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HSC Course Stage 6
Personal and public transport
ES/S6 - HSC 41092
Gill Sans bold Acknowledgments
This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network – Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. Board of Studies, NSW
All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Materials development: Coordination: Edit: Illustration: DTP: David Jackson, John Shirm, Ian Webster Jeff Appleby John Cook, Jeff Appleby, Josephine Wilms, Stephen Russell Tom Brown, David Evans Nick Loutkovsky, Carolina Barbieri
© Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network – Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, 2000. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135. Revised 2002
Subject overview ................................................................................ iii Module overview................................................................................vii
Module components ................................................................ viii Module outcomes ...................................................................... ix Indicative time ............................................................................x Resource requirements.............................................................. xi
Glossary............................................................................................. xv Directive terms................................................................................xxiii Part 1: Transport systems – development .................................................................. 1–49 Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics .................................................. 1–45 Part 3: Transport systems – materials ......................................................................... 1–81 Part 4: Transport systems – electricity/electronics .................................................... 1–91 Part 5: Transport systems – communication .............................................................. 1–55 Part 6: Transport systems – engineering report......................................................... 1–39 Bibliography.......................................................................................41 Module evaluation ............................................................................45
Engineering Studies Preliminary Course
Household appliances is the introductory module which introduces several basic engineering techniques. Common appliances found in the home are used to complete material investigation and mechanical analysis. Appliances are analysed to identify materials and their applications. Relationships between the materials used and the effect those materials have on design are investigated. Electrical principles, researching methods and techniques to communicate technical information are introduced. The first student engineering report is completed by investigating the materials used in a household appliance. Landscape products investigates engineering principles by focusing on common products such as lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical development of these types of product demonstrates the effect materials development and technological advancements have on the design of products. Engineering techniques of force analysis are described. Orthogonal drawing methods are explained. An engineering report is completed that analyses a landscape product. Braking systems uses braking components and systems to describe engineering principles. The historical changes in materials and design are investigated. The relationship between internal structure of iron and steel and the resulting engineering properties of those materials is detailed. Hydraulic principles are described and examples provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing techniques are further developed. An engineering report is completed that requires an analysis of a braking system component.
Bio engineering is the first of the focus modules. This module looks at both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio engineering profession. Career descriptions are researched and current issues in this field are discussed. Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bio engineered product and describes the related issues that the bio engineer would need to consider before, during and after this product development. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the last of the preliminary modules. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of polymers is detailed. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed.
HSC Engineering Studies modules
Civil structures is the first of the HSC course modules. Engineering principles as they relate to civil structures such as bridges and buildings are described. The historical influences of engineering, the impact of engineering innovation, and environmental implications are discussed with reference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The engineering report asks the student to compare two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material list available for the engineer. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are explained. Methods of testing materials, and methods of modifying material properties are examined. A series of industrial manufacturing processes are described. Electrical concepts such as power distribution and AC motors are detailed in this module. Students are introduced to the use of freehand technical sketches. Lifting devices investigates the social impact that these devices from complex cranes to simple car jacks have had on our society. The mechanical concepts are explained, including the hydraulic concepts often used in lifting apparatus. The industrial processes used to form metals and the processes used to control physical properties are explained. Electrical requirements for many devices are detailed. The technical rules for sectioned orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The engineering report is based on a comparison of two lifting devices.
The scope of the aeronautical engineering profession is investigated. The materials section concentrates on specialised testing. copper and its alloys. as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer aided drawing are required. current projects and issues. and material processes concentrate on those most associated with the aeronautical engineer. related to telecommunication products. This field of engineering. its history and impact on society are discussed. The engineering report is based on the telecommunication profession. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer aided drawing is required.1 Modules vi . Ethical issues and current technologies are described. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession. Telecommunications engineering is the final focus module in the HSC course. semiconductors and fibre optics. Analysis. Career opportunities are considered. Electronic systems such as analogue and digital are explained and an overview of a variety of other technologies in this field are described. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. Materials. The mechanical analysis topics include aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. is used to reinforce mechanical concepts. current projects and issues. Figure 0.Aeronautical engineering is the first focus engineering module in the HSC course.
You will learn about testing procedures. electric motors and electric systems in various types of transport. and a source of energy or power are required. Part 3 examines the many types of materials that are used in transport systems. Part 4 explains generation and transmission systems. given that friction. You will learn about environmental issues and the effect that innovations in transport systems have had on society and an individuals. You will also learn some basic concepts relating to electric/electronic control technologies used in the transport industry. In part 2 considers mechanical concepts to build your knowledge and help your understanding of how transport vehicles are able to work. vii .Module overview Part 1 investigates the historical developments of some types of transport systems. material property modification and manufacturing techniques in relation to specific ferrous and non-ferrous materials. In Part 6 you will further develop your research skills and report writing skills as well as learning about alternative technologies being developed for use in transport systems. You will prepare an engineering report an alternative energy source for powering a small transport system to eliminate or minimize the amount of pollution being generated by the current fuel-burning vehicles. In Part 5 you will learn more about the use of AS1100 in developing your technical drawing skills so important in communicating technical information.
4 Additional materials Support materials such as audiotapes.Module components Each module contains three components. viii .3 Teaching/learning section • The additional information may include: – – – module appendix bibliography module evaluation. • The preliminary pages include: – – – – – – module contents subject overview module overview icons glossary directive terms. Figure 0. Figure 0. the teaching/learning section and additional resources.2 Preliminary pages • The teaching/learning parts may include: – – – – – part contents introduction teaching/learning text and tasks exercises check list. Additional resources Figure 0. video cassettes and computer disks will sometimes accompany a module. the preliminary pages.
3) work individually and in teams to solve specific engineering problems and in the preparation of engineering reports (H5.2) appreciate social.3) apply knowledge of history and technological change to engineeringbased problems (H4.1) demonstrate skills in analysis. NSW.1) use appropriate written. 1999. components and processes in engineering (H1. ix . uses and applications of materials in engineering (H2. oral and presentation skills in the preparation of detailed engineering reports (H3. synthesis and experimentation related to engineering (H6.Module outcomes At the end of this module.2) determine suitable properties. © Board of Studies. and problem solving related to engineering (H6.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.1) demonstrate skills in research. environmental and cultural implications of technological change in engineering and apply them to the analysis of specific problems (H4.1) demonstrate proficiency in the use of mathematical. scientific and graphical methods to analyse and solve problems of engineering practice (H3.2) develop and use specialised techniques in the application of graphics as a communication tool (H3.2) • • • • • • • Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. you should be working towards being able to: • • • differentiate between properties of materials and justify the selection of materials. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.
The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should spend on this module.Indicative time The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC course is 120 hours (indicative time). x . Each part will require about four to five hours of work. Preliminary modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr Household appliances Landscape products Braking systems Bio-engineering Elective: Irrigation systems 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% HSC modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr Civil structures Personal and public transport Lifting devices Aeronautical engineering Telecommunications engineering 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% There are six parts in Personal and public transport. You should aim to complete the module within 20 to 25 hours.
tee square. set squares (30∞–60∞. pair of dividers • • calculator rule. such as a freezer or shopping bag low density polyethylene little plastic food wrap rubber band technical drawing equipment – drawing board. pencils (0.Resource requirements During this module you will need to access a range of resources including: • • • • • • • • • • bicycle brakes paper clip car suspension spring (attached to a car) file old hacksaw blade old lawnmower blade 2 high density polyethylene bags. pair of compasses. eraser. xi .5 mm mechanical pencil with B lead). 45∞). protractor.
Examine This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or watching a video. Think This icon indicates tasks such as reflecting on your experience or picturing yourself in a situation. Hands on This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or conducting experiments. The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module.Icons As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons. xiii . Danger This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and to proceed with care. The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6 Engineering studies. Discuss This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or debating an issue. Computer This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet. Respond This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw an object.
xiv . Return This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your teacher when you have completed the part. (OTEN OLP students will need to refer to their Learner's Guide for instructions on which exercises to return).Research This icon indicates you will need to do some investigative work.
Glossary As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that have specific meanings. The first time a term occurs in the text it will appear in bold. The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module. the wheels and the driving mechanism are attached to the bogies flexible cables made from thin strands of steel wound together and housed inside a protective sheath power available to do useful work BMX bogie bowden cables brake power xv . ABS active safety features allotrophy angle of inclination angle of repose angle of static friction annealing a very tough polymer – short for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene features in a vehicle that reduce the likelihood of an accident change in the physical properties without changing the composition of the substance angle of the slope of a plane equal to the angle of inclination when body is on the point of sliding angle between the resultant reaction and the normal reaction heating and soaking a material above its recrystallisation temperature followed by slow cooling to promote grain growth and reduce stresses an abbreviation of bicycle motocross One of a pair of units that supports the carriages of a train.
cadence carbon fibre carburising casting catenary the peddling rate of a rider – usually measured in rotations per minute a composite material of fibres of carbon cast in a polymer matrix this is the creation of a carbon-rich 'skin' on the surface of a low carbon steel component the pouring of molten or fluid material into a mould where it is allowed to set When related to the electrical railway system. chromium and molybdenum that have excellent strength to weight ratios the covalent bonding between the long polymer chains at various 'sites' along the chains cementite chrome molybdenum coefficient of friction cold working counterbore countersink cro-moly alloys cross-links xvi .67% carbon a steel alloy processing high strength and corrosion resistance – often shortened to cromoly ratio of the limiting friction to the normal reaction the plastic deformation of a metal below its recrystallisation temperature the widening of the top of a drilled hole to form a larger cylindrical shape to enable a screw. bolt or other components to fit into the counterbored hole the widening of the top of a drilled hole to form a conical or tapered surface to enable a screw to fit flush with or below the surface of a component alloys of iron. carbon. the wires that support conductors that carry current to supply power to the trains an interstitial compound of iron and 6.
The chain is derailed from sprocket to sprocket to vary the overall gear ratio a casting process where the molten metal is forced into a permanent metal mould handle bars for bicycles that curl downwards forcing the rider into a crouch position – most often seen on road racing bicycles ratio of output to input usually expressed as a percentage an amorphous polymer that stretches greatly under a tensile load but then returns to its original shape capacity of a body to do work the type of failure caused when a lower than maximum stress is repeated many times an interstitial solid solution body centred cubic iron with a very small amount of dissolved carbon an alloy that has iron as its principal element fairly inert materials added to a polymer to either fill in space or to provide special properties general.derailleur gear system a gearing system for bicycles consisting of a chain passing over front and rear sprockets of varying sizes. not specific carbon dioxide and other gases produced by pollution on the earth’s surface which act as glass does in a greenhouse to increase temperatures a component of the braking system that allows the handlebars of a bicycle to be rotated 3600 without the brake cables restricting the rotation die casting drop down handle bars efficiency elastomer energy fatigue failure ferrite ferrous metal fillers generic greenhouse gas gyro headset xvii .
instruction or a company name.hot worked the application of heat to metal above its recrystallisation temperature resulting in plastic deformation vehicles powered by both a conventional petrol engine and an electric motor power generated by motor not considering frictional losses unit of work equal to a newton metre (1J = 1 Nm) the trade name of a tough. The third angle projection logogram is used as a symbol to replace the written words a metal 35% lighter than aluminium hybrid-electric indicated power joule kevlar kinetic kinetic energy knurl limiting friction logogram magnesium malleable CI a cast iron that has been heat-treated to allow much of the carbon to precipitate into free rosettes the creation of nitrides in the surface of special alloy steels to provide a hard surface nitriding xviii . It may be a straight knurl or a diamond knurl frictional force when body is on the point of sliding a symbol or sign used to represent a word. group of words. idea. high performance aramid fibre often used as part of a composite material similar to glass reinforced polymer or blended with other fibres in fabric moving capacity of a body to do work by virtue of its motion a raised area on the surface of a cylindrically shaped component that provides a gripping area to hold when turning the component.
the precipitation of a phase at room temperature leads to the distortion of the metal's structure and therefore an increase in hardness tests in which a product is subjected to typical loads. remarkable for having a very large front wheel and a small rear wheel (penny farthing) A roof-mounted mechanism that is designed to contact the current-carrying conductors above To define or specify the parameters or variables in a system features in a vehicle that protect the users during an accident a combination of ferrite and cementite where the phases appear as alternating layers in the structure any mode of transport that allows the user a high degree of say in how.normalising heating and soaking of a material above its recrystallisation temperature then cooling in still air. for example seat belt in an auto accident any of the modes of transport that are shared between many users ordinaries pantograph parameterise passive safety features pearlite personal transport pneumatic tyre polymer potential energy power precipitation hardening proving tests public transport xix . This produces a refined grain structure the type of bicycle popular in the 1870s. where and when it will be used a rubber tyre that is filled with air a material composed of long molecular chains that have a basic repeating pattern or structure capacity of a body to do work by virtue of its position or composition time rate of doing work in some alloys.
tool steel is an example of this bicycle paths and footpaths built alongside railway corridors the testing of the blood alcohol level of a random selection of drivers using a device that the drivers blow into or speak into – usually abbreviated to RBT application of low heat to allow some stress relief in cold worked metals a braking system possible on electric powered vehicles where the electric motor switches to become an electric generator whenever the brakes are applied the first bicycle with a modern style frame and a rear wheel driven by a chain and sprocket bicycles designed to improve the safety for the rider compared to riding a penny farthing a casting process which uses a 'single use' sand mould a process used to harden the surface while retaining a tough core in a component having the shape of a sphere rail trails random breath testing recovery regenerative braking system rover safety safety bicycles sand casting selective hardening spherical spotface the formation of a flat surface on a curved or rough surface to enable a bolt or nut to fit flush with that surface an alloy of iron.quench hardened rapid cooling from an elevated temperature can be performed with some alloys resulting in the material becoming very hard and brittle. notable for its resistance to corrosion stationary. carbon. chromium and nickel. not moving capacity of a body to do work by virtue of its stored energy in a spring stainless steel static strain energy xx .
supercapacitors symbol very high capacity capacitors capable of storing a large electric charge for a short time a mark. once set. character. can be reformed under heat a polymer that once set under heat and pressure will not soften under future heating articles welded by the Tungsten Inert Gas method twisting moment. a force that acts to create twisting or turning effect all of the elements associated with getting goods and people from one place to another a race consisting of a run. letter or a combination of each which is used to indicate an object. consumes energy cold working of materials leading to a stressed internal structure and an increase in the hardness of the material tempering thermosoftening thermosetting TIG welded torque transport system triathlon turbine ultraviolet radiation watt white cast iron work work hardening xxi . idea or process heating of quench hardened steels to relieve some of the stresses and reduce brittleness a polymer that. Extremely powerful. steam or gas electromagnetic radiation invisible to the human eye. a swim and a bicycle leg a wheel with a set of ‘blades’ that is driven or made to turn by water. air. producing sunburn and allowing vitamin D production in the skin unit of power equal to a joule per second (1W = 1J/s) a cast iron in which all of the carbon is included in the cementite phase product of force and displacement.
questioning. quality. report on. draw out and relate implications use. build. logic. reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation) draw conclusions state meaning and identify essential qualities show by example analyse apply appreciate assess calculate clarify classify compare construct contrast critically (analyse/evaluate) deduce define demonstrate xxiii .Directive terms The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks and examination questions. figures or information make clear or plain arrange or include in classes/categories show how things are similar or different make. give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions identify components and the relationship between them. outcomes. put together items or arguments show how things are different or opposite add a degree or level of accuracy depth. employ in a particular situation make a judgement about the value of make a judgement of value. results or size ascertain/determine from given facts. knowledge and understanding. utilise. account account for: state reasons for.
idea. the relevant details putting together various elements to make a whole Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document. 1999. provide why and/or how choose relevant and/or appropriate details infer from what is known recognise and name draw meaning from plan. © Board of Studies.au> for original and current documents.edu. to note differences between make a judgement based on criteria.nsw. indicate the main features of suggest what may happen based on available information put forward (for example a point of view. facts or experiences provide reasons in favour retell a series of events express. xxiv . NSW. concisely. determine the value of inquire into relate cause and effect. Refer to <http://www. argument.boardofstudies.describe discuss distinguish evaluate examine explain extract extrapolate identify interpret investigate justify outline predict propose recall recommend recount summarise synthesise provide characteristics and features identify issues and provide points for and/or against recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from. suggestion) for consideration or action present remembered ideas. inquire into and draw conclusions about support an argument or conclusion sketch in general terms. make the relationships between things evident.
Personal and public transport Part 1: Transport systems – developments .
.........49 Part 1: Transport systems – developments 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Bicycles ...................................................................................2 What will you learn?..Part 1 contents Introduction.........................33 Exercise cover sheet............ 6 Social and environmental implications.......................................................................................................................................................18 Exercises ............................................... 2 Transport systems...................... 3 Public transport ................................................3 Personal transport ...................47 Progress check .............................................................
boats. 1999. 2 Personal and public transport . trains.au> for original and current documents. What will you learn? You will learn about: • • • • • • • • historical developments in transport systems effects of engineering innovation in transport on people’s lives construction and processing materials over time environmental effects of transport environmental implications from the use of materials in transport. The historical development of bicycles. Refer to <http//ww. trams and motor cycles.edu.boardofstudies. investigate the history of technological change related to transport and its impact on society identify design features in the engineering of transport systems over time critically examine the impact of developments in transport systems on the environment and society. You will learn to: Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. a common form of personal transport. © Board of Studies. buses. trucks. Other forms of transport you may have the opportunity to study include motor cars. NSW. will be investigated to see how changes in design reflected the materials development of the time.nsw.Introduction In this part of the module you will look at the elements that make up a transport system and the positive and negative influence different forms of transport have had on our society.
Some transport systems are small in scale such as a system designed to move people around a zoo or an amusement park. • Mention has been made of personal transport and public transport systems – so what are the differences? Personal transport Personal transport is any mode of transport that allows the user a high degree of say in how. motorbikes. for others it is the convenience of being able to use their own personal transport while some may prefer the environmental benefits offered by the increased use of public transport transport systems require a lot of supporting infrastructure such as roads. For a transport system to be effective. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 3 . train stations and so on. bicycle paths. motor cars and trucks are common examples of personal transport. the designers of the system need to know how the different elements relate to each other. present and future infrastructure in a coordinated manner. where and when it will be used. For some low cost is a priority. Developing a successful transport system is a very complex task because: • • many people are involved in the designing and controlling of small parts of the overall system making coordination difficult many of the users of the system have conflicting priorities. Other transport systems enable you to travel all the way round the world. The cities and towns with the best transport systems are usually those that have had a long term plan that made allowances for the construction of past.Transport systems A transport system includes all of the elements associated with getting people and goods from one place to another. Bicycles. The rich and famous may also include aeroplanes as personal transport.
insurance and the like may involve a high start up cost depending on the vehicle for most vehicles the driver requires special training and licensing strict laws apply to the use of most vehicles greater chance of accident causing death or injury greater impact on air pollution due to under-utilisation of private vehicles. maintenance.1 Motor cars are a common form of personal transport Disadvantages of personal transport: • • • • • • • owner responsible for running costs some costs apply whether you use the vehicle or not for example registration. 4 Personal and public transport .Advantages of personal transport: • • • • • available on demand greater convenience greater prestige greater levels of personal comfort and security may be used for sport. Figure 1. The average occupancy rate for cars on Sydney roads is less than one and a half people per car. and pleasure. fitness.
the disabled less chance of an accident the driver is responsible for adhering to speed limits less air pollution generated due to reduced traffic on roads parking and garaging not a problem.cars. the old. Trains. If you were asked to develop a ‘transport system’ for your area what sort of things would you consider? • • • • who would have priority on the road . ferries. bicycles. As a society we accept this because of all the other benefits that public transport systems provide. trams and planes are examples of public transport. Public transport is often subsidised by the government because many forms of public transport do not run at a profit. buses. buses. trucks? could you keep everyone happy? would your plan favour public transport? would it be a user pays system or would you expect others to subsidise the costs of the system? Part 1: Transport systems – developments 5 . Advantages of public transport: • • • • • • • • you only pay when you use it cost of fares reduced due to government subsidies no special training or licence required can be used by those that may not be able to operate personal transport for example the young.Public transport Public transport is transport that is shared between many users. Disadvantages of public transport: • • • • • • little control over the route taken or the timetable not available in all areas waiting time and time spent travelling to and from drop off points may be considerable taxpayers’ money used to subsidise running costs very high initial capital costs to be paid for by the community comfort and feeling of personal security may not be as high as when using personal transport. The commuter pays a fare to use public transport with the route taken and the timetable pre-determined.
The following information investigates the historical development of the bicycle. cause very little damage to the road surface and in congested conditions they are quicker than other modes of transport. They take up less than one-tenth of the space required by a car. environmentally friendly form of transport. There are nearly 2 million bicycles in NSW with about 160 000 students riding to school. highly efficient. a different manufacturing method or an innovative approach to an old problem? 6 Personal and public transport . maybe even a hundred years ago? what brought about the changes? you need to ask yourself was the change due to the development of a new and improved material.Some other issues you may not have thought of include: • • • • • who is going to use the system? where do they want to go and when? are there likely to be peak periods or can demand on the transport system be evened out? what are the public transport options? can you link the varying forms of transport – that is can a traveller swap easily from their own car to public transport or from one form of public transport to another? what will be the transport needs in the near and long term future? will environmentally friendly options be more costly? what will be the long term cost if the environment is not looked after? • • • Bicycles The bicycle is an inexpensive. fifty. They are enjoyable to ride and may be used for sport and recreation. college or university each day. A few questions to consider are: • • • • why aren’t you riding around on the same sort of bicycles that your older relatives used in the past? what is different about the bicycles you ride now compared to those ridden thirty.
This means designers could do things they couldn’t do before or they could construct components with less material thus saving weight.2 The Count de Sivrac’s two wheeled toy 1817 – steering is added The Count de Sivrac’s idea was revived by a German baron. the use of timber preceded the use of iron and steels. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 7 . For starters you couldn’t steer it. After a brief burst of interest the novelty of the Count’s toy quickly wore off. In many cases what was lacking in early bicycle designs was not imagination and ingenuity but simply the right materials for the job. there were no brakes and sitting on its wooden frame was very uncomfortable. 1791 – just the beginning Bicycles had their origins just over 200 years ago starting in 1791 with the appearance of a wooden two-wheeled ‘toy’ developed by the Count de Sivrac.Historical development of bicycles With bicycles as with many other machines with a long history. Karl von Drais when in 1817 he developed the ‘draisienne walking machine’. It is difficult to say that this was the first bicycle but it did have two wheels and you could sit on it and push yourself along but it was never really a serious form of personal transport. the latter in reference to the rich young men or ‘dandies’ with whom the draisienne was most popular. The draisienne and variations to the basic design were also know as the Hobby Horse and the Dandy Horse. The main improvement was that the draisienne now had a steerable front wheel. Figure 1. Light metals followed before the introduction of composite materials just as ‘found’ materials preceded man made materials. You will notice that as you move from one era to another the strength of the material increases.
inefficient and hindered steering. The draisienne also proved to be a passing fad with the cobbled roads of the time proving too uncomfortable to ride on. Figure 1. Macmillan’s machine was no more comfortable than earlier draisiennes and the reciprocating pedalling motion was tiring. The wheels were now rimmed with wrought iron to improve their strength and abrasion resistance.4 The first pedal powered bicycle 8 Personal and public transport . Not surprisingly Macmillan’s ideas did not catch on. 1840 – pedal power The first person to give the bicycle pedal power was a Scotsman named Kirkpatrick Macmillan.Figure 1. To propel the bicycle the foot stirrups where pushed backwards and forwards. In 1840 he added treadles to the rear wheel of his hobbyhorse. For added comfort the machine had a padded section on the frame to sit on and an armrest. They were operated by rods connected to foot stirrups.3 The Draisienne made by the Baron von Drais The frame of the draisienne was still principally timber with wrought iron forks.
One rotation of the pedals would push the bicycle further. By 1869 improvements to the original design included increasing the size of the front wheel a little and fitting solid rubber tyres to give a better ride than previous iron rimmed wheels. The Michaux brothers called their machine a ‘velocipede’. By 1870 the front wheel had grown to a maximum determined by the leg length of the riders. A penny was about the size of a fifty-cent piece and a farthing was about the size of a five-cent piece. 1870 – now to go faster It didn’t take long for bicycle manufacturers to realise that the velocipede would go faster if it had an even larger front wheel. An important innovation of this time was the development of ball-bearing hubs to reduce rolling friction. Figure 1. The bicycle now had the potential to become a serious form of personal transport.5 The velocipede With increased speed comes the need to slow down safely so a rope operated rear brake was fitted. The rear wheel got smaller so that the overall length of the bicycle remained manageable. The nickname ‘penny farthing’ was based on the wheel size of the ordinaries. These bicycles were called ‘ordinaries’ because compared to a number of other variations that were around during the same period they were the ordinary type of bicycle for the time. The velocipede had a wrought iron frame with some cast iron fittings and timber wheels with metal rims. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 9 .1861 – the first true bicycle? About twenty years after Macmillan another attempt was made to give the bicycle pedal power. The velocipede was an immediate success and heralded the start of the bicycle industry. Despite a seat mounted on a metal frame designed to flex when going over bumps the nickname for this velocipede was ‘the boneshaker’. In 1861 cranks were fitted to the front wheel by Ernest and Pierre Michaux in much the same manner as is found on a modern tricycle used by a small child.
The rider sat nearly two metres above the ground and almost directly above the centre of gravity. The American Star. The ordinary was very difficult to climb on board as the rider tried to get going and stopping meant a large drop to the ground. 1884 – the birth of the ‘modern’ bicycle The end for the high-wheel bicycles was in sight in 1884 when John Starley produced the Rover Safety. For many young men of the late 1800’s going fast was more important than being safe. as did hitting a rock or a pothole. looked like a penny-farthing being ridden backwards. The new designs were called ‘safety bicycles’. Combined with thin wrought iron spokes and a solid rubber tyre it absorbed a lot more shock than the old ‘boneshaker’. it had a steerable front wheel. With the small wheel at the front the rider was less likely to be thrown forwards. Both wheels were the same size. The rover safety is considered the first ‘modern’ bicycle because it had many of the features still seen on bicycles today.Figure 1. Most safety designs at this time simply couldn’t match the ordinary for speed. With ongoing development such as the introduction of hollow wrought iron forks in 1872 the ordinary remained top of the bicycle tree for just over a decade. Considering the modern fatality rates of young male road users it appears little has changed in the past one hundred and twenty years.6 The ordinary or penny-farthing bicycle Riding an ordinary required skill and bravery. However. The ordinary had modern style scissor brakes but using them often sent the rider flying over the handlebars. This increased the price and reduced the reliability of the bicycle. but most importantly the rear wheel was driven by pedals linked 10 Personal and public transport . Many designs tried to improve the rideability of the ordinary but in doing so the design often became too complex. the larger front wheel of the penny-farthing had another significant benefit.
was easier to start and dismount and was much safer to ride. The solution for this came in 1888 when a Scottish doctor. that won the day for the rover. This lead to improvements such as the introduction of Bowden cables to operate the brakes. Early riders of the rover safety complained about the harsh ride compared to the high-wheel bicycles – remember that large front wheel was very good at absorbing shock.7 A Humber safety bicycle from 1890 With the bicycle becoming a serious form of transport with wide appeal across the community greater effort was made to make it even safer. John Dunlop ‘re-invented’ the pneumatic tyre. The chain and sprocket system was made possible by the emerging steel technology that enabled small parts of high strength to be manufactured. In many races between penny-farthings and the rover safety it was the greater control and the ability to slow down when required. This allowed the rider to peddle at the same cadence or peddling speed irrespective of the road or trail conditions or the speed of the bicycle. increased use of hollow steel tube throughout the frame and other improvements such as adjustable padded sprung seats. In other words it could go as fast as a penny-farthing. lights for night time riding. By having a large front sprocket and a small rear sprocket a velocity ratio similar to that of the high-wheeled bicycles was achieved. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 11 . more comfortable and more efficient. By 1895 a simple derailleur gear system was patented. The lower centre of gravity of the safety meant that the brakes could now be applied more effectively. mud guards.to the rear wheel by a chain and sprocket. Figure 1. A W Thompson had actually developed the idea in 1843 but his idea was never applied. rubber pedals and bicycles in a range of sizes. The original rover safety bicycle had a curved frame that quickly evolved into the traditional double diamond shape that is still the standard frame shape today. more than outright top speed.
Sport continues to be the proving ground for many new materials and designs.1900 to 1950 – a period of decline The increased development of the motor car and the aeroplane through the 1900s saw a steady decline in support for the bicycle. With less money being spent on research and development the first half of the 1900s produced only a gradual refinement of the standard bicycle design. was one development that did find its way into common bicycle design. Figure 1. New materials such as light aluminium alloys were available at this time but the cost restricted their use to only serious racing bikes. Sport was the one area that continued to provide an avenue for the modification and improvement of the bicycle design. Henry Ford and the Wright Brothers are just three well-known identities that started their manufacturing careers building bicycles.8 still retains most of the features and appearance of a bicycle produced in the 1950s. squat BMX bicycles with their beefed up frames and tyres. The modern bicycle in figure 1. Originally designed to imitate moto-cross motor cycles they have evolved into a number of variations that are used 12 Personal and public transport . The handle bars placed the rider into a crouch position reducing wind resistance and making more efficient use of both the arm and leg muscles. Drop down handle bars. Materials and special features that proved themselves in the sporting arena became standard features in the following years. Even so the bicycles of 1950 looked very similar to those of fifty years earlier. Many companies originally set up to design and manufacture bicycles went on to become major players in the development of other more profitable forms of transport. another legacy from racing.8 A modern road bicycle 1970 – BMX bicycles The 1970s saw the introduction of small.
