rod may transform into a different one as the wave passes. Thus at ε = 0. (5.e. (5. hence on the elastic features of the rod and on the parameter values of the external medium. ε << 1. 5. For nonzero ε we assume that a solution of Eq.February 11. θt = −V (T ). k2 = 1 4 2 6α3 (V 2 − α1 )α6 + α2 α3 V − 2 α6 α3 V (α7 − α8 V 2 ) .20) where V is a solution of another cubic equation. ∂2 [β2 v + β6 v 2 + ∂θ2 (5. α6 = ε β6 ..8) may be written as vtt − α1 vxx − α3 ( v 2 )xx − α4 vxxxx + α5 vxxtt = ε β2 vxxt + β6 (v 2 )xxt + β7 vxxxxt − β8 vxxttt . i. Then Eq. (5.22) admits an exact bell-shaped solitary wave solution.(5. 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 α3 α8 V 3 − α6 (α6 − α3 α5 )V 2 − (α3 α7 + α2 α3 α6 )V + α6 (α1 α6 + α3 α4 ) = 0.22) is a function of the phase variable θ and the slow time T .22) We see that the left hand side of Eq. α8 = ε β8 . T = ε t.19) On the other hand. Then from (5.23) .

23) is sought using the method explained in Sec.29) Only the interval (5. if α4 − α1 α5 < 0.23) in the leading order we have 2 (V 2 − α1 )v0. η > η ∗ .T + α5 v0. if α4 − α1 α5 > 0.(5..θθ ]− V ∂2 2 β2 v0 + β6 v0 + (β7 − β8 V 2 ) v0. α5 (5.2 in the form v = v0 + εv1 + .24) (5.θ − α3 ( v0 )θ − (α4 − α5 V 2 ) v0.θθT ] + VT [v0 + α5 v0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 131 The solution of Eq.. s = V 2 may lie either inside the interval α4 α1 < s < . 2 α3 4(α4 − α5 V 2 ) (5.(5. α5 or in α4 < s < α1 . ∂θ2 (5. 4k + 9λ + 10µ The correction v1 (5.2. The interval (5.26) Accordingly.30) The operator M acting on the function v1 in Eq. with √ ρ0 (k + 3λ + 4µ) η∗ = √ .28) is acceptable for a free rod with positive Poisson ratio.θ − 2α3 (v0 v1 )θ − (α4 − α5 V 2 ) v1.24) obeys the inhomogeneous linear equation (V 2 − α1 )v1. .25) has the form v0 = A(T ) cosh−2 (k(T ) θ). where F is F = 2V [v0.28) (5.29) exists if the viscocompressibility coefficient is greater than a given value. k = . 2.θθ .θθθ = 0 (5.February 11.25) The exact solitary wave solution of Eq. Substituting (5.θθθ = F.30) is adjoint to the operator 3 M A = (α1 − V 2 )∂θ + 2α3 v0 ∂θ + (α4 − α5 V 2 ) ∂θ .24) into (5.27) (5.(5. with A= 3(V 2 − α1 ) 2 V 2 − α1 .

α4 /α5 ) (sQ . (5. Important features of the behavior of s may be established analyzing (5.43) for Eq. ∞) s0 (α1 . sQ ) (sQ . α4 /α5 ) Then using Eq.32) (5. α4 /α5 ) permitted for s. sQ ) (α1 .February 11. s2q ) (sQ .33) q1 = 12α5 β6 − 5α3 β8 . ∞) (s1q . α4 /α5 ) (s1q . α4 /α5 ) (sQ . sQ ) (α1 . with Q3 (s) = α1 α4 (5α4 − α1 α5 ) + 2α4 (11α1 α5 − 10α4 ) s− 2 3α5 (17α4 − 5α1 α5 ) s2 − 30α5 s3 . α1 ) (α1 .35) . and Q3 always changes its sign inside the interval (α1 . s2q ) (sQ . s2q (α4 /α5 . α4 /α5 ) (α4 /α5 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 132 Table 5.25) one can obtain the solvability condition (2. α4 /α5 ) (α1 . s2q ) (0. sQ ) (sQ .32) without integration.34) q3 = α3 (7β2 α4 + 5α1 β7 ) − 12α1 α4 β6 . The most interesting evolution of s is realized when s tends to the finite constant value s∗ as T → ∞.(5. sQ ) (sQ . The values of s∗ are the solutions of equation q1 s2 + q2 s + q3 = 0. (5. (5. sQ ) (sQ . Note that Q3 (α1 ) = −15α1 (α4 − α1 α5 )2 while Q3 (α4 /α5 ) = α4 /α5 (α4 − α1 α5 )2 . sQ ) (s1q . sT Q3 (s) = s (s − α1 )2 (q1 s2 + q2 s + q3 ).30). s2q ) (α1 .1 q1 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0 >0 <0 <0 <0 <0 s1q Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Selection of solitary wave velocity for the case α4 − α1 α5 > 0. α4 /α5 ) (α1 . s2q ) (sQ . sQ ) (s1q . q2 = 12β6 (α4 − α1 α5 ) + α3 (7β2 α5 − 5β7 + 5α1 β8 ). ∞ v0 F dθ = 0. α4 /α5 ) (s1q . −∞ (5. α4 /α5 ) (sQ . s2q ) (α1 .(5. α4 /α5 ) s∗ s1q s1q s1q s2q s2q s2q s2q s2q s1q s1q (α1 .31) which yields the equation for the function s. sQ ) (α1 . α1 ) (0. sQ ) (s1q .

1.32) may be integrated in the general case giving the implicit dependence of s on T . Moreover.745.588. Therefore. s2q = 1. We consider here in details only the cases when the velocity tends to one or another root of Eq.26) coincides with the exact solution (5. The same analysis may be performed for the case α4 − α1 α5 < 0.(5.35) has no multiple root. It occurs according to Fig. inside this interval. Eq. 2) . α3 = 1. α4 /α5 ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 133 First. For negative values of q1 we also have two possibilities α1 < sq < sQ . sQ = 1. the only difference is the presence of two thresholds. When Eq. s tends to s∗ = sq at q1 > 0 if α1 < sq < sQ . consider the case α4 − α1 α5 > 0. s2q ∈ (sQ . s1q = s2q = sq . Here we are dealing with the selection of a symmetric solitary wave.17. β7 = 1.588 < s0 < 2 they go to a dissipative solitary wave with s∗ = 1. α1 < s0 < sQ . s1q and s2q . or sQ < sq < α4 /α5 .28). Then α1 < s < α4 /α5 . sQ ).February 11. When 1. Assume that the root of Q3 is sQ while real roots of Eq.(5. There remains the problem of whether solitary wave selection is achieved in finite or infinite time. Under conditions (5. β8 = 1. α1 < s0 < sq . any initially initial solitary wave with velocity s0 from the permitted interval (5. α4 = 2.(5.28) transforms into a dissipative solitary wave (5.12) the asymptotic solution (5.26).324.35) we have s1q = 1.26) may be similarly studied. (5.1 shows (see third and fourth rows) that two different solitary waves may be selected depending on the initial value s0 . or sQ < sq < α4 /α5 . Integration of Eq.1.588 transform into a dissipative solitary wave with velocity s∗ = 1. sQ < s0 < sq .588. For the roots of Eq. All possibilities of the solitary wave velocity selection are collected in Table 5.1. We denote by s0 the initial value of s.35). Table 5. The most interesting case corresponds to q1 positive when s1q ∈ (α1 . sq < s0 < α4 /α5 . β2 = 1. β6 = 2.745. In order to avoid cumbersome algebra we consider one particular case only. Then the permitted interval for s is (1. (s − 1)(s0 − 1) .(5.35) are s1q < s2q . Other possibilities corresponding to the blow-up or the damping of the solitary wave (5. (5. and Q3 cannot have more than one root inside the interval (5. and Q3 (s) has only one root. α5 = 1.32) yields exp T = s0 − s1q s − s1q p1 s0 − s2q s − s2q p2 s−1 s0 − 1 p3 s0 s p4 exp p5 (s − s0 ) . this is the case of complete selection when all initially dissipationless solitons with initial velocity from the interval 1 < s0 < 1. α1 = 1.10). ε = 0.

657.8) and the DMKdV equation (1.13). ν= . Nepomnyashchy and Velarde (1994). with α= 2α6 α4 − α5 V 2 α2 . p5 = 4.980. Nekorkin and Velarde (1994).8). Indeed. 5. Garazo and Velarde (1991). in the ”travelling wave” limit the ODE reduction of our DMDDE (5. .2. coincides with the system studied by Nekorkin and Velarde (1994). z = −β z − α v y − ν y − G(v) + P. governing the evolution of bulk longitudinal long nonlinear strain waves in an elastic rod immersed inside an active/ dissipative medium.6. p2 = 0. It cannot be described by the asymptotic solution. p3 = 8. Consequently. 2 α7 − α8 V V (α7 − α8 V 2 ) α7 − α8 V 2 G(v) = α1 − V 2 α3 v+ v2 . The dynamical system representation of Eq. 2.1. all exact travelling wave solutions for the latter equation are valid in our case. β=− .904. For the last equation it was found that the single wave asymptotic solution accounts for a behaviour of the solitary waves generated from an arbitrary input. v = y. There is an interesting similarity with the results found for free surface shear long waves in a thermoconvective liquid layer described by a dissipation modified Kortewegde Vries equation (DMKdV).(5.February 11.286. Nekorkin and Velarde (1994). Hence we can anticipate the evolution of the initial localized strains according to that shown in Figs. Velarde et. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 134 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids with p1 = 7. Hence the wave amplitudes tend to A1 = 3(s1q − α1 )/2 α3 or to A2 = 3(s2q − α1 )/2 α3 .5 Concluding remarks We have obtained a nonlinear equation. Therefore. al (1995). see Christov and Velarde (1995). Of special interest is the evolution of an arbitrary initial pulse. we can transfer to the lon- . . p4 = 0.3. One can see that s → s1q or s → s2q at T → ∞. al (1995) when P = 0.420.9). 2) V (α7 − α8 V V (α7 − α8 V 2 ) . We already noted the similarity between the governing equation (5.9) is functionally identical to the corresponding ODE reduction of the DMKdV equation Christov and Velarde (1995). DMDDE (5. 2.4-2. see Sec. y = z. Velarde et.

15) there is no exact solution decaying at |θ| → ∞ if α8 = 0. al (1995). (5. These linear mixed derivative terms in (5. A.February 11.8) we have to rewrite it as vt = −gx . Then the time evolution of the wave energy for the solutions vanishing at ±∞ is governed by the equation ∂ ∂t ∞ ∞ ∞ v g dx = α2 −∞ ∞ −∞ vx g x dx + α6 −∞ ∞ 2 vx gx dx− α7 −∞ vxx gxx dx + α8 −∞ vxt gxt dx. ”bound solitons” and ”chaotic states” found for the DMKdV equation in Christov and Velarde (1995).36) is absent in the corresponding balance law for the DMKdV equation Garazo and Velarde (1991).21).(5.35). Both the compression and tensile asymptotic solutions occur due to the mixed terms with the velocities from the intervals (5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 135 gitudinal strain waves all the results about the existence of pulses. Finally. two sets of the selected solitary wave parameters result from the nonzero coefficient q1 (5. and on the work. In order to get conservation laws for DMDDE (5. gt = α1 vx + α2 vxt + α3 ( v 2 )x + α4 vxxx − α5 vxtt + α6 (v 2 )xt + α7 vxxxt − α8 vxttt . The last term in (5. due to Eq. These terms decide the existence of either exact compression or tensile solitary wave solutions.8) appear due to the influence of the Poisson effect on the kinetic energy density.28). Indeed.34) in the equation (5. done by external forces. (5. the first term in the right-hand side of (5.36) Thus. Nekorkin and Velarde (1994).19).(5.36). The second term in (5. . (5.h. Velarde et. Here it diminishes the role of the third term in (5.36) accounts for the energy input while energy output is provided by the third term. instead of energy conservation we have an input-output energy balance that at the steady state gives a vanishing l. K. Moreover.29). Nepomnyashchy and Velarde (1994).36) may play a stabilizing or a destabilizing role depending on the sign of α6 .s. The corresponding variation of velocity of the kink-shaped solution depends upon α8 due to Eqs.

It allows us to cover both possibilities for longitudinal strain kink propagation. There is also interest in the analytical study of the simultaneous influence of dis- . The inclusion of cubic nonlinearity requires to extend the widely used so-called ”five constants” Murnaghan energy model. Eq..4). The kink-shaped localized traveling structure may be sustained by different balances.g. the strain wave magnitude.(3. Thus our results permit to delineate the yield point of the material. The domain of validity of Kerr’s model could be estimated comparing theory with experiments.g. Another possibility occurs when nonlinearity is balanced by dissipation (or accumulation). to a more general ”nine constants” Murnaghan model. Eq. Also we have shown that the external medium.. Whitham (1974). B. where R is the rod radius. strain solitary waves may be effectively generated inside a rod with a free boundary based on the analysis of the exact travelling solitary wave solution of the governing double dispersive equation ( Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 136 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Our predictions about strain solitary wave selection may help to the possible experimental generation of active/dissipative solitary waves in a rod partly embedding in an external medium with the Kerr contact.(5.8) with k. 5. and the wave length. e. are such that B = O(R2 /L2 ) << 1. L. the permafrost may be responsible for large wave amplification. η and χ equal to zero). for instance.g.February 11. In view of a possible experimental test of our predictions we consider dissipative (active) phenomena occurring at the lateral boundary of an otherwise purely elastic and hence non-dissipative rod in the bulk Kerr (1964). Here we address the question of whether besides bell-shaped solitary waves also kink-shaped waves may propagate in an elastic rod. resulted in the kink solution of the modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation case Ablowitz and Segur (1981). Indeed. e. the kink solution of the Burgers equation Sachdev (1987). bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary waves. The bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. Nonlinearity in a pure elastic rod is caused by the finite stress values and the elastic material properties while dispersion results from the finite transverse size of the rod..(3. They are in balance when.1).3 Strain kinks in an elastic rod embedded in an active/dissipative medium There are two main types of nonlinear solitary waves which could propagate keeping its shape. e. There is a balance between cubic nonlinearity and dispersion.

mathematically the description of these processes requires inclusion of derivatives of high order in the model equation.February 11. r (5.37) As will be seen later. a2 . the third term in Eq. a4 ) account also for nonlinear elastic properties of the isotropic material.(3. n) we are now dealing with the fourth order moduli (a1 . Like Murnaghan’s third order moduli moduli. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 137 persion. Again both k and η are assumed to be of either sign. or the Murnaghan moduli (l. they can be either positive or negative. As we seen before. Eq. of kinks.(5.(3.1 Formulation of the problem Again we consider the propagation of a longitudinal strain wave in an isotropic cylindrical compressible elastic rod embedded in an external medium subjected to Kerr’s viscoelastic contact on the lateral surface of the rod r = R : k ∗ Prr = − w − η wt . particularly.3. Otherwise the statement of the problem is similar to that of the previous section with the exception of the components Prr . Below we shall use the results obtained in Porubov and Velarde (2002) 2 . m. Prr = (λ + 2µ) wr + λ (ux + w λ + 2µ + m 2 2 )+ (ur + wx ) + r 2 3λ + 6µ + 2l + 4m 2 w wr + (2l − 2m + n) ux + 2 r λ + 2l 2 w2 w (ux + 2 + 2wr + 2ux wr ) + (µ + m) ur wx + 2 r r 2 w3 3wwr 2 (l + 4a1 + a2 ) + + u3 + 3ux wr + (3m − a2 )ur wr wx + x 3 r r 2l − 2m + n + 24a1 + 10a2 + 2a3 + 4a4 ux w2 u2 w 2ux wwr + x + + 2 2 r r r with permission from Elsevier Science 2 Reprinted .4). amplification. a3 . We choose nine constants Murnaghan’s approximation for the density of the potential energy. Eq. Thus besides the third order elastic moduli. 5.1) now does nor affect the wave behavior.4). nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation) on the evolution. Prx of the Piola Kirchhoff stress tensor P that are now written in framework of the nineconstants theory.