• • • Frames for BMX bicycles are most commonly either the traditional double diamond design but using very low angles as can be seen in Figure 1.9 features: • • a chrome molybdenum frame a gyro headset braking system that allows the handlebars to be rotated 360° without having to worry about the brake cables restricting the rotation front and rear foot pegs for trick riding ABS spokes and rims slick tyres to reduce rolling resistance.9 A freestyle BMX bicycle The bicycle in figure 1.10. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 13 .for tricks riding and freestyle competitions. Figure 1. Due to the nature of the dirt tracks.9 or a solid box frame made from an aluminium alloy as seen in Figure 1. ramps and bowls in which they are ridden BMX bikes have a very low gear ratio with many having no gear system at all.
To eliminate the shortcomings of the BMX.11 A mountain bike suitable for a young teenager 14 Personal and public transport .10 A BMX bicycle with a box aluminium frame Their low gear ratio. long distance journeys. small low frames and an ‘off the seat’ riding style make them unsuitable for fast. BMX bikes and their variations are usually considered kids bicycles restricting their popularity amongst older riders. fat tyres and straight handlebars were originally fitted to traditional road bicycles. Figure 1. 1980 – mountain bikes The BMX boom in the late 1970s also produced an important offshoot – the mountain bike. In many cases even today that is still the only difference between some so-called mountain bikes and their road-touring relatives. The mountain bike was developed in California as a bicycle that could be ridden by adults along dirt trails.Figure 1.
Hydraulic shock absorbers and disc brakes are also available. This has given riders the ability to negotiate extremely varied terrain such as steep hills using very low gears through to high-speed travel using the high gear ratios when conditions are more favourable.12 Hydraulic filled front shock absorbers Along with designing their bicycles to absorb shock. comfortable and versatile touring bicycle with riders of all ages. As with the earlier BMX bikes some versions of mountain bikes have borrowed their look and components from motorbikes. It is estimated that 80 % of all bicycles now sold in Australia are mountain bikes.11 has: • • • • dual front shock absorbers a rear centre sprung frame knobbly tyres for better grip on dirt tracks a TIG welded. Derailleur gears are standard now with the number of gear ratios available ranging from between five and thirty. The wheels incorporate aluminium alloy rims. Figure 1. mountain bike manufacturers have spent a lot of attention on the gearing system of their bicycles. stainless steel spokes and kevlar reinforced tyres.As components failed under the increased stress the early mountain bikes were modified by making the components thicker and heavier. high tensile steel frame. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 15 . The early mountain bikes weighed in at about 20 kilograms. The weight of a modern mountain bike has been trimmed to about 12 kilograms by finding lighter and stronger materials. The tubes are joined using cast aluminium lugs and an aircraft adhesive. Top line mountain bikes may use a frame made from a carbon fibre tube with aluminium alloy stays. With shock absorbing suspension. well padded seats and an upright riding position the standard mountain bike has proved a popular. fat tyres. The small mountain bike in figure 1.
5 kilograms. This was almost a disposable bicycle.A measure of the spectacular rise in popularity of mountain bikes is that mountain bike races were introduced into the 1996 Atlanta Olympics only fifteen years after the first mass produced mountain bikes were offered for sale. 2000 – the latest designs A feature of the bicycle industry at the moment is the wide range of designs and the variety of materials used.13 The front wheel and forks of a modern road bicycle 16 Personal and public transport . Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1.1. being unsuitable for the other stages of the race. One team in the 1999 Tour de France used a specially prepared road bicycle for the hill climbing stages that weighed just 6. Figure 1. A standard road bicycle would weigh about 9 to 10 kilograms. A quick glance at a bicycle shop will illustrate the way bicycles are being used for more specific purposes nowadays. The bicycle an athlete would use in a triathlon on the road is different from the touring bicycle a road racer will use and very different to the bicycles the everyday rider will purchase.
This frame style is popular amongst older riders of both genders because it is easier to mount and dismount. The increased strength of the materials used has also allowed traditional ladies’ framed bicycles to be more functional than they have been in the past. Aluminium alloys.13 features tear drop forks and front tube for improved strength and reduced wind-resistance. chrome-molybdenum alloys. Figure 1.Bicycles may range in price from a couple of hundred dollars to many thousands. lightweight magnesium and composite materials such as carbon fibre are all frame materials once considered too exotic and certainly too expensive for the average bicycle.14 Ladies framed mountain bike The range of accessories and the variations available in all components allows the modern bicycle owner to adapt their bicycle to suit their cycling needs and preferences as well as their budget. The bicycle in figure 1. Figure 1.15 Disc brakes for a bicycle Part 1: Transport systems – developments 17 .
Social and environmental implications Mobility of the population Young people tend to have this idea that everyone in the ‘olden days’ rode around like cowboys on horses. will become the common frame design for all bicycles? Will we see bicycles with automatic gearing systems? Will new uses be found for the bicycles currently available? It is difficult to image in that riding a bicycle will cease to be a pleasurable past time for people of all ages. as used in track time trials now. With the introduction of an efficient affordable bicycle at the start of the 20th century the world of many people was suddenly expanded and a period of unprecedented social change took place especially amongst the under-privileged. recreation and transport. With renewed community emphasis on the environment and a healthier lifestyle the influence of the bicycle in an integrated transport system may well increase. worked and socialised in a fairly local area. America and Australia until the latter parts of the 19th and the early parts of the 20th century the main mode of everyday transport was to walk. Find out which countries have the highest rate of bicycle usage. 18 Personal and public transport . Do you think lightweight one-piece carbon fibre frames. were educated. In fact in urban areas of Britain. Even though the automobile has become increasingly more affordable over the past one hundred years the bicycle has remained a significant means of transport for many people in many countries and communities. Europe. This obviously limited the mobility of the population and their opportunity to meet others and share ideas. Most people lived.The future for bicycles The future for the bicycle lies in how well it can continue to contribute to the areas of sport. Longer journeys were possible in developed countries by catching a train or sailing ship but this was not an everyday event and was out of the price range for many people. New forms of sport will provide the incentive to experiment with new materials and new designs just as triathlons and mountain bike races have over the past twenty years.
That is for some it is a pleasurable way to travel. The declining use of ships in moving people long distances such as from country to country and the subsequent rise in the popularity of air travel is an example of one mode of transport superseding another.Outline why some countries encourage the use of the bicycle over other forms of transport. Government lacks funds to construct modern highway and road network. Roads already gridlocked. People today still use sailing ships of all types but mainly in a recreational sense. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? General population can’t afford cars. Population densities very high. Environment impact low The past century has seen a number of other changes to the modes of transport use. Terrain flat and distances to be covered fairly short. It is interesting to note that modern cargo ships are our largest transport vehicles and they still play a major role in moving a whole range of goods over long distances since the time of the journey is less of a factor in these situations. The obvious reasons for this shift from sea to air travel were the reduction in the price of air travel in real terms and the greatly reduced travelling times. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 19 .
The level of danger varies with the mode of transport used. plants. Being an island nation with a large coastline can be a hindrance in Australia’s efforts to keep out undesirable animals. drugs and criminals. In general terms public transport is statistically a safer option than most modes of personal transport yet most people feel safer in their own vehicle. diseases. A recent initiative 20 Personal and public transport . You will now examine some of the safety issues associated with some common modes of transport. Bicycles Being a popular form of transport and recreation for young children. Where did they go and how did they get there? How often did they leave their local area? Did they regularly travel interstate or overseas? You may not have travelled far afield just yet but if you wanted to it would be easier for you to travel than it was for your parents. bicycles pose a special safety problem. Ask an older relative or friend about their holidays when they were a child.Figure 1. Brown The chance for inter-state and even international travel is now a real possibility for a wider cross-section of the community. The ease with which people can travel internationally raises serious quarantine issues. Safety issues In travelling from one spot to another there is always some danger involved.16 Sailing for pleasure © T. Young riders have limited experience in handling their machine and lack awareness of the dangers involved especially those posed by other road users.
The safety features of a bicycle are limited but the compulsory wearing of crash helmets provides some protection for the cyclist. Riding on country roads may mean less traffic but the speed of passing cars and trucks will be higher. Country roads are also more likely to have gravel shoulders forcing the rider to choose between a bumpy ride away from the traffic or a smoother ride on the bitumen closer to the centre of the road. In England the Red Flag Act restricted the speed of a motorised vehicle to 6 kilometres per hour. Riding in the city involves competing for space with a lot of cars.has seen the law changed to allow riders younger than twelve years of age the right to ride on the footpath away from the traffic. These ‘rail trails’ will provide good separation of cyclists from other traffic along paths with few steep hills to negotiate. Many thought the increased speeds would be dangerous to the health of the drivers and the noise produced was likely to scare horses and pedestrians. This law remained in force for thirty-one years even after petrol superseded steam power.17 Bicycle helmets come a range of styles and colours In Sydney there has been a move to develop a network of bicycle paths along the current railway corridors. Motor cars In the middle to late 1800s when steam powered vehicles were first appearing on European and American roads there was significant objection to this new machine. Has the motor car become too dangerous to use? Part 1: Transport systems – developments 21 . Some people are fortunate to live in an area with a well-developed bicycle path network allowing them to ride in safety. Figure 1.
shock absorbing panels. Passive safety features are those that help protect the occupants of a vehicle in the event of a crash. They are inexpensive. air bags. Why don’t more people ride motor cycles? 22 Personal and public transport . Seat belts. That year 3 798 people were killed on Australian roads. ABS braking systems. You will notice there was a steady increase in the road toll up until 1970. All manufacturers will highlight the active safety features and passive safety features of their products.5 fatalities per 10 000 motor vehicles. side impact intrusion bars are examples of passive safety features.atsb.au> You will notice there was an even larger reduction in the road toll following the introduction of random breath testing (RBT).gov. Motor cycles Motor cycles have the potential to be one of the great forms of personal transport. At this time there were approximately 8 fatalities per 10 000 vehicles on the road. collapsible steering columns and pedals designed to break away.2. Active safety features are those that help prevent an accident in the first place. the general car dynamics of handling and braking are all examples of active safety features. they take up little space on the road and have very good fuel economy.Look at the following graph of the national road toll. By 1999 the national road toll had reduced to 1 759 fatalities at a rate of 1. Constant four-wheel drive. 3800 3500 3200 2900 2600 2300 2000 1700 ‘64 ‘68 ‘66 ‘76 ‘86 ‘70 ‘80 ‘90 ‘84 ‘94 ‘96 ‘74 ‘78 ‘88 ‘72 ‘82 ‘92 ‘98 Fatalities Figure 1. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1.18 Australian road fatalities 1964 to 1999 Source: Australian Transport Society Bureau <www. firstly in Victoria in 1978 and then in NSW in 1982.
coal or maybe just containers you will appreciate how many large trucks would be required to haul the same amount of cargo. If you have ever had the opportunity to watch a long freight train hauling wheat.In some countries they do. licensing laws restrict inexperienced riders to motor cycles with an engine size of 250 cc or less. Figure 1. There have been some concessions granted recently with all manufacturers agreeing to limit the top speed of their bikes to a mere 250 kilometres per hour starting from 2001. about three times the legal limit on most Australian highways. Some motor cycle manufacturers and potential customers appear to be obsessed with high performance. Carrying a passenger greatly changes the dynamics of the motor cycle. It is difficult to communicate with your passenger or to carry large sized objects. Of greatest concern are the safety issues as motor cycles do not possess many passive safety features to protect the rider in the event of a crash. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 23 . It requires more physical effort to ride a motor cycle than to drive a car. Trains Trains play a particular role in reducing the national road toll. You are not protected from the weather. Trains get a large number of trucks off the road. however there are many factors to consider. Of course the disadvantage of trains is that they can only go where the tracks have been laid and in most cases trucks will still be necessary at either end of the train journey.19 A road ready 250cc motor cycle Motor cycles are popular with young adults but because of their high performance. The current record for the top speed of a road registered production bike is 311 kilometres per hour.
Why is flying rated a more stressful mode of travelling than the statistically more dangerous option of travelling by car? It is not an everyday experience for most people. It concerns us that if we crash it wouldn’t be a sudden thing – we would possibly have a couple of minutes to pass before the inevitable crash. Figure 1. the way they are used and the types of fuels involved. Some like the bicycle produce little to no pollution in use but some is created during the manufacturing stage. QANTAS. 24 Personal and public transport . the inefficiencies in the motor. Air pollution All forms of transport create some air pollution if you take into account the total life cycle of the vehicle. which receives wide media coverage across the world. To maintain its excellent safety record a significant proportion of its budget goes towards preventative maintenance. When a passenger flight crashes it often leads to large numbers of deaths. prides itself on its safety record. There is still the feeling that it is unnatural for us to fly. flying is one of the safest ways to travel.20 Aeroplanes are a fast and safe way to travel long distances © Tom Brown Our major airline.Aeroplanes When you take into account the number of people travelling and the distances involved. Other forms of transport create air pollution due to factors such as.
This is known as the public transport conundrum. A common problem however is that new freeways encourage more people onto the roads which increases the amount of pollution produced. Instead of building more roads it may be argued that greater emphasis should be placed on public transport options to get more cars off the roads.Motor cars Carbon dioxide produced by a car’s engine is a major contributor to smog levels and global warming. a large engine. which would encourage more people to use their cars to take advantage of the reduced traffic levels. reduce the amount of parking available in city areas charge a toll to use all major roads in the city restrict the days owners can use their cars. The weight and size of vehicle. You will notice that most of the alternatives involve the government taking unpopular action with the aim of improving the environment. Some ways to encourage the increased use of public transport that have been suggested include: • • • • • • make petrol very expensive through increased government taxation and use the money raised to subsidise public transport link the registration fee of vehicles to the amount of pollutants they produce increase the number of bus only lanes or transit lanes on all roads. The catch is that if more people used public transport there would be less traffic on the roads. New freeways are promoted for their environmental benefits by reducing stop-start travelling along with a saving in travelling times. Adding to the problem is the dramatic increase in pollutants produced in the stop – start traffic experienced during peak times on our city roads. Each litre of petrol a car uses releases about 2. Will governments risk not being re-elected in the name of improving the quality of the air and how much are we as a society willing to contribute financially and in the form of inconvenience? Electric trains and light rail Electric vehicles of all sorts are seen by some as a solution to many of our air pollution worries.5 kilograms of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It is not true to say that electric vehicles such Part 1: Transport systems – developments 25 . automatic transmission and air conditioning are all features that incur a fuel consumption penalty. The amount of traffic on the Sydney Harbour Bridge is now at the same level it was before the Harbour Tunnel was opened in 1992.
An important advantage of electric trains and in fact all electric vehicles is the possibility to include a regenerative braking system in the vehicle. All vehicles lose energy when the brakes are applied as kinetic energy is converted to other forms of energy.as trains and light rail trams don’t create any air pollution. Solar powered vehicles are an exception. Approximately 12 500 cars each hour would be needed to move the same number of people. predominantly straight and level nature of the tracks they operate on. A major factor in the high energy efficiency of electric trains and light rail systems is the smooth. the pollution has already been created back at the power stations.21 A modern suburban electric train Trains are very good at moving large numbers of people quickly. usually heat. it may be stored in batteries or capacitors for later use or it may be fed back into the overhead wires to be used by other trains on the same line. Sydney Olympic station has been designed to move 50 000 people per hour with trains leaving the station every three minutes. The electricity produced can be used to power other systems on the train such as the lighting or air-conditioning. When the brakes are applied on a train fitted with a regenerative braking system the electric motor switches to become an electric generator. This reduces the energy required to overcome friction and means large volumes of freight can be moved using small amounts of energy. 26 Personal and public transport . However. Figure 1. solar power is still not yet considered a serious form of power for transport applications.
incorporating a cycleway. With segregated tracks and priority at traffic signals there are no hold-ups in traffic jams making the light rail trams fast and reliable. more flexible public transport option. The tracks required can be set into the roadway allowing light rail trams to use the existing road network. the elderly and less mobile they can negotiated the tight turns and steep gradients often found on existing roadways. Figure 1. Light rail systems are best suited to city areas of high population density where it would be impractical or too costly to build the infrastructure needed for a full-scale rail line. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 27 . linking the Sydney suburbs of Parramatta and Liverpool © Road and Traffic Authority. • A new light rail network was opened in 1997 in the inner-city suburbs of Sydney as part of an urban renewal plan for the area. bicycles and pedestrians can use the tramways when not in use by the trams.22 Bus only transitway. Features of the current breed of light rail include: • • they can carry about 200 passengers – approximately two and a half times the capacity of a typical bus they have a very low floor height making them accessible for parents with prams and small children. In the less-populated areas of western Sydney buses running on dedicated bus-only lanes are seen as a cheaper. p6 Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1.A variation to the full-scale train system is the use of light rail trams. shoppers with trolleys. 1999. Likewise cars.3. Trams have had a long history of usage in cities such as Melbourne.
Noise pollution Like air pollution all forms of transport produce some level of noise ranging from the very minor levels associated with a bicycle to the potentially health damaging levels produced by a large jet aeroplane. The supercapacitors can deliver the stored charge back to the electric engine when needed. A family sized car using current hybrid-electric technology will use 50% less fuel and so produce 50% less pollutants than its conventional counterpart with the same level of performance. Hybrid-electric cars make use of both an electric motor and a small conventional engine. vehicles using the nickel-hydride batteries weigh about 500 kilograms and could cost as much as $30 000.4. Many motor car manufacturers are currently developing hybrid-electric cars. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1. The latest generation of lead acid batteries weigh 100 kilograms and can be installed for about $3 000.Hybrid-electric motor cars Purely electric motor cars have not been the commercial success many had predicated. At other times it either switches off completely or is used to charge the batteries of the car. high capacity lead-acid batteries. Currently. Even so the time of the purely electric vehicle still appears to be some way in the distance. they would be. or at least hoped. What measures have been taken to reduce the effects of noise pollution? Alternatives that can reduce the impact of noise pollution include: • choosing quieter alternatives where possible such as using electric vehicles instead of petrol driven ones 28 Personal and public transport . The designs till now have suffered from a range of weaknesses such as: • • • • lack of performance small range between charging batteries taking up too much space and weighing too much extremely high cost compared to conventional petrol vehicles. A recent break-through has been the development of new low cost. The conventional engine is employed only in times of high-energy drain on the electric motor such as during fast acceleration. Supercapacitors are used to temporarily store unused electricity and electricity created through regenerative braking.
it is too costly to maintain the services and too few people use the system. This leaves the people in the country with a feeling that they have been isolated and Part 1: Transport systems – developments 29 . The service was re-instated in 1996 amongst much fanfare but unfortunately in April 2000 the services were again halted. rail transport is considered to be too inflexible and costly whereas buses and trucks are more versatile and cheaper. This fixed some of the problems but for the sound insulation to be effective all doors and windows in the buildings have to be kept closed – a situation that is less than ideal for the people inside. That is. Despite its many advantages. this time because the engines and carriages used were considered to be in need of urgent repair and funds were not available to replace them.• reducing the noise at the source through the use of mufflers and sound absorbing materials close to the engine or building sound barriers along major roads isolating the transport system such as restricting the building of houses close to airports restrict the hours of use to a time that is less intrusive for those affected. This remedy also does nothing for the residents and students once they are outside in the open. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1. The cancelling of services is often seen as a case of the city based governments turning their backs on rural Australia. To the people in the country the reduction in rail services is very symbolic. like those in cities. Equity issues In 1989 the Sydney to Broken Hill and Sydney to Griffith train services were scrapped and replaced by a bus service. This situation has been repeated a number of times across NSW. Reduction of services in the country is in response to economic rationalisation or the ‘user pays’ system. Should rural commuters be forced to use less polluting forms of transport if cleaner alternatives are more expensive? Should parking meters.5. be introduced across the state to raise revenue for transport alternatives? Questions relating to equity of access to varing modes of transport are difficult to answer. • • In 1995 the federal government took the dramatic step of paying to sound insulate the homes and schools closest to Sydney airport after a third runway was built in preference to building a second Sydney airport.
The long-term future is less certain. Any shift in transportation behaviour will be a gradual process requiring government support or incentives. Remember it was less than 70 years after the Wright Brothers that Neil Armstrong walked on the moon. Many people a century ago would have laughed at the prospect of air travel let alone think that it would one day be a common mode of transport for those travelling long distances.6. Who is to say that space travel won’t be a common journey sometime during this century? Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1. Given the size of Australia and the distribution of the population it is difficult. 30 Personal and public transport . in the short term at least. Other issues Issues additional to the social and environment issues include: • • • the resumption of homes and land for the construction of supporting transport infra-structure the building of new freeways. tunnels and so on through sensitive bushland the environmentally responsible disposal of motor car bodies and components such as tyres and batteries. To the people in the city there is a feeling that they are being used as a cash cow to prop up the transport systems in the country.abandoned. to imagine Australian’s abandoning their cars to take up other forms of personal and public transport. bridges.
Charles Rolls and Frederick Royce started Rolls-Royce Ltd. Wilbur and Orville Wright make first successful powered flight at Kitty Hawk. John Starley produced the ‘Rover Safety’ – the first modern bicycle. Aluminium alloys used in frames of bicycles. Apollo 11 landed on the moon. The first Morris Mini constructed. High wheel bicycles became the ordinary style for the period. Adolf Hitler commissions Dr Ferdinand Porsche to develop a ‘peoples car’ – the Volkswagen Beetle. Bicycles. Britain introduces a licensing system for motor car drivers. petrol engine. Disc brakes fitted to an Indianapolis race car. Joseph Lucas started manufacturing cycle lamps. The first set of traffic lights were installed in Detroit. A Model T Ford could be bought for $260. (Darwin to Singapore). Bowden cables were used to operate the brakes on both cars and bicycles. Piper filed for a patent on a hybrid electric. NSW followed Victoria’s lead in introducing Random Breath Testing (RBT). Ernest and Pierre Michaux developed the ‘velocipede’. Louis Rigolly exceeds 160 km/h in a motor car. North Carolina. H. Kirkpatrick Macmillan developed a two wheel pedal powered vehicle. Henry Ford sold his first Model T Ford for $850. QANTAS maked first commercial flight.23 Timeline of major transport events Part 1: Transport systems – developments 31 . First hollow tube frame was used on a bicycle. Derailleur gear system for bicycles was patented.Time line of personal and public transport 1791 1817 1840 Count de Sivrac manufactured a two-wheeled toy. Citroen pioneer front wheel drive and automatic transmission. Karl Benz lodged the patent for his petrol powered Motorwagen’. USA. Wearing of seat belts was made compulsory in all motor cars in Victoria. Roller bearing used on the velocipede. 1972 1901 1903 1903 1904 1905 1906 1909 1909 1996 1997 2000 Figure 1. Middle East oil embargo increased the price of petrol dramatically. USA. General Motors – Holden produce their first ‘Australian’ designed and manufactured car. First commercial flight overseas from Australia. The British ‘Red Flag Act’ is repealed and the speed limit raised to 20 km/h. Citroen fits disc brake to its DS19 model passenger car. Sturmey and Archer gears developed. 1861 1865 1868 1870 1872 1879 1884 1886 1890 1938 1947 1948 1955 1959 1960 1969 1970 1890 1895 1896 1899 1970s BMX bikes first appeared. J B Dunlop introduced the pneumatic tyre for bicycles. The ‘Red Flag Act’ restricted the use and speed of steam powered vehicles to 6 km/h. alternative fuel vehicles and fuel efficient motors gain wider support. Model T Ford named Car of the Century. 1982 1973 1935 1919 1922 1925 1934 1934 1914 Production line introduced cutting construction time for the Model T Ford from several days to twelve hours. Australia became the first country to make the wearing of seatbelts compulsory nation-wide. Mountain bike races held at the Olympics for the first time. The first car to exceed 100 km/h was an electric car driven by Camille Jenatzy. First regular commercial flight from Australia to the UK. Karl von Drais developed the steerable ‘Draisienne’. The first car offering a four wheel braking system was constructed. Light rail network in inner-city Sydney opened.
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 1. 32 Personal and public transport . trams or solar cars.7.Can you add at least three more important events to this timeline? Think about the development of trains.
24 The Draisienne developed by Baron von Drais – 1817 Improvements ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Materials used ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 1: Transport systems – developments 33 .1 Describe how performance.Exercises Exercise 1. a Figure 1. List the materials used in the construction of the frame and the wheels. comfort and/or safety was improved in the following five bicycles compared to earlier designs.
b Figure 1.25 The velocipede developed by Ernest and Pierre Michaux – 1861\ Improvements __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Materials used __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 34 Personal and public transport .
c Figure 1.26 The ordinary or penny-farthing bicycle – 1870 Improvements ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Materials used ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 1: Transport systems – developments 35 .
27 The Humber safety bicycle – 1890 Improvements __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Materials used __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 36 Personal and public transport .d Figure 1.
28 A mountain bike – 2000 © Avanti. 2000.e Figure 1. p8 Improvements ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Materials used ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 1: Transport systems – developments 37 .
a List four standard features found in a modern family car that were not commonly available in the early 1970s. safety features and comfort levels a modern family car today is comparatively cheaper to purchase brand new than a family car purchased in 1970. i ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 Personal and public transport . Talk to an older person about the equipment levels and safety features in a car from the early 1970s. i Comfort features • • ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii Safety features • • ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ b Explain how four of the safety features listed have improve driver and passenger safety. Divide the list into two comfort features and two safety features.Exercise 1.2 Despite improvements in engine efficiency.
ii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iv ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Part 1: Transport systems – developments 39 .
Exercise 1. i ii iii iv ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 Personal and public transport . a Explain why this is an appropriate transport option for this location but may not be a satisfactory solution to the transport needs of other urban and rural locations. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b List four advantages light rail systems have over other forms of public transport.3 A light rail tram network is operating in inner city Sydney.
4 Mountain bikes are the most popular form of bicycle currently sold in Australia because: a b c d they are comfortable and versatile they can be ridden on dirt tracks they are inexpensive but strong they can go fast. c or d that best completes the statement.4 Select the alternative a.Exercise 1. Circle the letter 1 In materials development through time: a b c d 2 found materials preceded manufactured materials heavy metals preceded light-weight metals light-weight metals preceded man made composites all of the above. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 41 . The velocipede was an improvement over earlier bicycle designs because: a b c d it was steerable it could be pedalled efficiently it was the first bicycle with pedals it was more comfortable. b. 5 Carbon fibre is increasingly being used for bicycle frames because: a b c d it is very flexible it is inexpensive it has a high strength to weight ratio it can be tinted a range of colours. 3 The velocipede was superseded because: a b c d it had poor brakes it was too heavy it was too slow it was too uncomfortable.
8 Motor cycle riders have a high fatality rate because: a b c d motor cycles have few passive safety features motor cycles only have two wheels car drivers don’t like them on the road because they can go so fast motor cycles have few active safety features. 7 The road fatality rate in Australia has declined since 1982 because: a b c d cars are safer now and the community is more aware of unsafe driving practices there are less cars on the roads now more people are using public transport modern cars contain more passive safety features. 42 Personal and public transport .6 The major cause of accidents involving bicycles is: a b c d the lack of helmets worn by the riders the inexperience of the typical bicycle rider motor car drivers not wanting to share the road the lack of bike paths for the riders to use. 9 Motor cars contribute a lot of pollution to the air because: a b c d their motors are less efficient than other forms of transport they burn leaded fuel they have low occupancy rates there are so many of them on the road. 10 Electric powered vehicles have been expensive because: a b c d electricity is expensive to produce there hasn’t been much demand for them the batteries used to store the electricity were very expensive the lightweight materials used in the body of the vehicle were very expensive.
Describe the types and relative levels of pollution generated by the modes of transport listed.Exercise 1.5 a All modes of transport create some pollution. i Bicycle ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii Motor car powered by a traditional petrol engine ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii Motor car powered by a hybrid petrol/electric engine ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iv Electric train ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ v Jet aeroplane ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Part 1: Transport systems – developments 43 .
Exercise 1.6 a Explain why alternative modes of transport are increasingly being used to move both people and goods instead of the rail network in rural NSW. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b List three advantages and three disadvantages of replacing rural train services with alternate forms of transport. i advantages • _________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________ ii disadvantages • _________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________ • __________________________________________________ 44 Personal and public transport .
• • • • • • • • • General Motors – Holden produce their first Australian designed and manufactured car Wearing of seatbelts made compulsory Australia wide The production line method of constructing motor cars pioneered by Henry Ford Wright Brothers make successful flight at Kitty Hawk QANTAS makes its first commercial flight Karl Benz patents his Motorwagen design Random Breath Testing (RBT) is introduced in NSW The introduction of the Rover safety bicycle greatly improves cycling safety and efficiency Mountain bikes first mass-produced The introduction of the Rover safety bicycle greatly improves cycling safety and efficiency __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 1884 Figure 1.30 Part 1: Transport systems – developments 45 .7 a Date the following events and sequence them on the time line below. The first one has been completed for you.Exercise 1.
i ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 46 Personal and public transport . then explain how each impacted on modes of transport or transport systems in the years following.b State three of the events from part a.
5 ❐ Exercise 1.1 to 1. 1 ❐ Exercise 1.2 ❐ Exercise 1.7 Name: _______________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 1.Exercise cover sheet Exercises 1. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.7 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.6 ❐ Exercise 1.3 ❐ Exercise 1.4 ❐ Exercise 1. Part 1: Transport systems – developments 47 . If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module.
48 Personal and public transport .
Part 1: Transport systems – developments 49 . I have learnt to • • • investigate the history of technological change related to transport and its impact on society identify design features in the engineering of transport systems over time critically examine the impact of developments in transport systems on the environment and society. NSW. work. Refer to <http://www. In the next part you will investigate the concepts of friction. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.nsw.Progress check In this part you explored transport systems and their social and environmental implications. 1999. You have also investigated the historical development of the bicycle with particular emphasis on the materials used. © Board of Studies.au> for original and current documents. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree I have learnt about • • • • • historical developments in transport systems effects of engineering innovation in transport on people’s lives construction and processing materials over time environmental effects of transport environmental implications from the use of materials in transport.boardofstudies.edu. energy and power by their application to transport problems.
Personal and public transport Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics .
..............................................................3 Normal force ............. 2 Friction ..19 Power.................................2 What will you learn?..................17 Work.................... 4 Friction force ..................................................................................................................33 Exercise cover sheet.......................................................................................................................................17 Energy.............................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Exercises ........................................................................................Part 2 contents Introduction............ 5 Work.........................................45 Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 1 ...................................................................................................................................43 Progress check ....................................................................... energy and power ................................
What will you learn? You will learn about: • engineering mechanics and hydraulics – static friction. You will learn to: • • • apply mathematical and/or graphical methods to solve engineering problems related to transport analyse problems involving static friction differentiate between the concepts of energy and power and apply appropriate calculations. NSW.nsw.boardofstudies. 1999. angle of repose. work.au> for original and current documents. 2 Personal and public transport . power. © Board of Studies. normal force. concept of friction and its use in engineering. friction force. angle of static friction. potential energy. power. energy.Introduction In this part you will investigate mathematical and graphical methods to solve engineering problems involving friction relating to transport. The concepts of power and energy relating to transport will also be studied in greater depth.edu. kinetic energy. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Refer to <http//ww. coefficient of friction.
as used for bicycles. use of graphite) of the surfaces that are rubbing together. as used in motor vehicles such as cars. Internal combustion engines. stop or to turn corners if it were not for friction. depletion of the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. It will always cause wear in the individual parts of a machine and to overcome friction.Friction When developing personal or public transport systems engineers endeavour to maximise efficiency and safety. then there would be no reaction as you push forward and your feet would simply slide out from underneath you. greasing. slime on rocks in water. have continued to cause concern with vehicle emission. Bicycles. is good for the environment. or resistance between the ground and your feet. engineers have addressed these by developing different ways of producing power to move the transport. If there was no friction. energy is wasted. Electricity has become the preferred power source on trains. replacing the steam and diesel-electric trains in the public transport system. Most forms of transport will be equipped with a braking system that will allow it to slow down or stop by converting kinetic energy (motion) into heat energy. Friction is present in all machines. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 3 . Manual power. Friction can be reduced to a minimum by lubrication (oiling. You have perhaps experienced this when walking on a slippery surface (ice. With society becoming more and more conscious of environmental issues. muddy hillsides). Friction allows you to walk. cars and trains would not be able to move. Electric motors are still being investigated for use with motor vehicles. buses. You will recall that you have already studied friction in Braking systems. and motor cycles. Friction is often considered to be the enemy of efficiency as it can cause wear on moving parts and provides resistance to the movement of a vehicle.
but opposite in direction to the weight force. 4 Personal and public transport . P mg FR N N = mg + P sin Figure 2. It always acts normal (at 90∞ or perpendicular) to the supporting surface. mg P FR N N = mg Figure 2. It balances all the forces that have perpendicular components to the contacting surface.Normal force (N) The normal force is a reaction force. The normal force will often be equal to. The weight force has two components. one parallel (tending to create motion down the plane) and one perpendicular to the surface. 2 Normal force equal to weight + component of inclined force Care should also be taken when the supporting surface is itself inclined. 1 Normal force equal to the weight Care should be taken when there are forces that are inclined to the horizontal.
and the reaction force. so the friction force will increase to balance it. This friction force is preventing motion. Once the body starts to move. 4 Relationship between friction force and applied force Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 5 . will be equal to the applied force. At a certain maximum value of applied force. It acts along the surface as shown in figure 2. This condition is known as kinetic friction and is due to less interpenetration of the roughness of the contacting surfaces as they move over one another.1 and 2.mg cos sin mg mg N N = mg cos Figure 2. the frictional force is called the limiting friction. As the applied force is increased. 3 Normal force equal to perpendicular weight component Friction force (FR) Frictional force is a reaction force that is exerted between the contacting surfaces which tends to prevent movement. the body will not move. the friction force. the body will be on the point of sliding. When the applied force is small.2. the frictional force will be slightly less than the limiting friction. At this point. It is called the static-friction force. Consider a body with an applied force on it. Equilibrium (static) Frictional force (N) Fl Fs Motion (kinetic) Fk Applied force (N) Figure 2.
The ratio of the limiting friction to the normal reaction is given by m = FR N where m is called the co-efficient of friction and gives an indication of the ‘stickyness’ of two surfaces.m Coefficient of friction (m) Experimental evidence shows that the limiting friction is proportional to the normal component. The mass of the train must be converted to a weight. Note also that 1 tonne is equivalent to 1000 kg (or 103 kg in engineering notation) The gravitational acceleration (g) is taken as 10 m/s 2 The normal force will equal the weight force N = mg = 260 ¥ 103 ¥ 10 = 2600 kN FR = mN = 0. Typical values for m range from 0.6 Worked example 1 An electric locomotive has a mass of 260 tonnes evenly distributed over its driving wheels. Solution The greatest pulling force will equal the limiting frictional force.2 to 0. N. Laws of friction 1 Friction always acts along the contacting surface between the two bodies. Calculate the greatest pulling force that the locomotive can exert before the wheels begin to slip. This is done by using the formula W = mg. 6 Personal and public transport .25 ¥ 2600 = 650 kN \ The greatest pulling force will equal the limiting friction of 650 kN.
This constant (known as the coefficient of friction) is determined by the nature of the contacting surfaces. The angle of the slope is called the angle of inclination (q). The magnitude of the ratio of limiting friction to the normal force is a constant. 5 Horizontal plane – angle of static friction A single force (called the resultant reaction) can replace these two reaction forces.2 3 4 The friction force always acts in a direction and sense so as to oppose any impending motion. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 7 . How many forces are now acting on the body? What is the significance of this? Consider the some body placed on an inclined slope. The limiting friction is independent of the area of contact. If the bodies are in equilibrium. then the frictional force will be equal to the force tending to produce the motion. The angle between the resultant reaction and the normal reaction is called the angle of static friction (fs). mg P Fl N fs R Figure 2. The normal force which balances the weight force and the limiting friction force which balances the applied force. 5 f Angle of static friction (fs) There will be two reaction forces.
then the friction force must act up the plane so as to oppose any motion. will be balanced by the normal reaction. equal to mg sin q. the body will be on the point of sliding and the friction will be limiting. This may be incorporated into design situations. • That is. will be the force that attempts to move the body down the plane.mg sin mg Fl R N Figure 2. equal to mg cos q. then when they 8 Personal and public transport . then the object may move despite the static friction acting between the two contacting surfaces. but if the slope is too steep. These two components can be combined to form a resultant reaction in a similar way as was done with the horizontal plane. The roughness between the surfaces can prevent movement up to a point. Angle of repose It is useful to know if an object will slide on an inclined surface. Because the motion would be down the plane. The angle of static friction will again be the angle between the resultant reaction and the normal reaction. q = fs = angle of repose Because the normal force is always perpendicular to the surface and the limiting friction is always along the contacting surface. one component is perpendicular to the plane. At the point of limiting friction. the weight force will create two reactions. the normal reaction and a limiting friction reaction. When the angle of inclination (q) is equal to the angle of static friction (fs). 6 Inclined plane – angle of static friction The weight force can be converted into two components: • one component is parallel to the plane. This component. This component. This angle is called the angle of repose.
the plane is inclined at 30∞ to the horizontal. The angle of inclination of the plane is increased until the suitcase is on the point of sliding. The resultant will equal the hypotenuse (the side opposite to the right angle). tan f = = = = Worked example 2 opposite adjacent lim iting friction normalreaction F1 N ms (coefficient of friction) A suitcase is placed on an inclined plane. At point of limiting friction.58 Determine the coefficient of friction between a flat bottomed object and a reasonably smooth flat surface Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 9 .are combined together to form the resultant reaction. Determine the coefficient of static friction between the contacting surfaces. At the instant the suitcase starts to move. fS = q mS = E1 N = tan fS = tan 30∞ = 0. they will always form a right-angled triangle. 7 Resultant reaction and angle of static friction Using the trigonometry ratio. Fl R N Figure 2.
55. (= weight).Place the object onto the flat surface (a wide board would do here). This can be done with the aid of a protractor. 8 Wooden crate on floor 10 Personal and public transport . Weigh the object using the spring balance. or you can measure the height of the end that has been lifted up and compare it with the length of the board. Measure the applied force by using a spring balance. Verify this result by applying a force to the object. Gradually lift the end of the board until the object is just on the point of sliding down the slope. P 30∞ Figure 2. m = ER N How does this compare with determining the angle of repose? What happens if the board is lowered slightly when the object has started sliding? How can you explain this? Worked example 3 A 20 kg wooden crate is sitting on the floor. Calculate the angle with your calculator. Hint: sin q = = oppsite hypotenuse height length of board As q = fs. now take tan f to determine the coefficient of friction. A force is applied at 30∞ as shown. Coefficient of friction (m) is the ratio of the limiting friction (= applied force) to the normal reaction (N). Measure the angle of the slope at this point. Determine the force (P) if the crate is on the point of sliding. The coefficient of friction between the floor and the crate is 0. This can be done when the surface is horizontal.
Summing the forces vertically + ≠ SV = 0 N – P sin 30∞ .10 Free body diagram showing components Fl Analytical solution F l = mS N = 0.Draw a free body diagram of the forces acting. mg = 20 10 = 200 N P sin 30∞ P cos 30∞ N Figure 2.55 N This equation has two unknowns and can’t be solved by itself. mg P 30∞ N Figure 2.55 N Summing the forces horizontally + Æ SH = 0 P cos 30∞ . change the inclined force into its horizontal and vertical components. Also convert the mass into weight. use the equilibrium equations SH = 0 and SV = 0.Fl = 0 P cos 30∞ = 0.200 = 0 N = P sin 30∞ + 200 (2) (1) Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 11 . When drawing the free body diagram. 9 Free body diagram showing all forces acting Fl As the forces are in equilibrium.
That is. it must oppose any impending motion. (magnitude and direction known). The angle of friction can be constructed by drawing N at right angles to the surface and making it 100 mm long. the force P (direction only known.55. mg P 30∞ N Fl R Figure 2.55 ¥ 0. You should recall that this is the angle between the normal reaction and the resultant reaction.Substitute (2) into (1) P cos 30∞ = 0. fS.5) 110 0.591 = 186 N Graphical solution The graphical solution is a much simpler method that requires few mathematical skills. The free body diagram should still be used. There are now three forces acting on the body.55) in this example.866 . then Fl will be constructed 55 mm long.0.11 Free body diagram – resultant reaction It is also necessary to find the angle of friction. magnitude unknown) and 12 Personal and public transport . This will now establish the angle of friction. draw Fl in the direction established in the free body diagram. From the end of this line. It is important that the correct direction for the limiting friction is established.55 ¥ 200 P = = 110 (0. This can be constructed by using the ratio of Fl / N is equal to m (0.0.55 (P sin 30∞ + 200) P ( cos 30∞ . These are: • • the weight of the crate. Because m = 0.55 sin 30∞) = 0.
From the end of the weight vector. the angle of friction is constructed by measuring up 100 mm (representing N). The force polygon is now completed by drawing the other two forces in the directions of those forces. The known force in this example is the weight force of 200 N.• the resultant reaction (direction only known. The value of P is now scaled off from the force diagram. From these forces. then from the end of the 100 mm line. This determines the magnitude of the required force P. another line 55 mm long (representing Fl) is drawn. then scaling off the magnitude of the force that is required. This gives the ratio of 55/100 (= 0. Note this only establishes a direction equal to the angle of friction.55). An arrowhead is placed on this line to indicate that the weight force is acting down. magnitude unknown). the known force is drawn to a suitable scale first. From the top end of the weight vector. This ensures the diagram is large enough to establish an accurate solution. Select a suitable scale (a scale of 10 mm = 25 N in this case). It does not give the actual values of the normal reaction or the limiting frictional force. but shows the line of action of the resultant reaction. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 13 . the direction of P (30∞ in this example) is drawn until it intersects with the line of action of the resultant reaction. A vertical line 80 mm long is drawn.
mg = 30 10 = 300 N Figure 2. Determine: • • P the effort the driver must exert so as to move the 30 kg suitcase the best angle he should pull at so as to minimize his effort. 13 Suitcase being pulled 14 100 mm Personal and public transport . The suitcase slides along the floor and the coefficient of friction between them is 0.55 mm = 0.3.12 Force diagram drawn to scale Worked example 4 When unloading suitcases from the luggage compartment of an interstate tourist coach.55 ratio = 55 100 determines P 30∞ mg = 200 N R P is scaled off diagram = 74 mm = 185 N Scale 10 mm = 25 N Figure 2. the driver pulls the suitcase at an angle of 30° to the horizontal.
The smallest force must be the shortest distance from the line of action of the resultant reaction and the top of the weight force. The magnitude of the weight force is calculated by multiplying the mass (30 kg) of the suitcase by gravity. A suitable scale could be 10 mm = 30 N. This is done by using a protractor. so the weight force would be drawn 100 mm long. To determine the best angle to pull the suitcase from the luggage compartment.3. then 30 mm (in the direction of Fl).A graphical solution is the easiest way to solve this problem. Point X is joined to the lower end of the weight force to give the direction of the resultant reaction. This is drawn from the top of the weight force until it intersects with the line of action of the resultant reaction. the weight of the suitcase is equal to 300 N. The angle of friction is constructed by measuring up 100 mm (in the direction of N). The magnitude of this force is again scaled off the diagram. the force diagram is again used. It is also necessary to measure the angle of this force. The weight force and the angle of friction are the same as in the first part of the problem. Using a value of g = 10 m/s2. The coefficient of friction is 0. The length of this line is scaled off the diagram to determine the size of the pull required at 30∞. The angle of the resultant reaction is constructed. The known force is drawn to a suitable scale. This is converted to a ratio of 3/10. The direction of the pull is given as 30∞. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 15 . This will be perpendicular to the line of action of the resultant reaction. This is shown as point X in the following diagram.
2. 16 Personal and public transport .30 x P1 P2 15∞ 30∞ R2 R1 Scaled from diagram 300 N 100 P1 = 90 N P2 = 84 N 30∞ 15∞ Scale 10 mm = 30 N Figure 2. 14 Force diagram Turn to the exercise section and complete exercises 2.1 and 2.
the capacity to do work. energy and power are closely related. trains and other vehicles used for private and public transport. energy and power In the transport system. 15 Force not applied in the same direction as displacement Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 17 . is constantly converted from one form to another. W= Fxs It may be convenient to use W = F x s cos f where f is the angle between the line of action of the force and the direction of the displacement. work is continually used to provide motion to cars. the force (F) and the displacement (s) created by the application of the force. The displacement must be measured in the same direction as the force. bicycles. Work (W) Work done on a body is defined as the product of two vectors. It is also required to provide a resistance to stop a vehicle. The study of these helps the engineer select the correct size motor to perform a certain task. You recall how this was applied when you studied braking systems. Energy.Work. Work and power are required to overcome friction in the component parts of any machine. F displacement (s) Figure 2. The concepts of work. or predict what performance could be expected from a given motor.
F (N) Work (Joule) Displacement. Total work When more than one force is acting on a body to produce motion. Force. named in honour of James Joule (1818–89). or by finding the work done by the resultant force.The unit of work has been given the name of Joule (J). Constant velocity implies there is no acceleration. This also implies there is no resultant force which in turn implies there is no work done. then s = 0 also implies there is no work done. s (m) 12 18 Personal and public transport . F (N) Force. 250 0 Displacement. the total work done can be found by finding the work done by the individual forces and adding these together. if the object doesn’t move. who conducted experiments to determine the work required to produce a unit of heat. 16 Work done by a constant force The shaded area represents the amount of work done over a given displacement. Similarly. Determine graphically the amount of work done over this distance. A special case occurs when a body is moving with constant velocity. s (m) Figure 2. A graph may be constructed to plot force against displacement. Work done by a force The work done on a body can also be determined graphically from a force-displacement graph. Worked example 5 A cyclist exerts a constant force of 250 N over a distance of 12 metres.
The potential energy is equal to the work done in lifting a body’s weight (mg) through a vertical height (h). electrical. radiation and nuclear energy. in particular the kilojoule (kJ) and the megajoule (MJ). it is more common to use multiples of the joule. Potential energy (PE) The energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position is called its potential energy. The unit for energy is the same as for work – the joule (J). In studying the mechanics of private and public transport you will examine two forms of mechanical energy. Kinetic energy (KE) The energy that a body possesses due to its motion is called its kinetic energy. There are many forms of energy such as heat. and v is the velocity of the body measured in metres per second (m/s). Because the joule is a small quantity. 17 Force-displacement graph for a constant force Shaded area = 250 (N) ¥ 12 (m) = 3000 Nm = 3000 J \ Work done = 3 kJ Energy Energy is the capacity to do work. chemical. Potential energy can be divided into two forms: Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 19 . kinetic energy and potential energy.Figure 2. Kinetic energy may be calculated mathematically by the formula: KE = 1 mv2 2 where m is the mass of the body measured in kilograms (kg).
the energy is recovered. A retractable ball point pen has a refill cartridge and a spring inside it. 18 Schematic diagram of hydro-electric power station Energy can’t be created or destroyed but it can be transformed from one form to another form of energy. Dam Pipe Power station Turbine Mountain Figure 2. the spring is compressed. or produce light or heat energy. When the load is removed. Strain energy (SE) Strain energy is a form of potential energy. which can then be used to drive electric trains. 20 Personal and public transport . At the power station. This potential energy changes to kinetic energy as it flows down through the pipes. In a hydro-electric scheme to produce energy. When the pen is ready to use. the water turns the turbines to create electrical energy. This is known as the principle of conservation of energy.1 2 gravitational potential energy due to height elastic or strain potential energy due to elastic deformation (springs). It is recoverable and is equal to the amount of work done in stretching or compressing a spring. Gravitational potential energy is found by the formula PE = mgh where h is the vertical height and is independent of the path taken to achieve that height. providing that no permanent deformation has occurred. The water has gravitational potential energy due to its height. water is stored in a reservoir or dam high above the power station.
heat or noise.The spring now has some strain energy. It is measured in N/m. will return the refill back to its writing position. the amount of stored energy can be calculated. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 21 . The spring is deformed and secured in position. SE= W = 1 Fe 2 You will recall from your work with force – extension diagrams that the slope of the line up to the elastic limit is known as the stiffness. By using the strain energy formula. This is known as the strain energy and equals the area of the triangle. When released. 19 Force – extension diagram up to the elastic limit. e (m) Figure 2. The work done in producing deformation is found by the area under the graph. A mousetrap is a good example of this principle. which when released. When working with springs. the spring does useful work. The spring constant of a coiled spring is determined by the force required to stretch (or compress) a spring by a unit length. This energy may be converted to another form of energy to generate motion. F= ke Substitute this into the strain energy formula SE = = 1 Fe 2 1 k e2 2 Strain energy can be used to advantage by loading up a spring. the spring is released and traps the mouse. the slope of the line up to the elastic limit is known as the spring constant (k). When the trigger is activated by the mouse. Force (N) Elastic limit W=SE Extension.
Determine the energy dissipated in the braking process. for example. Using the conservation of energy principle: Total energy at point A = Total energy at point B KEA + PEA = KEB + PEB 1 mv2 + mgh = 2 1 ¥ 90 ¥ 72 + 0 = 2 1 mv2 + mgh 2 1 ¥ 90 v2 + 90 ¥ 10 ¥ 0. 20 Bicycle and rider with raised section in the road i Determine the velocity of the bicycle at point B. A B C Figure 2. This loss of energy is equivalent to the work done in bringing the bicycle from 22 Personal and public transport . and the rider still does not pedal. of total mass 90 kg. For a free falling body. the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy is a constant.2 metres high.2 2 2205 – 180 = 45 v2 v = 6.Conservation of mechanical energy If a body is in motion under the action of external forces. if frictional losses are negligible. the total energy in the system is constant.7 m/s ii The rider applies the brake at B and comes to rest on the raised section at point C. This can also be written as: Loss in potential energy = gain in kinetic energy or conversely Gain in potential energy = loss in kinetic energy Worked example 6 A bicycle and rider. coasts at 7 m/s and continues to coast up a raised section in the road 0. The bicycle has lost kinetic energy in coming to rest.
7 m/s to a final velocity. at rest). v = 0 (that is.the initial velocity. The resistance to motion due to friction is 300 N.025 kJ 300 N 5∞ Figure 2. The combined mass of the cyclist and the bicycle is 90 kg. Work done = Change in Energy = Change in KE (as there is no change of height) 1 1 mv2 – mu2 2 2 1 = 0– ¥ 90 ¥ 6. Energy dissipated Worked example 7 A cyclist pedals his bicycle up a 5∞ slope with a constant velocity as shown. u = 6.72 2 = = -2025 J Negative sign indicates that the force doing the work acts in the opposite direction to the displacement. 21 Cyclist on a slope i Determine the work done by the cyclist when the bicycle has travelled 40 metres up the slope. mg = 2. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 23 .
24 Personal and public transport .4 ¥ 40 15136 J 15. P – mg sin 5∞ . The total resistance due to friction to motion is still 300 N. P needs to overcome the component of the weight force parallel to the slope. therefore the forces parallel to the plane are balanced.4 N Force ¥ displacement 378. that is. 22 Free body diagram – moving up the slope SF = ma (a = 0 if constant velocity) The cyclist travels at constant speed.300 = P = = Work Done = = = = ii 0 300 + (90 ¥ 10 ¥ sin 5∞) 378.1 kJ Determine the driving force required at the wheels if the cyclist now turns around and travels down the slope with a constant velocity. and the friction. mg sin 5°.mg sin 5∞ mg cos 5∞ mg = 90 10 = 900 N 5∞ P 5∞ 300 N Figure 2.
PE = 0 (as height = 0) Kinetic Energy. When it has travelled 20 metres up the slope.300 = FD = = ma (a = 0 if constant velocity) 0 300 – 78.mg sin 5∞ mg cos 5∞ mg 5∞ 300 N 5∞ FD Figure 2. v = 0) At 20 m up the slope Potential Energy = = = Kinetic Energy = = mgh 90 ¥ 10 ¥ 20 sin 5∞ 1568 J 1 mv2 2 1 ¥ 90 (3)2 2 Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 25 . KE = 0 (as bicycle is at rest. Determine the increase in the energy associated with this motion.4 221. the bicycle starts from rest at the bottom of the slope. At the bottom of the slope Potential Energy. it has a velocity of 3 m/s. 23 Free body diagram – moving down the slope SF = FD + mg sin 5∞ .6 N For another set of conditions.
James Watt (1736–1819). The watt was named after the Scottish engineer. but not P = Fv. This may be in the form of an internal combustion engine.7 watts. The watt is equal to a joule per second.3 to 2. Maximum power is the power required at maximum velocity. The formula sheet supplied with the HSC examination paper uses P = W/t. an electrical motor or the human body as in the case of the bicycle. He developed the steam engine and was the first to introduce a unit to describe the rate of doing work. Power (P) is the time rate of doing work. P = = W t Es t = Fv (since velocity = displacement/time) P = Fv is a particularly useful derived formula. The unit he described was the horsepower which is equivalent to 745.= Total Energy increase = = = 405 J 1568 + 405 1973 J 1. Power (P) Most transport will be driven by some sort of motor. The unit of power is also given a special name of watt (W). The average power determines the amount of fuel or electricity used in a given period of time. 1 W = 1 J/s 26 Personal and public transport .5.97 kJ Turn to the exercise section and complete exercises 2. It is the maximum power that determines the size of the motor that is required.
then divide by 3600 (this converts hours to seconds). P Resistance force. FR = FR v = = P v 15000 20 = 750 N Weight component down incline. To convert km/h to m/s. 72 km/h = 72 ¥ 1000 m/s 3600 = 20 m/s P = Fv = 80 ¥ 50 ¥ 20 = 80000 W = 80 kW Worked example 9 A 1 tonne car uses power at the rate of 15 kW when traveling at 20 m/s on a level road. Before the formula P = Fv can be used.1736 = 1736 N Total force opposing motion = 1736 + 750 = 2486 N KE at bottom of incline = 1 mv2 2 Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 27 . the velocity of 72 km/h must be converted to m/s. The driver turns off the engine when he reaches an incline of 10∞. The Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) exerts a constant force of 80 newtons/tonne on a carriage. How far up the hill will the car run before it stops? Assume the frictional resistances remain constant.Worked example 8 The Tangara motor carriage as used on suburban services in Sydney has a mass of 50 tonnes. F = mg sin 10∞ = 1000 ¥ 10 ¥ 0. multiply by 1000 (this converts km to m). Calculate the power exerted by the locomotive if the train is travelling at a speed of 72 km/h.
Indicated power is the power stated when advertising the power of a car. Brake power (bp) There are many frictional losses along the drive train of any vehicle. In a perfect (frictionless) machine. the input and 28 Personal and public transport .= 1 ¥ 1000 ¥ (20)2 2 = 200 000 J KE of car = work done against friction = F¥s 200 000 = 2486 ¥ s = 80.5 metres h Efficiency (h) In most practical cases. The indicated power will always be greater than the brake power. the work output is less than the work input. Brake power is the power that is available to do useful work at the driving wheels. Due to the action of friction in most machines. Frictional losses of power due to frictional forces are not considered. so the mechanical efficiency will always be less than one. Friction and heat are the two main factors preventing a machine from making all the theoretical power available. The efficiency (h) of an engine is found by dividing the power output by the power input. some of the power is lost in overcoming resistance forces. Indicated power (ip) This is the power that is generated at the cylinders of the combustion engine. h = = output input brake power indicated power Note that the ratio of output/input can refer to work or to power.
Because the inclination has been given as a ratio.output of work will be equal.9∞ mg = 900 10 = 9000 N Fl N Figure 2. and is normally expressed as a percentage. 24 Inclination of slope tan q = 1 30 q = tan-1 0.9∞ = = Weight component at 90∞ to the plane = 900 ¥ 10 ¥ sin 1. In practice. The inclination is sometimes known as rise (vertical height) over run (horizontal length).9∞ 298 N mg cos 1. What power would be required of the engine if the car was travelling up the same incline at 80 km/h.0333 = 1. 25 Free body diagram showing forces acting Weight component down the plane (helps drive car down plane) mg sin 1.9∞ Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 29 . Calculate the power delivered by the engine if the value of m is 0. this is never obtainable.9 tonne is travelling at a constant velocity of 80 km/h down an incline of 1 in 30. The ratio is always less than one.4. Worked example 10 A car with a mass of 0. you need to convert this to an angle. 1 (Rise) 30 (Run) Figure 2. This is called 100% efficient.
N = = Limiting friction.4 ¥ 8995 3598 N 0 3300 N 80 x 1000 3600 22. Fl = = = FD + 298 – 3598 = FD = Convert the velocity 80 km/h Æ m/s 80 km/h = 9000 ¥ cos 1.2 86491 W 86.3 kW = Power to drive down the slope = = = = Friction now has to be overcome (to drive it up the plane) FD .2 m/s FD v 3300 ¥ 22.5 kW 30 Personal and public transport .9∞ 8995 N mN 0.2 73260 W 73.298 – 3598 = FD = Power to drive up the slope = = = = 0 3896 N FD v 3896 ¥ 22.
Calculate the number of people that can be conveyed in an hour if the average mass of the people is 74 kg. and the efficiency of the equipment is 70%. but also in other fields of engineering. You have now used some common mathematical techniques to analyse a variety of practical situations involving the concepts of friction.7 ¥ 3000 W 2100 W 1 hr or 3600 sec W t 2960 ¥ n 3600 2100 ¥ 3600 2960 2554 people Turn to the exercises section and complete exercises 2. energy and power. You can now use these techniques not only to solve problems associated with transport.8.Worked example 11 A moving footpath is transporting people at a constant velocity of 2 m/s up a 1 in 20 slope. work. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 31 . the power rating of the driving motor is 3 kW. Graphical methods of solving frictional and work problems have also been described. The footpath rises 4 metres over its effective length of 80 metres. Work to move one person = = = To move n people h 70 100 Power output = = = = = E P Total work available for one hour 2100 n = = = = = mgh 74 ¥ 10 ¥ 4 2960 J 2960 ¥ n J Power output Power input output 3000 0.6 to 2.
32 Personal and public transport .
like the fan belt on a car. whereas pedals on performance and cross country bicycles often use alloy pedals with clips. (Note the co-efficient of static friction or rubber on concrete 0.) _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain why many drive belts. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 33 .6 – 0.1 a Explain why rubber is a very suitable material from which to make car tyres.90.Exercise Exercise 2. are made from moulded rubber and fibre. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Explain why some grips on a recreation bicycle pedal are made from rubber.
2 A 25 kg suitcase is pushed into the luggage compartment of an interstate tourist coach. Apply a graphical method to determine: • • the coefficient of static friction if the suitcase is on the point of sliding the maximum force that can be applied.Exercise 2. in order that the suitcase will not slide on the floor. The driver pushes with a downward force of 70 N at an angle of 30∞ to the horizontal. by either braking or accelerating. 34 Personal and public transport .