3.2 Combined dissipative double-dispersive equation Besides assumptions (i).38) Prx = µ (ur + wx ) + (λ + 2µ + m) (ur wr + ux ur ) + (2λ + 2m − n) ur w + 2r w 2m + a4 2m − n 3 wx + (µ + m) (wx wr + ux wx ) + 3u2 wx + wx + r 2 r 4 4l + 2m − n − 4µ − 2a2 − 2a3 2m − n − 2a2 − 2a3 w2 wx ur w2 + + 4 4 r2 2m − n − 2a2 − a3 − 2a4 ux wx w wr wx w 4m + a4 3 + + ur + 2 r r 4 4m − 4µ + 3a4 2 ur wx + (2m + µ − a2 − a4 )ux wr wx + 4 4l − 2a2 − a3 − 2a4 ux ur w ur wr w + + (2l + 2m − a2 − a4 )ux ur wr + 2 r r 3m − a2 2l + 5m − a2 2 2 (ur u2 + ur wr ) + wx wr + u2 wx .39) x x 2 2 5. we now assume that (iii) B ∼ R/L to provide a balance between nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation).40) (5.2. 2 2 (5. (5. 2(2(λ + µ) + k) 3λ + 4µ + k . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 138 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids (2l − µ + 12a1 + 4a2 + 2a4 ) u2 wr + x (2m − n − 2a2 − a3 − 2a4 ) w2 wr r2 + ur wwr 3 + 2(l + 2m + 2a1 )wr + 2r 2 4l − 2a2 − a3 − 2a4 u2 w wwx r (2m + µ − a2 − a4 )ur ux wx + + + 4 r r 2l + 5m − a2 2 2l + 2m − a2 − a4 2 2 2 ur wr + wr wx + ur ux + ux wx . (5. b2 = . 5. Like before we first obtain the relationships between the longitudinal and shear displacements.41) where the explicit forms for the coefficients are given by q2 = λ 2 q2 η .2. b1 = −2 q2 . w = b1 r Ux + b2 r2 Uxt + r3 (b31 Uxxx + b32 Uxtt ) + 2 3 +B1 r Ux + B2 r Ux + B3 r2 Ux Uxt . u = U + q2 r2 Uxx . (ii) from Sec.February 11.

have different signs. 1 2η B1 − b2 {2q2 [3(λ + µ) + 2(l + m)] − (λ + 4l − 2m + n)} . b2 are always positive. while b1 . Due to the chosen nineconstant model we have to truncate the series (5. i = 1 ÷ 3. b32 = − . and the other coefficients Bi .40). Similar terms with spatio-temporal mixed derivatives are of the same order. (5.41) into (3.40). are α1 = 2 2 8R η q2 8q2 (2(λ + µ) + k) − 8λ q2 + λ + 2µ . Substituting (5. i = 1 ÷ 7. 2(2(λ + µ) + k) B2 = − 1 {B1 [λ + 4l − 2m + n + 2b1 (3λ + 3µ + 4l + 2m)] + (2(λ + µ) + k) 1 1 + 4a1 + a2 + b1 [6l − 2µ − 2m + n + 48a1 + 18a2 + 2a3 + 8a4 ] + 2 3 2 b [2 + 2l − 2m + n + 32a1 + 12a2 + 2a3 + 4a4 ] + 2 1 b3 [4 − µ + 4l + 4n + 32a1 + 8a2 + 2a4 ]}. obey a combined dissipative double-dispersive (CDDD) nonlinear equation: vtt − α1 vxx − α2 vxxt − α3 ( v 2 )xx − α4 vxxxx + α5 vxxtt − α6 (v 2 )xxt − α7 ( v 3 )xx = 0.41). b32 are always negative when the coefficients in (5. .February 11.29) we obtain that longitudinal strains. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 139 b31 = − λ q2 η b2 . while the cubic term is r3 Ux Uxxx .29). 2(2λ + 3µ) + k 2(2λ + 3µ) + k B1 = − 2 b1 (λ + 4l − 2m + n) + 2b2 [3(λ + µ) + 2(2l + m)] + λ + 2l 1 . α2 = . b31 . and using Hamilton’s principle (3. The explicit forms of the coefficients αi . 3λ + 4µ + k B3 = − Note that q2 . ρ0 ρ0 (5. omitting higher order nonlinear terms and the ”corresponding” higher order linear derivative terms due to the assumption (iii). v = Ux . hence.37) are positive (Kerr’s model). Then.42) α3 = 3 [λ ρ0 1 2 + 2B1 − 2q2 (1 + 4B1 ) + 4q2 (1 − 4q2 ) + 2 . (5. the ”corresponding” comparable 2 linear term is r4 Uxxxx . The ”largest” of the quartic 4 terms is rUx ∼ RB 4 ∼ R(R/L)4 .

their combination in α3 may be quantitatively small while not so in α7 . the last four terms in (5.(5.42) in dimensional form without use of the multiple scales method and hence terms of different orders may occur. be of the same order. Then the dissipative term. 3 3 3 α4 = R2 [(λ + 2µ − 4λ q2 ) q2 + 4b31 (λ − 2(2λ + 2µ + k) q2 ) ] . (i) and (ii). Note that the coefficients α3 . α2 vxxt . in general. simultaneously. due to the above given assumptions. Accordingly. α2 = O(1).February 11. quantitatively. α6 and α7 depend on the third and fourth elastic moduli.(5. In contrast to the second order moduli (Lam´ coefficients) they may be of different signs e Lurie (1990).42) are smaller than the others and hence are considered small perturbations to the other four terms. with the exception of α3 and α6 and α7 that can be of different signs depending upon the material properties of the rod. ρ0 α5 = R2 [ρ0 q2 (1 − 2q2 ) + 2k(b2 + 4q2 b32 ) + (9λ + 10µ)b2 /2 − 4{λ− 2 2 ρ0 4q2 (λ + µ)}b32 ].42) are always positive in framework of the Kerr model. Indeed. 8R q2 ηB1 ρ0 4 kB2 4 3 2 α7 = [B1 − 4q2 ] + {l[1/2 + 4q2 (16q2 − 8q2 + 3q2 − 1) + ρ0 ρ0 2 2 2B1 (1 − 4q2 )2 ] + m[1 − 4q2 + 8q2 (B1 + 2q2 )(1 + 2q2 )] + α6 = − 2 2 2 2 2nq2 [q2 − 4q2 − 2B1 ] + λ[1/8 + 2q2 (1 + 4q2 ) + B1 (1 + 2B1 + 8q2 ) + 4 2 2B2 (1 − 4q2 )] + µ[1/4 + 8q2 + 2B1 (B1 − 4q2 − 4q2 ) − 8q2 B2 ] + 2 3 4 3 2 a1 [1 − 16q2 + 96q2 − 256q2 + 256q2 ] + 4a2 q2 [16q2 − 24q2 + 9q2 − 1] + 2 2 4a3 q2 [1 − 4q2 ] + 16a4 q2 [1 − q2 ]2 }. We shall refer to this case as the weakly dispersive limit. Note that we have obtained Eq. will overcome the nonlinearity and drastically alter the wave . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 140 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 3 µ 1 − 8q2 B1 − 16q2 − 4kq2 B1 + l 16 2 2 1 2 2 − 4q2 (1 − 4q2 + q2 ) + m(1 − 4q2 (3 + 4q2 )) + 4nq2 ]. All coefficients in Eq. and then the terms α3 ( v 2 )xx and α7 ( v 3 )xx may.

2.3 Exact solutions Assuming that the solution of Eq. 5. the significant balance will be between the quadratic-cubic nonlinearities and dispersion.1. β3 = . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 141 shape before the nonlinearity comes to play. (5.3. κ) β3 − .(5. (5. However. slightly perturbed by the influence of dissipative terms.42) depends only upon the phase variable θ = x− c t. β5 = . v + β1 v + β2 v + β3 v 2 + β4 (v 2 ) + β5 v 3 = N. κ) 3β5 −β5 (5. α2 << 1. We shall call it the weakly dissipative limit.45) 2(1 − Aβ4 )(2β4 − 3Aβ5 )2 (ii) bounded periodic solution v=√ m cn(m θ.43) where a dash denotes differentiation with respect to θ.44) m2 = 2 2 (3A2 β5 − 4Aβ4 )(3β2 β5 − β3 ) + 4β4 (β2 β4 − β1 β3 ) + 3β1 β5 . α5 c2 − α4 α5 c2 − α4 α4 − α5 c2 β4 = α6 c α7 . B=− .(5. asymptotic and numerical solutions. β5 2β4 − 3A β5 (5. Among exact solutions obtained there we consider two bounded solutions: (i) kink-shaped solitary wave solution v = A m tanh(m θ) + B.16) studied in Sec. κ) sn(m θ. with A= β4 ± 2 β4 − 2β5 β1 − A β3 . α5 c2 − α4 α4 − α5 c2 Eq. Therefore.42) is that it embraces different important cases.(5. for which we shall below give exact.E. if the influence of the external medium is weak enough.43) is a particular case of the equation (2. k and η are small.3. and β1 = α2 c c2 − α1 α3 .February 11.42) becomes the O. then in the moving frame Eq.46) . C1 + cn2 (m θ. β2 = . N is a constant. κ) dn(m θ. the advantage of equation (5.D.

(5. see Fig.46) exists only for non vanishing β4 .E. If α4 ÷ α7 are equal to zero we get from Eq.46): √ β3 2mκ sn(m θ.46) has a functional form different from both the KdV cnoidal wave and the MKdV bounded periodic solutionAblowitz and Segur (1981). The CKdV equation possesses the one-parameter kink solution (5.43). (5.42). is v + β2 v + β3 v 2 + β5 v 3 = N. α2 c v + (c2 − α1 )v − α3 v 2 = N. dispersion and (linear and nonlinear) dissipation required for the periodic nonlinear wave than the standard balance between nonlinearity and dispersion that supplies both the KdV and the MKdV periodic solutions.44) like the MKdV periodic solution.48) It corresponds to the O. When κ = 1 we have C1 = 0.48) has a variety of bell-shaped solitary wave solutions. hence only in the presence of the nonlinear dissipative term β4 (v 2 ) in Eq.(5. m2 = √ 2 3κ 4 κ4 − κ2 + 1 √ and the following restrictions on the coefficients: β4 = − 1 2 −β5 . κ) − .45) if β1 = β4 = 0. (5.D.E.(5.D. has a form different from (5.(5. β1 = β4 = 0.6. and the solution (5. v= √ 3β5 −β5 2 with m2 = (3β2 β5 − β3 )/(3β5 (1 + κ2 )).44) with (5. or its equivalent dynamical system. exhibits a more complicated balance between nonlinearity.43) tends to the kink-shaped solution (5. while the KdV cnoidal wave solution becomes the bell-shaped or solitary wave solution in the analogous limit. .43). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 142 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids with C1 = 1 − 2κ2 + 2 κ4 − κ2 + 1 β2 + 3β1 . 1.47) The periodic wave solution (5. The dissipationless limit of Eq.(5. reduction of the Burgers equation. Eq. reduction of the combined KdV-MKdV (CKdV) equation.48). β3 = 3β1 −β5 .49) . However. Moreover. Note also that the solution (5.February 11.42) the O. having a kink limit at κ = 1. a periodic solution of Eq. Equation (5. (5.

B= ≡− . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 143 Its kink solution has the functional form like (5. ∂θ2 (5. v → h2 at θ → −∞. for the Burgers model any pair of hj define phase velocity and the wave number. the phase velocity c and the wave number m.3. 5.February 11. i. Then from Eq.4 Weakly dissipative (active) case When the viscocompressibility coefficient η is small. =− .e.51) is a function of the phase variable θ = x − ct .(5.51) For nonzero δ we assume that a solution of Eq.42) is the perturbed combined double-dispersive equation.45) as well as for the MKdV kink solution the boundary conditions imply additional restrictions on the parameters of the problem. while in general for the one-parameter solution (5.50) There are two free parameters. when the external medium is of little influence we can take α2 = δ α2 . (5. δ << 1. Then Eq. If the boundary conditions are v → h1 at θ → ∞. α6 = δ α6 . 2β1 2β3 2 The coefficients βi depend upon the phase velocity c. (5.44) but with A=− α2 c β1 c2 − α1 β2 ≡ . and the elastic features of the material of the rod and the parameters of the external medium.43) β4 ± 2 β4 − 2β5 h1 − h2 β 1 − A β3 h1 + h2 m= . =− β5 2 2β4 − 3A β5 2 while the Burgers model (5.44). m − f ree. Hence.52) . v = v(θ).(5.51) we get that (c2 − α1 )vθ − α3 ( v 2 )θ − α7 ( v 3 )θ − (α4 − α5 c2 ) vθθθ = −δ c ∂2 α2 v + α6 v 2 + O(δ 2 ). α3 β3 2α3 2β3 (5.49) gives m= (h1 − h2 )β3 β2 h1 + h2 .(5. vtt − α1 vxx − α3 ( v 2 )xx − α7 ( v 3 )xx − α4 vxxxx + α5 vxxtt = δ(α2 vxxt + α6 (v 2 )xxt ) (5. then for the kink-shaped solution of Eq.

55).1 while Fig.θ − α3 ( v0 )θ − α7 ( v0 )θ − (α4 − α5 c2 ) v0.February 11.58).55) (5.52) is sought in the form v = v0 + δv1 + . at θ → ±∞.e. underlying the CKdV equation. ∂θ2 (5. 5. with A= 2 2(α5 c2 − α4 ) 3α1 α7 − α3 − 3α7 c2 m. In both figures the steepness of the wave front (i.51) is depicted in Fig.E. (5. 2 3 (c2 − α1 )c0. only when 3α2 α7 − 2α3 α6 = 0 and has the form v1 = α6 m A θ v0.57) whose solution satisfies the b. vi → 0. left .2 shows the evolution when α2 > 0.. 2(α5 c2 − α4 ) (5. m = const) and the phase velocity of the initial MKdV kink (5. The exact kink solution of Eq.(5.51) allows exploration of the kink evolution outside the range imposed by condition (5.53) into (5.54) We look for a solution satisfying the boundary conditions v0 → h± . Case α2 < 0.52) in the leading order we have the O.(5.54) has the form v0 = A m tanh(m θ) − α3 /(3α7 )..53) obeys the inhomogeneous linear equation 2 (c2 − α1 )v1. For a kink h+ = h− .53) Substituting (5.58) Numerical integration of Eq.(5.θθθ = −c ∂2 2 α2 v0 + α6 v0 . i > 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 144 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids The solution of Eq.56) The correction v1 (5. 5. and with all derivatives of vi with respect to θ vanishing at infinity.D. (5. hence corresponding to accumulation.θ − 2α3 (v0 v1 )θ − 3α7 (v0 v1 )θ − (α4 − α5 c2 ) v1.c. m2 = .θθθ = 0.θ . α7 6(α4 − α5 c2 ) (5.(5. corresponding to dominating damping in the linearized Eq.

remain one and the same.5 20 -0.5 Fig. Then from Eq.February 11.5 40 60 80 100 120 140 x -1 -1.3. The length of the shelf increases like the length of the shelf behind the perturbed KdV soliton Ablowitz and Segur (1981) but the height also increases. The influence of dissipation (accumulation) shows in the growth experienced by the shelves before and behind wave fronts. The small parameter of the problem is ε = B = R/L.. profile.(5.1 Numerical simulation of the MKdV kink evolution with weak dissipation. Suppose that our dimensionless solution v depends upon the phase variable θ = x − ct and that c = 1 + εc1 + ε2 c2 + .5 Weakly dispersive case Let us now take into account all assumptions from Sec. Assume the scale for v is B. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 145 v 1 0. 5.2 to obtain the dimensionless form of Eq.42) we get (c2 − α1 )v θθ + ε 2c2 c1 v θθ − α3 ( v 2 )θθ + α2 c0 v θθθ + 0 0 ε2 (c2 c1 [2c2 + c1 ]v θθ + α2 c0 c1 v θθθ + 0 . 5. 5. with more dramatic effect in the wave front... As a result no quasistationary profile is possible during the evolution of the perturbed MKdV kink at variance with the result found for the bell-shaped strain solitary wave in Porubov and Velarde (2000).(5. and for t is L/c0 where c0 is a characteristic velocity of the wave. for x is L.42).3.