3 An electric car of mass 0.Exercise 2.8 tonnes is travelling at 60 km/h and enters a 40 km/h speed zone outside a school. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 35 . Calculate the total work done by the brakes. frictional forces and air resistance to reduce the car’s speed to the new speed limit.
4 The car now travels at the speed limit of 40 km/h.Exercise 2. Name the type of energy possessed by the car if it is travelling along a flat section of road. Calculate the numerical value of this energy. 36 Personal and public transport .
5 A railway carriage is moved from rest up a 3° slope by a dieselelectric powered locomotive exerting a force of 20 kN. The carriage has a mass of 30 tonnes.Exercise 2. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 37 . Apply the mathematical method using the work / energy principle to solve how far up the slope the carriage will have moved when its velocity is 15 km/h. Neglect frictional forces acting.
The bus is obeying the speed limit and is travelling at a constant velocity of 50 km/h on an inner city level stretch of road. Apply a mathematical method to calculate the total value of frictional forces acting if the bus is using 14 kilowatts of power.6 A bus and its passengers have a combined mass of 5 tonnes.Exercise 2. 38 Personal and public transport . Calculate how much extra power with a gradient in the road of 10° the engine must develop to maintain the velocity of 50 km/h up the hill? Assume the losses due to friction remain constant.
Explain why the speed of the car would remain constant while descending the slope. a Differentiate between the concepts of energy and power and determine. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 39 . with appropriate calculations. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain what would happen if the power of the motor of the car was doubled. The car and driver have a combined mass of 850 kg.Exercise 2. what power the engine would need to supply to enable the car to climb the same hill at 60 km/h. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Discuss the changes in energy during the decline of the slope.7 An electric car is coasting down a slope of 20° at 60 km/h.
Exercise 2.8 Select the alternative a. 1 Friction is: a b c d the property created between contacting surfaces when the roughness of one surface interpenetrates with another surface a reaction force which acts along the contacting surface in the same direction as the net force supplying motion a reaction force which is equal to the net force supplying motion a resistance force that only acts when a body is in motion and it opposes that motion. 2 The coefficient of friction is: a b c d the product of the limiting friction and the normal force the ratio of the limiting friction to the normal force the ratio of the normal force to the limiting friction a numerical value that is always equal to or greater than 1. Circle the letter. c or d that best completes the statement. 4 The friction force is: a b c d the force that overcomes friction and supplies motion to a body the force exerted between contacting surfaces of two bodies which tends to prevent movement between them the force that will stop a body from turning over and allows it to slide a set force that is constant between two different materials. 3 The normal force is: a b c d always equal to the body’s weight (mg) the resultant force that creates motion to a body a reaction force acting perpendicular to the contacting surface the product of the limiting friction and the coefficient of friction (m). b. 40 Personal and public transport .
7 Work is: a b c d done on a body when an external force is applied to the body. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 41 . 6 The angle of repose is: a b c d when a body is resting in equilibrium on an inclined plane when an inclined force is not big enough to create motion equal to the angle of inclination of a plane when it is equal to the angle of static friction at the point of limiting friction the angle of the resultant reaction force to the horizontal. but does not move it the product of force acting and displacement found by the area under a stress-strain diagram always done when a force acts on a body. 8 Potential energy is: a b c d always equal to the kinetic energy due to the principle of conservation of energy the capacity of a body to do work by virtue of its position measured as the work done in lifting a body through a vertical height in a given amount of time measured as the work done in moving a body’s weight (mg) through a distance to a new position.5 The angle of static friction is found when the normal force and the limiting friction force are replaced by a single resultant reaction. It is: a b c d the angle between the resultant reaction and the contacting surface the angle between the resultant reaction and the normal reaction equal to the tangent of the coefficient of static friction only used on an inclined plane.
9 Kinetic energy is: a b c d always equal to the potential energy due to the principle of conservation of energy the capacity of a body to do work by virtue of its motion found from the product of the mass of the body and the height of the body measured as the work done by a body before being brought to rest by an externally applied force. 10 Power is: a b c d the rate at which work is done the product of work and time and is measured in watts a measure of the efficiency of a motor also known as torque. 42 Personal and public transport .
2 ❐ Exercise 2. Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics 43 .1 ❐ Exercise 2.1 to 2.8 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.5 ❐ Exercise 2.4 ❐ Exercise 2.8 Name: _______________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 2.7 ❐ Exercise 2.Exercise cover sheet Exercises 2. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.6 ❐ Exercise 2. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module.3 ❐ Exercise 2.
Personal and public transport
In this part you applied the concepts of friction, work, energy and power, to analyse engineering problems related to transport. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement. ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏
Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree
I have learnt about: • engineering mechanics and hydraulics – static friction, concept of friction and its use in engineering, coefficient of friction, normal force, friction force, angle of static friction, angle of repose, energy, power, potential energy, kinetic energy, work, power. I have learnt to: • • • apply mathematical and/or graphical methods to solve engineering problems related to transport analyse problems involving static friction differentiate between the concepts of energy and power and apply appropriate calculations.
Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.
In the next part you will examine materials used in the manufacture of transport components and the processes used to produce desirable properties in these materials relating to their applications.
Part 2: Transport systems – mechanics/hydraulics
Personal and public transport
Part 3: Transport systems – materials
Part 3 contents
What will you learn?................................................................... 2
Testing of materials............................................................................3
Non-destructive tests ................................................................. 3 Destructive tests........................................................................ 5
Plain carbon irons and steels.....................................................12 Alloy steels ..............................................................................14 Forming processes ...................................................................21
Aluminum and some of its alloys................................................37 Brasses ...................................................................................40 Bronzes ...................................................................................42 Strengthening and heat treatment..............................................43
Thermosoftening polymers........................................................48 Elastomers...............................................................................52 Thermosetting polymers............................................................54 Polymer forming processes.......................................................57 Engineering textiles ..................................................................62 Laminated and tempered glass..................................................63
Exercises ...........................................................................................67 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................79 Progress check .................................................................................81
Part 3 Transport systems – materials
Engineers are interested in the development, properties and availability of materials and how this has affected the design of various forms of personal and public transport. In this part you examine specific materials and investigate structure/property relationships and testing procedures as they relate to transportation systems.
What you will learn?
You will learn about: • • • • • • specialised testing of engineering materials and/or systems heat treatment of ferrous metals structure/property relationships in the material forming processes non-ferrous alloys ceramics and glasses polymers.
You will learn to: • • • • • • • explain the properties, uses, testing and appropriateness of materials used in transportation identify appropriate heat treatment processes justify appropriate choices for ferrous and non-ferrous materials and processes used in transportation parts and systems experiment with metals to reinforce the concepts of heat treatment explain the method and applications of various ferrous metal forming processes justify appropriate choices for ceramics and glasses used in transportation parts and systems justify appropriate choices of polymers and their manufacturing processes used in transportation parts and systems.
Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http//ww.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.
Personal and public transport
Testing of materials
Testing of materials provides critical data to the design engineer and ensures that products are manufactured to the required specifications. There is an ever increasing array of tests that can be performed. They can be categorised as either non-destructive or destructive tests.
Mechanical tests that don't damage the item being tested are known as non-destructive tests. These tests are vital in determining the specific properties of manufactured items or in determining the effect of forming processes on a material's properties.
X-rays, gamma rays and ultrasonic testing were all dealt with in detail in Civil structures. When you consider devices associated with both personal and public transport there are many components that could be tested by one of these types of testing. Describe how a x-ray test would be carried out. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Radiation is used to penetrate the item tested and then register on either a photographic film or a fluorescent screen. Any internal void allows the rays to pass through more easily, resulting in a dark area on the film.
Part 3 Transport systems – materials
These types of tests are used to investigate internal features of components. This allows the engineer to check that there are no points of weakness inside a casted, forged or welded joint. Explain why is it important to thoroughly check components used for high-speed trains. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Did you answer? The consequences of failure in a structural component of a high-speed train could be catastrophic, hence the importance of thorough and regular checks.
As you read in the previous module, engineers use both scale and full size models to test design concepts. For example full size crash tests are conducted on both trains and motor vehicles to determine the effectiveness of design changes. With the continuing development of computer simulations much of the data gained from actual tests is used to validate the computer predictions. In the case of trains, cars and bicycles, aerodynamics have become increasingly important for a number of reasons. When a transport vehicle slips easily through the air it uses much less fuel, can travel at a faster speed and generates much less wind noise. Over the past 30 years engineers in Europe and Japan have slowly developed high-speed rail networks and there are now trains that can travel at well over 500 kph and commuter services that average close to 400 kph. Much of this development has occurred through sophisticated computer simulation programs, scale-model tests in wind and water tunnels and analysis of wind-flow around full-sized models on tracks. Specialised wind tunnels that use moving ground planes to simulate conditions underneath vehicles have been used to show that most wind drag is caused by the wheels, bogies and other equipment under the train. Future generations of trains will have much smoother under-frame contours.
Personal and public transport
it is important to look again at the tensile test. such as the ordinary. and how current designs of passenger vehicles are much more aerodynamic than cars that were built in the early 1900s.Discuss how current designs of racing bicycles and rider equipment allow for less air resistance than historical cycles. rider position for bicycles? In car design did you mention smoother. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 3 Transport systems – materials 5 . This allows an easy comparison of the mechanical properties of materials. Often standard specimens are used so that the results of the tests can be directly compared. curved body designs. closer to the road. Tensile tests When considering the strength properties of materials in transport components. List some of the mechanical properties that are indicated on a stress/strain curve derived from the load/extension graph created during a tensile test. air scoops and spoilers? Destructive tests These are mechanical tests that test specimens to destruction. Bicycles __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Cars __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? For bicycles did you mention tube shapes. shaped helmets. skin-tight clothing.
Define each of the following terms: elasticity __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ yield strength __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ultimate tensile strength __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Elasticity – the ability of the material to return to its original condition Yield strength – the point at which plastic deformation commences UTS – the maximum stress that can be applied to a material.1 Low carbon steel stress/strain graph Some critical properties. that are considered by the engineer include elasticity.Did you answer: Ultimate tensile stress Elastic limit Yield stress Stress 0 Strain Figure 3. from this type of graph. 6 Personal and public transport . yield strength and ultimate tensile strength.
The pendulum always starts from a known height with known potential energy.3. 10mm square in cross-section.Notched-bar impact tests These tests attempt to measure the toughness and impact strength of materials. There are two tests commonly used: • • Izod test Charpy test. Scale Start angle End angle Specimen Hammer Anvil Figure 3. gives an indication of the energy used to fracture the specimen. The tests use a notched standardised specimen. The height that the pendulum attains after impacting with the specimen. A swinging pendulum is used to simulate an impact loading. The notch establishes a stress point where a failure may start. is mounted vertically with the notch facing the approaching pendulum as shown in figure 3. when compared to its starting height. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 7 .2 Impact testing machine Izod test A standard specimen. They are often used to assess the affect of a variety of heat treatment procedures on a common material.
4 Charpy notched-bar impact test 8 Personal and public transport .3 Izod notched-bar impact test Charpy test The standard square-sectioned specimen is mounted as a beam between two supports 40 mm apart. Striker Standard notch Standard 10 mm square specimen TOP VIEW Specimen Striker FRONT VIEW Figure 3.4. The notch is on the opposite side to the approaching pendulum as shown in figure 3.Striker Swings on an arc Standard notch (same side as striker) 10 mm square specimen SIDE VIEW Figure 3.
Things may break when a stress is repeated enough times. the yield strength and UTS of aluminium are quite close together which means each small bending stress takes the frame closer to fatigue failure. This is called fatigue failure. like a metalwork lathe. The most visible engineering response to this problem is seen in the larger tubing often seen in aluminium bicycle frames. Steel and titanium have clear minimum fatigue limits and even if the frame bends it doesn't alter the life expectancy of the frame. A good example of fatigue can be seen in the performance of bicycle frames made from steel. has the specimen mounted in a revolving chuck. aluminium and titanium. including trains. As the specimen revolves. cars and bikes.Fatigue tests Most pieces of machines. Ball race Standard specimen Chuck Load Figure 3. even though the maximum applied stress is a lot less than the known breaking strength of the material. the Wohler system. An example of this would be the testing of the suspension Part 3 Transport systems – materials 9 . While this test can't exactly copy service conditions. The free end is loaded with a known load on a bearing. On the other hand. are subjected to many different loads leading to fluctuating or changing stresses. This stiffens the frame preventing flex and therefore fatigue. Testing of a specimen A number of tests have been developed that allow a standard sized specimen to be assessed for fatigue. One test. the known load causes a fluctuating bending stress in the material. The ability of a material to resist fatigue is tested in a number of different ways. the results provide a point of comparison between materials.5 The Wohler cantilever fatigue test Testing of components Tests have been developed that allow the actual loading conditions to be simulated.
in a much shorter time-frame. 10 Personal and public transport . Vickers or Brinell tests. air bags and side intrusion bars have all been introduced and refined through the use of crash testing. and the data recorded is used to improve the safety of vehicles. Fatigue failure will eventually occur and design decisions can be made as to whether component parts need to be redesigned. provide loading similar to the car travelling hundreds of thousands of kilometres.assemblies in cars. connecting rods and brake slide pins. Compression tests are used to test the compressive stresses of items like the balls and rollers used in bearings Special proving tests have been designed for assessing the effects of impacts involving bicycles. Bicycle helmets were made compulsory in New South Wales after extensive testing and development that proved the value of helmets to riders involved in collisions. Other tests As part of the production of bicycles. seat springs. axles. steering pins. Part of the development of each new car is collision testing. wear plates. Hardness and wear resistance of components like bearings. window winders. cars and trains. brake discs and train wheels would be tested by the Rockwell. at various speeds. Cars are crash tested. wheels. Even door handles. Some of these tests have been described in detail in previous modules. Machines are designed that clamp onto the wheels and. under test conditions. Seat belts. Bending stresses of components like chassis rails and bicycle frame tubes could be assessed by a transverse beam test. windscreen wipers and hinges are all loaded in a way that could cause fatigue failure. List parts of a motor vehicle that are subjected to cyclic loads and therefore would possibly fail due to fatigue. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you suggest things like suspension springs. cars and trains other tests would be carried out on various component parts.
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3.High-speed trains have been carefully designed with end crumple zones. Much of this design work was done using computer simulation but full size crash tests are also used to validate the computer-generated data.1. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 11 .
you examined the structure. versatile and influential metals used by engineers. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? The element iron is the predominant material in ferrous metals. Plain carbon irons and steels In a number of preliminary modules. motor vehicles and trains. 12 Personal and public transport . The following table below reviews this work and suggests some applications specific to bicycles.Ferrous metals The following section details the most significant. Define the term ferrous metal. properties and applications of plain carbon ferrous metals.
3 doesn't harden appreciably when quenched. railway track. screws.9 suitable when high strength and hardness are needed. car wheels. can be cold worked brackets. ductile. weak in tension. white colour on fractured surface intermediate step in production of malleable iron Pearlite Grey Cast Iron Pearlite Graphite flakes grey on fracture. nuts.Applications of plain carbon irons and steels Composition %C Dead Mild 0.05-0. brake cables.3-0.1 Mild Pearlite Microstructure Properties soft. Applications chains. improved strength and ductility engine blocks Malleable Cast Iron Pearlite auto disc brake rotors. wear plates Carbon Tool 0. suitable for forging and heat treatment crankshafts. Medium Carbon Pearlite 0. bolts.9-1. heat treatable suspension springs.6-0. wire cables. automobile body panels Pearlite 0. strong in compression. castable excellent casting properties. weldable.5 White Cast Iron Pearlite excellent wear resistance in plain or hardened condition balls and rollers for bearings Fe3C very hard and brittle. axles High Carbon Pearlite 0. brittle.6 can be hot or cold formed. can be severely cold worked. malleable.1-0. brake drums Graphite Part 3 Transport systems – materials 13 .
0 1. 14 Personal and public transport .6 0. Stainless Steel When more than 12% of chromium is present.6 provides a good graphical representation of the structure/property relationships in plain carbon steels. Introduction to materials. Stainless steels are used extensively for body panels in trains.4 0. Figure 3. the alloy steel is protected due to the film of chromium oxide that forms on the surface and has increased strength and hardness.2 Figure 3. John Wiley and Sons Australia. B. you may be able to add other relevant applications to the table. bicycle gear cables.By referring to the previous modules and other sources. Alloy steels Engineers are continually designing steels with the most appropriate properties for any service situation. 1974. derailleur cages. p 214.8 Carbon (%) 1. internal fittings and structures in carriages. One method to achieve this control over properties is to alloy the steel with additional materials.2 0. % El on ga S UT tio n HB 100 % Pearlite Ferrite 50 Pearlite Cementite 0 0. woven protective sheathing on flexible brake lines and motor vehicle trim.6 Structure/property relationships in steels © Schlenker.
ductility and weldability. easy to repair and has a resilient and lively feel. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. sufficient time must be allowed for the majority of the dissolved carbon to move out of the spaces or interstices and form the interstitial Part 3 Transport systems – materials 15 . The face-centred cubic iron can dissolve up to 2% carbon within its lattice structure (at 1100∞C) while at room temperature body-centred cubic iron can only dissolve 0. Chrome-molybdenum alloys These alloys typically contain around 0. Steel is basically an interstitial solid solution. Heat treatment of ferrous metals Heat treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of a material to obtain required properties.25% molybdenum.008% carbon. strong. When 12-18% chromium is added to medium carbon steel. Details on the recrystallisation of metals can be found under Forming Processes section later in this module. The combination of these elements produces an alloy that posseses good deep hardening properties. iron exists in a body-centred cubic structure while above 910∞C it exists as a face-centred cubic structure.3% carbon and small quantities of around 1.2.1% chromium and 0. stiff. Alloys containing 18% chromium and 8 % nickel are commonly available and are suitable for constructional work. When iron-carbon alloys are cooled. At room temperature. Heat treatment of steel can cause dramatic effects on the properties of the metal. This is only possible because of the change in allotropy that occurs in iron at around 910∞C. Cro-moly alloys are used widely for high-quality steel bicycle frames as they create a frame that is inexpensive. the alloy can't be hardened. The disc rotors used on disc brakes on top-of-the range bicycles and rust-free springs are made from this material. except by cold working. the alloy can be quench hardened. This means that the carbon fits into spaces within the lattice structure of the iron. It is suitable for cold working applications such as woven protective sheathing on flexible brake lines. causing them to change from FCC to BCC.If 12–25 % chromium is added to low carbon steel.
The different grades of steel can be heat treated in a number of ways which result in a very wide range of properties. equilibrium structure than does full annealing.008% carbon and is a soft.solid solution ferrite and the compound cementite. As ferrite recrystallises at around 500∞C. b Process annealing This is suitable for softening cold-worked low carbon steels and recognises that these alloys are made mainly from ferrite.67% carbon and is quite hard and brittle. The purpose of full annealing is to allow the grain structure to return to equilibrium condition. Castings and forgings are often normalised to relieve some of the stresses induced due to uneven cooling rates. Variations in cooling rates prevent this movement of the carbon and provide dramatic differences in properties. then takes place either in a furnace or in good heat insulating material. then soaking it until the iron changes back from a BCC structure to a FCC structure. Cementite is iron with 6. These smaller grains provide increased yield strength. There are many castings and forgings in transport devices that would be heat treated in this way. ductile material. This will achieve large unstressed grains. Normalising Normalising is similar to full annealing except the steel is heated to a slightly higher temperature and then is cooled in still air. notched-bar toughness values and greater hardness while giving a slight reduction in ductility. Annealing Annealing of all ferrous alloys can be done using one of two basic processes. UTS. Process annealing is much faster than full annealing and is the industrial process normally selected for softening this grade of steel. Ferrite is iron with 0. a Full annealing Full annealing involves the heating of the alloy to over 900∞C. This slightly faster cooling rate produces a finer equiaxed. Slow cooling. 16 Personal and public transport . annealing between 500–600∞ will produce total recrystallisation of the ferrite while leaving the small amount of pearlite in its stressed state. to a low temperature. induce softness and improve magnetic and electrical properties.
Australia. The item is then quenched in salt water or oil. Introduction to materials.7 Hardness of annealed and quenched steel © Schlenker.8 Hardness as annealed Hardness as quenched Figure 3. the hardening of steel depends on the different solubilities of carbon in FCC and BCC iron.4 0.4 1. p230. the carbon trapped in the lattice of the iron distorts the structure and produces a highly stressed state.6% carbon steel increases the hardness 3 to 4 times that of annealed steel.0 % Carbon 1.6 shows the relative difference in hardness between steels that have been annealed and those that have been quenched. 800 700 Brinell hardness % increase in hardness 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. John Wiley and Sons. As there is insufficient time for the dissolved carbon to be relocated as the iron tries to change back to BCC.7.6 0. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 17 .8 1. Figure 3.6 1.Hardening As described in previous modules. 1974. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? To quench harden an alloy it must be heated and soaked till all the carbon is again dissolved into the FCC lattice. Explain why increasing carbon content results in increasing strength in annealed steels with reference to the structure and the properties of phases present in steels.2 1. As indicated in figure 3. quench hardening a 0. B.2 0. This stressed structure is known as martensite.
This will provide wear resistance while allowing for shock loadings. b Nitriding Automotive crankshafts. nitriding or selective hardening can all be used to achieve surface hardening. This movement relieves some of the stress and reduces the brittleness and hardness of the structure. Most hardened steel components require tempering before they can be used. They are often made from low carbon steels containing small proportions of aluminium. Very hard nitrides of the trace metals form in the 'skin' and as the component doesn't need to be quenched the finished part is free from distortion and has a good surface finish. as in the case of a vehicle suspension spring. some of the trapped carbon diffuses out of the structure in the form of iron carbide particles. Once all machining is completed. These components are machined from very low carbon steel and then heated to around 950∞C in a special carbon-rich atmosphere for between 3–6 hours. Tempering temperatures and times are important as the higher the temperature and the longer the time the greater the reduction in hardness. When hardness is important. a temperature around 300∞C is more appropriate. it is also extremely brittle. camshafts and some high strength ball races require a very high core-strength combined with high surface hardness. as in the case of a bicycle chainwheel. Carbon enters the surface layer of the steel changing this 'skin' to medium-high carbon steel. 18 Personal and public transport . a tempering temperature of around 240∞C would be used. a Carburising Pins and linkages used in the suspension and steering assemblies of motor vehicles must be both tough and resistant to wear. these components are heated to 500∞C in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere for 40–100 hours. When martensite is heated. When more elasticity and toughness are required. Surface hardening of steels Often there is a need to create a component with a hard skin but a tough centre. When the item is quench hardened. Carburising. chromium and molybdenum. When tempering martensite the aim is generally to retain hardness while increasing toughness.Tempering While martensite is a very hard structure. martensite forms in the skin while the low carbon steel is unaffected and remains soft and tough.
Its internal structure is also stressed to provide elasticity. note which is easier.K. Investigate the effects of heat treatment on various ferrous alloys. You will need: • • • • • • bicycle brakes a paper clip a car suspension spring (still attached to the car is O. Martensite would form on the surface and the core would be unaffected. Water jets that quench the surface follow the heat source. (If it keeps bouncing up and down you should think about getting the shock absorbers replaced!). There is a big coil spring providing suspension for the car. Take a file and try to file a groove into the hacksaw blade. This should explain why it was easier to file on the non-hardened smooth back edge. observe how the stress induced in the metal by the cold working gives the spring elasticity.) a file an old hacksaw blade old lawn mower blades that have been replaced on your mower Carry out the following: 1 Squeeze the brake handle. This stress is achieved through heat treatment not through the forming process. then quenching. Splines on axles and drive shafts and the teeth of gears may have their 'skins' hardened by rapidly heating the surface of the part to over 900∞C. note how easy it is to bend out of shape. The springs on the bicycle that stop the brake blocks from rubbing on your rims are cold drawn from low carbon steel. see how the car bounces back up. on a strong point of the car body. This spring is made from medium carbon steel that has been hot coiled then hardened and tempered. First try filing on the teeth edge then try filing on the smooth back edge. A gas powered flame or electrical induction coil is used as the heating source. 2 3 4 Part 3 Transport systems – materials 19 . The blade has been only hardened on the teeth edge and not on the back.c Selective hardening When higher core strength is needed it may be more appropriate to use a medium or high carbon steel than a low carbon steel. Bend the paper clip. Look up under the front of a car near one of the front wheels. to squash the spring. Stand up and carefully push down. This is because it hasn’t been as severely deformed.
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? 1 If you mentioned that the teeth need to be really hard because they are cutting metal then you are on the right track. 2 The blades need to be hard to resist bending and deformation in use and to extend the life. many different components including: • the gear teeth on a bicycle • the chain links on a bicycle gear chain 20 Personal and public transport . They also need to tough and not brittle. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3 List other parts that need to have a hard. wear resistant surface and are possibly heat-treated. cars and trains. Tempering will reduce brittleness so they won’t shatter if hit by a small stone or twig and will increase toughness so they are more durable and longer lasting. Did you also realise that hardness and brittleness go together so that a fully hardened blade would probably break too easily? Not hardening and tempering the back of the blade makes the whole blade tougher. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 1 2 Outline why is it necessary to both harden and temper lawn mower blades. see if they the same hardness all over.5 Take the file again and try to file the lawn mower blades. They should be as they have been hardened and tempered! Suggest reasons why the teeth edge has been hardened and the back edge has not. It really becomes a type of composite structure. Think specially of components on bicycles. 3 You could mention many.
Forming processes Forming processes are the techniques used to shape the material. Casting Casting of liquid metal into a mould cavity is a convenient method of manufacturing components.• brake dics on a car • engine cylinders and pistons in cars • wheel bearings • contacting components in the gear box • wheels on trains • brake components on trains. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 21 .3. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. The following information describes several techniques and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each forming method. Casting processes have a number of common features: • • • a mould cavity is made either from a reusable pattern or as a permanent metal mould there must be a method for removing the solidified casting from the mould the metal to be cast is melted and delivered to the cavity by gravity or by pressure.
less labour intensive than sand casting improved dimensional accuracy. any small accurate component Sand casting A pattern of the item to be cast is made in timber or metal. metal 'dies' are costly so only suitable for large runs limited to the production of small components. gear boxes Investment casting (Plaster/sand mould) levers. simple equipment so economical good quality surface finish.Casting Method Sand casting (Sand mould) Advantages intricate shapes can be produced. the casting is liberated from the mould by breaking the sand mould apart. cams. turbine blades. excellent surface finish. Once solid. heavy labour intensity increases costs bicycle components. a cavity of the shape of the required item remains. exhaust manifolds. mixed with clay or other binders. rolling stock bogies shell casting (Sand mould) some automotive crankshafts. relatively free of defects. Die casting (Metal mould) confined mainly to zinc and aluminium alloys. dimensional accuracy. carburettors. When the mould parts are reassembled. The sand can be reused. so that the pattern can be removed. slow cooling rate. correct mould packing is essential high initial cost of the metal patterns therefore only suitable for long runs Applications engine block. separate mould required for each pour. uniform internal structure ability to accurately produce intricate shapes not possible with forging or machining Disadvantages labour intensive. Molten metal is poured into the mould through a 'runner' and air is allowed out through a 'riser'. is packed in a box around the pattern. usually two. Specially prepared sand. 22 Personal and public transport . high output rates. The box is divided into a number of parts. handles.
A skin of sand forms on the surface due to the melting of the resin binders.8 Sand casting Moulten metal poured in Shell casting This process is similar to sand casting except the sand is bound together by an artificial polymer bonding material. Each half of the shell is made on a metal pattern plate that is heated and then covered with the resin/sand mix.Drag Pattern Pattern placed on bottom of drag Drag rammed with sand Riser Sprue Cope Cope rammed with sand Drag turned over and cope placed on top with riser and sprue pins Runner Gate Patterns and pins are removed and runner and gates are formed Figure 3. The molten metal is poured in and the solidified casting is released by breaking the shell away from the outside. The two mould halves are joined together with glue or fasteners. Excess sand mixture is tipped off. This completed mould is placed in a box and supported with either extra sand or small metal balls. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 23 . the half-mould skin is cured in an oven and then stripped off the pattern plate.
The mould is designed in such a way that the casting can be easily removed once the mould is opened. 24 Personal and public transport . Mould production is expensive therefore this process is only suitable when a large number of castings are required.9 Shell casting Die casting This process involves the molten metal being forced into a permanent metal mould. Mass production labour costs are much less than for other casting processes.Hot Sand with pattern resin Dump box Sand with resin is put in the dump box Pattern and dump box inverted Shell Ejector pins Shell removed using ejector pins Pattern and dump box rotated again Molten metal Flask Shells Metal shot Clamp The shells are clamped together and molten metal is poured in Figure 3.
11 Investment casting Today.10 Cold chamber die casting Investment casting This is thought to be an ancient process that started with prehistoric man who shaped items from beeswax. These wax patterns are attached to a central runner and the whole 'trunk and branches' is placed in a cylindrical metal 'flask'. the clay hardened and the wax was melted out leaving a cavity into which molten metal could be poured. Molten metal can then be Part 3 Transport systems – materials 25 . In the fire.Molten metal Fixed platten Moving platten Fixed block Finished casting Injection piston Die Casting cavity Ejector pins Casting solidified with mould ready to open Figure 3. Wax patterns mounted onto a wax runner Flask is filled with investment mould slurry After mould material has set and dried the patterns are melted out of mould Bottom plate Molten metal poured into mould by vacuum. This flask is filled with a mixture of very fine sand and plaster of Paris. Once the plaster has dried. This was then coated with clay and the whole lot was then thrown in the fire. gravity or centrifugal force Mould material is broken away from castings Casting is trimmed and polished Figure 3. permanent moulds are used for casting the intricate wax patterns. the mould is inverted and passed through an oven so the wax melts out leaving a series of mould cavities.
if wall thicknesses are thin. the final product has regular. If the metal is heated above its recrystallisation temperature. Hot working A metal is hot worked when it is heated to a temperature that is above its recrystallisation temperature. The following table lists 26 Personal and public transport . tougher and more ductile than the as-cast structure. Some common hot working processes used in bicycles.either poured into the mould or. This new structure is stronger. As recrystallisation takes place at the same time as forming. Cold working has some distinct advantages if good surface finish and increased strength and hardness are required. small equiaxed grains replacing the course as-cast grains in the original metal ingot. cars and trains include: • • • • rolling – of plate. it is more malleable at the higher temperature so it is easier to deform. forced in under pressure. Cold working Cold working takes place at a temperature below the recrystallisation temperature. Other procedures such as acid-pickling and machining are normally carried out on hot worked components. it is hot worked and the distorted grains are able to regrow as equiaxed grains. The disadvantages of hot working include poor surface finish due to the oxides and scaling and poor dimensional accuracy due to the necessity for simple tools. If this deformation occurs below the metal's recrystallisation temperature the internal structure remains distorted and it is called cold working. Hot and cold working Many forming methods involve the plastic deformation of metal so that a permanent change in shape occurs. When a metal is hot worked. sheet and profile sections forging – of shapes with superior properties to those of castings extrusion – of both solid and hollow sections piercing – of solid metal to form tubes.
If the recrystallisation temperature is maintained for a longer time. Aluminium recrystallises at 150∞C. a new distortion-free lattice structure develops and in time new small equiaxed grains form out of and replace the distorted grains. Advantages of cold working no need for heatingi improved dimensional control larger forces needed better surface finish work hardening occurs increased strength properties directional properties are produced reduced metal loss and tool wear because of scaling only method of hardening mild steel and most non-ferrous metals undesirable directional properties may be produced metal must be free of oxides and scales before working Disadvantages of cold working more rigid and powerful equipment needed Some common cold working procedures used in bicycles. iron at 450∞C and molybdenum at 900∞C. Recrystallisation After a metal has been cold worked. the grain boundaries. the small eqiaxed grains will be replaced by larger equiaxed grains. nucleii form at the areas of greatest stress. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 27 . From each nucleus. just to name a few. cars and trains include: • • • • drawing of rod. its crystal lattice structure is greatly distorted and the material is in a stressed state.some of the advantages and disadvantages of cold working when compared to hot working. Each metal has a unique recrystallisation temperature. If the metal is heated above its recrystallisation temperature. This is known as grain growth and is generally avoided as it causes a reduction in the strength properties of the metal. sheet and strip and threads cold-heading or upsetting extrusion of a variety of profiles. wire and tube rolling of plate.
Alternately. drawing is used in the production of wire. such as low carbon steel. Only ductile materials. are suitable for drawing. such as annealing. rod and tubing. The original equiaxed structure is pulled through very hard steel dies that reduce in diameter and consequently reduce the cross-section and increase stresses in the drawn material. Metal tubes used in bicycle frames are cold drawn to increase the strength properties of the tubes while allowing them to be as light as possible. 28 Personal and public transport . The internal diameter of tube is controlled through the use of a mandrel. may be carried out at an intermediate stage or at the conclusion of a cold working procedure. Wire is done in large spools while rod and tube is cut to length and then drawn. 1 Hot working _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 Cold working _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you mention plastic deformation of the material and talk about whether the working was done above or below the recrystallisation temperature? They're the principles that should be mentioned! Drawing Generally done cold. A recrystallising process. Wire used in brake and gear cables is drawn as is the wire from which bolts and screws are formed. Define both hot and cold working.Recrystallised metal is not as strong or hard as the original cold worked structure but recrystallising improves electrical conductivity and ductility. hot working may be used which produces a final structure of fine equiaxed grains similar to an item that has been cold worked and then annealed.
12 Wire drawing Fixed mandrel Drawing direction Floating mandrel Drawing direction Figure 3. Pairs of rollers rotate in opposite directions and drive the metal between.13 Tube drawing Rolling In rolling.Die Drawing direction Hardened insert Figure 3.14 Hot rolling Part 3 Transport systems – materials 29 . Rolling direction Recrystallisation taking place Recrystallised finegrained structure Figure 3. the cross-sectional shape is altered by passing the metal through a series of rollers of a certain shape and set distance apart.
square and rectangular may be the stock from which other components are manufactured while railway track is an example of a finished hot rolled section. is that the forming process causes the grain of the metal to 'flow' and follow the shape of the component. both hot and cold. This makes the component stronger than similar cast and machined components. Special two-part dies.16 Grainflow or 'fibre' in a forged component Hot forging or drop forging is similar to the methods used by the old blacksmith except large hydraulic 'hammers' are used. are used to allow forming in 30 Personal and public transport . normally with several impressions. Forging Forging occurs when localised compressive forces deform metal. Cold rolling is commonly used to increase the strength and resilience of sheet materials for items such as body panels on train rolling stock and cars.Rolling direction Cold worked structure Original cast structure Figure 3. Figure 3. The advantage of forging.15 Cold rolling Some hot rolled sections like round.
Automotive engine valves and axles are hot upset and then machined while bolt and screw heads are upset cold. The direct extrusion process involves an amount of metal being placed in a chamber. parallel profile can be extruded.stages. connecting rods and drive yokes in cars and couplings in trains are all drop forged. at one end. A ram then pushes the metal through a simple profile die at the end of the chamber. The extrusion of hollow profiles requires the use of mandrels or bridge dies to allow the hollows to be formed. As dimensional accuracy is not very high.17 Upsetting Extrusion Any component with a continuous. Ends are fitted to the flexible cables used in bicycle brakes by the process of swaging which is a type of cold forging. Most low strength. non-ferrous metals are easily extruded while special lubricants and high strength dies are necessary for the extrusion of steel. Cold forging also uses large machinery but doesn't always require follow-up machining as the surface finish is relatively good. Some metals can be extruded cold but the addition of heat will considerably increase the plasticity of the metal. Force Punch Force Grainflow or fibre in the upset bolt head Figure 3. some form of machining is always needed. Components such as axles and bottom brackets on bicycles. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 31 . Upsetting or heading is a very common type of forging done both hot and cold. It involves the gripping of rod in a 'vice' so that excess material. is squashed by a closed die.
19 The Mannesmann process 32 Personal and public transport . This action produces an elliptical section in the rod drawing metal away from the centre. It is a hot working process where the rod is rotated between two rollers which rotate in the same direction. The tubes produced will be sized and straightened on other rollers and can undergo further hot and cold forming processes.Ram Die Extruded solid shape Billet pushed through die Ram Die Extruded pipe Mandrel Figure 3.18 Direct extrusion of solid and tube Plug Piercing Tube can be made from rod by the Mannesmann process. Rotating skew rolls Seamless pipe Billet Rotating mandrel Figure 3. A rotating mandrel pierces into the centre forming the bore of the tube.
thread rolled and end upset and bent Hot extruded profile then cold rolled and the joint tungsten inert gas welded Cold forged then anodised to increase wear resistance Pierced. Complete the following table by suggesting a likely material and forming process for each of the parts. it would be good if you had a bicycle to closely inspect.Seamless tubes used in bicycle frames start their life via this process and are then drawn cold to give dimensional accuracy and increased strength properties. This involves controlled upsetting of the tube to thicken and therefore strengthen it at the ends as the joints are the regions of greatest stress. If this isn't possible. For this activity. After looking at these forming processes it is possible to consider various component parts of a bicycle. cold drawn then butted Spokes Stainless steel Rims Aluminium alloy Chainwheel Aluminium alloy (anodised) Steel alloy or aluminium alloy Stainless steel Frame tubes Brake cable (inner) Brake cable (outer) Brake calipers Brake disc Pedal crank Seat frame Cold drawn then twisted into a flexible cable Cold drawn then spiral wound Medium carbon steel Aluminium alloy Stainless steel Aluminium alloy Mild steel or aluminium alloy Medium carbon steel Die cast Cold stamped then machined Hot forged then machined Cold drawn then bent to shape Bottom bracket axle Drop forged and machined Part 3 Transport systems – materials 33 . Tubes used in light weight frames are butted at the ends. one of the pictures found earlier in this module will do! Component Wheel hub Material Aluminium alloy Forming process Cold forged then CNC machined and spoke holes drilled Cold drawn.
also known as powder metallurgy.4. Once 34 Personal and public transport . 1 Powder manufacture Brittle powders can be mechanically disintegrated while ductile metals are atomised by blasting a stream of molten metal with a jet of air. cold drawn then bent to shape Bolts and screws Handle bars Steel alloy or aluminium alloy Note that those components may be made of different materials and by different forming processes depending on the style and quality of the bicycle. Turn to the exercises section and complete exercise 3. cold drawn than bent to shape and butted Wire is drawn to make bolts and screws then heads are upset cold Pierced. has three clear steps in the manufacture of components. Powder forming Powder forming.Seat post Brake levers Gear frame Bolts and screws Handle bars Did you answer? Seat post Steel alloy or aluminium alloy Aluminium alloy Steel alloy or aluminium alloy Mild steel Pierced and cold drawn Brake levers Die cast Gear frame pierced. the brake levers may be made of cast or moulded polymer. Chemical and electrolytic methods can also be used. For example.
these powders are blended in the correct proportions ready for the next stage. • • • Part 3 Transport systems – materials 35 . Pressing contols the porosity of the powder. The brushes used in electrical devices such as the starter motor in a car are often made from a blend of copper and graphite. 3 Sintering After pressing. with voids to trap lubricants. starter motor and windscreen wiper motor. very hard materials that would be too difficult to machine composites between materials that don't normally mix. the temperature may be set so that the lowest melting point metal melts and flows through the structure 'cementing' the component together. These bearings are used to support many spindles found in cars such as in the alternator. the component is heated in a furnace to a temperature below the metal's melting point. and solid metal filters are common uses of this technology.produced. With powder mixtures. The pressed component is rigid but has little strength. cogs and levers that would otherwise require a lot of careful machining. The gears in the gear box of a car are manufactured by this process. mechanically 'keys' some of the particles together and can cold weld some of the particles together. Powder forming is suitable for producing a number of different types of components including: • solid bronze bearings. In cemented carbides the ceramic particles are cemented with cobalt or nickel. 2 Pressing Hardened steel or carbide dies are filled with the powder that is then pressed. complex shapes such as gears.
Si. resists stress-corrosion cracks light and strong. clear oxide plating for both increasing wear resistance and aesthetics 36 Personal and public transport . The table below briefly lists some common non-ferrous metals and alloys that are used in bicycles. non-corrosive forged bicycle drive parts such as cranks and chain wheels. and the cost of the metal.Non-ferrous metals Non-ferrous metals are routinely used by design engineers. Ti. workability. Mg. swaged ends on cables hard element with a wear resistant. Cu. Anodised for hardness used for tube in high quality bicycle frames. Cr. Mn. Ti. light weight fittings on top quality bicycles used for tube in very high quality bicycle frames Scandium twice as strong as similar size aluminium and around the same weight corrosion resistant.90%. soft.98% with Fe. Metal Aluminium Properties corrosion resistant. Zr. can be cold worked Brass 70% Cu /30% Zn Chromium spoke eyelets in aluminium alloy rims. Mg. Fe Titanium used extensively for tube in bicycle frames. soft. The choice of what metal to use is necessarily based on the properties of the metal. Si. bicycle wheel hubs and rims a very stiff and high strength alloy used for structural parts. Cr. The table also includes each material's properties and suggests some specific applications.6%. and corrosion resistance Uses swaged ends on cables Aluminium 6061-T6 Al . Zn . Zn Aluminium 7075-T6 Al . resilient and shock absorbing. Cu. can be cold worked combines relatively high strength.
Using aluminium sheets. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 37 . in transformers has reduced the overall mass of these by 33%.Some properties of non-ferrous metals and alloys are: • • • • • • good formability low density corrosion resistance high thermal and electrical conductivity stiffness and strength usually lower than ferrous metals poor weldability. bogies and even seat frames. You can normally tell from the colour. fuel injectors. Have a good look all over a motor vehicle. Non ferrous metals are also used in cars and trains. Many non-ferrous metals are silvery or many different shades of yellow in colour. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you find things like the rear-view mirror frame. master cylinder. carburettor. door handles. water pump. head. gearbox housing and sump? Aluminium and some of its alloys Pure aluminium Aluminium's high affinity for oxygen proved to be a disadvantage when trying to extract the metal from it's ore. alternator body. bauxite. rocker cover. Aluminium has a higher affinity for oxygen than has carbon so aluminium can't be burnt out of bauxite and can only be separated from oxygen economically by electrolytic means. and list the parts that appear to be made from or coated with a non-ferrous metal. instead of copper wires. To reduce mass in high-speed trains. aluminium alloys are used for carriage bodies.
which allows precipitation hardening to occur while retaining high electrical conductivity and good corrosion resistance silicon. this oxide layer also increases wear resistance. normally twisted around a steel core. and the slight porosity of the oxide allows it to be coloured with organic or inorganic dyes. Aluminium alloys may be used in both the cast and wrought conditions and some may have their properties further modified through precipitation hardening. Pure aluminium is relatively soft and weak in its annealed condition and is generally used in the alloyed condition for most engineering applications. As aluminium has over 50% of the specific conductivity of copper. Since aluminium oxide is extremely hard. impervious film of oxide forms on the surface and protects the metal from further oxidation. which allows precipitation hardening to occur while retaining high electrical conductivity and good corrosion resistance iron. This natural corrosion resistance can be further improved by anodising. which help to produce excellent tensile strength. rigidity and machinability and sometimes to improve casting properties. a treatment that artificially thickens the natural oxide film. which refine the grain structure zinc and chromium. which is used in a majority of alloys that are destined for precipitation hardening magnesium. In the Court of Napoleon III only the most favoured guests were privileged to use forks and spoons made from aluminium while the others had to 'make do' with mere gold plate and silver cutlery. as a current carrier in the electric grid system. an expensive reducing agent was used to produce the first samples of aluminium. Some elements added to aluminium and their effects include: • • • • • • copper. Aluminium alloys The addition of alloying elements is made to improve mechanical properties such as tensile strength.In 1825. Aluminium's great affinity for oxygen is advantageous in that a dense. which assists in precipitation hardening titanium and manganese. 38 Personal and public transport . weight for weight it is a better conductor of electricity than copper and is widely used. hardness.
Wrought alloys have good forgability and a low coefficient of thermal expansion. sheet panelling and welding wire. Common casting uses include general-purpose sand castings and pressure or gravity die-castings in the form of intricate fittings.Aluminium – silicon alloys Various alloys within this system are used in the cast and wrought condition. These alloys have excellent foundry characteristics and resistance to corrosion. Aluminium – copper alloys Alloys that contain between 2. harder and more ductile than the equilibrium structure. The resulting structure will lack strength and will be brittle. This process of natural ageing is often replaced by artificial ageing. If the alloy is allowed to remain at room temperature.5% and 5% copper will respond to treatment by precipitation hardening. Under equilibrium cooling. If the alloy is reheated to 500∞C. On quenching the alloy. it will be found that the strength and hardness gradually increase . Above 500∞C the microstructure will be all single-phase alpha solid solution. Those alloys containing aluminium and between 9% and 13% silicon are near to the eutectic composition. a precipitate of CuAl2 will occur. Uses include forged automotive pistons. The alloy is reheated to 120∞C causing precipitation of the fine copper-rich phase to occur within a few hours. This will reduce the mechanical properties of the alloy. A few large particles of hard and brittle CuAl2 intermetalic compound will appear in the alpha grains.to a maximum after six days. This change is due to submicroscopic particles of CuAl2 moving out of solid solution and causing slight distortion of the alpha lattice structure. The first significant use of duralumin was during WWI as structural members of Zeppelin airships. engine sumps and gearboxes. They therefore have a low melting point and are suitable as die-casting alloys. Consider an alloy containing 4% copper. the alloy once again contains all singlephase alpha. This phenomenon was first observed in 1906 and the alloy was first produced commercially as duralumin around 1910. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 39 . the copper is retained in solution and in this condition the alloy is stronger. Care must be taken not to allow overageing to occur which will allow the alloy to return to near equilibrium conditions of alpha with visible CuAl2 precipitate.
Wrought alloys in this system are characterised by excellent corrosion resistance and more workability than other heat-treatable alloys. manganese. contain around 6% zinc and smaller amounts of magnesium. turret housings and radio equipment. lead. goose necks and seat posts on bicycles and framing and cladding in the aircraft industry. Aluminium – Silicon-magnesium alloys Magnesium and silicon combine to form magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) which in turn forms a simple eutectic system with aluminium. Subsequent heat treatment produces a high strength alloy with high corrosion resistance that is used for aircraft structural parts. This a phase is typically tough and ductile making these brasses suitable for severe cold working by pressing. aluminium and iron.These alloys are used in both the cast and wrought condition for general purposes. manganese and chromium. Casting alloys exhibit good castability. vacuum cleaner tubing. Uses include aircraft applications. Aluminium – zinc alloys Commercial wrought and forging alloys. In the heat-treated condition their mechanical properties are similar to those of the aluminium-copper alloys. bridge railings and architectural applications. Precipitation of Mg2Si after artificial aging. bicycle cranks and chain-wheels and other applications that require a high strength to weight ratio. furniture. The alloys may also be cast and have very good machinability. drawing and extrusion. copper. pressure-tightness and corrosion resistance. Applications include canoes. such as the 7000 series. allows these alloys to reach their full strength. Alloys containing up to 37% zinc have a single-phase structure existing entirely of a. Brasses These are alloys of copper and up to 45% zinc plus other elements such as tin. They may be used for aircraft fittings. This is also true of other a phases such as ferrite in the ironcarbon system. machine-tool parts and general-purpose castings. strength. 40 Personal and public transport .
cored Equilibrium Cooling Cored Structure Figure 3. The microstructures in figure 3.Under equilibrium cooling a brasses form large equiaxed grains creating a soft and malleable structure. b a precipitate Figure 3. In fact a brass containing 60% zinc contains all b until it cools to around 750∞C when the a starts to precipitate out within the grains of b. includes each material's properties and suggests some specific applications.20 Cartridge brass microstructures In alloys with more than 37% zinc.20 show brass containing 70% copper & 30 % zinc. commonly known as cartridge brass. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 41 .21. If they are cooled at a slightly faster rate. Brass containing 60% copper and 40% zinc is commonly known as Muntz metal and its structure is shown in figure 3. cooled under equilibrium and faster that equilibrium conditions. a hard and brittle b phase is also present. a cored structure is produced with the centre of each grain richer in the higher melting point copper and the outer portion richer in zinc.21 Muntz metal under equilibrium cooling The following table briefly lists some common brasses. These skeleton-like cores will reduce the malleability of the material.
corrosion resistant. screwed electrical terminals in cars pressings. electrical contacts in motor vehicles. clutch discs in motor vehicles used as a filler rod when applying low temperative joining methods high strength combined with excellent wear resistance hard and brittle. forgings and stampings. In Britain. high strength. can be severely cold worked Applications cold rolled sheet. soft. The hard and brittle d phase is normally present in all alloys containing more than 7% tin and alloys above this composition are hot worked or cast. One of the significant factors in the Early Roman conquests was probably the bronze sword. except for the copper zinc series. as implied by the name. is used for "copper" coins. 28% Zn with small amounts of Mn. Wrought alloys contain up to 7% tin and are supplied as rolled sheet and drawn rod. Alloys up to 7% tin are all a phase which is a tough and ductile solid solution that can be successfully cold worked. Coinage bronze containing copper with 4% tin and 1% zinc. Tin bronzes Bronzes containing copper and around 10% tin were probably the first alloys to be used by man.Metal Cartridge Brass 70/30 copper/zinc Muntz Metal 60/40 copper/zinc High Tensile Brass 58% Cu. excellent hot working properties. hot rolled plate. essentially b brasses Bronzes Bronzes are any copper alloy. extruded as tubes and rods. They realised that 10% tin gave a hard bronze while less tin produced a softer alloy. Al F Pb & S Brazing Alloys 50/50 Cu/Zn Properties corrosion resistant. bronze articles almost four thousand years old have been found. Casting alloys contain up to 18% tin and are used for bearings with the hard d phase resisting wear and the a phase matrix providing toughness 42 Personal and public transport . wire. tube. is soft and ductile and. switchgear.
valve seats and spark plug bodies Part 3 Transport systems – materials 43 . The main uses of aluminium bronzes depend on features such as: • • • • • the ability to retain strength at elevated temperatures good corrosion resistance at ordinary temperatures high resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures good wearing properties pleasing colour making some of these alloys useful for decorative work. clutch discs and springs. % 80 Other Al – 10% Fe – 5% Ni – 5% 95. The table outlines the details of two common aluminium bronzes. spindles and castings that require strength and corrosion resistance. Aluminium bronzes These bronzes are single-phase cold worked structures up to 5% aluminium and hot worked alloys contain around 10% aluminium. cotter pins.5% Ni – 1% Mn – 1% can be cast or cold worked. These alloys typically have high strength. gears Properties suitable for casting or forging. valves. resists corrosion.5 Fe – 2. toughness. good strength. The 10% alloy can be heat treated in a similar way to steel producing a martensitic structure when quenched from 900∞C. can be hardened and tempered Applications shafts. Leaded alloys are used for automotive crankshaft bearings. Uses include lock washers. bushes.and shock resistance. good strength and hardness. fatigue and wear widely used for die and sand casting. The inclusion of up to 1% of phosphorous will further improve strength properties and lead will improve machinability and wear resistance. a low coefficient of friction and resist corrosion.
__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you come up with cold working. tensile strength. The annealed piece is nine times as ductile and fifteen percent more conductive than the cold rolled piece. Half-hard is caused by a reduction of around 20% while extra spring is caused by around a 70% reduction. For example. Refined grains Flattened elongated grains of Normalised Cold worked Figure 3. precipitation hardening and artificial aging? Many non-ferrous metals can only have their strength altered by cold working. if a piece of annealed 70/30 is compared with another piece that is cold rolled to half the thickness the following results are observed. yield strength and hardness increase while ductility and conductivity decrease. 44 Personal and public transport .Strengthening and heat treatment List processes that are used to change the properties of non-ferrous alloys. As the cold working process distorts the lattice structure of the metal. extrahard. The cold rolled piece has twice the tensile strength and eight times the hardness of the annealed piece. and extra spring have traditionally been used to describe the properties of cold worked copper-based items and to also indicate the percentage reduction. The degree of changes to properties is relative to the amount of deformation. tempering. Terms such as half-hard. quench hardening.22 Normal and cold worked structures Temper designations Properties resulting from cold working are well understood and manufacturers carefully control the amount of deformation to produce just the right properties in the product. annealing.
Low temperature annealing. This will initially lead to a large number of smaller equiaxed grains. Recovery In a highly stressed material. When lightly cold worked material is recrystallised the initial structure is fewer larger grains While ever the metal soaks above the recrystallisation temperature.23 Structures showing recrystallisation and grain growth Part 3 Transport systems – materials 45 . In some cold worked materials it is therefore desirable to slightly relieve some of the stresses. Annealing Annealing involves heating and soaking the metal above its recrystallisation temperature then cooling it back to room temperature. the grain structure continues to grow into larger equiaxed grains. Nucleation commences at grain boundaries Grain growth occurs Recrystallised structure Grain growth Figure 3. The more heavily a material is cold worked the more nucleii will form on recrystallisation. This grain growth produces a softer material because the large grains are easier to deform and there are less grain boundaries to restrict the movement of the grains. the combined effects of internal stresses and intergranular corrosion may cause ‘season cracks’ to appear along the grain boundaries. With most non-ferrous materials the rate of cooling isn't important so once annealing is completed the metal can be cooled rapidly. well below the recrystallisation temperature.Classifications of aluminium and its alloys are achieved through the use of a notation rather than a name. The 6061 alloy used in some bicycle frames has a temper notation of T6. will not change the distorted structure or desirable properties but slightly relieves some of the stresses at the grain boundaries.
become hard and brittle due to the complete precipitation of a metal compound. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. It is an alloy of aluminium and 4% copper that has been used on bicycles for seat posts. submicroscopic particles of the compound move into the lattice structure of the single-phase structure. the compound is not allowed to precipitate.Precipitation hardening Some non-ferrous alloys. A common example is an aluminium bronze containing copper with 10% aluminium. 46 Personal and public transport . when cooled under equilibrium conditions. One common alloy that is treated in this way is duralumin. It is quenched from around 1 000∞C to produce a martensitic structure. This has the effect of slightly distorting the lattice structure and increasing the hardness and strength of the material. a week at room temperature or a couple of hours under low heat. Reheating and soaking at around 550∞C improves the toughness of the aluminium bronze while reducing its brittleness. In time. some non-ferrous alloys can be hardened and tempered.5. The advantage of these materials over steel is they have much greater corrosion resistance. Hardening and tempering Just like steels. pedal cranks and goose necks. If these alloys are reheated back into a single-phase structure then quenched.
like nylon and Bakelite. hub caps. There are also other structural factors that can greatly influence the properties of polymers. cable covers. seat belts. Check the glossaries from the preliminary modules for a definition.Polymers Define the term polymer. tubes. Polymers are of two basic types. console. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? A definition that indicated many repeating parts or long molecular chains with a basic repeating structural pattern would have been on the right track. polymers can be both naturally occurring. handle grips and brake blocks? By the end of this module you will have a good idea of the types of polymers used for these parts and will know how they have been made. tyres. thermosoftening that remelt when heated and thermosetting that don't. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you find items like the dashboard. mirror housings. Look over your car and bicycle then identify any parts that are made from a polymer. like cellulose and rubber. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 47 . light covers. and man-made. body trim cover strips. bumper panels. reflectors. As you have learned previously. carpet.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or ABS is an example of a copolymer. H H H H Bond broken Figure 3. Copolymerisation occurs when different monomers are added together to provide a combination of properties.25 Polymerisation of vinyl chloride Did you answer? H C H H C C H C Cl H Cl H 48 Personal and public transport .Thermosoftening polymers Most thermosoftening polymers are based on covalently bonded hydrocarbon chains with carbon and hydrogen as the basic building blocks. Heat. pressure and a suitable catalyst are required to break the multiple bonds and then reform them to create a very long molecule that is covalently bonded along its length. H H Cl H H H Cl H C C + C C Figure 3. Break the double bonds in the vinyl chloride monomers in figure 3.24 to create polyvinyl chloride or PVC. A good example is ethene or ethylene that can be polymerised to form polythene or as more commonly known polyethylene.24 Polymerisation of ethylene H H H H H H H H C C C C H H H H C C + C C This type of simple polymerisation is known as addition polymerisation and involves the linking of monomers with the inclusion of all parts of the structure and without leaving any waste. Any hydrocarbon that has a multiple covalent bond in its structure can be polymerised.
Nylon is an exception to the rule! Oxygen atoms on one chain are attracted to hydrogen atoms on adjacent chains through a stronger type of secondary bond. Because of the uneven distribution of electrons involved in some of the covalent bonds. This elevates the softening temperature of nylon to around 240∞C and also increases its strength properties. This attraction is a type of secondary bond known as a Van der Waal’s force. Unfortunately it also gives nylon a greater attraction for water and special dryers must be used when moulding nylon to ensure steam bubbles don't form inside the mouldings. This occurs around 100∞C for most thermopolymers. Generally you can consider a thermosoftening polymer to have a structure that looks like a plate of cooked spaghetti. There are strong covalent bonds along the chains but no primary bond at all between the chains. The long chains are randomly arranged in an amorphous pattern and any crystalline regions are purely by chance not by design. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 49 . If these two regions are close there will be an attraction that can influence the properties of the polymer. Tangled polymer chains Figure 3.There shouldn't be any double bonds in your polymer as all these will have been broken in the forming of the polymer. You should have a continuous string of carbon atoms with chlorine and hydrogen atoms attached to them in the ratio of one chlorine atom for every three hydrogen atoms. This attraction can occur both within and between chains.26 Structure of a simple linear polymer Properties of thermosoftening polymers Linear thermosoftening chains all have the same basic structure. Low softening temperature Only the weak secondary bonds need to be broken to allow the polymer to 'flow'. often one part of the linear chain has a positive charge while other parts are negatively charged.