(5.62) v0 = − α3 α3 In the following higher order we get an inhomogeneous linear ordinary differential equation for v 1 (θ).θ ) = 2 ∂θ . and α6 = α6 /R. reduction of Burgers equation whose kink-shaped solution is √ α2 α1 α1 c1 m tanh(mθ) + . The solution is sought in the form v = v 0 + ε v 1 + .D.59) with α2 = α2 /R..February 11.5 Fig.5 x 20 -0.5 40 60 80 100 120 140 -1 -1.θ = 0. α4 = α4 /R2 . while the next order yields the equation √ ∂2 2α1 c1 v 0 − α3 v 2 + α2 α1 v 0. In the leading order we have c0 = α1 ..2 Numerical simulation of the MKdV kink evolution with weak accumulation [α5 c2 − α4 ]v θθθθ − α7 v 3 + α6 c0 v 2 ) = O(ε3 ). 0 2 ∂θ (5. √ ∂2 (2α1 c1 v 1 − 2α3 v 0 v 1 + α2 α1 v 1. α5 = α5 /R2 .60) The boundary conditions are the same as for the kink solution in the √ weakly dissipative case.61) In brackets we have the O. 5. (5. 0 θθ θθθ (5.E.. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 146 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids v 1 0.

(5. c1 2 2 α1 [α2 α7 − 2α3 α6 ] − α2 α3 .60) vs Burgers kink (dashed line) for b2 < 0 in Fig.θθθ − α1 c1 [2c2 + c1 ]v 0. α2 α3 1 2 b2 = √ 2 2[α1 α5 − α4 ]α3 + α1 α2 [2α3 α6 − α2 α7 ] .64) is shown with a solid line. If b2 = b3 = 0 then v may be written as √ α2 α1 α1 c1 v=− m tanh(m[1 + εb1 ]θ) + + O(ε2 ).44). is v 1 = v 0. (5.θθθθ + α7 v 3 − α6 α1 v 2 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 147 √ [α4 − α5 α1 ]v 0.60). 5. Correspondingly.63) where b3 = const. The time evolution . α1 α2 α3 b1 = We see that b1 . Note the asymmetric disturbance of the profile near the upper and lower states of the solution that are exchanged with the opposite sign of b2 . whose solution. while Fig. The influence of dispersion is provided by b2 only.3 accounts for the unperturbed Burgers kink (5. in Fig. 5. The dashed line in Fig. provided that c2 = 1 α7 [3α1 c2 − α2 m] − c2 .42) with an initial condition in the form of a Burgers kink-shaped wave (5. decaying at infinity. 5.63) affects the smoothness of the wave front in the solution (5. (5. b2 remain nonzero even when α6 = α7 = 0. 5. The case b1 = b2 = 0 corresponds to a constant phase shift of the unperturbed Burgers kink solution. Numerical integration of Eq. 1 2 1 2 2α3 c1 (5.θθ − √ α2 α1 c1 v 0.4(a) and for b2 > 0 in Fig.θθ 0.February 11. while bi .θ [b1 θ + b2 Log(cosh(mθ)) + b3 ] .50) shows that the wave attracts the profile described by the asymptotic solution even at moderate ε. i = 1.(5. Shown in Fig.4 it is shown the influence of the second term (b1 = b3 = 0) on the shape of the solution v (5. 5. depend upon the coefficients of Eq. 5.3(b) accounts for negative values of b1 . The features of a quasistationary asymptotic solution can be observed when studying the time-dependent process of the kink formation.(5. 2.θθθ .3(a) is the case b1 > 0.59). while solution (5.64) α3 α3 Then the first term in (5.44).50).4(b).

5 b 2 1. the left profile corresponds to the initial Burgers kink.5.(5.5 and positive . (b) b1 < 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30 x Fig.5 1 0.42) have been chosen such that b2 . 5. The values of the coefficients in Eq.5 5 10 15 20 25 30 x v 2.6 where the propagation of the undisturbed Burgers kink is shown with a dashed line.February 11. 5. 5. is negative for Fig. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 148 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids v 2. of the wave at ε = O(1) is shown in Figs. 5.5 a 2 1.5 1 0.3 Smoothness of the Burgers kink profile due to the first term in the first order asymptotic solution: (a) b1 > 0.

6. (b) b2 > 0. The three most right solid line profiles show that the quasistationary perturbed kink-shaped waves are rather close to the corresponding asymptotic profiles shown in Figs. 5. for Fig.5.5 a 5 v 2.5 1 0.February 11. The phase velocity remains one and the same during the whole time and practically equal to the velocity of . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 149 v 2. 5.6.5 10 15 b 20 25 30 x 5 10 15 20 25 30 x Fig.5 1 0.5 2 1.4 Disturbances on the Burgers kink profile due to the second term in the first order asymptotic solution: (a) b2 < 0. 5. 5.5 2 1.

3. 5. diverges even when dispersion is small. However. the initial Burgers kink.February 11. as Eq. Other possibilities exist for an exact travelling wave solution (5.(5. due to the rod being embedded in an external viscoelastic medium.6 Summary of results and outlook We have shown that kinks can propagate in a compressible elastic rod. This is very important from the point of view of application because for most materials the values of ai are unknown. are such that B ∼ R/L << 1.g.42) can be approximated with α6 = α7 = 0 and hence without using the fourth-order elastic moduli.(5. High order terms do not significantly alter the wave structure in the weakly dispersive case. when the wave characteristics. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 150 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids v 0. ai . Any other initial kink different from the Burgers one.3 0. In such circumstance Eq.42) as well for the perturbed MKdV kink when the additional condition (5. In contrast to the bell-shaped solitary wave selection in previous section now only the wave number tends to a prescribed finite value. if dis- .2 0.(5. 5.5 Numerical simulation of the Burgers kink evolution into the quasistationary profile in the weakly dispersive case at b2 < 0.44) of Eq.1 x 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig.64) indicates. amplitude and wavelength. We have found in the weakly dispersive limit how the kink-shaped wave is selected.58) is satisfied. a cubic nonlinearity of the elastic material is taken into account and dissipation exists e. of radius R.

However.s. However.February 11.3 0. dissipation and nonlinearity are of the same order. The existence of these solutions require additional restrictions studied in Sec. As a useful aspect of our analytical study is that obtaining exact and . and so on.h.2 0. 5. and thus the corresponding ”dissipative” quartic nonlinearity demands a simultaneous quintic nonlinear term.6 Numerical simulation of the Burgers kink evolution into the quasistationary profile in the weakly dispersive case at b2 > 0. adding a term like (v 3 )xxt is not permitted by the assumptions in Sec. Exact solutions obtained account for the case when the dispersion. of Eq. In particular they provide the nontrivial condition 3α2 α7 − 2α3 α6 = 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 151 v 0.3. Moreover numerical simulations in the weakly dispersive case point to a formal validity of the results from Sec. we have no kink selection in the weakly dissipative (active) case when all wave parameters tend to finite values. that allows the propagation of a quasistationary perturbed kink in the weakly dissipative case.(5. This seems due to the absence of ”dissipative (active)” cubic nonlinear terms in the r. 5.1 x 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig.5 when dispersion is not small. Indeed.3.51).2.3. (v 3 )xxt and (v 4 )xx will be of the same order. 5.3. persion becomes significant those terms must be taken into consideration for a correct description of the strain kinks. 5. The influence of dissipation on the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion appears affecting wave evolution much more drastically than what dispersion does to the Burgers nonlinearity-dissipation balance.

done by normal and tangential external forces at the lateral surface of the rod. On the other hand. r = R.1 Let us use the same notations as in previous sections.65) accounts only for the weakly dispersive case. the evolution of surface waves with surface deformation η of amplitude A and wavelength L in a layer of depth H is governed by the equation Porubov (1995): ηt + γ1 (η 2 )x + γ2 ηxx + ε γ3 ηxxx + γ4 (η 2 )xx + γ5 (η 3 )x = 0. Its O. reduction coincides with Eq. we have shown that an external medium.(5.(5. In view of the lack of experimental data on the fourth order moduli our results may help in finding these moduli using the linear algebraic relationships between them and the kink wave amplitude and velocity obtained using B2 .. This may be used to locate zones of potential plasticity. e. may be responsible for the amplification of both the strain kink and bell-shaped solitary waves. (5.(5.g.66) ∗ We assume the external medium yields a normal stress Prr .65) Eq.E. see Sec. ∗ Prr = − k1 w + k2 r wxx . Contrary to the elastic bulk dissipation–free rod inside the liquid layer here the dissipation is caused by fluid viscosity and heat diffusion. (5.4 Influence of external tangential stresses on strain solitary waves evolution in a nonlinear elastic rod Formulation of the problem 5. 5.43).D. permafrost. now is: ∞ δA = 2π −∞ ∗ ∗ (Prr δw + Prx δu)dx .February 11.4. δA.2. when A/H = H/L << 1. Note that Eq. 5.65) describes waves past an instability threshold. Analytic solutions could be also the starting points for the numerical search of homoclinic and heteroclinic trajectories yielding solutions of possibly more complicated form than those described in this report. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 152 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids asymptotic solutions allow reliable testing points for time-dependent numerical integration. The elementary work. note that our solutions may also be used to account for the evolution of surface waves in a heated liquid layer subjected to variations of surface tension. r (5.67) . Finally. Indeed.

both k1 and k2 are positive and constant. kd is of either sign.c. 2 w = b1 r Ux + kd b2 r2 Uxx + b3 r3 Uxxx + B1 r Ux .73) where . We consider a more general model. see also Kerr (1964) and references therein. (3.13) that yields in our case: 2 u = U + kd a1 r Ux + a2 r2 Uxx + kd A1 r Ux .72) (5.c. (3. 5. ∗ Prx = Prx .70) (5.) are: w → 0.2 the unknown functions u.11).4. at r = R. Hence the boundary conditions (b. Tangential stresses on the lateral surface are assumed in the form: ∗ ∗ Prx = kd Prr .71). (ii) long elastic strain waves have a characteristic length L such that relative to the rod radius R. Prx of the Piola . at r = R. w are expanded in a power series (3. Let us obtain the relationships between longitudinal and shear displacements satisfying b. (3. It corresponds to the Pasternak (1954) model based on the representation of the contact by means of the interacting spring elements. ∗ Prr = Prr .71) where the components Prr .68) that relates to the Coulomb-Amonton law H¨hner and Spencer (1998). (5. 3. in order to account for the influence of an active external medium providing an energy influx .2 Derivation of the governing equation Simplifications follows from the natural assumptions are similar to those used in previous sections: (i) pure elastic strain waves have magnitude B << 1.February 11. (5.12). a Nikitin (1998) when kd > 0 is a friction coefficient. (5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 153 where ki are the stiffness coefficients of the external medium.(5. R/L << 1. (iii)B ∼ R2 /L2 .69) (5.Kirchhoff stress tensor P are defined by Eqs. (5. According to the procedure developed in Sec. at r → 0.69).10).

(5. b2 = . µ B1 = − λ + 2l + 2(λ + 4l − 2m + n)b1 + 2[3(λ + µ) + 4l + 2m]b2 1 .29) we obtain that longitudinal strains.7) like before in order to omit negligibly small higher-order nonlinear terms and the ”corresponding” higher order linear derivative terms due to the assumption (iii).(5.72).(3. while nonlinear term coefficients A1 . Substituting Eqs. (5. b3 = . µ 2µ2 (3λ + 4µ + k1 ) b1 = − λ k 1 λ b1 (k2 b1 − λa2 ) . B1 have different but opposite signs. β2 = − ρ0 R ρ0 R α2 = 3 1 1 [ (1 + 2b1 )(1 + 2b2 ) + µ 1 + 2b3 + l 1 + 2b3 + 1 1 1 ρ0 2 3 2 m(1 + 2b1 )(1 − b1 )2 + nb2 + {λ + 2b1 (λ + µ) + 2k1 b1 }B1 + 1 3 2 2 k1 kd b2 1 µ2 1 1 µ (λ + m)(1 + 2b1 ) + µ(1 + b1 ) − nb1 − B1 ]. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 154 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids a1 = − 2 2 [µ2 (3λ + 4µ + k1 ) + 2 kd k1 λ ]b1 k1 b1 . obey a nonlinear dispersive-dissipative equation vtt − α1 vxx − α2 ( v 2 )xx − α3 vxxtt + α4 vxxxx = kd (β1 vx + β2 (v 2 )x + β3 vxxx ). are always positive. ρ0 µρ0 β1 = − 2k1 b1 2k1 B1 . Due to the chosen five-constant theory (3.74) where α1 = 2 2 λ + 2µ + 4[λ + b1 (λ + µ)]b1 + 2k1 (b2 − b2 ) 3 k1 kd b2 1 1 + . 2 4 b1 . b1 .b3 are always negative. a2 . v = Ux . (5.6).February 11.1) we have to truncate the series (5. 2(λ + µ) + k1 µ(3λ + 4µ + k1 ) 2(2λ + 3µ) + k1 A1 = − k1 B1 . a2 = − .73) into Eq. 2(2(λ + µ) + k1 ) Note that a1 .

(5. see Sec. α3 c2 − α4 α3 c2 − α4 α3 c2 − α4 γ4 = β1 β2 .4. vv . Assume the solution of Eq.75) where a dash denotes differentiation with respect to θ. κ) + b2 . β3 = 2 2 2µ µρ0 α4 = R2 [a2 {4µa2 − 2(λ + 2µ) − 4b1 (λ − µ)} + µ b2 − 8b3 {λ + 2b1 (λ + µ)}]+ 1 2ρ0 R2 k 2 2R2 b1 [k2 µb1 − k1 b3 (µ − k1 )] + 2 d [b2 (9λ + 10µ)µ2 + ρ0 2µ ρ0 2 2 k1 {b2 [4µ2 (a2 + 1) + 2µ(µ − 3λ)] − 4k2 µb2 } + k1 b1 {4µb3 + (λ + 2µ)b1 }]. general periodic solution may be expressed using either the Weierstrass elliptic function .4. More general solutions are found in terms of the elliptic functions see Sec. or the Jacobian elliptic function.(5. 2−α α3 − α4 α3 c 4 c2 Following the procedure from Sec.74) is nonitegrable by the Inverse Scattering Transform method Ablowitz and Segur (1981). 1 When kd = 0 Eq. 5.1.3 Symmetric strain solitary waves Even at kd = 0 Eq. . One can see they are in balance when a solution has the second order pole. γ3 = .1. There exist different approaches based on the assumptions of the appropriate ansatz for a solutions.D. usually travelling wave.February 11. 3. v = a2 cn2 (pθ.(5. then in the moving frame Eq. exact solutions may be obtained.(5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 155 α3 = 2 2 2 2 R2 k1 kd b2 R2 2 2R[k2 µb1 − k1 µ(a2 b1 + b3 ) − k1 kd b1 b2 ] 1 (b1 −2a2 )+ . v + kd γ1 v + γ2 v + γ3 vv + kd γ4 v 2 + kd γ5 v = 0. we compare the leading-order derivative term. and main attention is paid here on the exact solutions vanishing at infinity. v = a1 ℘(θ.74) depends only upon the phase variable θ = x− c t. g1 .74) becomes the O. 2. However. only particular.74) becomes the double dispersive equation (DDE) accounting for nonlinear strain waves in a free lateral surface rod. g2 ) + b1 . Hence. (5. and γ1 = β3 α1 − c2 2α2 . γ2 = . v . γ5 = . 2. and the nonlinear term. Hence. up to now only localized strain waves were observed in experiments.E.