Perspex. Suggest. in terms of their structure. used in tail light lenses. Other polymers have a mixture of large and small groups that don't allow alignment and therefore the light can easily pass through the structure. uniform groups that form simple parallel chains.Transparent verses opaque As in glasses. any polymer that is amorphous can be transparent while crystalline polymers will be opaque. a clear bag (like a Glad snaplock) or some clear non-adhesive book covering ‘plastic’ or some ‘plastic’ food wrap. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Did you talk about the freezer bag being crystalline while the other was amorphous? Take the clear non-adhesive ‘plastic’ and stretch it till it is just about to break. is an example of this type of polymer. Some polymers are made up of simple. Hopefully your ‘plastic’ went white or grey at this point. Highdensity polyethylene is an example of this type of structure. why one type of 'plastic' is clear but the other is. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 50 Personal and public transport . Get hold of: • • a freezer bag (you know the noisy. translucent. These polymers often have areas where the chains are closely aligned and consequently light will not pass through. grey ones that hang in rolls in fruit shops). This is high density polyethylene. This is probably low density polyethylene. Explain what has happened to the structure to cause this colour change. at best.
used as an unbreakable glass substitute in windows. Of course the large groups also prevent crystallisation so these types of materials are typically clear and rigid. Were you right? It is quite significantly stronger from top to bottom because you are trying to break strong covalent bonds. is an example of this type of polymer. If thermosoftening polymers have simple linear chains they will be stronger along the chains than across them. This is high density polyethylene. Polycarbonate.27 A linear polymer with branched chains Part 3 Transport systems – materials 51 . These large groups act like branches and when they catch on other branches on adjacent chains the chains are prevented from sliding over each other. Strength and rigidity can also be caused in some polymers because of the large groups that are attached to the long chains. A good example of this is a ‘plastic’ supermarket bag. Branches do not link between chains Figure 3.Did you answer? Did you mention that the polymer had become crystalline at this point and therefore it had also become opaque? Strength It is much harder to break primary bonds than secondary bonds so any material will be stronger when its primary bonds are stressed. Would you expect it to be stronger when you pulled between the handles and the base or when you pulled from side to side? Prove your answer! Take hold of the bag and see in which direction it stretches more easily. Get hold of a 'plastic' supermarket bag (you know the ones that the bottoms fall out of when you fill them with bottles of soft drink). When this bag was manufactured the polymer chains would have been aligned from top to bottom so that really only secondary bonds are acting across the bag.
are examples of this type of polymer. This form of oxidation is known as perishing and embrittles the rubber. Ebonite contains 45% sulfur and all the double bonds are broken. Rubbers. This can be minimised through the process of vulcanising.Elastomers Some thermosoftening polymers still have a multiple bond in their structure after polymerisation. 52 S Personal and public transport .28 The vulcanisation of natural rubber Fillers such as carbon black and silica are often added to vulcanised rubber as they increase the materials resistance to both abrasion and tearing. Ordinary vulcanised rubber contains about 4% sulfur and about 10% of the spare double bonds are involved. Due to the sliding of the chains. double bonds not involved in the vulcanisation process can be broken and cross-linked by oxygen or ozone. Sulfur is introduced as the vulcanising agent or link between the chains and the process also requires both heat and pressure. H H H or CH2 CH3 C CH CH2 n C C C C H H H C H H S S S S S Sulfur cross-link Figure 3. The greater the number of cross-links between chains the more rigid the rubber becomes. both natural and synthetic. This involves the controlled breaking of some of the 'spare' multiple bonds in the polymer and the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent chains. Unfortunately. natural rubber items will become distorted under a tensile load. These strong and permanent covalent bonds between chains means that it will no longer completely soften under heating but the strength properties of the rubber are improved.
29 is a different shape to the stress/strain curves for metals. Butyl rubber is another common synthetic. Used in the flexible hoses in the hydraulic brake systems and fuel systems of cars. the graph rises sharply indicating that a greater load is needed but produces little extra extension.Neoprene or polychloroprene is a synthetic rubber commonly used in contact with oils and solvents. it is often copolymerised with just the right amount of isoprene to provide cross-linking sites. At this time the long tangled chains are being straightened out and only secondary bonds are being broken. Properties of elastomers A lightly vulcanised elastomer will display the following properties: • • • electrical insulator as all electrons are involved in bonding relatively good abrasion resistance extend to many times its original length. This is because all the chains are now straight and the strong primary bonds are resisting further Part 3 Transport systems – materials 53 .29 Stress/strain curve of an elastomer Note how the curve in figure 3. This rubber holds air and gases very well and is used extensively in the manufacture of bicycle tubes and tyres. The early part of the curve shows much extension with little applied load. It doesn't start with a straight-line section and is therefore seen to be an inelastic material. After vulcanisation there are no sites left for oxidation to occur so the life of the rubber is prolonged. then return to its original shape after the load is removed – this property known as resilience. Stress Strain Figure 3. As it doesn't have any spare double bonds. this polymer is crosslinked with the oxides of zinc or magnesium. Towards the end. under a tensile load.
The polymers can take the form of powder or liquid resins and catalysts that are mixed together in the correct proportions. Ultimately these primary bonds will be broken and the elastomer will fail.30 Condensation polymerisation The strong covalent bonds. CH2O + C6H5OH + C6H5OH Formaldehyde Phenol Phenol C13H10(OH)2 + H2O Phenol formaldehyde Water Figure 3. means that these polymers are typically rigid. like Bakelite. can also be foamed and used as the light weight core in foam sandwich fibre reinforced polymers. while others. or bakelite. Some are just mixed and formed. hard. Thermosetting polymers Some polymers form a network structure that has primary bonds in all three dimensions. like polyurethane. if you are strong enough. in all three dimensions. like polyester resin used when fibre glassing and epoxy resin (araldite). also absorb impact and can be used in items such as bicycle helmets.29. This form of polymerisation often occurs through a condensation reaction where molecules combine and a by-product is left over. Fillers such as chopped fabric and glass fibre improve the impact strength while mica improves electrical resistance and graphite reduces the coefficient of friction. 54 Personal and public transport . require heat and pressure for polymerisation to occur. Thermosetting polymers. The band is easy to stretch at the start but gets harder the more you stretch it. is one example of this type of polymer. Eventually it becomes white and. Get hold of a 'rubber' band (a wide one would be best) Stretch the rubber band with your hands and confirm the stress/strain curve shown in figure 3. it breaks. Foamed polymers. like foamed polystyrene.change. Phenol-formaldehyde. opaque and will not soften under heat.
handle grips Part 3 Transport systems – materials 55 . these include glass fibres for strength and wood flour to increase rigidity. tough. bike light bodies Polypropylene very tough. electrical insulator. covering on bike seats and some upholstery trim in cars. battery outer casing PVC Polyvinyl chloride excellent electrical insulator. flexible. insulator. rigid and tough or with plasticisers added it is soft. transparent. tough and flexible. dimensional stability unbreakable window 'glass'. such as carbon black. that prevent damage from uv rays fillers that simply reduce the amount of polymer needed but also alter the properties. carpet. rigid. UV stable. inert. onepiece accelerator pedal. bends as a hinge without cracking seat belting.6. low density has branched chains reducing crystallinity. Some of these additives are: • • • • pigments that provide colouring plasticisers that lubricate between the polymer chains to increase flexibility stabilisers. Some polymers used in bicycles and cars Thermosoftening Polymer Polyethylene Polythene Properties low melting temperature.Additions to polymers Polymers are nearly always mixed with additives to enhance the properties of the composite body. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. backed with textile as a fabric covering on electrical wiring. hard. bike helmets. high density is linear Applications coating on outer of bike gear and brake cables Polycarbonate high impact strength.
hard. flexible. inert Applications insulators. bicycle and car reflectors and light lenses. excellent electrical insulator. high strength. flexible. low-friction washers. instruments Helmet outers. bike brake blocks radiator hoses. tough Applications car tyres. bushes. trap air in the way of sponge. seals in air. good all-round properties. dimensional stability. can be chrome plated Elastomers Polymer Vulcanised rubber Properties low cost. resists oxidation. singles Thermosetting Polymer Silicones Properties inert. wear resistant transparent. tough Butyl rubber good resistance to ozone. metallic in feel. good surface finish. impact strength. engine mounts. tough. excellent optical properties. chrome plated body trim Acrylic perspex ABS fatigue resistant. holds air and gases well inner tubes. heat resistant. rigid. flexible fuel and brake fluid lines Neoprene good heat resistance and resistance to oils. water and hydraulic systems upholstery foam. can be formed into rubbers excellent insulators. bicycle tyres.Polyamide (nylon) excellent chemical resistance. weather resistant gears inside instruments. noise insulation Polyurethane foam 56 Personal and public transport . fabric belts in tyres car weather shields.
31 Injection moulding Polymer components such as pedals. lights. Injection moulding Extrusion – film and solid Blow moulding Calendering Rotational moulding Casting Compression moulding Transfer moulding Injection moulding Polymer granules are placed in a hopper that feeds into a heating chamber. This is the most widely used type of polymer forming process and is used on all types of polymers. Once the polymer sets. handle grips and reflectors on bicycles and consoles.Polymer forming processes The following processes are used in the manufacture of parts for bicycles. body trims. Mould design must allow items to be removed from the mould. the mould opens and the finished item is removed. The molten polymer is injected into a cool permanent metal mould. cars and trains. Polymer pellets loaded into hopper Nozzle Heater Movable mould Rotating screw or hydraulic ram Spreader Moulded part Figure 3. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 57 . rear light assemblies and glove boxes on cars are all made by injection moulding. The polymer is forced through the chamber by a 'screw' where it is melted.
Extrusion Each form of extrusion starts with the melting of polymer granules as for injection moulding.32 Continuous extrusion Polymers can also be extruded as films as shown in figure 3. joined to form a ring and then the valve is fitted. Bicycle tubes are extruded. As this polymer solidifies it may be cut to length or rolled up. Polymer can also be extruded around another material as in the case of PVC insulation extruded onto the outside of copper wire that is used in the electrical systems of trains and cars.33. A continuous profile is made when molten polymer is pushed through a specially shaped die. Hopper feed for plastic granules Heating coils Die Rotating screw feed Extruded product Figure 3. 58 Personal and public transport . Thermosoftening polymers and elastomers are commonly extruded into items such as seals around car doors.
The metal mould closes around the viscous polymer tube sealing the lower end and leaving a hole at the top.33 Film extrusion Though not used much in transport components. this process is used to make thin films or bags in many different thermopolymers. Air is blown into the top pushing the hot polymer against the walls of the mould.Film wound onto rolls Rollers to guide film Blown film Cooling air Air to inflate film Extruded plastic Figure 3. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 59 . Polymer is softened by heat then it is extruded. Blow moulding This process can be used to make bottles and narrow necked containers. as a tube. with the assistance of gravity.
Calendering This process was once used for the production of films but is now more often used to form composite materials. Patterned rollers can be used to produce a textured surface on the polymer. cleaning. For example viscous PVC is spread onto the surface of a fabric and then rolled. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. Coating knife Coating liquid or Fabric backing Figure 3.35 Calendering Knife over roll coating 60 Personal and public transport . Vinyl coated fabrics used in some upholstery in cars and on the seats of bicycles is made using this process.34 Blow moulding Plastic blown to take the shape of the mould Thermosoftening polymers are moulded using this process and blow moulding is used to form items such as the drink bottle on a bicycle and fluid reservoirs for cooling. brake and clutch systems in cars.7.Mould Blow pin Compressed air Compressed air Hot extruded plastic Closing mould seals polymer tube Figure 3.
Part 3 Transport systems – materials 61 . The mould is moved into a heating chamber and rotated constantly through 360∞. Heated to 170–270∞C and rotated Cooled while still rotating and then removed from mould Powdered plastic poured into mould Figure 3. Acrylic. The closing mould compresses the polymer and this combination of heat and pressure polymerises and forms the item.Rotational moulding Rotational moulding is used to mould hollow stress-free items. A measured quantity of polymer granules is loaded into the mould which is then closed. The polymer granules melt when they come into contact with the heated mould and a 'skin' forms on the inside of the mould. Carbon fibre reinforced bicycle frames are also made through this process of casting.36 Rotational moulding Casting All types of polymers can be cast once in a viscous state. polycarbonate and polyurethane foams are cast into large sheets. A variety of frame tubes can be made and then glued together or an inflatable internal mould may be used and a one-piece frame cast. Compression moulding This process is commonly used for forming elastomers and thermosetting polymers. Polymer powders are mixed with fillers and then placed directly into a heated mould. Many of the internal panels in trains are made from glass reinforced polymers that have been cast in this way. Polyester resins are blended with glass fibres and cast into moulds either by hand or by spraying techniques. Careful placement of the carbon fibres provides much greater control of the flexibility and response of the bicycle frame. A permanent metal mould is made of the outer shape of the product.
The polymer is combined and melted in another chamber then transferred into the mould where it is subjected to pressure and further heating to promote curing. Force Moulded pot Mould plunger Heated mould Moulding material Ejector pin or Split mould Figure 3. such as vandalism on trains has provided textile engineers with a number of difficulties. Train seats were once covered 62 Personal and public transport . a very common application of a polymer in a textile form is ‘shade cloth’.Car tyres are manufactured in a type of compression mould. Different applications and environments will require careful assessment of each material by the textile engineer. However. Polypropylene. A social problem. Engineering textiles Many of the man-made polymer fibres have properties that are not always typical of textiles. polyethylene. used to restrict ultra violet rays and provide shade.8. A variation of this process is transfer moulding which is also used for thermosetting polymers. polyester and nylon are all woven into fabrics that are used in filtration systems.37 Compression moulding Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3.
Unfortunately this fabric was easily torn so the challenge was to develop a comfortable. You should find some details about the window stamped in one corner. As the glass mass cools. Laminated and tempered glass In most cars today. probably Pilkington if it's an Australian made car. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 63 . _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 Explain how glass is toughened or tempered with the aid of a sketch. Jot those details down.with a vinyl fabric on foam padding. non-rip and easily cleaned fabric for train seats. Seats in current trains are covered with a tough woven polymer fabric that is extremely hard to tear. is comfortable and fairly easy to clean. it contracts to develop compressive stresses in the skin and tensile stresses in the interior. 1 Have a good look at the windows in your car. the windscreen is made from laminated glass and the other windows are made from tempered or toughened glass. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? 1 Did you find the name of the manufacturer. and details of the manufacturing and heat treatment processes? Did you find the words 'safety glass' on the windscreen? This indicates that the windscreen is laminated. 2 The dampening process involves heating the glass to its annealing range and rapidly cooling the outside surfaces by air blasting.
Did you answer? Untreated glass Laminated glass Toughened glass Figure 3.38 Tempering glass Sketch and label the failure patterns for untreated.39 Feature patterns of glass 64 Personal and public transport . laminated and toughened glasses.1 Heat the glass to the annealing range 2 Air blast the outside surfaces Compressive stresses in skin 3 Slowly cool to room temperature Tensile forces in the interior Figure 3.
The laminated windscreen on your car has been carefully manufactured using the following procedure: • • • • • • • • annealed glass is cut to the correct size and shape using a template. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? It is all to do with the failure pattern for each type of glass. It is only in recent years that all windscreens have been made from laminated glass as they were once mainly made from toughened glass. While toughened screens are much stronger than laminated screens. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 65 . as these are side and rear windows. when a toughened screen does break the driver can't see at all. Of course all the other glass in the car is toughened making it very strong. pairs of windscreen glass are heated in a lehr or furnace and draped into a metal mould to form the correct shape the shaped glass is cooled slowly to an annealed condition the pairs are split and thoroughly cleaned a layer of polyvinyl butyl is laid between the layers of the glass (the tint at the top of a screen is in this polymer layer before laminating) the laminated screen is then run between rollers to remove most of the trapped air time in an autoclave with heat and pressure will remove the rest of the air and leave the screen clear each screen is tested to check for optical clarity. This means it won’t cut you and. If it does break. the stresses in the glass cause the whole panel to shatter into small pieces with relatively smooth edges. This is very dangerous when a truck flicks a stone up while you are travelling at 110 km/ph on a country road. Suggest why it is safer to make windscreens from laminated glass rather than toughened glass. your view of the road ahead will not be obscured.
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describe the Izod notched bar impact test.Exercises Exercise 3. Component A cast train wheel Service property Test A bicycle frame Suspension springs Bicycle helmets A brake cable Part 3 Transport systems – materials 67 .1 a With the aid of a sketch. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Complete the following table by suggesting an important service property and the most suitable test that could be used to assess this property.
2 a Sketch and clearly label the microstructures of the two carbon steels identified and the cast iron. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 3. Component Steel type Forming process Gear and brake cables Common bolts Railway track Auto disk brake Auto suspension springs 68 Personal and public transport .c Discuss situations where modeling or proving tests may be used in the development of bicycles. cars or trains. Low Carbon Steel Grey Cast Iron Carbon Tool Steel b Complete the following table by suggesting a plain carbon steel suitable for the application and the forming process used to manufacture the component.
for each of the forms of surface hardening listed. in transportation components. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Complete the following table by suggesting the properties achieved and typical applications. Hardening process Carburising Properties Applications Nitriding Selective Hardening Part 3 Transport systems – materials 69 . _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Exercise 3.c Name one steel alloy and explain how its properties differ from those of mild steel. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Suggest why normalising would be carried out on a ferrous casting. _______________________________________________________ State the changes in strength properties that occur as carbon content is increased in plain carbon steels.3 a Explain how the structure of medium and high carbon steels allow them to be quench hardened.
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Sketch and label the grain structure that results from hot rolling. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 3.d Explain the purpose of tempering hardened structures. c Explain the grainflow that occurs in an upset bolt head with the aid of a sketch. 70 Personal and public transport .4 a Describe the process of die-casting.
5 a State four reasons why powder forming may be used. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ e Complete the following list by suggesting a suitable manufacturing process for each of the aluminium alloy components: i bike wheel rim ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii bike pedal crank ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii bike wheel hub ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iv auto engine sump ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3. i ii iii iv ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Part 3 Transport systems – materials 71 .d Explain the processes involved in making a butted bicycle frame tube from a piece of solid alloy steel rod.
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 3. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Complete the table below by suggesting at least one (but more if possible) non-ferrous metal that can hardened by the process given. Process Cold working Precipitation hardening Quench hardening Non-ferrous metal d Discuss the structural changes that cause precipitation hardening. addition condensation _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 72 Personal and public transport .6 a Compare and contrast addition and condensation polymerisation. with the aid of sketches.b List three stages of the 'powder forming' process.
b List some of the typical properties of thermosoftening polymers. Linear ii Branched Give a specific example of each type and then list typical properties. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c i Sketch the structures of a linear thermosoftening polymer and a branched thermosetting polymer. Linear thermosoftening polymer Branched thermosetting polymer ______________________ ______________________ Example: Properties: d ______________________ ______________________ List three typical fillers used in polymers and suggest the use of each. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 3 Transport systems – materials 73 .
a suitable polymer and probable forming process for each of the applications listed. Application Service property Polymer Forming process Reflector lens Bicycle tube Drink bottle 74 Personal and public transport .7 a Explain the process of vulcanising in rubber. with the aid of a sketch.Exercise 3. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Complete the following table by suggesting a service property required.
_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain why normally flexible polymers turn white and reduce in flexbility under a severe tensile load. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 3 Transport systems – materials 75 .c With the aid of a sketch describe blow moulding.
8 Select the alternative a. pendulum and energy indicator parallel specimen. pendulum and ruler hammer. c or d that best completes the statement or answers the question. 4 Phases found in the structures of all plain carbon steels at room temperature are: a b c d ferrite and cementite cementite and austenite pearlite and ferrite pearlite and graphite. Both the Izod and Charpy tests use a: a b c d notched specimen. b. a ferrous metal is one that: a b c d rusts when exposed to still air contains any amount of iron becomes hard when quenched has iron as its major element. wire specimen and energy indicator. pendulum and ruler notched specimen. 1 Testing by modelling would be used when designing a high speed train to assess: a b c d 2 movement of air over the train movement of air under the train movement of air over and under the train position of emergency exists. 3 By definition. 76 Personal and public transport . Circle the letter.Exercise 3.
up to 0.5 As carbon content increases in plain carbon steels. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 77 . quenching and normalising precipitation hardening. 9 Compression and transfer moulding are both used for forming: a b c d non-ferrous alloys thermosetting polymers ceramics thermosoftening polymers. 6 Hot working is the: a b c d plastic deformation of a material above its recrystallisation temperature working of a material when it is heated above 250∞C plastic deformation of a material when it is hot controlled working of any material with the aid of any heating source. rolling and upsetting forging.8%C. upsetting and casting piercing. 8 The following can all be used to increase the hardness of various non-ferrous alloys: a b c d precipitation hardening. quenching and cold working annealing. 7 Cold working processes include: a b c d rolling. casting and drawing upsetting. rolling and drawing. cold working and annealing. the steel becomes: a b c d stronger and more ductile softer and more ductile stronger and tougher weaker and softer. recovery and tempering quenching.
shell moulding and injection moulding. injection moulding and shell moulding Blow moulding. 78 Personal and public transport . investment casting and extrusion Blow moulding.10 Which of the following groups of processes use a permanent metal mould? a b c d Die casting. die casting and rotational moulding Film extrusion. 11 The best sheet polymer to use as 'unbreakable' window panels would be: a b c d acrylic polypropylene nylon polycarbonate.
6 ❐ Exercise 3. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. Part 3 Transport systems – materials 79 .4 ❐ Exercise 3.Exercise cover sheet Exercises 3.2 ❐ Exercise 3.7 ❐ Exercise 3.1 ❐ Exercise 3. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.3 ❐ Exercise 3.8 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.1 to 3.8 Name: ___________________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 3.5 ❐ Exercise 3.
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In the next part you will examine the generation and transmission of electricity. NSW. Part 3 Transport systems – materials Disagree . testing and appropriateness of materials used in transportation • identify appropriate heat treatment processes • justify appropriate choices for ferrous and non-ferrous materials and processes used in transportation parts and systems • experiment with metals to reinforce the concepts of heat treatment • explain the method and applications of various ferrous metal forming processes • justify appropriate choices for ceramics and glasses used in transportation parts and systems • justify appropriate choices of polymers and their manufacturing processes used in transportation parts and systems. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement. I have learnt to: • explain the properties. uses.edu.boardofstudies.nsw. Refer to <http://www. and electric motors and systems in various types of transport. how they can be modified and the processes used in manufacturing. ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain 81 I have learnt about: • • • • • • specialised testing of engineering materials and/or systems heat treatment of ferrous metals structure/property relationships in material forming processes non-ferrous alloys ceramics and glasses polymers.Progress check In this part you investigated materials used to make transport component parts – their.au> for original and current documents. 1999. © Board of Studies. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.
Personal and public transport Part 4: Transport systems – electricity/electronics .
.......................................................................................................................................................................................2 What will you learn?........................ 5 Electrical power..............................................................42 Introduction to digital systems..........................22 Single-phase versus three-phase ... 7 Generating electricity ............................................91 Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 1 .................................................81 Progress check .........................42 Motors ................................................................................................9 Coal fired power stations..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Hydro-electricity ..........................................................................22 The grid system..................................................................89 Exercise cover sheet...............................................................................................................3 AC and DC electricity...............38 Principles of electrical motors.................................................................................59 Boolean logic .....................................................19 Transmission and distribution of electricity .....59 Combination logic circuits...........................................................................................................................................64 Parameterising electrical systems in transport .................60 Electricity systems in transport.........................................66 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................14 Wind power........................................................Part 4 contents Introduction...................................28 The distribution system .................................................................................................17 Other sources of energy..............................................................................................................28 Electrical transmission .................................57 Digital signals.............................................22 Generating voltages and losses.57 Analogue signals...............................13 Solar energy ..................... 2 Electricity for power and information ................................
Introduction Electricity is the fundamental to our lifestyles yet we generally take it for granted. Most forms of transport that we use today are reliant an electricity in some form. Electricity is used in transport systems for providing motive power and for communicating information.nsw. NSW. In this part you will investigate how electricity is produced and how it is used in the myriad of ways that make it an invaluable source of energy for transportation systems. 1999.boardofstudies. You will also examine how electricity/electronics can be used for communicating information in control systems.au> for original and current documents. What will you learn? You will learn about: • • • power generation/distribution – electrical energy and power AC/DC circuits electric motors used in transport systems – – • principles applications control technology. Refer to <http//ww. 2 Personal and public transport .edu. You will learn to: • • • • identify the electrical systems used in the transport industry investigate the principles and application of electric motors used in the transport indusrty analyse the basic principles of control technology as applied to the transport industry explain elementary digital logic. © Board of Studies. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.
is the same in each case.1 A toaster – an appliance that uses electricity for power to generate heat Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 3 . none of these examples use electricity in its pure form. Identify three electrical appliances in your home that are specified in terms o their power rating. The power. Pure electricity is simply a flow of electrons along a conductor. and hence light. and what are their power ratings? Figure 4.Electricity for power and information We take advantage of electricity in many different ways. electricity runs our video player. we are primarily interested in the amount of energy or power being delivered. and to wash our clothes. Almost all applications of electricity can be classified into one of two categories: using electricity for power (or energy). television and mobile phone. a 50 Watt light might be powered by 240 Volts at 50 Hz (mains voltage) or by 12 Volts as DC (as in a car). although the height and frequency of the electrical waveform powering the lamp is quite different. At home we use electricity to cook our food. to give us light. What is meant by ‘power’? In ‘power’ applications of electricity. For fun. irrigation pumps and photocopiers. What are the devices. However. or using electricity to represent information. There are not many practical uses for that! In each case the electricity is converted into another form of energy or into information. At work we use electricity to run our computers. For example.
Here we are interested in data rates and signaling protocols rather than the power being transmitted or received.1. 4 Personal and public transport .2 An unusual view of a common appliance – a PC that uses electricity to process information You will learn more about the use of electricity to process information in the module on Telecommunications engineering. we are interested in certain properties of the electrical signal such as its frequency.What is meant by ‘information’? Using electricity to represent information is less obvious than using electricity for power. Identify three electrical appliances in your home that are used to process information. or duty cycle (ratio of on-time to off-time). and what sort of information do they process? Figure 4. radio waves use different amplitudes and frequencies to transmit information (such as spoken words or music). We refer to different radio stations in terms of their transmission frequencies. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4. but not in terms of their powers. For example. What are the devices. In the information context. amplitude. Computer modems use electricity to communicate with other computers.
AC and DC stand for ‘alternating current’ and ‘direct current’ respectively. For example. Alternating current is also very useful in communications applications.3 AC current waveform If the waveform is equally positive and negative.AC and DC electricity In Household appliances you learned the difference between AC and DC. the direction of the current alternates. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 5 . Note that the shape is sinusoidal. We can take advantage of different frequencies to allow multiple users to occupy the same medium without interfering with each other. The mains electricity we obtain from our domestic supply has a frequency of 50 Hertz (Hz) which means that the direction of current alternates 50 times per second (or if you like. The sandpaper can go back and forth over the same area but still do real work.4 MHz and 104. how can it do any work? A simple analogy is that of sandpaper being rubbed over a block of wood. Figure 4. two radio stations with broadcast frequencies of 102.3 shows the instantaneous amplitude of the current as it varies with time. The rate at which the current alternates is called the ‘frequency’. the electrons change direction 50 times per second). T= 1 f Current amplitude max T = period f = frequency 0 time – max Figure 4. In an AC circuit the electrons that constitute the current oscillate back and forth in the circuit: that is. The terms describe a fundamental property of an electrical signal.2 MHz can both broadcast in the same space using the same techniques without interfering with one another.
) Solar cells also generate DC power. DC is also used where we want to control the speed of electric motors (such as in electric trains). Why aren't AC circuits called ‘alternating voltage’ or AV? The reference to current instead of voltage is essentially an historical artifact. in an AC circuit the voltage polarity (direction) changes at the same frequency as the current direction.4. engineers focussed on current instead of voltage. the current always flows in the same direction. the older terms are still retained. Nowadays. the terms AC and DC refer to current (alternating and direct). This can be thought of as a special case of AC where the frequency is 0 Hz as shown in figure 4. DC is used in some power applications. Finally.4 DC current waveform time The most common source of DC is from a battery. (There is no such thing as an AC battery. the voltage waveform is the same shape as the current waveform (although its amplitude is usually different). In the pioneering days of electrical engineering. Hence the terms AC and DC. 6 Personal and public transport . What about voltage? Of course.In a DC circuit. even though we tend to refer to voltage more often than current. The most common is in motor vehicles where the electrical systems run at 12 Volts DC (cars) or 24 Volts (trucks). DC is rarely used in communications because of the potential interference that multiple users of the same channel would experience. DC may be used to generate AC signals using an inverter circuit. It is possible to convert AC into DC by using a rectifier (or converter) circuit. That is. Current amplitude DC 0 Figure 4.
pumps lighting: in the home for room and outdoor lighting. and in the community for radio and television transmissions (here the power is important to reach as many people as possible). safety warnings and security radiation devices: in the home for microwave ovens. based on motors). and an emergency situation arises when the electrical supply fails. including: • • heating: in the home for cooking. vacuum cleaners.Electrical power The terms ‘power’ and ‘energy’ are often used interchangeably. In times of crises. ironing. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 7 . Uses of electrical power Electrical power has many applications in contemporary society. in industry for furnaces and process industries motors: in the home for washing machines. advertising. conveyor systems. Can you think of another application in your home that uses electricity as a source of energy or power? Impact of electrical power on society Modern societies have so embraced electrical services that we often take them for granted. in industry for fans. though from their definitions it is clear that they are technically different (refer back to Household appliances if you need to refresh your memory). repair of the electrical supply is one of the key priorities for emergency service teams. video cassette players. rolling mills. • • Other uses of electricity include: • • • cooling systems (these are usually based in motors) electric arc welding (essentially another form of heating) lifting devices (again. in industry for factory illumination. hot water. Indeed. It is important to be clear in your mind as to exactly what you mean when you use either term. refrigerators. decorative lights. many of us only think about our electrical supply when it fails! Electricity is now considered to be an essential supply.