(5. (5. kd γ4 v 2 . and by a balance between active/dissipative terms. Solitary wave solution exists under specific initial condition in the form of (5. Since they correspond to the limit κ → 1. and dispersion. (5. γ3 vv . It is known that in non-dissipative case even rather arbitrary initial pulse splits into the train of solitary waves each being . α3 β2 (5. 2 whose solution vanishing at infinity is obtained from the equation (5.76) Substituting (5. βj depend on the elastic features of the material of the rod and the parameters of the external medium. kd γ1 v . or tensile. They define the sign of the wave amplitude G. while the phase velocity c remains a free parameter.G= . (5.78) is supported simultaneously by a balance between nonlinearity. (5. 2−α ) 4(α3 c 2α2 4 2γ4 = γ1 γ3 .75) and equating to zero coefficients at corresponding powers of tanh(pθ) one obtains p2 = c2 − α1 3(c2 − α1 ) .78). (5. G < 0. one can assume the solution of the form: v = G cosh−2 (pθ). Its solitary wave solution is (5.77). G > 0.78) defines the phase velocity. α2 α3 β1 + (α4 − α1 α3 )β2 + α2 β3 = 0.76) into Eq.77) (5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 156 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Localized solitary wave solution are of interest here. The last balance is realized under conditions (5. γ5 = γ1 γ2 .78) while the second one imposes a restriction on the equation coefficients.76) at t = 0. The coefficients αi .77). When conditions (5.February 11. c2 = α4 β2 + α2 β3 . Hence the general solution (5.79) Eq. kd γ5 v.78) hold Eq. (5.76).75) may be rewritten as [ ∂ 1 + kd γ1 ](v + γ2 v + γ3 v 2 ) = 0. wave may propagate in the rod. ∂θ 2 1 v + γ2 v + γ3 v 2 = 0. v (like DDE’s solution).76). The first of the conditions (5. hence either compression.79) is nothing but ODE reduction of the DDE integrated twice.

We look for a solution satisfying the boundary conditions vi → 0. −∞ (5. Assume a solution of Eq.80) whose one-parameter solution has the form of (5. with θx = 1. 3.74) depends upon the phase variable θ and the slow time T .81) The operator acting on the function v1 in Eq.3.(5. (5. but c now depends upon T .84) . ∞ 0. and no localized waves appear. θt = −c(T ).. When dissipation/accumulation predominates it destroys initial pulse before balance between nonlinearity and dispersion become to play. α2 cT Q6 (c) = (α1 − c2 )(α3 c2 − α4 )(6α3 β2 c4 + [5α2 α3 β1 − 6β2 (α4 + α1 α3 ) − α2 β3 ]c2 − 5α2 α4 β1 + 6α1 α4 β2 + α1 α2 β3 ).74) is sought in the form v = v0 (θ) + kd v1 (θ) + .θ = 0.θθθ + β1 v0 + β2 v0 + β3 v0 . (5. At order O(kd ) there is an inhomogeneous linear equation for v1 .θθT − α3 cT v0. T ). (5.83) provides the absence of secular terms.θ − (α3 c2 − α4 )v0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 157 accounted for the travelling solitary wave exact solution of the DDE. (c2 − α1 )v1.θ − (α3 c2 − α4 )v1.θθθ − 2α2 v0 v0. kd << 1..February 11.82) v0 F dθ = 0. It yields the equation defining the phase velocity c. where 2 F = 2cv0. when nonlinearity and dispersion dominate over dissipation/accumulation.76). T = kd t. Then asymptotic solution of Eq.(5. see Sec.T + cT v0 − 2α3 cv0. Consider now a weakly dissipative case. i Then the Fredholm alternative. at |θ| → ∞.81) is adjoint to that in Eq.θθθ − 2α2 (v0 v1 )θ = F.(5. In the leading order we get (c2 − α1 )v0. (5. v = v(θ.(5.80).

However. and the sign of cT depends upon the signs of the polynomial Q6 (c) and the quartic polynomial in the r. Fig. (5. When cT keeps its sign as time passes possible scenarios for evolution of c are either vanishing or diverging to infinity. It was called in Sec. we have cT > 0 when c∗ < c < c∗ and cT < 0 when q1 < c < c∗ or c∗ < c < q2 . 1. Based on Eq. q2 are real neighboring 2 1 roots of Q6 (c).3 the selection from below when c0 < cs . To put this another way.84).(5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 158 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids where 2 Q6 (c) = 30α3 c6 − 3α3 (11α4 + 10α1 α3 )c4 + 2α4 (11α1 α3 + 10α4 )c2 − 2 2 α1 α3 α4 − 5α1 α4 .θ .84) may be integrated giving the dependence c on T in an implicit form. Eq.81) is v1 = C(α1 − c2 ) (α1 α3 − α4 )c2 cT [1 − tanh(pθ)] + [C + θ]v0 + 2α2 (α1 − c2 )2 (α3 c2 − α4 ) C (α1 α3 − α4 )c2 cT [C1 + θ − θ2 ]v0. the value of 1 velocity is selected according to the governing equation coefficients.17(b). (5. while the case c0 > cs is referred to by the selection from above. 2 (α1 − c2 )2 (α3 c2 − α4 ) . where q1 . It means 2 1 2 1 that if an initial velocity. 2 2 If Q6 (c) < 0.77) (α1 − c2 )(α3 c2 − α4 ) < 0.(5. q1 < c∗ < c∗ < q2 . (5.85) Due to (5.h. in particular. c∗ < c∗ . c tends to cs = c∗ . c(T = 0) ≡ c0 lies in the intervals c∗ < c0 < c∗ or 1 2 c∗ < c < q2 . More interesting case is realized when. The wave amplitude G(c) is selected like velocity c according to (5.84) c1 = α1 and c2 = α4 /α3 correspond to p = 0 or p → ∞ in (5.s. 1. (5.17 (a).84) the solution of Eq.February 11.77). Other stationary solutions are defined from the equation 6α3 β2 c4 + [5α2 α3 β1 − 6β2 (α4 + α1 α3 ) − α2 β3 ]c2 − 5α2 α4 β1 + 6α1 α4 β2 + α1 α2 β3 = 0.85). the velocity c(T ) tends to the finite value cs = c∗ at T → ∞. their amplitudes increase (decrease) while their widths decrease (increase). If α3 β2 > 0 and Q6 (c) > 0 at q1 < c < q2 . Fig. 1. are 2 1 located in the interval. The stationary solutions of √ (5. We see the waves remain symmetric with respect to their maximums. important features of the evolution of c may be established studying the sign of cT without integration. real roots of Eq. of Eq.77).

87) .74) we get that 2 (1 − α1 P 2 )vθ − 2α2 v vθ − (α3 − α4 P 2 ) vθθθ = kd (2P [α1 vX + α2 vX + (α3 − 2α4 P 2 )vθθX ]+ 2 2 PX [α1 v+α2 vθ +(α3 −6α4 P 2 )vθθ ]+P [β1 v+β2 v 2 +p2 β3 vθθ ])+O(kd ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 159 where C1 is a constant. θt = −1. and a plateau appears behind the solitary wave.86) is sought in the form v = v0 (θ.(5. The standard matching asymptotic procedure should be used to complete the uniformly valid asymptotic solution satisfying boundary conditions (5.4 Evolution of asymmetric solitary waves Another asymptotic solution may be found when kd << 1 is considered but now it is assumed that a solution of Eq.(5.4.. (5. Then from (5. X) + kd v1 (θ. T ) + kd v1 (θ. v = v(θ.74) is a function of the phase variable θ and the slow coordinate X. 2 C = 12p[α3 β2 c8 + α3 (5α2 α3 cT − 2α1 α3 β2 − 2α4 β2 − α2 β3 )c6 + 2 2 2 (β2 {α1 α3 + 4α1 α3 α4 + α4 } + α2 β3 {2α1 α3 + α4 } − 11α2 α3 α4 cT )c4 + (α2 α4 cT {2α1 α3 + 5α4 } − α1 {2α4 β2 [α1 α3 + α4 ] + α2 β3 [α1 α3 + 2α4 ]})c4 − 2 α1 α4 (α4 β2 + α2 β3 )]/{5α2 (α1 − c2 )3 (α3 c2 − α4 )} One can check that evolution of the solution v = v0 (θ. it does not vanish at θ → −∞. 5.February 11..86) The solution of Eq. (5. and two values of the selected wave parameters exist thanks to the mixed dispersion term in Eq. β3 = 0.(5.76) nor asymptotic selected solitary wave solution exists at β2 = 0..74). see Ablowitz and Segur (1981) for details. T ) does not significantly differ from that of the solution v = v0 (θ. with θx = P (X). However. Absence of plateau requires additional restrictions on the equation coefficients. X = kd x. when α3 = 0. X).82). Note that neither exact solitary wave solution (5. T ). X) + .

(5.θ − (α3 − α4 P 2 ) v0.θθ ] + 2 P [β1 v0 + β2 v0 + P 2 β3 v0. Again besides decay or an infinite growth of s one can describe its selection (from below and from above) to the values ss obtained from the equation .θ + (α3 − 6α4 P 2 )v0.87) into (5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 160 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids and satisfies boundary conditions (5. α2 H3 (s)sX = s (α1 s − 1)(α3 − α4 s)(6α3 β2 + [5α2 α3 β1 − 6β2 (α4 + α1 α3 ) − α2 β3 ]s − [5α2 α4 β1 − 6α1 α4 β2 − α1 α2 β3 ]s2 ).18.X + (α3 − 2α4 P 2 )v0.88) now accounts for a solitary wave with parameters varying with respect to X. with 2 F = 2P [α1 v0. 1. (5.86) we have a nonlinear O.February 11.θθX ] + 2 PX [α1 v0 + α2 v0.θθθ = F.θθθ = 0. for v0 in the leading order. Substituting (5.91) Analysis of the solutions of Eq.89) (5.E.θθ ]. see Fig.θ − 2α2 (v0 v1 )θ − (α3 − α4 P 2 ) v1.(5. p2 = 2α2 P 2 4P 2 (α3 − α4 P 2 ) (5. (1 − α1 P 2 )v0.89) may be symmetric or asymmetric with respect to its core (or maximum) at different points in time.82). v0 = 3(1 − α1 P 2 ) 1 − α1 P 2 cosh−2 (pθ).X + α2 v0.θ − 2α2 v0 v0.91) may be done similar to that in the previous section. Its solution.83) yields the equation for the function s = P 2 . (1 − α1 P 2 )v1. Depending upon the function P (X) the solitary wave (5. The evolution of the solitary wave may be described solving the next order problem where an inhomogeneous linear equation holds.90) Like in previous section the solvability condition (5.D. where H3 (s) = α1 α4 (α1 α3 + 5α4 )s3 − 2α4 (11α1 α3 + 10α4 )s2 + 2 3α3 (5α1 α3 + 17α4 )s − 30α3 .

7 Selection of the solitary waves governed by the solution (5. (5.February 11.2 v 1.85). 5.91): (a) from below (b) from above.89) are the same as well as the conditions required for the selection.92) coincides with Eq. .25 1 0. [5α2 α4 β1 − 6α1 α4 β2 − α1 α2 β3 ]s2 − [5α2 α3 β1 − 6β2 (α4 + α1 α3 ) − α2 β3 ]s− 6α3 β2 = 0.75 0.6 0. (5.4 0. It means that parameters of the selected solitary waves (5. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Influence of dissipative (active) external medium 161 v 0.76) and (5.5 1.5 0.92) We see that after substitution s = 1/c2 we get H3 (s) = Q6 (c)/c6 while Eqs.25 10 20 30 40 50 x -20 -10 10 20 30 40 50 x Fig.2 -20 -10 -0.89). (5. (5.

5. Fig.7(a) and Fig. β3 = 0. Fig.1 where the governing equation corresponds to Eq.7(b). 4. 5. The parameters are chosen so as an initial profile is symmetric. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 162 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids In Fig. 5. We have studied how the external tangential dissipative (active) forces may support an evolution of the long strain solitary waves in an elastic rod. The conditions are found analytically when the selection of the solitary wave occurs both from below and from above. In experiments only narrowing part of the rod was observed where a conversion to an asymmetric wave occurs.(5. or decreases. it transforms back into the symmetric wave during the selection both from below and from above as shown in the last two stages in Fig. it was found analytically and in experiments the formation of asymmetric strain solitary wave in a narrowing rod. see Sec. β2 = 0.7 it is shown the temporal evolution of the solitary wave (5. We see that the initial wave increases.91). 5.89) whose amplitude and velocity vary according to Eq. Previously. and there is no solitary wave selection.7(b).(5. 5.February 11. However. It is shown that both asymptotic solutions predict evolution into the symmetric selected solitary waves.74) with β1 = β1 (x). into the asymmetric solitary wave.7(a). .

New variable has been introduced.. Engelbrecht et.February 11. Maugin (1990). temperature etc. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter 6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection Now the attention is paid on the situations when active/dissipative forces act inside a solid body. Dissipation function is included into variation formulation through its elementary work. The last equation is usually parabolic and is obtained phenomenologically. Maugin (1999). This modelling is connected with the concept of internal variables Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). microdisplacement.g. diffusive). al (1999). Various phenomenologocal model for viscoelastic biologocal media are discussed in Alekseev and Rybak (2002).). elastic stress or strain may be considered as observable variables in the usual sense of the word.e. According to this theory. Another idea has been used in Maugin (2000) to develop a variation formulation in thermoelasticity. into the relation for the free energy density. Thus Lord Rayleigh (1945) involved so-called dissipation function describing forces which depend upon temporal derivatives of the variables. called thermacy. Its behavior is described by the hyperbolic equation. In order to compensate our lack of description of the internal structure of material or the heat processes. Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996).. Another approach is of phenomenological kind. another variables are introduced called internal variables. 163 . Maugin and Muschik (1994). Maugin (1999). It is known that variation formulations used before in the book cannot be applied in the presence of volume dissipative effects unless some modifications are proposed. Application of the internal variables to the wave problems may be found in Engelbrecht (1997). They are usually governed by the equations of parabolic type (i. The coupled governing equations are derived in the form of a hyperbolic equation of motion (or the equation with main hyperbolic part) and the equation for a variable responsible for dissipation (e.

Recently in a series of papers Cermelli and Pastrone (1997). waves in microstructured solids. All processes are governed by coupled dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations. Maugin and Muschik (1994). Eringen (1968). Engelbrecht (1997). waves in a medium with moving defects. Mindlin (1964). 6. Only a few works are devoted to the nonlinear waves in microstructured non-dissipative media Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Strain waves in microstructured medium were studied mainly in the linear approximation Eringen (1968). Also experiments were performed in Potapov and Rodyushkin (2001). al (1999) the influence of dissipation on a shock propagation was studied in the one dimensional case while inertia of the microstructure was neglected into account together with the gradient of the microfield . al (1973b) where attempts to measure them were done. Later numerical simulations were performed to account for the evolution of . e. Erofeev and Potapov (1993). however. Most results belong to the linear theory of elasticity. Engelbrecht (1979). Eringen and Suhubi (1964). Engelbrecht et. there are findings in the field of the nonlinear theory Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Erofeev and Potapov (1993). The theory of microstructures has been developed recently. Engelbrecht and Braun (1998). Eringen (1968).. see Capriz (1989). Sillat (1999) while the influence of the dissipative microstructure on the evolution of non-linear waves has been discussed in Cermelli and Pastrone (1997). We do not consider here viscoelastic materials describing by the integro.February 11. Maugin and Muschik (1994). namely. see about it. Christensen (1971). and thermoelastic waves. Strain waves may be useful in developing a possible method to estimate the microparameters since shape. Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) The influence of dissipation/accumulation may be described by various methods. seismic waves.g. Mindlin (1964) and references therein quoted. see Engelbrecht (1983) and references therein. Engelbrecht and Braun (1998).1 Nonlinear bell-shaped and kink-shaped strain waves in microstructured solids The classical theory of elasticity cannot account for effects caused by the microstructure of a material. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 164 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Below some active/dissipative problems are considered.differential equations. An important problem is the lack of data on the microstructure parameters. amplitude and velocity of the strain wave can carry informations about the microstructure. but a few works can be mentioned Savin et.

all variables depend upon the coordinate x and the time t. and the selection of quasistationary dissipative solitary waves is found. Now and in the . The simultaneous influence of the accumulation/dissipation on the evolution is studied. we assume the microdisplacement depends linearly on the microcoordinates xJ : UJ (xJ . (ii) the macromotion if small but finite. ΓXXX = ψx . t). EIJ = ∂I UJ − ψIJ .1.). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 165 periodic waves Sillat (1999). Then the geometrical nonlinear2 ity is described by the only macrostrain CXX = Ux + 1/2Ux . Engelbrecht et. al (1999) is modified including both the inertia of the microstructure and the gradient of the microfield . Engelbrecht et. CIJ . ΓIJK = ∂I ψJK . ψ = ψXX . while the Murnaghan model is valid to account for the physical nonlinearity. fluid with micro-bubbles. the fundamental strains are given by: the Cauchy-Green macrostrain tensor .1 Modelling of a microstructured medium with dissipation/accumulation Let us recall some basic ideas following Eringen (1968). t) = xK ψKJ (x. It is shown that it is able to describe both the bell-shaped and kink-shaped longitudinal strain solitary waves. thus avoiding dependence upon microcoordinates. liquid crystals. Let us assume the following: (i) the movement is one dimensional. Hence the microdisplacement gradient is given by ∂I UJ = ψIJ . We suppose that the material particle contains discrete micromaterial elements whose displacements are accounted by the microdisplacement vector with components UJ (xJ . etc. Mindlin (1964). and the microdisplacement gradient. t). A possibility of the estimation of the microstructure parameters is proposed on the basis of the results obtained here. The motion of a material particle is characterized by the displacement vector with components UJ (xJ . Following Eringen (1968). As a result the nonlinear PDE with dispersion and dissipative (active) terms is derived. 6. In a reference configuration. The model discussed in Cermelli and Pastrone (1997). t).February 11. if one needs a model to describe wider class of phenomena (solids with affine microstructures. the distortion tensor. EXX = Ux − ψ. Below we follow Porubov and Pastrone (2001). This kinematical model is valid for particular families of microstructures only. al (1999). we refer to the references given in Cermelli and Pastrone (1997). (iii) the microstructure is sufficiently weak to be considered in the linear approximation. Mindlin (1964).