How did they manage? Could they keep their food cool? What did they do for entertainment? In developing countries. foreign aid is often used to establish a dependable electrical infrastructure. principles of rotating electrical machines (motors and generators). electrical supply is seen as one of the foundations of a modern community. using bicycles. the generation. transmission and distribution of electricity. Older generations in our communities can still recollect living without electricity. 8 Personal and public transport . motor cycles. the module looks at sources of energy (both mainstream and alternate). These are evaluated in the context of transport systems. and introduces the concept of control systems and digital logic. where the supply of electricity is not reliable or is non-existent. In particular. Can you find someone in your own community who had to live without electricity.Dependence on a reliable supply of electricity hasn't always been the case. Together with clean water and a communications infrastructure. cars and railway locomotives as examples. This module focuses on the use of electrical systems in personal and public transport systems.
Try to find out where the closest power station to your home is located. and Wallerawang in the Central West of NSW (opened 1957. By the 1960's. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 9 . larger power stations built in locations close to coal supplies. and new. Prior to that. As demand for electrical energy increased further. a number of new power stations had been constructed next to coal deposits. Wangi Wangi on Lake Macquarie in the Hunter region (opened 1953. The Electricity Commission of New South Wales was formed in 1950 in response to the increasing demand for electricity in the years following World War II.Generating electricity In this section we look at various sources of energy. closed 1989). The Commission's initial task was to increase generating capacity as quickly as possible while planning for future electricity requirements. closed 1986). Coal fired power stations History of coal fired power generation In 1904 the first substantial power station began operations at Pyrmont in Sydney. the Tallawarra power station had a total generating capacity of 320 MW. One of the key strategies employed was to locate coal-fired power stations next to their fuel source. For example. how they are harnessed. and the salient operational characteristics of plants designed to generate electricity from the energy sources. where they are found. The first electric street lighting in Australia was established in Tamworth in northern New South Wales in November 1888. electrical generation had been undertaken by local councils. primarily for the purposes of electric lighting. The newer stations such as Eraring and Bayswater have four units each of 660 MW. small power stations were closed or upgraded. These included stations at Tallawarra in the Illawarra region (opened 1951. at a time characterised by chronic power shortages. still operating).
but these supplies represent only a fraction of the total power generated. Other energy providers in the state are developing alternative energy sources such as wind and solar generation in response to consumer demand for ‘green’ energy.5 shows an aerial view of Bayswater power station in the Upper Hunter Valley near Muswellbrook. these three organisations operate the state’s seven main power stations and produce over 90 percent of the state's electricity. Delta Electricity and Macquarie Electricity. The water supply for the cooling system can be seen at the left bottom of the image. We will look at these alternate energy sources later. Between them. while the four steam condensing towers are prominent. The coal receival area is visible on the left. New South Wales' major power stations are: Station Name Bayswater Location Upper Hunter Valley Upper Hunter Valley Lake Macquarie Central Coast Central West Adjacent to Lake Liddell Power output 2640 MW Liddell Lake Liddell 2000 MW Vales Point Munmorah Wallerawang Lake Macquarie Lake Munmorah Lake Wallace.The major power generating stations Responsibility for the primary power generation in New South Wales is shared between Pacific Power. 10 Personal and public transport . Lake Lyell Thompsons Creek Dam Lake Macquarie 1320 MW 1320 MW 1000 MW Mount Piper Central West 1320 MW Eraring Table 1 Lake Macquarie 2640 MW Major power generating stations in New South Wales Figure 4.
This increases the efficiency of the combustion process. The exhaust gases from the boiler furnace are passed through a series of filters to recover the ash that results from burning coal. (A common application is as landfill where excellent drainage properties are required. Maximum coal consumption is about 250 tonnes an hour. the coal is sampled. over two million litres of water are converted to steam each hour. The steam is heated to around 540 degrees Celsius. Before being used in the furnace. Here. Pure fresh water is used so that the salts found in seawater and unpurified water do not clog or corrode the boiler plant. coal is crushed into a fine powder. This is done by circulating purified fresh water through the inner 'walls' of tubing lining the boiler furnace chamber.Figure 4. The heat generated by the burning coal is used to boil fresh water in a boiler to produce high-pressure steam.) Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 11 . In a boiler supplying a modern 660 MW turbo-generator. The coal powder is blown into the furnace using a stream of pre-heated air. This ash is collected and then used in other applications. Coal is stored at the station in case the supply of coal from the mines is disrupted for some time. weighed and stored for later recovery by reclaimers and bulldozers for use in the power station. during which the power station must be able to continue producing electricity.5 Bayswater Power Station near Muswellbrook How a modern coal fired power station works The coal used in a typical modern power station is sourced from local mines and transported to a station stockpile by conveyor belts.
These towers exude large volumes of steam that are often mistaken for smoke pollution. After being used to drive the high-pressure turbine. Finally the steam exhausted from the medium-pressure turbine is uses to drive a low-pressure (larger diameter) turbine. This is done in large cooling towers that visually dominate coal-fired power stations.6 shows a portion of a high pressure steam turbine from Eraring power station.6 A portion of high pressure steam turbine On leaving the low-pressure turbine. the steam is used to drive a medium pressure turbine. The turbine shaft is directly coupled to the drive shaft of the electrical generator. Figure 4. 12 Personal and public transport . the steam is cooled back into liquid form in a condenser.The steam that is produced by the boiler is injected at very high pressure onto the blades of a turbine. By using a succession of increasingly larger diameter turbines. The cooling towers at Bayswater power station can be seen clearly in figure 4. This turbine blade has been damaged (see circular marking on right-most blade) and has been brought to the engineering lab for examination and testing. This turbine has a larger diameter than the first (high-pressure) turbine. maximum energy can be extracted from the steam as its temperature and pressure decrease. Figure 4. and then re-used in the boiler.5.
In 1949 agreement was reached between the Commonwealth. The Authority subsequently built seven power stations. The water is directed through the base of a vertical turbo-generator where it passes Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 13 . History of hydro-electricity in Australia The first hydro-electric generating plant in Australia. if not the world. The first relatively large use of hydro-electric generation in mainland Australia was built on the Nymboida River by the then Clarence River County Council in 1923. This equates to 50 revolutions per second. the energy was not converted to electricity. That plant was rated at 4. Water stored in a dam is released through huge pipes into a power station located below the dam wall. drive winches and so forth. Hydro-electricity ‘Hydro’ is a Greek word that means water. NSW and Victorian Governments to form the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority.The steam turbine shaft is directly coupled to the shaft of the electrical generator. In 1927 two 5 MW units were installed at Burrinjuck Dam by the NSW Public Works Department. together with many dams and tunnels. However. Energy or power from water has been used for thousands of years. was constructed in 1895 on the South Esk River near Launceston Tasmania. comprising three 100 kW generators. How a hydro-electric power station works Hydro-electric power generation harnesses the potential energy stored in elevated bodies of water. but used directly to mill flour. which gives us the mains power frequency of 50 Hertz. for most of this time. Duck Reach Power Station. The generator shaft rotates at 3000 revolutions per minute. Hydro-electricity is obtained from the conversion of the kinetic energy in flowing water into electrical energy.8 MW and is still in operation. It is still considered to be one of the greatest engineering feats in Australia.
The 5. which converts sunlight to heat directly. This differs from solar thermal (hot water) technology. However. 1995. Where hydro power is generated Electricity generated by the energy of falling water provides about 10% of the electricity produced in New South Wales each year. In the past. Brown Mountain and Wyangala Dam. Keepit Dam. The Glenbawn station was constructed in an existing 8. The principle of electricity generation is essentially the same in both hydro and thermal (steam) power stations. this water had been channelled down the Hunter River and its energy wasted.5 MW Glenbawn Dam hydro station has been operating since February. Bendeela. The amount of power that can be generated by a hydro station depends on the height from which the water falls (called the ‘head’) and the amount of water available (the ‘flow’). The shaft spins at a controlled speed to maintain the required 3000 rpm (or 50 Hz). the more electricity can be produced. in coal-fired power stations high-pressure steam is used to drive the horizontal turbine. In NSW these include Hume Weir. but not to electrical power. in a hydro-electric station water is used to drive vertically oriented turbines. The largest amount is generated in the seven hydro-electricity power stations of the Snowy Mountains Scheme with a total generating capacity of 3756 MW. The greater the head and the flow. 14 Personal and public transport .through the turbine blades. Burrinjuck Dam. which are attached to the shaft and generator. A number of other hydro stations are located throughout Australia.23 m diameter diversion tunnel and utilises energy from water which is used for irrigation and flushing. Kangaroo Valley. Warragamba Dam. Operation of these hydro stations is generally dependent on the level of water in their associated storage dams and the need for water downstream for irrigation or other purposes. Solar photovoltaic cells directly convert sunlight to electricity. Why do you think Australia generates relatively small amounts of hydro electricity compared with the output of its coal-fired power stations? Solar energy Solar energy is the term used to describe the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells.
The modules are supported by steel framing facing true north and angled at 30 degrees to the horizontal.2 Volts. photovoltaic cells are not very convenient for practical use. coal-fired and hydro power stations. Individual photovoltaic cells are manufactured on thin wafers of silicon. Consequently. Each cell produces only around 2. Solar energy was first used in the 1950s to power space capsules and telecommunications satellites.25ha. It is a good example of space technology finding subsequent application in broader markets. A solar panel is the generic name given to a number of photovoltaic cells connected together and packaged together in a more robust form (such as within an aluminium frame with a protective glass cover). for example.History of solar power in Australia The adoption of solar energy in Australia is a relatively recent technology when compared with. This gives a peak output of more than 200 kW. How solar power works Solar power is based on the use of photovoltaic cells. This type of packaging allows panels to be produced with more practical (higher) output voltages and to withstand reasonable handling without damage. The individual modules are rated at 60 Watts and are mounted on a steel base with a polymer coating instead of glass. Where solar power is generated Significant quantities of solar power are generated at a number of sites throughout New South Wales: • Singleton solar farm Stage 1 – it consists of 3456 modules across an area of 1.is rated at 60 Watts. Singleton solar farm Stage 2 – consists of a further 3312 Canon amorphous solar modules producing a peak power of 200 kW. The physics underlying the production of electrical energy from photovoltaic cells is much less readily understood than the basic operation of coal-fired and hydro power systems. Each module – consisting of 36 polycrystalline solar cells . The system is connected to the electricity grid at 11kV. with the silicon wafers themselves being very fragile. • Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 15 . A proper understanding of the technology requires an appreciation of quantum physics and semiconductor physics.
7 Solar panel installation on the roof of the old carriage shed at Newcastle Foreshore Park Why do you think that the solar panels at the Singleton solar farm (and elsewhere) are oriented towards true north and inclined at 30 degrees to the horizontal? There are many other applications where solar cells are used to generate smaller amounts of power for specific needs. Remote telecommunications equipment is often powered by solar energy. These types of applications have significantly reduced the dependence on batteries for small quantities of electrical power. the railway carriage shed once housed the locomotives that brought coal to the Newcastle Power station that was very close by. many marine navigation markers are powered by solar cells mounted on the markers. to produce system output of about 10 kW. Each solar panel has a 77 Watt capacity. at the National Innovation Centre in Redfern. such as calculators. Queanbeyan – the solar farm consists of 720 solar panels arranged in nine separate modules. Homebush Business Park – using 140 silicon solar modules (each module consisting of 36 monocrystaline solar cells) and producing a system output of about 11 kW.• • the Olympic Village – each house in the suburb has rooftop solar panels capable of generating 1600 kW hours per year. torches.) • • • Figure 4. at Foreshore Park in Newcastle – the system installed on the roof of the carriage shed comprises 80 silicon solar modules and is rated at 6. Many new street light designs are incorporating solar power generation. where the power is used to complement other sources of power or to keep batteries charged. battery chargers and watches. Photovoltaics are also used to power many consumer products.5 kW. For example. with a total system capacity of 50 kW. Solar installations are popular on boats and caravans. 16 Personal and public transport . (Interestingly.
and many commercial developments are under way. but uses the mechanical energy to drive the pump directly. Of course this application does not convert the wind power to electrical energy. Figure 4. The first commercial wind farm in Australia was designed and built by Western Power Corporation in 1993 at Esperence Western Australia. Nine turbines generate up to 2MW providing about 12 per cent of the town's base load electricity requirements. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 17 . interest in wind powered generation is strong.Australia has the highest per capita use of photovoltaics in the world. particularly given that many parts of Australia do not experience consistently strong winds to ensure an adequate supply of electricity. Other forms of power generation have been more attractive in most situations. Wind power History of wind power in Australia Perhaps the most quintessential image of rural Australia is that of a windmill drawing water from a bore. applications of wind power being used to generate electrical power in Australia are in their infancy. Generally. However. Total installed capacity is around 13MW and is growing by about 2MW per annum.8 Calculator that uses solar power to complement a battery Can you find an example of electricity being generated by solar power near to your home? How much power do you think is being generated by the system? Assume that photovoltaic cells generate approximately 100 Watts per square metre of solar panelling.
The turbine nacelle (hub) measures 8 m x 3 m. The peak power output from the plant is 600 kW.How wind power works The principle of wind powered generation is relatively simple: wind flowing across the blades of a wind turbine cause the turbine shaft to rotate. However. and consists of 8 turbines each capable of generating 600 kW. This rapid change in power output limits the actual power that can be generated from a turbine designed to withstand a given maximum wind speed. The largest site of wind powered generation in NSW is at Blayney in central NSW. This has a down side: if a wind turbine is designed to produce. giving a total maximum capacity of 10 MW. Numerous smaller plants can be found in many areas. From blade tip to ground level. often through a system of gearing to increase the rotational speed of the generator's shaft. the turbine is 72 m. often in conjunction with other sources of power such as solar and diesel generation. 1000 Watts at a wind speed of 30 kph. every time the wind speed doubles. Most of these turbines tend to have a capacity of no more than 5 kW and are used primarily for remote domestic applications. weighs 28 tonnes and is mounted on top of a 50 m tubular steel tower.) The amount of energy generated is dependent on wind speed and the diameter of the blades. Each blade is 22 m long. This shaft is connected to a generator. 18 Personal and public transport .8 MW. being located immediately beside a busy road. giving a total swept area of 1502 m2 (more than 1/4 of a football field). the cross section of the wind that is passed through the turbine). (Higher shaft speeds means that the generators can be physically smaller to produce the amount of electricity. The turbine's blades are reinforced polyester. Kooragang Island near Newcastle hosts one of the most accessible wind turbines. say. Increasing the blade diameter increases the swept area (that is. The power output is in fact proportional to the cube of the speed of the wind. The wind farm consists of 15 wind turbine generators each of 660 kW capacity. it will only produce 10 Watts at a wind speed of 15 kph. giving a total of 4. the energy that can be extracted increases by a factor of eight. That is. Where wind power is generated The first grid-connected commercial wind farm is located at Crookwell in NSW. increasing the blade diameter also imposes significant demands on the mechanical strength of the blades due to the large forces that result from the high tip speeds and torques produced.
Figure 4.9 Kooragang wind turbine near Newcastle. petrol and natural gas powered engines that are used to drive local generators. Internal combustion engines These applications include diesel. or for back-up power supplies in critical applications (such as hospitals) for use when the main grid supply fails. from a couple of kW in small portable petrol generators. Plant sizes can be quite varied. to hundreds of kW for substantial installations. Such systems are generally used either in remote locations where connection to the grid is uneconomic. These include: • • • • internal combustion engines biomass tidalwave energy geothermic. the apparent height of the structure is no illusion Other sources of energy There are many other sources of energy that can be used for electrical power generation. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 19 .
A significant advantage of these systems is that they can be started in a relatively short time, and run only as, and when, required. Another application for generators driven by engines is of course found in cars, trucks, buses and other vehicles. The power to drive lights, ignition systems, electric windows and sound systems is provided by a generator (technically an alternator – see later material on electrical machines) driven by a belt off the engine. Figure 4.10 shows the alternator in a car driven by a belt of the crankshaft.
Figure 4.10 A mobile generator – in this case, the alternator of a car
This source of energy is derived from the decomposition or combustion of biodegradable materials. During decomposition, combustible gases such as methane are given off and used to power gas turbine engines which in turn drive generators. Such plants are commonly known as ‘landfill gas’ systems, and are built around old large tip sites. Examples can be found at Lucas Heights and at Bare Creek in Sydney. These plants total around 22 MW in generating capacity, and can be run continuously while ever the supply of gas remains. In combustion, materials such as fuelwood, forestry residues, bagasse (the waste from sugar cane) and municipal solid waste can be combusted in furnaces and boilers to produce heat and hence steam to feed steam turbine generators.
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Tidal generators use the changing height of ocean water with tidal variations to create small dams which can then be used in a similar way to hydro power generating systems. Since the power obtainable is related to the height of the water, tidal plants tend to be viable only where significant tidal heights can be found, such as in the north-west of Western Australia.
This mode of energy extraction is similar to tidal, but uses the more frequent but less intense action of waves to drive turbines. Unless the generating plant can be made to float, the principle is only applicable in areas that have minimal tidal influence.
This source of energy is derived from deep underground where the temperatures of the bedrock are hundreds of degrees Celsius. This temperature is sufficient to generate steam, and hence generate electricity through the normal means.
The energy is accessed by pumping water into the bedrock, where it boils in contact with the heated rock. The resulting steam is then drawn off and used to power turbines. In some situations, the water occurs naturally, and steam can be drawn off directly. In each of the alternate energy forms described above, we only harness a very small fraction of the total energy available from that source. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4.2.
Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics
Transmission and distribution of electricity
The previous section looked at how electrical energy is generated on a large scale. In this section we will look at how that energy is transmitted and distributed to consumers, and identify some of the key issues in controlling and maintaining that infrastructure.
The grid system
Having generated the electricity in large power stations, it is necessary to transport the power to the people and industries that need it. The system of electrical power lines that connect the power stations to the population centres is known as the ‘electrical grid system’ or simply, ‘the grid’. The grid system carries energy from the power stations through a network of ‘transmission lines’ to major distribution points. From here, the energy is carried via a ‘distribution network’ to consumers. The transmission grid can be thought of as the main arteries of the energy distribution system. The distribution network can similarly be thought of as the capillaries, being made up of many smaller lines reaching into all parts of the state. We will look more closely at the generation, transmission and distribution networks in this section.
Single-phase versus three-phase
Figure 4.11 shows the variation of voltage with time of a single-phase domestic supply.
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T= 1 f
T = 20 ms f = 50 Hz
Figure 4.11 Single-phase voltage supply showing variation of voltage with time
From earlier work we noted that the power in an electrical circuit was proportional to the square of the voltage, that is:
P=V¥ V V2 = R R
Consequently, the power from a single-phase supply also varies with time. Figure 4.12 shows the variation of power versus time for a singlephase supply. Note that at some instants, the power is at a maximum, and at other times (10 ms after the maximum power is attained) the power is zero. Note also that the average power is only 50 per cent of the maximum instantaneous value.
T= 1 f T = 10 ms f = 100 Hz
Figure 4.12 Single-phase supply showing variations of power with time
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Problems with single-phase power
The pulsating power is not usually a problem for typical appliances found in domestic situations such as washing machines and refrigerators. However, for larger appliances and installations (of the order of several kW and upwards), the power pulses can impose excessive torques on mechanical components, leading to vibration, or at worst mechanical failure. Ideally, we would like the power in the system to be constant.
One way in which constant power can be achieved is by designing a system with three separate circuits that are displaced in time relative to one another, such that the sum of the powers from the three circuits is constant. Such a system is known as a ‘three-phase’ system. You will remember the term ‘three-phase’ from Household appliances when you learned about the induction motor. Figure 4.13 shows the variation of voltage with time for a three-phase system.
“A” phase “B” phase “C” phase
–Vmax Figure 4.13 Single-phase and three-phase electrical circuits
The three-phase-to-phase voltages are all sinusoidal, with the same maximum amplitude, and displaced in time (phase) by 120o from each other. The power in a three-phase system is the vector sum of the power obtained between each of the three-phases. It can be shown (using vector arithmetic) that the sum of the power from the three phases is constant, that is, it does not vary with time!
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Because of its constant power property, the three-phase system causes much less stress to the mechanical components of generators and motors connected to the system. Virtually all generators use three-phase for this reason. Figure 4.14 shows the powers obtained from the three-phase-to-phase voltages, together with the total power.
Power Paver PAB PBC PCA
Figure 4.14 Power in each of three-phases together with the total (constant) power
Advantages of three-phase power
The three-phase system has a number of other advantages over singlephase systems: • a single-phase circuit can be obtained from a three-phase supply by connecting the electrical load between one phase of the three-phase supply and the neutral (or common) point of the three-phases. This enables electricity distributors to supply some homes with singlephase supplies, and others with three-phase supply, from the same distribution network. by connecting an electrical load between any two phases of the three-phase supply, higher voltages can be obtained (415 Volts between phases, as compared with 240 Volts from a single-phase to neutral). Since power is proportional to the square of the voltage, higher powers can be obtained from the phase-to-phase connection than from the phase-to neutral (single-phase) connection. See figure 4.15. This is why large hot water systems and heaters sometimes require a three-phase supply.
Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics
“A” phase “B” phase “C” phase Neutral 415 V Phase to phase connection 240 V Phase to neutral connection
Figure 4.15 Connections and voltages for phase to phase and phase to neutral circuits
it is possible to transmit three-phase power over long distances by using only the three separate phase conductors (that is, without the need to run a fourth neutral conductor: under certain conditions, a new neutral connection can be made at the destination of the power link). By comparison, three separate single-phase systems would require six wires. it can be shown that the three-phase system is more efficient in terms of resistive losses than three separate single-phase systems for the same net power transmission.
Almost all transmission and distribution of electrical power is done via three-phase systems. That is why the most common arrangement of wires seen on a power pole is to have three conductors. Sometimes, and most often nearer to consumers than to generators, a fourth conductor (the neutral wire) will be seen. Occasionally, just two conductors will be seen on power poles. This is usually a single-phase circuit. In some circumstances (usually only in remote areas), the earth itself is used in place of one of the conductors. This results in a single wire, earth return (SWER) system! Figure 4.16 shows a power pole carrying a three-phase supply (at 11 kV) on the upper crossarm, and a three-phase plus neutral (at 415/240 V) on the lower crossarm. The wires exiting to the left and right of the picture are providing single-phase supplies to three adjacent houses. The angled bar mounted lower down the pole is a streetlight.
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ask somebody which appliances in your home run on three-phase supply. If you have three-phase connected. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 27 . What sort of electrical supply feeds your home? Is it single-phase (two wires) or three-phase (four wires)? You should be able to tell by looking where the wires are connected to the house. or any other building. or even get close to. You should be able to follow the wires back towards their source.Figure 4. the electrical wires supplying your home. Do not touch. try to locate where the nearest threephase supply is to your home.16 Power pole carrying a three-phase system at 11 kV and threephase plus neutral at 415/240 V Electrical supply voltages are highly dangerous. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4. If you have a single-phase supply.3.
Consequently. some heat is generated (so-called ‘resistive losses’). the heat that is produced is difficult to dissipate because the generator is a rotating machine.Generating voltages and losses The main coal-fired stations in New South Wales typically generate power at around 20 kV. while Eraring and Bayswater both generate at 23 kV. There is no simple answer. have a resistance. Insulation increases the initial cost of the equipment. when a current flows through such a conductor. but on the other hand we want to reduce the current to minimise resistive losses. on the one hand. Higher voltages require a greater level of insulation to prevent short circuits. In a generator. We can calculate the amount of power lost through P = V x I = (I x R) x I = I2R. 28 Personal and public transport . We will see later that the optimal compromise for this same problem in transmission lines results in much higher voltages than are used for generation. large industries and mines). we want to reduce voltage to reduce insulating costs. The transmission system connects the generating sites with regions of significant demand (cities. such as commonly used copper. This indicates that resistive losses can be minimised by reducing the current. lower voltage results in increased current. Electrical transmission The transmission system represents the main arterial route for transmitting large quantities of electrical energy. All conductors. large towns. Thus. Liddell generates at 22 kV. The choice of generating voltage used in generating plants represents a trade-off between the insulation needed to withstand higher operating voltages and the resistive losses associated with high currents. Note that the power lost is proportional to the square of the current. Recall that power is the product of voltage and current. and cooling pipes need to be able to rotate with the machine. that is P = V x I. The generating voltages of 22–23 kV represent an engineering compromise between these two factors. For example. Hence it would appear that low voltages would be preferable for generation. Power is generated using the three-phase system to maintain constant power and hence torque in the generator. The transmission network in New South Wales is administered centrally by TransGrid. For a constant generator power.
Towers on the principal links are often constructed of fabricated steel. one of the backbones of our technological society. Figure 4. It represents.The transmission network is highly visible (some would say too visible). while structures on lesser links may be based on concrete or wooden poles.17 shows a steel transmission tower. however. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 29 . Transmission towers The transmission towers are probably the most prominent part of the transmission system. and perhaps looks deceptively simple. The key components of the system are: • • • • • • • transmission towers insulators conductors transformers switchyards protection systems metering systems. This particular tower is unusual in that it is the end of the line: the conductors are terminated on this tower and go no further. The tower is carrying three-phase power at 330 kV. The multiple conductors are used to reduce resistive losses.
That is. Steel is.Figure 4. conductive. In rough country (over moutain ranges) towers can be very close together or far apart. As a general rule. and of the order of hundreds of metres apart. with galvanised steel fittings on either side. On flat land. of course.18 shows a typical disc insulator. The insulators themselves are typically made from glazed porcelain discs. Figure 4. or may be found on ground based plant such as transformers and protection equipment. 30 Personal and public transport . depending on the location of towers required to maintain a minimum clearance above the ground. and hence the insulating properties are achieved from the porcelain components only.17 Steel tower carrying transmission lines The spacing of the towers is very dependent on the nature of the land the lines cross. a system designed to operate at 500 kV will have more insulating discs than a system designed to operate at 220 kV. the spacings between towers are quite even. These insulators may be suspended from transmission towers. Insulators The insulators are necessary to isolate the current carrying conductors from each other and from the ground. the number of insulating discs is indicative of the voltage at which the system was designed to operate.
Thus in conductors with large cross sections. however. Electrical conductors are subject to a phenomenon known as ‘skin effect’.Insulators are generally maintenance free. aluminium has replaced copper in many situations due to the decreased cost and weight of aluminium over copper.18 Close up of high voltage disc insulators Conductors The electrical conductors carry the current throughout the system. Over the last few decades. This phenomenon results in a non-uniform current density across the section of a conductor. Historically. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 31 . under some conditions the surface of the insulating discs can become contaminated with conductive particles. While this occasionally results in a complete failure of the insulator. In particular.19. these conductors have been made from copper. Electrical conductors used in transmission lines (and distribution networks) are thus made up of multiple thin strands twisted together. This gives more surface area (‘skin’) for a given diameter of conductor. However. Figure 4. and the resulting conductor has effectively a lower resistance (there is more conducting material where it is needed) as see in figure 4. more current flows closer to the surface of the conductor (the ‘skin’) than it does down the middle. the central core of the conductor is essentially wasted as negligible current flows there. especially in wet or damp conditions. it is not uncommon to hear a crackling noise or see a faint glow at night from the insulators as small amounts of current trickle over the surface of the dirty insulator.
and the resistive losses associated with current carrying conductors. 32 Personal and public transport . Figure 4. The outer conductors have more “skin” area than a single solid conductor of the same cross sectional area. That is why on high voltage transmission towers you will often see four small diameter conductors in close proximity to each other on each phase of the system. Transformers It was noted above that for a given power. generator voltages represent a compromise between the level of insulation needed to withstand higher voltages. The centre conductor is steel for necessary tensile strength. Multicore conductor. Multiple multicore conductor. Single solid conductor showing higher current density on the circumference. While the best compromise for generators is of the order of 20 kV. again enhancing transmission efficiency. What factors do you think contribute towards higher voltages and reduced currents for transmission than are used for generation? (Hint: think about the distances involved. steel cores give tensile strength.) There is thus a need to be able to increase the voltage and decrease the current (while keeping total power constant) where the generator is connected to the transmission line.4. and multiple multicore conductors Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4. multicore. These four conductors give more surface area than one larger conductor. The compromise for transmission lines results in optimal transmission voltages of 200 kV to 500kV. with a consequential reduction in transmission currents. this is not necessarily the case for transmission lines. A device that achieves this is called a ‘transformer’.19 Typical current densities in solid. the phenomenon is even more pronounced. Again.At very high voltages. with negligible current in the centre. High voltage transmission lines use spacers to separate multiple conductors.
We can use transformers to step up (increase) voltages and also to stepdown (decrease) voltages.) What would be the consequences of operating an electrical power system without transformers? Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 33 . Magnetic flux s Vp Primary winding Magnetic flux Vs Secondary winding Figure 4. but this is usually negligible in comparison with the amount of power passing through the transformer. Transformers can be found at both ends of a transmission line: at the generating end to increase the voltage from around 20 kV to 330 or 500 kV. The power at the input (the ‘primary winding’) is virtually the same as the power at the output (the ‘secondary winding’). The magnetic energy produced by the first coil is absorbed by the second coil.Transformers work by converting the electrical energy into magnetic energy through a wire coil wrapped around an iron core (somewhat similar to an electromagnet). and at the end of the transmission line to decrease the voltage for distribution to consumers. The iron core has a second coil of wire wrapped around it. Figure 4. The second coil is connected to the output of the transformer. with corresponding decreases and increases in the associated currents respectively. 20 illustrates the principle involved. (They are also used extensively in the distribution network to further reduce voltages before they are connected to your home. which results in a current flowing in that coil.20 Principle of operation of a power transformer The ratio of the number of turns (of wire) on each coil determines the ratio of the voltages produced in each coil (circuit). with the second coil having a different number of turns to the first coil. There is some loss of energy in the transformer.