We would like to consider a more general case to account also for the energy influx to the strain wave caused by the microstructure. (6. Maugin and Muschik (1994). al (1999).2) where ρ is the macro-density. (6.(6. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 166 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids following small lower indices denote differentiation. they are not rigorously deduced within the . Certainly. constitutive equations (6. τeq = D(Ux − ψ). F and f have the same dimensions. (6. the simplest extension of the Hook law to the viscoelastic media Alekseev and Rybak (2002). Let us remark that the Voigt model accounts for the influence of the dissipation only. Engelbrecht et. e.4) may be of different signs. Assume the following representations in the general case. Engelbrecht (1983). see.4) Note that A and a. ρUtt = σx + τx . Hence the coefficients in Eq. I characterizes micro inertia. σ = σeq +AUxt +aψt . Then the one dimensional governing equations may be written as in Mindlin (1964).1) (6. In dissipationless case components σeq . ηIJK = .4) are of phenomenological kind. ηeq = Gψx . β = 3/2(λ + 2µ) + l + 2m. Dissipation inequality imposes some restrictions on the involved parameters Cermelli and Pastrone (1997).g. The reason of our assumption may be seen considering the linearized case in absence of the microstructure. I ψtt = ηx + τ. Bland (1960).February 11. D and G are constant parameters. Murnaghan (1951) is reduced to: 2 σeq = (λ + 2µ)Ux + βUx . Then we have for σ: σ = (λ + 2µ)Ux + AUxt . τIJ and ηIJK are defined through the derivatives of the free energy W . Our model may be considered as a generalization of the Voigt model of microstructured solids. σIJ = ∂W ∂W ∂W . τeq and ηeq of the tensors σIJ . η = ηeq +F Uxxt +f ψxt .. B and b. µ are the Lame coefficients. τ = τeq +BUxt +bψt . ∂CIJ ∂EIJ ∂ΓIJK which in the one dimensional limit Mindlin (1964). (iv) the external forces are negligible. τIJ = . since strictly speaking.3) Here λ. that relates to the Voigt model.

5) I ψtt = D(v − ψ) + Bvt + bψt + G ψxx + F vxxt + f ψxxt . the macro strain v is elastic and does not exceed the yield point.7) γ . but we do not want to go further in details here. a = da∗ .(6. G∗ having the dimension of stress. λ + 2µ λ + 2µ (6. Using dimensional analysis.6): (a) ε = V << 1 accounting for elastic strains. hence.as a scale for v and ψ.4) into Eqs. (6. F = dF ∗ . we obtain the coupled equations ρvtt = (λ+2µ+D)vxx −Dψxx +β( v 2 )xx +(A+B)vxxt +(a+b)ψxxt . one can assume G = p2 G∗ . B = dB ∗ . V << 1.4) can be seen as a particular case. Since the Murnaghan model is chosen. (b) δ = p2 /L2 << 1.February 11. (6. Then the dimensionless governing equations are (we keep the notations for variables): vtt − (1 + D D β )vxx + ψxx = ε ( v 2 )xx + λ + 2µ λ + 2µ λ + 2µ (A∗ + B ∗ )c0 (a∗ + b∗ )c0 vxxt + ψxxt .6) Further simplifications follow considering only long waves with characteristic length L >> 1.3). we are dealing with those elastic materials whose yield points are small. Then three positive dimensionless parameters appear in Eqs. The microinertia term I 0 depends upon the square of a typical size p of a microstructure element. V . where d has the dimension of a length. (c) γ = d/L. characterizing the ratio between the microstructure size and the wave length. f = df ∗ . (6.1). (6. Then I may be rewritten as I = ρp2 I ∗ . (6. L/c0 . Moreover. Equation (6. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 167 general framework of Rational Continuum Mechanics. obtained via proper additional assumptions.(6.2) and introducing the functions v = Ux and ψ as unknown variables. Substituting Eqs. Let us introduce L as a scale for x. In the following a more general constitutive equations will be derived according the basic assumptions and methods of Continuum Mechanics.5). The influence of dissipation/accumulation may be conveniently described supposing A = dA∗ . as a scale for t. characterizing the influence of the dissipation. the characteristic strain magnitude V is also small. c2 = (λ + 2µ)/ρ as a characteristic velocity. (6. b = db∗ . I ∗ being dimensionless.

B ∗ . ψ2 = vxx − vtt . the only equation for v is of the form vtt − vxx − ε β (A∗ + B ∗ )c0 ( v 2 )xx − γ vxxt = 0.. (6.February 11. 2 D D2 b∗ (B ∗ + b∗ )c2 0 vtt . If we expand the solution of Eq. (6.12) with Eq. λ + 2µ λ + 2µ λ + 2µ [(F ∗ + f ∗ )D + (B ∗ + b∗ − a∗ )G∗ ]c0 . α7 = . The . α4 = I ∗ . a∗ . D ρD (6. α2 = .. α3 = . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 168 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Dψ = Dv + γc0 [B ∗ vt + b∗ ψt ] + δ [G∗ ψxx − (λ + 2µ)I ∗ ψtt ] + γδc0 [F ∗ vxxt + f ∗ ψxxt ] .(6.11) ψ4 = D2 ψ0 = v.8) In absence of the microstructure. by substituting (6. α5 = (λ + 2µ)D I ∗ (a∗ − B ∗ − b∗ )c0 a∗ (B ∗ + b∗ ) α6 = .(6. t). (6.9) we see that the inclusion of the gradient of microdistortion provides the dispersion vxxxx .8) in the form : ψ = ψ0 + γ ψ1 + δ ψ2 + γδ ψ3 + γ 2 ψ4 + . F ∗ . while the inertia of the microstructure gives us mixed dissipation and dispersion terms. where α1 = β (A∗ + a∗ )c0 G∗ . the governing nonlinear PDE for the macrostrain v(x.10).(6.12) (6.9) Assume dissipation is weak. ψ1 = we obtain. and δ are equal to zero.(6. λ + 2µ λ + 2µ (6. with G∗ (λ + 2µ)I ∗ (B ∗ + b∗ )c0 vt . b∗ .7). D. G. vtt − vxx − εα1 ( v 2 )xx − γα2 vxxt + δ(α3 vxxxx − α4 vxxtt )+ γδ(α5 vxxxxt + α6 vxxttt ) + γ 2 α7 vxxtt = 0..11) into Eq.10) Comparing Eq. D D D [(F ∗ + f ∗ )D + (B ∗ + 2b∗ )G∗ ]c0 (λ + 2µ)(B ∗ + 2b∗ )c0 I ∗ ψ3 = vxxt − vttt .

This is the reason we retain terms quadratic in these parameters in the expansion of the solution (6.February 11. another case corresponds to the simultaneous balance between dispersion.1–1. α3 /α4 } or when 0 < c2 < min{1. The kink-shaped localized travelling structure may be sustained by different balances.1.5. c is a free parameter. k2 = c2 − 1 . one possibility occurs when nonlinearity is balanced by dissipation (or accumulation). we have the nondissipative case governed by the double dispersive equation.10). vtt − vxx − ε(α1 ( v 2 )xx − α3 vxxxx + α4 vxxtt ) = 0. α1 (6. as it will be explained in the following. 1. 6. There are two main types of nonlinear travelling solitary waves which could propagate keeping its shape. 3. If in addition γ = 0. γ and δ. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 169 evolution of nonlinear strain wave depends upon the ratio between parameters ε.16) Hence. It satisfies the boundary conditions ∂k v → 0 for |x| → ∞.14) where θ = x − ct. Sometimes they can be considered ” negligibly small”. while in the second case only compressive waves propagate.13) Its exact bell-shaped travelling solitary wave solution arises as a result of balance between nonlinear and dispersive terms. 4ε(α4 c2 − α3 ) (6. . according to the different effects we want to point out.15) (6. In the first case longitudinal tensile waves propagate.15) exists when c2 > max{1. ∂xk and takes the form (see section 3): v= 6k 2 (α4 c2 − α3 ) cosh−2 (k θ). (6. Typical shapes of the waves are shown in Figs. k = 0. sometimes-not. bell-shaped and kink-shaped solitary waves. 2.2 Bell-shaped solitary waves The balance between nonlinearity and dispersion takes place when δ = O(ε). The bell-shaped solitary wave usually appears as a result of a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. the solitary wave (6. nonlinearity and dissipation (or accumulation). α3 /α4 }. 1.

2 (δα4 − γ 2 α7 )c4 − [δ(α3 + α4 ) + 24γ 2 α2 ]c2 + δα3 = 0.. T ) + γv1 (θ. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 170 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids In general.18) we have in the leading order 2 (c2 − α1 )v0.17) exists only for particular values of the coefficients in such equations. Parkes and Duffy (1996).February 11. The solution of Eq. with θx = 1. (6.13).(6. Eq.18) is sought in the form v = v0 (θ. γ << 1. Substituting (6. θt = −c(T ).12) possesses an exact travelling bell-shaped solution vanishing at infinity Kudryashov (1988). Then from (6.19) ∂2 α2 v − ε(α5 + α6 c2 ) vθθ ∂θ2 + (6.14) at |θ| → ∞. v=− where k=± 2γcα2 .20) . 1..19) into (6.θ − εα1 ( v0 )θ + ε(α3 − α4 c2 ) v0. hence. Eq.17) εα1 α4 = α4 + ε2 /δ α7 . When δ = O(ε). the exact solution (6. T ). .(6..(6. (6. T ) + . the phase velocity c is defined from the overdetermined system of bi-quadratic equations.18) where vi . (6. i = 0. T = γ t..12) is considered as dissipation perturbed double dispersive equation (6..θθθ = 0. The asymptotic solution is sought as a function of the phase variable θ and the slow time T . 2 (δ α4 2 + 16γ 2 α2 α6 )c4 + (16γ 2 α2 α5 − 2δα3 α4 )c2 + δα3 = 0. satisfy boundary conditions (6.12) we get that (c2 − 1)vθ − εα1 ( v 2 )θ + ε(α3 − α4 c2 ) vθθθ = γ 2c[vT − εα4 vθθT ] + cT [v − εα4 vθθ ] − c O(γ 2 ). v = v(θ. δ(α3 − α4 c2 ) 60ck 3 γδ (α5 + α6 c2 ) cosh−2 (k (x − ct))[tanh(k (x − ct)) ± 1].

23) q1 = 5α6 .23) without integration. Hence the solitary wave in microstructured solids may be also selected.θθθ = F.24) Important features of the behaviour of s may be established analyzing Eq.20) and boundary conditions at infinity one can obtain the solvability condition for Eq. with 2 Q3 (s) = 30α4 s3 + 3α4 (17α3 + 5α4 ) s2 + 2α3 (10α3 + 11α4 ) s − α3 (α4 + 5α3 ).(6. Indeed.21). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 171 The exact solitary wave solution of Eq.25) .(6. (6. the most interesting evolution of s is realized when s (and hence the amplitude of the solitary wave) tends to the finite constant value s∗ as T → ∞. ∂θ2 (6. the values of s∗ are the real positive solutions of equation q1 s2 + q2 s + q3 = 0.22) which yields the equation for the function s = c2 .21) is adjoint to the operator 3 M A = (c2 − 1)∂θ − 2εα1 v0 ∂θ + ε(α3 − α4 c2 ) ∂θ . 7ε sT Q3 (s) = 2s (s − α1 )2 (q1 s2 + q2 s + q3 ). where F is F = 2c[v0.(6. −∞ (6. ∞ v0 F dθ = 0.θθ . Then using (6.θ − 2εα1 (v0 v1 )θ + ε(α3 − α4 c2 ) v1.θθT ] + cT [v0 − εα4 v0.15).21) c The operator M acting on the function v1 in Eq. The first order term v1 in the solution (6.20) has the form (6.19) obeys the inhomogeneous linear equation (c2 − α1 )v1. (6. q3 = 7α2 α3 − 5α5 .February 11. (6. There may be decay or infinite growth of the initial velocity and the amplitude of the solitary wave (6.T − εα4 v0. However. q2 = 5α5 − 7α2 α4 − 5α6 .θθ ]− ∂2 α2 v0 − ε(α5 + α6 c2 ) v0.(6.15) with c = c(T ).

It is relevant to notice that the solution (6. and the permitted interval defined from (6.(6. even if it does not modify the behaviour of the wave near its core. There are no free parameters in the solution.16).1. One can see that the solitary wave keeps its localized bell-shaped form. attenuation and selection of the bell-shaped solitary wave v = v0 is shown in Fig. Thus the stationary values of the solitary wave parameters are prescribed by the equation coefficients. and sQ < s1q the amplification of the solitary wave with s∗ = s1q occurs at q1 > 0 if sQ < s0 < s1q while at q1 < 0 it amplifies by s∗ = s2q if s1q < s0 < s2q . Amplification. the wave amplitude increases. the attenuation to s∗ = s1q happens for the waves with s1q < s0 < sQ .February 11. while for negative q1 the double selection is realized.19) is not uniformly valid: the matching asymptotic expansions method Ablowitz and Segur (1981) should be applied to complete the solution. If sQ > s2q there is no double selection. in the form 3 v = i=0 A i tanhi (k θ). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 172 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids Assume real roots of Eq. We denote by s0 the initial value of s while the real root of Q3 is sQ .17. (6. the attenuation is provided by simultaneous decrease of the amplitude and the increase of the width. Similarly. the wave evolution is similar to the case sQ < s1q .26) with three possible sets of parameters A i . s2q ] may be analyzed in the same manner. Parkes and Duffy (1996). and additional restrictions on the equation coefficients are . When s1q < sQ < s2q there is no selection for q1 > 0. The sign of sT needed for s → snq depends upon the sign of Q3 (s) around s = snq . 6.3 Kink-shaped solitary waves The equation (6. When sQ is the only real root of Q3 .25) are s1q < s2q . but waves with sQ < s0 < s2q increase up to s∗ = s2q . k . The attenuation of the wave to s∗ = s1q happens when q1 > 0. in case q1 < 0 wave with initial velocity s0 > s2q decreases to s∗ = s2q . The situation when Q3 has three real roots within or outside the interval [s1q . Thus. the sign of q1 .12) possesses also exact travelling kink-shaped solution Kudryashov (1988). The addition of correction γv1 does not change significantly the profile of v = v0 . while the waves with s0 > s2q attenuate by s∗ = s2q . 1. In the case of amplification. while the width decreases. waves with s0 < s1q amplify up to s∗ = s1q . s1q < s0 < s2q .

α1 2εα1 (6. Then Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 173 needed.. the nonlinearity is balanced by the dissipation/accumulation only. α1 (6.27) and all derivatives of vi with respect to θ vanish at infinity.31) (6. For a kink h+ = h− .33) The alterations of the kink shape in absence of higher order dissipative/active terms. m= (h− − h+ )α1 2 .29) (6. v1d = 2(α4 c2 − α3 )m2 cosh−2 (mθ) log sech(mθ). depend upon the sign of (α4 c2 − α3 )/α1 . Typical profiles of v = v0 + δv1d with v1d defined by (6. for θ → ±∞. (6. εα1 (6.12) may be rewritten as vtt − vxx − ε(α1 ( v 2 )xx + α2 vxxt ) = −δ(α3 vxxxx − α4 vxxtt )− εδ(α5 vxxxxt + α6 vxxttt ).1 for different values of α3 with other parameters values fixed: .e.(6. In the leading order the kink solution has the form v = A m tanh(m θ) + B. 2cα2 Next order solution v1 consists of two parts.February 11.28) (6. where vi = vi (θ = x − ct) satisfies the boundary conditions v0 → h± . B= .30) There are two free parameters.32) are shown in Fig.. ε2 < δ < ε and γ = O(ε). v1 = v1d + v1a . i. vi → 0. c = 1 + εα1 (h+ + h− ). α5 = α6 = 0. with A=− α2 c c2 − 1 . i > 0. the phase velocity c and the wave number m which are defined from the boundary conditions. whose solution is sought in the form v = v0 + δv1 + . 6. where dispersive perturbation of the kink vanishing at infinity is accounted for the solution.32) while higher order dissipative/active terms contribution is v1a = 2(α5 + α6 c2 )cm3 cosh−2 (mθ) (3 tanh(mθ) − 2mθ) .. When dispersion is weak.

30) when there is no dispersion. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 174 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids v 4 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 v 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 v 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 2 2 2 a v 3 2 1 b 4 6 x -6 -4 -2 -1 2 4 6 x c v 3 2 1 d 4 6 x -6 -4 -2 -1 2 4 6 x e 4 6 x Fig. as shown in Figs.5. 6.1(b) the value is α3 = −0. 6. correspondingly.1(d. In Fig. 6.February 11.1. One can note the similarity with the profile in Fig. 6. m = 1.5.1(c) where α3 = 2. In contrast to the bell-shaped wave now the amplification is accompanied by the alteration of the wave profile. . and we have the mirror profile of those shown in Fig.1 Influence of weak dispersion on the shape of the kink-shaped wave. In Fig.5. ε = 0. 1. c = 1.2 it is shown what happens with the kink (6. where α3 = −2. while undisturbed kink appears in Fig. Fig.5 of the exact kink-shaped solution of DMKdV equation. α2 = −1.25.1(a. 6. Then the disturbances develop on another ”side” of the kink. 6.1(a).e) with α3 = 5. 6. b). 6. 7.5. α4 = 1. The ”nonsymmetric” disturbances of the kink shape are seen in Fig. Shown by dashed line is the unperturbed kink. they become weaker when α3 tends to zero.1 shows the amplification of the kink-shaped wave since the difference between its maximum and its minimum is larger than in the undisturbed case. α1 = 1.5. δ = 0.

Fig.February 11. γ = O(ε) corresponds to the simultaneous balance between nonlinearity.5.2(c) where there are no disturbances. dispersion and dissipation/accumulation. it varies from α6 = −1. the disturbances of the kink shape are ”symmetric” independently of the sign of α6 . α5 = 1. m = 1. First. α2 = −1.5. 6. 6. c = 1.2 nfluence of weak higher order dissipation on the shape of the kink-shaped wave . there are no mirror profiles arising at distinct signs of α6 .5. Shown by dashed line is the unperturbed kink.5.1. ε = 0. Fig. We have α6 = 0.5. 6. Two main distinctions may be mentioned in comparison with profiles shown in Fig. 6.5. 6. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 175 v 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 v 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 v 4 3 2 1 -6 -4 -2 -1 -2 2 2 2 a v 3 2 1 x b 4 6 -6 -4 -2 -1 v 3 2 1 2 4 6 x c d 4 6 x -6 -4 -2 -1 2 4 6 x e 4 6 x Fig.2(a) α6 = −2.1.2(d). δ = 0. 6.5 in Fig.2(b) to α6 = −0. Second. α3 = α4 = 0. perturbed . The case δ = O(ε).5.33) correspond to α1 = 1. The profiles of v = v0 + δv1a with v1a defined by (6.2(e) corresponds to α6 = 2.5. 6. while Fig. In Fig.

C= . Then at order ε the ODE equation for v0 is. 2 and the solution exists under special boundary conditions.28).37) It follows from (6. (6. 50α1 (α4 − α3 ) 25α1 (α4 − α3 ) α1 10(α3 − α4 ) (6. 2 2c1 v0.29) hold. v0 = A tanh(m θ)sech2 (m θ) + B tanh(m θ) + C.36) possesses the exact kink-shaped solution VliegHultsman and Halford (1991). Thus inertia yields mixed derivative terms vxxtt .35) (6.12).34) where boundary conditions (6.36) Equation (6.. Substituting (6.34) in the leading order we obtain the D’Alembert equation. Consider only one wave travelling to the left and assume v depends upon phase variable θ = x − ct with c = 1 + εc1 + ε2 c2 .... Dispersion is required for the existence of the bell-shaped solitary waves in an elastic microstructured medium. in . B= .1.θθ + (α3 − α4 ) v0. with A= 2 2 3α2 3α2 c1 α2 . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 176 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids by the higher order dissipative/active terms.February 11.35) into (6. The solution of Eq. c1 = α1 (h+ + h− ). vxxttt . vtt − vxx − ε[α1 ( v 2 )xx + α2 vxxt − α3 vxxxx + α4 vxxtt ] = −ε2 (α5 vxxxxt + α6 vxxttt )..4 Concluding remarks We have found that various features of the microstructure provide corresponding terms in the governing equation (6.(6.34) is sought in the form v = v0 + εv1 + ε2 v2 .θθθ = 0. The dispersive term vxxtt determines.29) that h+ − h− = 2B.θ − α1 ( v0 )θ + α2 v0. (6. The influence of higher order terms may be studied in a similar way as done for the solution (6. while dispersion vxxxx and higher order dissipative/active term vxxxxt are due to the micro-deformation gradient. 6. m= .

The wave amplitude and velocity depend upon macro.and micro-properties of the microstructured medium through the analytical relationships.(6. If an√ other wave travels with an initial velocity s02 . explicitly given above.12) allow to describe in an explicit form the amplification of both types of the waves. (6. Hence. see Fig. Dispersion terms also account for the alterations in the kink-shaped wave profile. Certainly the solution cannot describe an energy exchange between the waves but it gives us the range of . ε. b∗ and F ∗ . namely two stationary finite velocities of the solitary wave. Hence. The relationships among these parameters define the thresholds that separate the parameters of the initial solitary waves which will be amplified or attenuated. f ∗ appear in the expressions for the equation coefficients only in combinations B ∗ + b∗ . one could reduce the number of the microstructure parameters in the model (6. while higher order dissipative/active terms are responsible for a saturation which prevents unbounded growth of the bell-shaped solitary wave. We see that pairs B ∗ .(6. 6. According to this ratio the governing equation (6.19) describing bell-shaped solitary wave selection may help to explain transfer of the strain energy by the microstruc√ ture.4). The solutions of Eq.shaped solitary waves. δ and γ. Let us assume one single solitary wave with initial velocity s01 . when its parameters tend to the finite values prescribed by the coefficients of the governing equation. since a∗ appears in the expression for α4 independently from A∗ . while the higher order dissipative/active term α6 vxxttt provides nonzero q1 in Eq. An application of the results obtained here consists in a possible estimation of the microstructure parameters on the basis of the strain wave behaviour. At the same time there is a need of both A and a.February 11.15).12) may describe either bell-shaped or kink.16)).1. F ∗ + f ∗ . it looses its energy which is absorbed by the microstructure. it will be amplified and it means that we need a source of energy to justify the amplification. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 177 particular. the existence of either exact compression or tensile solitary wave solutions (see Eqs. as well as the selection of the solitary wave. so that it will be attenuated propagating in the microstructured medium. In principle. allows to estimate the size p of the microstructure and the parameter d which influence the dissipation/accumulation effects. The asymptotic solution (6.25). the measurements of the solitary wave amplitude and velocity allow to obtain the parameters of the microstructure using elastic macro-moduli known beforehand. The ratio between the small parameters. A possible explanation could be that the energy stored by the microstructure is released because of the passing wave.(6.

recently the phenomenological theory has been developed in Engelbrecht (1997).1 Nonlinear seismic solitary waves selection Modelling of nonlinear seismic waves The influence of microstructure may explain phenomena caused by the energy input/output. 2. (6. a3 are positive constants and ε is a small parameter. (6. a2 .2. Additional energy influx yields an amplification of the wave.. ut + u ux + d uxxx = εf (u).1. They may be considered as short-lived objects which are able to absorb energy from a surrounding medium. Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) to account for the seismic waves propagation in a horizontal layer.g. 6. Then the evolution of an initial arbitrary pulse has been studied numerically. e. and the dilaton breaks generating . Like here its single solitary wave asymptotic solution has been obtained in Sec. while propagating seismic waves may release the locked-in internal energy. and the conditions were found for the decay or a selection of a single solitary wave. 2. These fluctuations are called dilatons.38) where f is the body force related to the so-called dilation mechanism.3. Accumulation of the energy may happen only up to a certain threshold value. It was found that the initial pulse splits into a sequence of solitary waves but each of them evolves according to the single solitary wave analytical solution. then it is released. The basic idea of the seismic waves modelling is originated from the dilation theory in fracture mechanics Zhurkov (1983). Sec. f (u) = − a1 u − a2 u2 + a3 u3 .38) may describe an appearance of microseisms.2.2 6. Eq. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 178 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids the microstructure parameters when the energy transmission is possible.39) a1 . The predictions of the asymptotic solution may be valid even in a more complicated unsteady process of the formation of solitary waves from an arbitrary input. It was assumed there that negative density fluctuations play an essential role in the strength of solids. The internal energy is stored in a geophysical medium. Thus. (6. see. It was proposed to describe longitudinal strain waves evolution by the nonlinear equation.February 11. where the equation is considered rather similar to ours.

Hence it was assumed in Koz´k and Silen´ (1985) to consider a y a medium as a two-dimensional homogeneous space containing a linear inhomogeneity compressed uniaxially. were obtained in Nikolaev (1989) to clarify the role of the simultaneous influence of nonlinearity and dissipation on the seismic waves evolution. ˇ The theory developed in Gusev (1988). The necessary condition for the fracturing of the medium under load is the existence of an inhomogeneity like a tectonic fault. mainly qualitative. and dispersion. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 179 a crack.38) in Engelbrecht (1997). Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) demonstrate transformation of an ini- . increases until the stress field achieves a threshold. while there is an infinite growth in a pure active case. the most important contribution to nonlinear description of the seismic waves has been done in Engelbrecht (1997). it was assumed that the mechanism of seismic radiation is connected with rapid dilatancy variations. an ˇ inclusion etc. Derivation of Eq. Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988). In particular. which is the structure that simulates commonly occurring geological faults subjected to tectonic stress with a predominant orientation. stored and released. The area. Qualitatively similar phenomena were recognized in Koz´k and a ˇ Silen´ (1985) studying seismic energy release to explain the earthquake y mechanism.(6.38) is the celebrated Korteweg-de Vries equation. Eq. affected by the loading. whose exact travelling one-parameter solitary wave solution arises as a result of a balance between nonlinearity. Body force f plays a dissipative/active role destroying this balance.February 11. The layers are inhomogeneities where the energy is pumped. f = 0. Koz´k and Silen´ (1985) is a y linear. In absence of the body force. However. d uxxx . Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) is based on a model where the classic elasticity basic equations are complemented by the inclusion of the body force to account for the dilaton mechanism. numerical results in Engelbrecht (1997).(6. u ux . and the phenomenological expression for the body force (6. The most interesting scenario happens in the mixed dissipativeactive case. Then a seismic-energy-releasing events occur. Engelbrecht and Khamidullin (1988) to consider the Earth crust as a certain hierarchy of elastic blocks connected by thin interface layers. When all terms in the expression for f are dissipative.39) closes the basic equations. the solitary wave decays. A similar dilatancy model has been proposed in Gusev (1988) to explain the nature of earthquake precursors. Preliminary results. Hence the interface layers behave like dilatons. In order to govern a medium that may store and release the energy it was proposed in Engelbrecht (1997). In particular.

42) Equation (6.2 Asymptotic solution of the governing equation Let us assume that ε << 1. Furthermore the function u depends upon a fast variable ξ and a slow time T .ξξξ − V u0. the unsteady process of the transformation of the KdV soliton into the solitary wave with prescribed parameter values is described analytically. (iii) when the parameter ε is not small happens in quantitative agreement with asymptotic solution. (6.February 11.41) (6.43) . but numerical simulations cannot describe the intervals of their values required for the appearance of the stable localized waves. In the leading order we have d u0.42) contains coefficients V = V (T ). Then it is demonstrated numerically that solitary waves selection (i) in presence of the solitary waves interactions. T ) = u0 (ξ.(6. such as ξx = 1.40) is sought in the form: (6.. its exact solitary wave solution will have slowly varying parameters.38) becomes d uξξξ − V uξ + u uξ + ε uT + a1 u − a2 u2 + a3 u3 = 0. In order to obtain this information a procedure is developed below. a2 . The nature of the terms in f depend upon the values of the coefficients a1 . (6. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 180 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids tial KdV soliton into a new stable localized bell-shaped wave with the amplitude and velocity prescribed by the equation coefficients. (ii) when an initial profile is arbitrary. The solution u of Eq.. Then equation (6.40) u(ξ. hence. 6. u0 = 12 d k(T )2 cosh−2 (k(T ) ξ) with V = 4dk 2 . T ) + ε u1 (ξ. T ) + .ξ = 0.2. Most of the results were first published in Porubov et. First. T = ε t. ξt = −V (T ). al (2003). a3 .ξ + u0 u0.

105 (6. 105 (6.February 11.(6. A more quantitative description of the variation of Q can be given in order to see at what time the selected values are achieved. Hence parameters of the solitary wave tends to the finite values prescribed by the equation coefficients ai and is selected. when Q1 < Q0 < Q2 parameter Q will grow up to Q2 . depends on the value of Q0 ≡ Q(T = 0).T = kT 2kT u0 + ξ u0. are 14a2 − 2 49a2 − 210a3 a1 14a2 + 2 49a2 − 210a3 a1 2 2 . 24a3 24a3 (6. k k ∞ (6. 0 0 Due to (6. −∞ (6.44) The solvability condition for Eq.45) that k obeys the equation kT = − 2 k 3456a3 d2 k 4 − 336a2 dk 2 + 35a1 . while if Q0 > Q2 it will decrease by Q2 .ξ . Equation (6.ξξξ − V u1.47) The roots of the equation. with F = − u0. Q2 = .43) u0. d u1. Q will diverge at Q0 < Q1 .48) The behavior of the solitary wave amplitude. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 181 In the next order an inhomogeneous linear differential equation for u1 appears.T + a1 u0 − a2 u2 + a3 u3 . Q.47) Q1 = . 24a3 Q2 − 28a2 Q + 35a1 = 0.44) is u0 F dξ = 0.45) Then it follows from (6.46) that may be rewritten in terms of the solitary wave amplitude Q = 12 d k(T )2 as QT = − 4 Q(24a3 Q2 − 28a2 Q + 35a1 ). Indeed.ξ + (u0 u1 )ξ = F.

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may be directly integrated over the range (0, T ) giving the implicit dependence of Q on T : T = 35 32a3 Q1 Q2 (Q2 − Q1 )

Q2 log

(Q − Q2 ) Q (Q − Q1 ) − Q1 log + (Q2 − Q1 ) log (Q0 − Q1 ) (Q0 − Q2 ) Q0

(6.49)

One can see that T tends to infinity when Q → Q2 , and expression (6.49) provides an analytical description of the time-dependent process of the parameter-value selection of the solitary wave (6.43). With Eq.(6.47) being taken into account, the solution for u1 is u1 = A1 [tanh(kξ) − 1] + [3A1 + 2A2 ξ] cosh−2 (kξ) + [C − 3kA1 ξ − A2 ξ 2 − A3 log(cosh(kξ))] tanh(kξ) cosh−2 (kξ), where C = const, A1 = 1152a3 d2 k 4 − 168a2 dk 2 + 35a1 , 35k (6.50)

A2 =

3456a3 d2 k 4 − 336a2 dk 2 + 35a1 1728a3 d2 k 3 , A3 = . 35 35

We see that u1 does not vanish at ξ → −∞, and a plateau appears behind a solitary wave. It may be of negative or positive amplitude depending upon the sign of A1 . A uniformly valid solution vanishing at ξ → −∞ may be obtained by the standard procedure described in Ablowitz and Segur (1981). One can make now some important conclusions. If we formally assume a2 = 0, a3 = 0, both the behavior of the solitary wave parameters and the sign of the amplitude of plateau are defined by the sign of a1 . Indeed when a1 > 0, the amplitude and velocity of the wave decreases in time according to Eq.(6.47), while A1 > 0, and the plateau is negative. On the contrary, at negative a1 we have an increase of the wave amplitude and positive plateau. In general case the plateau may be negative both in case of an increase and a decrease of the solitary wave. We also see that the increase of the amplitude is accompanied by the decrease of the wave width.

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183

u

10

10

5

5

0 50 100 150

0

x

200

250

300

Fig. 6.3

Evolution of three solitary waves in absence of their interaction.

6.2.3

Numerical simulations

An asymptotic solution requires specific initial conditions while an evolution of an arbitrary initial disturbance as well as interactions between nonlinear localized waves are of practical interest. It may be described only numerically, however, it is important to know whether analytical predictions may be used for a design of numerics, since the behavior of the waves is sensitive to the values of the equation coefficients and the initial conditions. We use for computations a pseudo-spectral method whose computation code was designed in Kliakhandler (1999). The program computes solutions of 1D scalar PDEs with periodic boundary conditions. It evaluates spatial derivatives in Fourier space by means of the Fast Fourier Transform, while

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u

10

10

0 50 100

0

x

150

200

250

Fig. 6.4

Selection of two solitary in presence of their interaction.

the time discretization is performed using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. This scheme appears to have a good stability with respect to the time step and was already successfully used for the modelling of the solitary wave selection in a convective fluid, see Sec. 2.3.1. More detailed information about the code may be found in Kliakhandler (1999). We choose the parameter values identical to that used in numerics in Engelbrecht (1997): a1 = 1, a2 = 0.5, a3 = 0.0556, d = 0.5, ε = 0.1. Following the analysis from the previous section one obtains Q1 = 4.11, Q2 = 6.38, and the selection occurs for single solitary waves with initial amplitudes from the interval 4.11 < Q0 < 6.38. Numerical results for the single wave evolution confirm analytical solutions and agree with the

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u

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0

x

150

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Fig. 6.5 Selection of one solitary wave and decay of another one in presence of their interaction.

numerical results in Engelbrecht (1997). Then the initial conditions are changed to the profile containing three solitary waves each accounting for Eq.(6.43) at T = 0. First, the waves are located so as to avoid their interactions, see the first stage in Fig. 6.3. The initial amplitudes are chosen so as the values of the amplitudes of the first two solitary waves are brought into the selection interval, while the amplitude of the last one is below Q1 = 4.11. For convenience here and in the following figures thresholds 4.11 and 6.38 are shown by dashed lines at each stage. One can see in Fig. 6.3 that the amplitudes of the first two solitary waves tend to the value Q2 = 6.38, while the last solitary

6. Hence each solitary wave evolves according to the asymptotic solution. 6. One can see in Fig.5. When the second initial solitary wave from Fig.6 waves. Evolution of an initial Gaussian profile and formation of two selected solitary wave decays. First we take two larger initial solitary waves.4 that the interaction does not affect the selection. 6.3 is moved behind the third one.6 that an initial Gaussian pulse produces a train of solitary waves of different magnitude in agreement with the KdV theory. Let us re-arrange the initial positions of the solitary waves in order to include their interactions.February 11. while the smaller wave decays. One can see in Fig. 6. 6. The process is shown in Fig. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 186 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids u 10 10 5 5 0 50 100 150 200 0 x 250 300 350 400 Fig. . its selection occurs despite the interaction. and again both solitary waves evolve in agreement with the theory.

At larger ε = 10 the plateau almost disappears. At the same time we observe a decay of . the initial solitary wave amplitude Q0 = 5 still tends to the value Q2 = 6. Two main deviations are observed. vanish. First is the difference in amplitudes. 6. Finally.7 we see that the solitary waves continue to evolve according to the asymptotic solution with growth in ε. 6. Selection from above still occurs for Q0 > Q2 . it is caused by the increase of the contribution of u1 into the asymptotic solution. 6. The difference in the shape of plateau is shown in Fig. b)ε = 0. the influence of the small parameter value is studied. however.February 11.7 Comparison of asymptotic (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) solutions at various ε: a)ε = 0.8 where we see the decrease of its length.3. the selection of those solitary waves occurs whose amplitudes come to the selection interval prescribed by the theory. c)ε = 0. Then.1.38.5. see Fig.9. 6. d)ε = 1. Note that two leading solitary waves are selected from below while other solitary waves generated from the input. In Fig. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 187 a 7 6 5 4 1 3 5 7 9 7 6 5 4 1 3 b 5 7 9 u3 2 1 0 1 3 u3 2 1 0 x 5 7 9 1 3 x 5 7 9 c 7 6 5 4 1 3 5 7 9 7 6 5 4 1 3 d 5 7 9 u3 2 1 0 1 3 u3 2 1 0 x 5 7 9 1 3 x 5 7 9 Fig.

5 x 7 9 11 13 1 3 5 7 x 9 11 13 15 Fig. c)ε = 0. or a specific site in the .1 0 -0.3.4 -0. al (1996) and references therein.1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 0.February 11.1 0 -0.2 -0.2 0. The simplest point defects in the crystal are the interstitial atom.1 0 -0. Q0 < Q1 = 4.1 1 3 5 7 d 9 11 13 15 u -0.1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 0.2 -0. and the vacancy.3 -0.11.2 -0.5.4 -0.5 x 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 x 9 11 13 15 c 0. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 188 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids a 0. 6.1 0 -0.3 6.5 1 3 5 u -0.2 0.4 -0.2 0. d)ε = 1.8 Comparison of plateau in asymptotic (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) solutions at various ε: a)ε = 0.3 -0. the initial solitary wave with the amplitude less than Q0 = 3 that already differs from the theoretical predictions.3 -0. Point defect is described as a distortion in a crystal lattice in the area equal to the atomic volume.4 -0.1 1 3 5 b 7 9 11 13 15 u -0.2 -0.3 -0. 6. or an atom occupying a position among the atomic equilibrium positions in an ideal lattice.2 0.3.1. b)ε = 0.1 Moving defects induced by external energy flux Basic concepts and derivation of governing equations Recently it was found that point defects may be generated in a solid subjected to the laser radiation.5 1 3 5 7 u -0. see Mirzoev et.

2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 189 6 5 4 u3 2 1 0 16 18 20 x 22 24 Fig.51) where q0 is a velocity of the defects generation in absence of the strain.. laser beam) produces moving point defects.xx − βj nj .9 Evolution of an initial KdV soliton (dashed line) at ε = 10. Following Mirzoev et. t) be the concentration of defects of the kind j (j = v for vacancies. next . temperature and defect-concentration fields Mirzoev et. recombination and diffusion. z) at time t. Let us consider an isotropic solid where a concentrated energy influx (e. y. Then the kinetics of the point defects is governed by the equation nj. Generation of defects due to the laser radiation may be explained using interaction of strain. lattice of the crystal where atoms are absent Kosevich (1981). al (1996).February 11.t = q0 + qε Ux + Dj nj. al (1996) assume nj (x. 6. j = i for interstitial atoms) at a point r(x.g. (6. The main processes responsible for the temporal evolution of a defect are generation.

Combinations of the point defects yield defect of the dipole kind that may be accounted for f (r) = −K Ωik k δ(r). (6. Ω0 is a dilatation parameter representing the change in the volume of a crystal as a result of a formation of the one defect. f (r) = −K Ω0 δ(r). ρUtt = σx . We start with the coupled equations for nj . The average parameters of the crystal specimen may be introduced if a typical distance between defects is considerably less than the gradient of a strain field. Dj is the diffusion coefficient of the defect of the kind j.h.(6. where K is the bulk modulus. (6. f . where Ωik is a symmetric tensor. t). while defect is located in the coordinate origin Kosevich (1981). Eq.51). where l is a unit vector of the dipole axis.February 11.12) for a microstructured medium.(6.x .53) . while Ω0 > 0 corresponds to the interstitial atoms. Then we have in one-dimensional case f = −K Ωj nj.52) where evolution of the concentration of defects is accounted for Eq. In elasticity single defect is described by the volume density of the force. and for nonlinear longitudinal displacement U (x.s. 6.51) accounts for a contribution of a strain into the defects generation. It is important that point defects cause deformation of a medium at macroscopic distances.3.(6. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 190 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids term in the r.51).2 Nonlinear waves in a medium One-dimensional governing equation in an elastic medium with moving defects may be obtained similar to Eq. of Eq. Volume mutual recombination of the defects of different kind is neglected. βj is a recombination velocity at sinks Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001). When dipole is axi-symmetric. we have Ωik = Ω0 δik + Ω1 (li lk − 1/3δik ). Ω1 defines deviator of the tensor Ωik Kosevich (1981). For vacancies we have Ω0 < 0. (6.

52) being taken into account.(5. (6.(6. it was shown in Sec. Nondissipative limit of Eq. a3 = . as well as dissipative/active terms. Various simplified cases may be considered: (i) βj >> 1. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 191 where σ. 5.3 where stable kink waves with a ”hat” are found.51) are simply uncoupled yielding the governing equation for the strain waves v = Ux .(6. Weakly dispersive case (ii) corresponds to the weak defects diffusion. vtt − a1 vxx − a2 ( v 2 )xx − a3 vxxt + a4 vttt − a5 vxxtt + a6 vxxxx − a7 ( v 2 )xxt + a8 ( v 2 )xxxx = 0. (iii) βj >> 1. a5 vxxtt and a6 vxxxx .6. 5.54) predominates. However. ρ ρβj 4ρ βj ρ a4 = Dj (λ + 2µ)Dj a2 a2 Dj 1 .54) We see from Eq. (6. where a1 = λ + 2µ K Ωj qε 3(λ + 2µ) + 2(l + m) + 3n (λ + 2µ) − . .(6.3) that possesses oscillatory and multi-humps solitary wave solutions. 1.3. Dj << 1.42) in Sec. a6 = .3 describing the influence of an external dissipative/active medium on the waves evolution in a rod.February 11. 5.(1. a8 = . An analysis is already done in Sec. The coefficients in Eq.(6.54) that presence of the moving defects provides a dispersion in an elastic medium. In case (i) recombinations at sinks are strong. and the formation of shocks is possible. a5 = .2 that no stable bell-shaped solitary waves arise in absence of higher-order derivative terms (like a9 v6x or corresponding mixed derivative terms) in Eq. a7 = . Equations (6.5. 2 σ = (λ + 2µ)Ux + (3/2(λ + 2µ) + l + 2m)Ux − K Ωj nj .53). (ii) Dj << 1. see Figs. Equation (6. a2 = .54). the influence of the higher-order nonlinear term a8 ( v 2 )xxxx may affect the wave behavior. Dj = O(1/βj ). When dissipation is negligibly small. 5.54) is similar to Eq. is written with Eq.54) do not depend upon K Ωj with the exception of a1 . quadratic nonlinearity in Eq.54) is similar to a particular case of Eq. (6. 5. Simultaneous weak diffusion and strong recombinations in case (iii) provide weakly dissipative/active case which has been also studied in Sec. βj βj ρβj βj βj (6.

b5 = τ .51).56) is close to Eq.56) are negligibly small. There are . b4 = .(6. βN = + [(1 − 2ν)2 l + 2(1 − ν + ν 2 )m]. Again the evolution of the defects is accounted for Eq.3 Nonlinear waves in a plate Equation for longitudinal displacements in a plate already includes a dispersion even in absence of defects Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001): Utt − c2 Uxx − βN Ux Uxx − l2 (Uttxx − c2 Uxxxx ) = − s τ where c2 = s E 3E 2(1 − 2ν) .8) when the ci ’s terms in Eq.February 11.x ρ (6. Note that nonlinearity parameter βN does not depend upon the Murnaghan modulus n. c2 = . 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 192 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids 6. βj βj 2βj βj βj c1 = βN Dj l 2 Dj c2 l2 Dj . 2βj βj βj (6. Uncoupling of Eqs. and no weakly dispersive case is considered.56) b1 = Equation (6. (6. c3 = τ .51).3. where a1 = c2 − s K Ω j qε βN Dj c2 Dj . a3 = + l2 . τ 2 12(1 − ν) ρ(1 − ν 2 ) K Ωj nj. (5. b2 = . τ ρβj 2 βj βj 1 βN l2 c2 l2 c2 s . a2 = . Case βj >> 1 now corresponds to the perturbed double-dispersive equation.55) in case of the elastic plate is performed similar to the previous case giving the governing equation for the longitudinal strains of the form vtt − a1 vxx − a2 ( v 2 )xx − a3 vxxtt + a4 vxxxx − b1 vxxt + b2 vttt − b3 ( v 2 )xxt − b4 vxxttt + b5 vxxxxt + c1 ( v 2 )xxxx + c2 vxxxxtt − c3 vxxxxxx = 0. Now dispersion appears as a result of the plate finite width also.(6. b3 = . (6. a4 = s + c2 l2 . c2 = . 2) 2) ρ(1 − ν ρ(1 − ν ρ(1 − ν)3 l2 = µ ν 2 h2 .55) where h is the width of the plate.

The most interesting case is realized when small parameters qε . and we obtain from Eq. and the solution of Eq. Then one can write g = εg ∗ .57) may be obtained using the procedure from Chapter 2 to describe the selection of localized longitudinal strain wave as a result of the interactions with moving defects. (6.56) play the role of higherorder nonlinearity and dispersion. analytical results for a medium may be found in Kartashov and Bartenev (1988). Thanks to nonzero dispersion. θt = −V (T ). Eqs. T = εt. In this case Mirzoev and Shelepin (2001) derived the governing equation for the strain v = Ux . while numerical simu- . ζ = εζ ∗ . Then its asymptotic solution is obtained using the procedure explained in Chapter 2.4 Thermoelastic waves In thermoelasticity the deformation and temperature fields affect each other.7–1. thermoelasticity is important to study attenuation of the waves that is observed in experiments. 5. As a result governing equations for the strains and the temperature should be coupled. (6.2 to account for the bell-shaped solitary wave selection.(6.57) where βd = βN qε K Ωj l2 (c2 − c2 ) s τ . Then we can use the results obtained in Sec. now stable oscillatory and multi-humps strain solitary wave solutions are realized.February 11. ci ’s terms dominate over bi ’s terms. . see Figs.(1. Of special interest are the processes in polymers arising due to the laser irradiation Kartashov and Bartenev (1988). 2 vt + cs vx + βd vxxx + γN vx = gv − ζvxx + µvxxxx . Nowacki (1986b).56) the hyperbolic analog of Eq. ζ = βj l2 .55) are uncoupled in a different manner if βj << 1. 6. 1. g= 2 ρcs ρc2 s Equation (6. γN = . However. The fast variable θ and the slow time T are introduced as before. When Dj >> 1. Active/dissipative perturbations are accounted for the bi ’s terms while ci ’s terms in Eq. Very often the influence of the temperature on the strains is negligibly small.57) may be considered as a perturbed KdV equation.(6.51). 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 193 two kinds of perturbations. µ = Dj l2 . Dj and βj are of the same order. (6. Nowacki (1975). (6.16. µ = εµ∗ . ε << 1.3) studied in Chapter 1. θx = 1. Hence weakly active/dissipative case is realized if additionally Dj << 1. Linear thermoelastic waves were studied extensively.

First. (6.60) where P∗ is the Piola-Kirchoff tensor expressed through the free energy density W (u. ρ0 utt = DivP∗ . P∗ = ∂W/∂ u. Nonlinear surface wave attenuation is considered in Mayer (1990). that takes into account an inertia of the heat flux. the generalized law has been proposed in Likov (1967) Q = −κ T − τ ∗ Qt . Usually only the term linear in u. al (1987). it predicts an infinite velocity of a thermal wave. αT (T − T0 ) u. Maugin (1999). Cv ∂T Cp − Cv ∂ + div(u) = κ T. αT is the heat extension coefficient. Balance of linear momentum provides the second equation of thermoelasticity. Mayer (1995). the transfer of heat in solids is caused by the heat conduction only. Landau et.58) is rewritten in the form.60) contains the linear . T is the absolute temperature. Nowacki (1975). al (2000). (6. is used to obtain Eqs. In particular. Nowacki (1986b): T ∂S = div(κ T ). Maugin (1995). Engelbrecht and Nigul (1981).58). Usually the last coefficients is assumed to be constant while the entropy is expressed through the temperature and the displacements ui . see. Then Eq..g. The Fourier law of thermal conduction. (6. τ ∗ is a time of the heat flux relaxation.59). nonlinear bulk waves are studied in a medium in Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996) and in a rod in Potapov and Semerikova (1988). ∂t (6.59) where Cp . κ is the thermal conductivity. In contrast to liquid.February 11. Cv are the specific heat per unit volume at fixed density and volume respectively.T ). Usually the equation of the heat conduction is obtained from the energy conservation law Engelbrecht (1983). Q = −κ T . the balance laws are used. ∂t αT ∂t (6. the modification of the law is needed. However.58) where S is the entropy per unit volume.(6. (6. is included into W . Hence Eq. Berezovski and Maugin (2001). Landau et. In order to describe the finite velocity. e. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 194 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids lations are performed in Berezovski et. al (1987). Derivation of the equations may be done by various approaches.

c0 = . thermoelastic conductors of heat. ε << 1. (6.February 11. However. The equation of motion. ξ = c0 t − X.4. Nowacki (1975).63) Exact solution of Eq. one obtains for w = Ut wt + a1 wwξ + Λ w = 0. where a1 = 3(λ + 2µ) + 2l + 4m T0 ((3λ + 2µ)αT )2 2 λ + 2µ . τ = εX. finitely deformable. in the same manner. (λ + 2µ)εc0 2ερ0 c0 κ ρ0 (6. Maugin (2000).(6. Classical dissipative thermoelastic equations are obtained by isolation the contribution of the thermacy. ρ0 Utt −(λ+2µ)Uxx −[3(λ+2µ)+2l+4m]Ux Uxx = −(3λ+2µ)αT Tx .60) is derived from the Hamilton principle while the heat equation is introduced additionally Fares (2000). see Chapter 3. balance laws and constitutive relations for the theory of materially inhomogeneous. t)) in a medium when temperature T (x. .1 Nonlinear waves in thermoelastic medium Below we follow Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996) where one-dimensional model is considered using the notion of thermodynamic internal variables. 6.61) is coupled with the energy equation for the temperature. usually only Eq.(6. Λ= . The main idea is to assume a dependence upon an additional variable called thermacy whose temporal derivative is the temperature.62) Single nonlinear model equation may be obtained in case of a weak coupling.63) is known Whitham (1974). ε = (3λ + 2µ)αT /ρ0 . (6. Equations of thermoelasticity may be derived using the variational methods Fares (2000). As a result all equations obtained turn out strict conservation laws. Rayleigh (1945). The evolution nonlinear equation is obtained for the observable variable (longitudinal strain v = Ux (x. It was Maugin (2000) who proposed the modification of the free energy density so as to get all field equations. Nowacki (1986b). ρ0 Cv Tt + T0 (3λ + 2µ)αT Uxt = κTxx . Introducing fast and slow variables. t) effects are considered as internal process. it may include shocks when the gradient of the initial excitation is large enough. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 195 term depending on the temperature while nonlinearity is caused by the same reasons as in pure elastic case.

2 Longitudinal waves in thermoelastic rod As already noted.(6.(6. the ODE reduction of Eq.(6. thermal conduction weakly affects strain waves in solids.February 11.63) is done in Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996). 0 There is a similarity with the Burgers equation model if the last nonlinear term is negligibly small. ξ = x − V t. especially caused by a laser irradiation. Comparison of the Burgers equation model and the model governed by Eq. yielding nonlinear equation for U 2 2 (ρ0 Cv c2 +Λ1 )Uxxt −ρ0 Cv Uttt +a2 (Ux )xt +κ(Uxxtt −c2 Uxxxx −a2 (Ux )xxx ) = 0.(6.64) is written for the function v = Uξ ∂2 b1 v + b2 v 2 + b3 vξ + b4 (v 2 )ξ = 0. see Kartashov and Bartenev (1988).4.62) differentiated with respect to x. is expressed through the displacement using Eq. More promising looks the influence of a heat transfer through the lateral surface of a wave guide. with the relaxation tame taken into account. 6. Eqs. 2ρ0 ρ0 In the reference frame. Estimations done there demonstrate the dominant role of the heat transfer in comparison with the thermal conduction mechanism. (6. (6. ∂ξ 2 with b1 = V (ρ0 Cv V 2 − ρ0 Cv c2 − Λ1 ). Tx . Then it is substituted into Eq. Mirzoev et. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 196 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids When the coupling is not weak. b2 = −a2 V.61). 0 b3 = κ(V 2 − c2 ).62) are transformed by another way. the temperature gradient. The influence of the external heat transfer on nonlinear longitudinal strain waves in a rod has been studied in Potapov and Semerikova (1988). 0 0 (6.61). The Burgers model has been developed in Engelbrecht (1983). The coupled equations of thermoelasticity are used in Potapov and Semerikova (1988) with the heat transfer boundary conditions on the rod . al (1996) and references therein. First. b4 = −a2 κ.64) where a2 = 3(λ + 2µ) + 2l + 4m T0 ((3λ + 2µ)αT )2 . the case was not considered in Engelbrecht and Maugin (1996). Λ1 = .

Uxx = ρ2 C v 0 Utt + O(ε). h is a heat transfer coefficient.67) is weak. T0 is a constant temperature of an external medium. 2 2 (6. s s s (6.h. so as R/L << 1.66) where β is a nonlinear coefficient. R is a radius of the rod.s.66) with respect to x and substitute Tx from Eq.(6. B << 1.65). c2 = E/ρ0 is a velocity of s the linear waves in a rod. (6. Then the governing equation for longitudinal displacements holds. of Eq. As usual we consider the case of a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion introducing small parameter ε = B = (R/L)2 . and with long waves with typical length L. they may be considered as small perturbations.5R2 (ν(1 − ν)Uttxx − νc2 Uxxxx ) = −αT c2 Tx .(6. β = ρ−1 (3E + l(1 − 2ν)3 + 4m(1 − 2ν)(1 + 0 ν) + 6nν 2 ). Then nonlinear and dispersive terms may be omitted in the r.s. 2 E(ρ0 Cv + αT ET0 ) Hence the simplest equation accounting for the influence of both the heat transfer and thermal conduction on longitudinal strain waves v = Ux is . ∂ α2 ET0 {ρ0 Utt − E 1 + T ∂t ρ0 C v νER2 Uxxxx } = 2 Uxx − β Ux Uxx + ρ0 ν(1 − ν)R2 Uttxx − 2 κ ∂2 2h − ρ0 Cv ∂x2 ρ0 C v R {ρ0 Utt − EUxx − β Ux Uxx + ρ0 ν(1 − ν)R2 νER2 Uttxx − Uxxxx }. Contribution of the terms in the r. Note that the dispersion terms coefficient from Potapov and Semerikova (1988) are corrected here in accordance with the procedure from Chapter 3.(6.67) We are dealing with elastic strain waves whose magnitude B is small.February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bulk active or dissipative sources of the amplification and selection 197 lateral surface being taken into account: Utt − c2 Uxx − β Ux Uxx + 0. Obviously.65) ρ0 Cv R Tt − κR Txx + 2h(T − T0 ) = −αT ET0 R Uxt .h. Let us differentiate Eq.

(6.68) Certainly Eq.February 11. ρ0 C v ρ0 C v R (6. . attenuation and selection of longitudinal thermoelastic waves.68) may be studied by the methods developed in Chapter 2 to account for an amplification. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 198 Amplification of Nonlinear Strain Waves in Solids vtt − c2 (1 + s 2 νc2 R2 αT c2 T0 β ν(1 − ν)R2 s vttxx − s vxxxx = )vxx − (v 2 )xx + Cv 2ρ0 2 2 2 αT c2 T0 s 2 Cv + αT c2 T0 s 2h κ vttx − vt .

N. J. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Bibliography Ablowitz.R. (1991) ”Weakly non-local solitons for capillary-gravity waves: the fifth-degree Korteweg-de Vries equation”. A. 249. Acoust. (1994) Algebro. Engelbrecht. A 32. and Segur. S. V. 129. Bridges. Berlin. 168.A.February 11. (2001) ”Simulation of Thermoelastic Wave Propagation by Means of a Composite Wave-Propagation Algorithm”. Physica D 48. Phys. Bland. G. and Matveeev. Nauka. Higher Transcendental Functions. 2819. Phys. Ya. Krylov. D. Akhmediev. V. Berezovski.(1993) ” The generation of radiating waves in a singularly-perturbed KdV equation”. 4419. A. Grimshaw. G. Maugin. Oxford . J. Phys. Waltham.. Kuznetsova. J.S. 511. M. 199 . and Rybak S. J.L. and Ankiewicz. SIAM. Berezin. G. V. Claredon Press. VNU Science Press. Physica D 69 270. R. Utrecht.A. V. Its. (1987) Modelling Non-Linear Wave Processes.V. Alekseev... 70. A. P. 48. (1953-54). E. V.. (1986) ”Cnoidal standing waves and the transition to the travelling hydravlic jump”. Mass et al. Mech.Geometrical Approach to Nonlinear Integrable Equations. Belokolos.(1999) ”Classical and non-classical interactions of kinks in some bubbly medium”. A.P. Nonlinear pulses and beams. vol. 3. (1991) Surface acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media. Berezovski. A. Alexeyev. Moscow (in Russian). Bhatnagar.A. Compt. Appl. Enol’skij. (1997) Solitons. Arch. Oxford. N. Boyd. (2000) ”Thermoelastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media”. (2002) ”Equations of state for viscoelastic biological media”. New York. V..(1969) Nonlinear Dynamic Elasticity. London. A.V. P. A. Blaisdell. R. Fluids 29. and Erdelyi. and Maugin.. J. Chapman & Hall..V. A. Bobenko. Bland. J. Springer..N.A. D. H. (1960) The Theory of Linear Viscoelasticity. E. Philadelphia. Benilov. Bateman. McGraw Hill. V. Gulyaev.. and Plessky. T.(1981) Solitons and the Inverse Scattering Transform. Biryukov. (1979) Nonlinear Waves in One-Dimensional Dispersive Systems. 694.P.

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N. New York . Solid State 25. Press. (1989) Handbook of Differential Equations. Boston. Acad. (1974) Linear and Nonlinear Waves. 1797. (1983) ”Dilaton Mechanism of the Strength of Solids”. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter Title for Bibliography 209 Whitham. University Press.T. B.February 11. Zwillenger. (1999) The Mathematica book. Whittaker. D.N. E. and Watson. G. Zhurkov. Phys. (1867) Die Lehre von der Elasticitaet und Festigkeit. (1927) A Course of Modern Analysis. Addison-Wesley. Wolfram. Fourt Edition. Wiley. Cambridge. G. S. Dominicicus. . S. Winkler. E. Prag. Sov.

February 11. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 210 Book Title .

6. 42 D’Alembert solution. 138. 197 between nonlinearity and dissipation. 38. 155 energy free. 44 . 71. 127 Korteweg-de Vries equation. 137 seismic.February 11. 136. 98. 155. 27. 142. 135. 12. 34 ansatz. 57. 129 breather-like solution. 157. 105. 67. 124 double-dispersive equation. 80 dilation mechanism. 103. 179 entropy. 156 dynamical system. 42. 65. 12. dispersion and dissipation. 36. 43. 116. 142 elementary work. 194 211 Cosserat model. 142. 51. 49. 36 a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion. 87. 115. 64. 85 action functional. 178 kinetic. 169. 36. 155 Weierstrass function. 173 between nonlinearity. 116. 169. 41. 194 blow-up. 79. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Index acoustic resistance. 79. 11. 27. 1. 136. 103. 12. 90. 129. 178 Boussinesq equation. 100. 51. 12. 102. 134. 59. 9. 49 conservation laws. 169. 128. 134. 142. 26. 71. 194 influx. 116 Coupled nonlinear Schr¨dinger o equations. 166. 146. 136. 156. 149 Cauchy-Green tensor. 13. 54. 147. 1. 32. 178 dilaton. 25. 196 kink. 27. 152 elliptic integrals. 79. 175 of linear momentum. 123. 133 body force. 12. 189 internal. 165 cnoidal wave. 31. 194 balance laws. 71. 61 Jacobi functions. 34 auto-B¨cklund transformation. 194 envelope wave solution. 47 Burgers equation. 178 dissipation-modified double dispersive equation. 127. 153. 53. 65. 174 dissipative elements. 148 perturbed kink. 163. 126. 123. 178. 135 potential. 1. 122. 10. 52. 71. 32. 9. 129. 66 analysis of singular points. 156. 57.

125. 196. 136. 65 isotropic. 65. 189 Le Roux model. 65. 153. 124. 87. 117 Love hypothesis. 53 spring elements. 116. 88.February 11. 136. 73. 70 matching asymptotic procedure. 15. 79. 189 Poisson ratio. 16. 76 geophysical medium. 125. 194 heat transfer. 65. 75. 150 geometrical. 79 with varying cross section. 6 Kerr model. 114. 2. 45 Hamilton principle. 163. 78. 98. 164. 137. 192 nine constants model. 65. 64. 63. 195 interstitial atom. 71 pseudo-spectral methods. 118 plane cross section hypothesis. 66 movable singularities. 137 nonlinearity cubic. 125. 35 Murnaghan five constants model. 65. 192 plateau. 164 gradient. 117. 84 fifth-order KdV equation. 124. 47 microdisplacement. 183 reference configuration. 184 secularity conditions. 75 inertia of the microstructure. 117 Mooney-Rivlin model. 51. 136 Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. 153 . 15. 96. 189 Kawahara equation. 7. 64. 188 kinetics. 71. 188 invariants of the strain tensor. 66. 159. 194 in presence of microstructure. 66 semi-infinite. 26 laser radiation. 165 reference distorsion. 105. 152 Piola-Kirchoff stress tensor. 165. 197 holographic interferometry method. 125. 79. 69 plate. 111. 186 soliton. 126. 96. 98. 157 friction contact. 191. 52 foundation models. 64 permafrost. 75 strain solitary wave reflection. 52 finite-difference methods. 126. 195 sliding contact. 53. 26. 15. 165 moduli. 12. 116. 79. 140 Korteweg-de Vries equation. 53 generalized. 52. 137. 165 Mindlin model. 64 physical. 48 shock. 70. 168 internal variables. 11. 179 modified. 137. 68. 124 Fredholm alternative. 87 Runge-Kutta method. 136. 165 microfield. 117. 93 strain solitary wave propagation. 137. 153 fringe shift. 93. 93. 82 free lateral surface. 124 solitary waves interaction. 3. 10. 182 point defects. 123. 98. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 212 Book Title experiments on strain solitary wave amplification. 3. 83 free end. 3. 195 heat conduction. 117. 52. 115 rod clamped end. 178 Ginzburg-Landau equation.

197 Fourier law. 2004 20:10 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in ws-book9x6 Chapter Title for Bibliography 213 surface tension. 196. 196 Thomas method. 124. 137. 195 thermal conduction. 166 Voigt. 71 . 193 coupled equations.February 11. 58 thresholds. 36 uniformly valid solution. 164. 185 truncated expansion. 177. 166 Young modulus. 95 thermacy. 152. 194 thermoelasticity. 133. 49 vacancy. 123. 188 variables fast. 150. 47 slow. 47 viscoelastic.

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