The transformers are usually filled with oil to help keep the internal conductors cool (remember those resistive losses?) and to help insulate the windings.21 Typical high voltage transformer showing cooling radiators and fans Why do you think transformers need oil cooling. do not? (Hint: think about how to dissipate heat caused by resistive losses inside the windings of the coils.) The radiators and cooling fans can be clearly seen. (This one is actually at Eraring power station. They have two sets of insulating posts to accommodate the primary and secondary windings. which carry the same amount of power.Transformers tend to be large uninteresting looking boxes. invariably painted grey. Figure 4.21 shows a large power transformer.) 34 Personal and public transport . where as transmission lines. The ceramic post insulator seen protruding from the top of the transformer is close to two metres in length – this gives some idea of the size of the transformer. Figure 4. Larger transformers also have radiators and fans attached to cool the oil.
Transmission switchyards need to be carefully laid out so that the high voltages they withstand do not short circuit between conductors. The yard enables switching of supply from multiple incoming feeders (transmission lines) to multiple outgoing feeders. Figure 4. The switches require a more sophisticated technology than that found in domestic 240 Volt 10 Amp applications. the load may be diverted through the remaining functional lines. some form of switching must be used.) The switchyard is fed from a 330 kV supply that enters from the top left. If one of the duplicated lines fails. All of the live conductors are supported on large insulators. This situation is beneficial from the point of view of redundancy.22 shows a typical high voltage switchyard. some areas can be fed via multiple paths. (This one is at Waratah in Newcastle.22 High voltage switchyard Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 35 . Figure 4. The yards also need to be safe both for operational and maintenance personnel. or to earth. Switching can be very dangerous. In order to be able to perform these diversions.Switchyards A diagram of the transmission system of New South Wales shows that some transmission lines are duplicated. that is. High voltage switchgear uses contacts immersed in inert gases or oil to quickly extinguish the inevitable electric arcs resulting from opening a high current circuit. All of the switches need to be rated to withstand the very high voltages and currents.
and an essential service. from damage that might be caused by internal or external faults. beyond which the insulation may fail causing a short circuit. then the current in any constant power devices connected to the system will increase. and users of the system. For example. The most common forms of protection are: • over current Electrical conductors in the network are designed to withstand currents up to a fixed maximum. We want to protect them. the overcurrent circuit breaker protection is triggered. we focus on electrical protection mechanisms as opposed to mechanical protection. The overcurrent circuit breaker is similar in principle to the circuit breakers found in domestic installations. • Electrical protection in a grid network is similar. the over voltage protection trips a circuit breaker. beyond which they may fail due to overheating caused by resistive losses. than that found in domestic installations. again isolating that link. If the voltage at some point in the network exceeds a preset threshold. Higher currents increase resistive losses (remember P =I 2 R ) and can cause 36 Personal and public transport . isolating that link.Protection systems Power systems represent both a substantial monetary investment. though more elaborate. a domestic fan heater has mechanical protection to stop users from touching live electrical parts. • under voltage Recall that power is the product of voltage and current. It also usually has electrical protection in the form of: • • an earth connection to prevent the external casing from becoming electrically live caused by a breakdown in the insulation an earth leakage protection circuit (either in the heater itself or in the domestic switchboard) to switch the power off if current flows in the earth lead (which indicates a fault in the insulation) a fuse or circuit breaker (either in the heater itself or in the domestic switchboard) to prevent fire in the case of over currents caused by a short circuit. In thinking here about protection. but of course is much larger and more sophisticated to handle the higher currents and voltages. If the system voltage is allowed to fall too low. If the current in a conductor exceeds a preset threshold. • over voltage Insulation in the network is designed to withstand a certain maximum voltage.
the insulation in that equipment can break down. it is usually indicative of a fault developing in that equipment. The transmission system has lightning conductors located above the various apparatus to prevent direct strikes from hitting the main conductors. contaminated water is invariably a conductor. through a fallen tree touching power lines and the ground). If moisture penetrates into transformers. that same current must also flow from the earth back into the transmission system at some other point to complete the circuit. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 37 . Hence there is a need to protect the system from operating under specified voltages. The thermal overload protection is designed to generate alarms. or isolate equipment. Figure 4. causing a short circuit. On transmission towers and lines. if excessive temperatures are detected. one or two thin conductors are positioned above the main conductors attached to the highest points of the towers for this purpose. the circuit breakers are tripped preventing further possible damage to life or property. and if a current in the earth link is detected (indicating a fault elsewhere on the system). tall steel towers (sometimes with lightning-attracting aerials) are positioned between and around the main equipment. These aerials are connected directly to earth and protect the yard from direct lightning strikes. The steel towers and aerials seen rising above the main conductors and switches are for lightning protection. The earth leakage protection monitors conductors connecting the transmission system to earth. • thermal overload If transformers or other equipment in a system get too hot. Lightning does strike in the same place twice. • lightning A direct lightning strike onto power lines or associated infrastructure can cause excessive voltages and currents in the system. • earth leakage If there is a fault on the transmission line causing some or all of the current to flow to earth (for example. • moisture penetration While pure water is an insulator.22 showed a high voltage switchyard. In switchyards. The same principle is used in earth leakage relays in domestic and industrial systems. especially when attracted by large steel towers dominating the landscape. circuit breakers or other enclosed apparatus.those devices to overheat.
and hence there is a need to meter power so that appropriate billing can be arranged. the electricity is distributed to consumers via the distribution network. The role of the transmission system is to deliver power to the distribution network. Who supplies electricity to your home? What area does that supplier cover? In general. switchyards. The distribution system The transmission system is used to carry bulk electrical energy from the generating sites to the main population centres. instead simply distributing the power obtained from the transmission system.Metering systems It is important to monitor key variables in the system (such as power. The key differences between distribution and transmission networks are: • no generation The distribution system has traditionally not included any sources of power. transformers. The monitoring equipment has to be able to carry full load current at transmission voltages without compromising the integrity of the insulation. protection equipment and metering and monitoring equipment all perform the same roles in a distribution network as in a transmission network. Invariably. the transmission and distribution networks are managed by different organisations. For example. for on-selling to consumers. current and frequency) so that the system can be kept within designed operating limits. The distribution network in New South Wales is administered by a number of energy retailers: • • • • • • Energy Australia NorthPower Integral Energy Great Southern Energy Advance Energy Australian Inland Energy. Metering is an equally important task. the distribution network contains many of the principal components already described in the transmission network. 38 Personal and public transport . From here.
and one for the neutral wire. Consequently. This is simply because there are many more consumers to be serviced. • lower operating voltages By the time the power reaches the individual distribution lines. and then 415/240 V close to the consumer. to diversify into alternate or ‘green’ energy production. The transformer itself is oil filled and has cooling fins on its outer casing. The lower voltages also provide a safer working environment where there are higher populations.) • many more lines The distribution network is numerically more dense than the transmission network. There are many more power poles. Note that this supply has four conductors – one for each phase.(Deregulation of the power industry in New South Wales has in recent times encouraged the state’s electrical energy retailers. The next highest crossarm is carrying a set of fuses that protect the 11 kV supply from faults in the transformer below. The distribution network thus uses system voltages of 132 kV down to 11kV. Three-phase 11 kV is carried on three conductors on the uppermost crossarm. given that there are so many lines going to different areas. with these consumers being spread over a more diverse area. switchyards. Figure 4. The fourth crossarm from the top carries the 415/240 V supply from the transformer for distribution to households in the area. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 39 .23 shows a typical distribution transformer found in many urban areas. The short crossarm below the fuses carries 11 kV insulator posts to hold the 11 kV conductors securely in place as they pass between the 415/240 V conductors on the way to the transformer. the total power in each line is relatively small. transformers and so on in the distribution network. and offer savings in terms of lesser insulation requirements. the need to increase voltage to reduce resistive losses is less significant. and to encourage cogeneration by their consumers. who are invariably also responsible for the distribution network.
and by environmental groups seeking a more aesthetically pleasing landscape. and between each phase and the ground. initial cost) of underground cabling is many times that of overhead construction. particularly in urban areas: There is increasing pressure on power authorities to put their networks underground (instead of leaving them on overhead structures). This pressure is both by consumers seeking more reliable power supplies. 40 Personal and public transport . the capital cost (that is. that permit continuity of supply when feeders are taken out of service by fault or for routine maintenance.23 Typical 11 kv to 415/240 V distribution transformer Why might distribution networks use poles instead of towers for supporting the network? (Hint: the higher the system voltage.Figure 4. with these costs rising with increasing system voltages and currents. the greater separation must be maintained between the conductors of each of the three phases. However. • higher proportion underground. particularly in urban areas.) • more ring feeds We observed previously that some areas of the state enjoy duplicate or ‘ring’ feed by transmission lines feeding those regions. The distribution network has many such ring feeds. These ring feeds offer the possibility of continuity of supply when one of the feeders is out of service. particularly in urban areas.
Figure 4.24 Cablehead where overhead power lines are converted to underground cable Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 41 .Distribution authorities have more of their network underground than have transmission authorities. These conversions are common at the boundary between an older residential subdivision (with overhead conductors) and a newer subdivision (with underground supplies). Figure 4. where overhead power lines are connected to an underground cable.24 shows a cablehead.
Electrical machines are important! Motors (and generators) have evolved for around 100 years. 42 Personal and public transport . we could induce the rotor magnet to rotate. and to appreciate why particular types of motors are employed in specific applications. refining and applying all manner of machines to many different and specific applications. approximately 75% of all electrical power is consumed in rotating machines. Synchronous motors Consider the arrangement of magnets shown in figure 4. Consequently. Similarly. If we were to slide the stator magnets in an arc around the rotor magnet. Our aim is to understand the principles of operation of the most common types of motors. You will now look at some other kinds of motors.Principles of electrical motors Approximately 99%of all power generated is done so via rotating electrical machines. we cannot expect to understand all of the types of motors that exist. Many clever minds have been applied to the task of inventing.25. How many electric motors do you think there are in your house? Motors In Household appliances you learned about magnetic induction and how an induction motor works.
and for the negative half cycle of the supply.26. In practice. we were to supply an alternating current to the stator coils. Note that the cross and dot in a circle on either side of the magnet represent several windings of a coil with an iron core. See figure 4. Each is a wire coil around an iron core. N – S. Remember that when a current flows through a coil.27. the magnetic poles would change their polarity every halfcycle of the electrical supply. That is. the magnetic field produced by the stator electromagnets will always be in the same direction. But we are trying to make a motor … Single-phase synchronous motor In figure 4. for the positive half cycle of the AC waveform the stator magnets would be. Torque Figure 4. If. A torque is induced on the rotor coil that tries to align the rotor and stator magnetic fields. the magnets would reverse to S – N. the rotor will tend to spin until its north and south poles align with the south and north of the stator. it is not quite that easy: in order to rotate the stator magnets. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 43 .26 An electrical machine to generate torque If we supply DC current to the stator coils. That is. say. a magnetic field is set up. on the other hand. we would need a motor.Rotor magnet Fixed stator magnet Fixed stator magnet Resultant torque Figure 4.25 Configuration of permanent bar magnets to induce torque This is the principle of the synchronous motor. the permanent magnets have all been replaced with electromagnets. similar to that produced by a permanent magnet. The iron core simply strengthens the magnetic field produced.
The faster the stator field changes. the rotor and stator speeds are always synchronised.Power supply Power supply Figure 4. and hence the rotor will rotate to align the magnetic fields accordingly. This variation arises from two sources: i the alternating current supplying the stator windings is (sinusoidally) time varying: the torque produced is directly proportional to the magnitude of this current • 44 Personal and public transport .27 Stator fed by alternating current to give oscillating magnetic field Suppose we were to place a rotor in this oscillating field. Every time the stator changes polarity. We thus have achieved our goal of continuous rotation of the rotor! Clearly the rate at which the rotor spins is related to the rate at which the stator field changes its polarity. the rotor will rotate another half-revolution in order to align its north pole with the stator's new south pole. or an electromagnet fed by a direct current (both of which give a constant magnetic field). If the stator is fed from a fixed frequency supply. Why does the rotor run at 3 000 rpm when the stator is fed with 50 Hz alternating current? This simple arrangement of a synchronous machine has two potential problems: • if the rotor's magnetic field is aligned at q = 0o or q = 180o to the stator's magnetic field. the rotor will run at a single speed of 3000 revolutions per minute. and hence the motor cannot start itself the torque produced by the machine is uneven. That is. Hence the term ‘synchronous motor’. such as the 50 Hz mains supply. the faster the rotor will spin. Then. Initially the north pole of the rotor will be attracted to the south pole of the stator. the motor has no torque (remember that the torque is proportional to sin q). when the stator field changes polarity. the rotor again spins another half-revolution. The rotor might be a permanent magnet.
26.29 illustrates the rotation of the magnetic field around the three-phase stator. Coil C' Coil B Coil A Coil A' Coil B' Coil C Figure 4. Figure 4. You have learned about this technique already. This contrasts with the single pair of stator windings shown in the machine of figure 4. with each pair displaced around the circumference of the machine by 120o from each other (equally spaced). Both of these problems can be resolved by adding additional stator windings as explained below. This is known as a ‘rotating magnetic field’. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 45 . It is used in the induction motor. and torque is also proportional to sin q. ‘B’ and ‘C’. the resulting stator magnetic field can be shown (using vector arithmetic) to be of constant magnitude.ii as the rotor spins.28 shows a machine with three pairs of stator windings.28 Synchronous motor with three pairs of stator windings If we now supply the three stator winding pairs with three-phase alternating current (one phase to each pair of windings). and rotates around the stator at a constant angular velocity. This situation contrasts with the single-phase stator where the magnitude of the magnetic field varies sinusoidally with time. the angle q between the stator and rotor magnetic fields varies. and only ever lies diametrically across the machine between the winding cores. The pairs of windings are labelled ‘A’. Three-phase synchronous motor Figure 4.
46 Personal and public transport .29 Constant amplitude rotating magnetic field in a three-phase stator winding The rotating magnetic field achieves the same outcome as if we manually moved the permanent magnets of figure 4. The constant amplitude field ensures that the torque produced is constant instead of time varying. regardless of the position of the rotor with respect to the stator windings.25 in an arc around the rotor. The angle q now needs to be more clearly defined. The rotating magnetic field means that there is always a torque imposed on the rotor. The torque produced is proportional to the sine of this angle.C' B C' B A A' A A' B' C' C B B' C' C B A A' A A' B' C' C B B' C' C B A A' A A' B' C B' C Figure 4. In particular we use q to describe the angle between the stator and rotor magnetic fields (and not to describe the angle of the rotor with respect to a fixed point on the stator).
Figure 4. Angle between magnetic fields Figure 4. if ever. used because of the problems outlined earlier. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 47 . Figure 4. Slip rings allow the rotor to rotate while still maintaining an electrical connection between the rotor winding and the direct current source supplying it.30 Definition of q in a rotating magnetic field Characteristics of synchronous motors Single-phase synchronous motors are rarely. The rotor winding is fed by a direct current to maintain the electromagnetic rotor field.30 shows the definition of q for a synchronous motor with three-phase stator. Feeding a current to a rotating electromagnet requires the use of slip rings. All practical synchronous machines use threephase stator windings for the reasons given above.This means that the rotor can spin at a synchronous speed (determined by the frequency of the alternating current supply) with a constant angle q between the rotor and stator magnetic fields.31 shows a set of slip rings on a synchronous machine.
The torque produced by the machine is of course proportional to sin q. If there is negligible load on the rotor it is free to virtually line up exactly with the stator field (q = 0o). This is because the rotor needs to accelerate from standstill to synchronous speed in a very short period of time. the rotor will lose synchronism with the rotating stator field and stall. If the load torque exceeds the maximum motor torque (when q = 90o). these windings do not contribute any torque. special additional windings can be added to the rotor.31 Slip rings in a synchronous machine Synchronous motors can only run at the speed of rotation of the stator's magnetic field. 48 Personal and public transport . and thus q increases until the motor torque is exactly equal to the load torque. Synchronous motors have limited practical application because of their low starting torque and fixed speed. These additional windings only contribute significant torque to the motor while it accelerates. if we attach a significant load torque to the motor (such as a pump or fan) the rotor will tend to lag behind the stator field. However. This situation is known as ‘pole slipping’. Once at synchronous speed. The torque generated by a synchronous motor is self-regulating in the following sense. This is virtually impossible with any significant inertia on the rotor. In practice a synchronous motor with load attached is difficult to start. In order to overcome starting problems.Figure 4.
In the uppermost diagram of figure 4. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 49 . The stator is supplied with a direct current. but now with many coils distributed around the rotor.26. This creates a constant magnetic field between the stator's north and south magnetic poles. S Mark N S Mar k N S Ma rk N Figure 4. all of the coils on the left hand side of the rotor have current flowing into the page. Note that these additional coils and their spacings are not associated with any concepts of three-phase systems.32. as indicated in the figure.Direct current (DC) motor Figure 4. The lines of flux are not shown for clarity. The rotor. is supplied with direct current. we would like as many additional coils as we can afford.32 Direct current motor A ‘mark’ on the rotor is used in the figure to indicate the rotor position with respect to the stator. while the coils on the right hand side have current flowing out of the page.32 shows a machine that is very similar to that shown in figure 4. too. In this instance.
It is evident that if we continue to switch the direction of current in one coil at a time. another coil has had its current direction reversed. The location of the boundary between coils with opposing current directions is fixed in the construction of the machine. motor! The switching of the direction of the currents in the rotor coils is achieved by means of a cylindrical switch known as a ‘commutator’.33. the rotor has moved further again in a clockwise direction. This has been achieved by switching of current direction in the top and bottom coils. 50 Personal and public transport . however. See figure 4. or dc. In the middle diagram. The rotor experiences a torque that seeks to spin it clockwise. This switch is made up of carbon brushes that make contact with individual segments of a copper cylinder mounted on the rotor. the rotor has moved slightly in a clockwise direction. and the rotor's magnetic field is again in the same place with respect to the stator field. we can establish a magnetic field that is rotating with respect to the rotor. corresponding to the position of maximum torque. The rotor again experiences maximum torque from its interaction with the stator's magnetic field.These currents produce a constant electromagnetic field in the iron rotor whose north and south poles are as shown. The direction of currents in the rotor windings. This is the principle of the direct current. but that is stationary with respect to the stator. The magnetic north and south poles have moved anti-clockwise around the rotor by an angle corresponding to the rotor coil spacing. In the lowermost diagram. (The angle between the rotor and stator fields is 90 o giving maximum torque from the machine. It is seen that the angle between the stator and rotor magnetic fields is 90o. is the same relative to the stator position as in the previous diagram.) We have thus enabled the rotor to experience torque whilst rotating continually with respect to the stator.
The commutator is in some ways similar to the slip rings found in a synchronous machine. as is a slight build-up of carbon on commutator segments. Again. However. this results in excessive heat build-up which can melt the commutator. If not. the slip rings are continuous around 360o of the rotor circumference. If the commutator gets dirty (from build-up of carbon deposits) excessive heat can be generated by current flowing across a high resistance joint (remember the problems associated with switching high voltages and currents). A DC motor can be made to run at any speed (up to a point) by simply increasing the stator and/or rotor currents to increase torque (remember Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 51 .33 A commutator on a medium sized DC machine. Characteristics of DC motors Unlike synchronous machines. The commutator is the weak link in a DC machine. DC motors do not have a fixed speed.Figure 4. the brushes will become too short to make proper contact with the commutator segments which results in arcing between brushes and commutator. They both use carbon brushes acting on copper surfaces attached to the spinning rotor in order to feed current to the rotor coils. The carbon brushes themselves must be replaced when they wear. Being an electromechanical device it requires regular maintenance to ensure proper operation. whereas each commutator segment spans only several degrees of the rotor circumference. The commutator segments and carbon brushes are evident.
This characteristic makes them very suitable for applications where substantial loads have to be started from rest. Again. Figure 4.34 A small permanent magnet DC motor in a model train DC motors can produce very high starting torques. We will look more closely at these concepts later. Figure 4. giving what is called a ‘separately excited’ machine. The main disadvantages of DC machines are the high initial cost. and the need to have a direct current supply. Smaller motors also tend to have fewer rotor coils (and hence fewer commutator segments).that the torque produced is proportional to the product of the stator and rotor currents). This is the principal advantage of DC machines. This enhances the simplicity and robustness of these motors. In contrast. The rotor and stator currents can be controlled separately. 52 Personal and public transport . For example. the stator is made up of permanent magnets instead of the electromagnets shown in figure 4. In some DC motors. alternating current motor speeds are limited by the frequency of the power supply.32. This enables motor characteristics to be tailored to suit particular applications. this is done to reduce complexity and cost of such motors. the high maintenance required on the commutator. particularly smaller motors such as those found in model cars.34 shows a small DC motor used in a model train. or concurrently giving a ‘series’ or ‘shunt’ machine. small DC motors used in model cars and trains can have as few as four coils. The number of coils is clearly evident when the number of commutator segments is examined.
though the high power to size is also attractive. windscreen wipers and so forth in cars. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 53 . If variable speed is required. Many older industrial plants still use DC machines. Variable speed drives are required to accommodate varying plate thicknesses during the rolling process model trains. and especially to those motors with many rotor coils and commutator segments. though variable speeds can be useful where the rate of product delivery needs to be varied steel rolling mills – as metal plate is rolled thinner it travels faster (the excess material has to go somewhere!). • • • • Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4. the DC supply must be made to be variable. and requires the removal from service of the motor during the maintenance period. aerials. and be small enough to fit within the bogies of the train conveyor systems – here the primary need is high starting torque for starting under load. adding further cost to a DC motor installation. run at variable speed. Direct currents must be obtained through rectification of the alternating current. These applications include: • trains – the motors must be able to start a fully laden train from rest. high starting torques or high power to size ratios are required. Applications of DC motors DC motors are used in many applications where variable speed. The direct current supply is problematic given that most of our electrical power is alternating current produced by synchronous generators. but their years of service are likely to be numbered.The complexity of the DC motor's commutator adds considerably to the construction cost of DC motors. cars and so forth – high power to size ratios and variable speeds are provided electric windows.5. DC machines are losing their significance in modern applications as more advanced power electronic circuits are devised to enable other motor types (primarily induction motors) to be run at variable speeds. trucks and buses – here the primary advantage is that the DC power is readily available. The subsequent maintenance required also costs time.
The reason is simple: all of our mains electricity is alternating current.32.32. and the currents in the motor are as shown in figure 4. at least it is easier than having to convert the 54 Personal and public transport . Because the magnitude of the AC supply varies sinusoidally with time. however.Universal motors We have looked at the principle of operation of a DC motor. Since the stator and rotor share the same supply. Motors that are designed to run on either AC or DC are called ‘universal motors’. Let us assume that the rotor and stator are connected to the same alternating current supply. it is relatively simple to build electronics to vary the magnitude of the voltage obtained from the mains. By comparison. the torque produced by the motor is not. the torque produced also varies sinusoidally with time. The rotor has direct current fed to it through a commutator. universal motors are designed for use at 240 Volts 50 Hz. During the negative half cycle. still experiences torque in the same direction as it did during the positive half cycle. the current direction is positive. a constant magnetic stator field is created using an electromagnet fed by direct current or by a permanent magnet. the motor runs in the same direction during both positive and negative half cycles of the alternating current supply! While the direction of rotation is constant. That is. the currents in both the stator and rotor reverse. the direction of the alternating current is reversed. That is. The motor. and the south poles become north poles. During the positive half cycle of the supply waveform. Characteristics of universal motors While universal motors can work on either DC or AC supplies. Universal motors can be run at variable speed by controlling the magnitude of the voltage supplied to the motor. the same machine fed with direct current will produce constant torque. in practice their design and construction is optimised for use on AC supplies. As it turns out. This means that all of the north poles become south poles. In this machine. One might be tempted to ask what would happen if a DC motor was provided with alternating current instead of direct current? The answer is that the motor will still work! Think again about the DC motor diagram in figure 4.
universal motors can be found in vacuum cleaners. Applications of universal motors Universal motors are used in many appliances found in and around the home. Inside the home. Universal motors offer high torque for their size. Almost every domestic appliance with a small motor has a universal motor in it. food blenders and hair dryers.35 A universal motor in an orbital sander Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 4.AC mains into DC. Almost all hand power tools such as drills. the range of speeds of a universal motor is not limited. However. The high torque.6. have brushes in them to make contact with the rotor coils. sanders and power saws use universal motors. It was noted that a DC motor could also be used as a DC generator. universal motors produce more torque than any other AC motor design. the brushes need to be maintained to ensure proper operation. variable speed and ability to run on AC make these motors ideal for domestic applications. Universal motors. 35 shows a universal motor in an orbital sander. like DC motors. Figure 4. For relatively small motors sizes (no bigger than hand-sized). the same is not true for universal motors. Like DC machines. and then vary the voltage of the DC supply. Figure 4. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 55 . Unlike other AC motors.
A motor that has no physical connection to the rotor is the induction motor. and require on-going maintenance during the life of the machine. AC supplied Induced No connection to rotor. Summary of electrical motors 56 Personal and public transport . Machine type Stator current Rotor current Shaft torque direction Torque produced Comments Synchronous motor AC supplied DC supplied (or permanent magnet) DC supplied Runs at fixed (synchronous) speed only. Slip rings and commutators are expensive to build. and by commutator in DC and universal machines. Variable speed. DC motor DC supplied (or permanent magnet) AC supplied Torque produced Universal motor Induction motor Table 2 AC supplied Torque produced Torque produced Variable speed. These connections are by way of slip rings in a synchronous machine.The induction motor All of the machines described so far have required some means of connecting the rotor to an external power supply (except for the case of the permanent magnet synchronous machine). Table 2 shows a concise summary of the types of motors we have considered. which you learnt about in Household appliances.
3oC. or once per hour. and the representation of information using electrical signals. That is. Analogue signals An analogue signal is one that is both continuous in amplitude and in time. In fact. however. 28oC. Temperature. A good example of an analogue signal is the ambient temperature. If we had a more accurate thermometer. We might measure the temperature once per day. we find that the temperature is actually 28. If we were to measure the temperature at midday. either on board vehicles or in information and control infrastructure. Furthermore. the temperature could be measured arbitrarily accurately (to any number of decimal points). there is still a temperature. A visiting scientist with some very expensive equipment might be adamant the temperature is 28. when the temperature changes. the temperature does not jump suddenly from 28oC to 27oC. The temperature is also continuous in time.Introduction to digital systems The focus on the previous sections has been on applications of electrical power. The concepts all find significant application in modern transport systems. We introduce the key concepts of analogue and digital signals. In between our observations. or even every minute. In this section we are concerned with information. is continuous in amplitude. but instead varies gradually. The actual temperature need not correspond to an integer number of degrees Celsius. we might observe that it is. and of using binary signalling to represent both logical information (true/false) and arithmetic information (counting and numbers). Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 57 .37 oC. say. then. assuming we have suitable equipment available. it does so in infinitesimal increments.
however. Each of the those measurements. which is generally close enough for most of us. on the other hand we measured the temperature once every three months we could not expect to be able to capture the inevitable daily variations.Since the temperature is continuous in amplitude and time. The rate at which we take the measurements generally depends on how quickly we expect the variable to change. We do not bother talking in fractions of a degree. If we are measuring the ambient temperature. If we measure the temperature every hour. If. might read from -10 o C up to 50oC. Can you think of any other analogue signals – that is. Then our sampling rate would be 10 Hz. Other examples of analogue signals include your own body weight. we usually approximate the temperature to the nearest integer number of degrees. we refer to the process of making measurements at regular time intervals. can be arbitrarily accurate.3oC. However. Most measuring devices have an upper and lower bound on the range they can measure. 58 Personal and public transport . for example. we say that the measurement has ‘saturated’. we say that it is an ‘analogue’ signal. We might get very keen and sample 10 times per second. we might say the temperature is 28oC even though it is in fact 28. observations every hour are usually sufficient to capture the expected variations. When the variable exceeds the measurement range of the instrument. When we refer to sampling. variables that are continuous in amplitude and time? Quantisation In measuring temperature. The temperature may in fact rise to 200oC. It is important to note that the variable itself being measured is not bounded. we are said to be sampling at a frequency of 24 times per day. Sampling The term sampling refers to the frequency at which we take our measurements. and need not be quantised. A thermometer. It is important to note that sampling does not imply quantisation. our quantising thermometer will only report 50oC. That is. the speed of a car (although it may be zero for long periods) and the height of a tree.
(Here we have ignored all the other things that might go wrong.Digital signals A digital signal is one that has been quantised and sampled. As a simple example. common (if technically incorrect) usage of the term ‘digital’ has become synonymous with binary systems. upon which much of modern technology is based. A digital signal can. The output variable describes the particular outcome that we are interested in. an Irish mathematician of the 1800’s who undertook pioneering work in the study of logic. or be true. the original (usually analogue) signal has been sampled at regular intervals. The answer given is ‘No!’ From your perspective. The rules describing the relationship are simple: if the switch is in the on position.) Boolean logic is named after George Boole. then the lamp is illuminated. your parents’ logic seems to be hard to follow. consider a switch controlling a lamp. You ask your parents if you can borrow the family car to drive to Perth. Boolean logic The term ‘logic’ is used to describe a set of formal relationships between input and output variables. be restricted to two possible quantisation levels. but need not. That is. Binary signals are used widely as the basis for binary computing machines. The input in this case is the switch position – it determines whether the lamp will be on or off. A signal that is represented by only two possible levels is called a ‘binary signal’. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 59 . The output variable is the illumination of the lamp. such as the lamp being blown or the power being off. with each measurement yielding a value from a finite set of possible values. A digital signal can thus be simply represented by a regular stream of symbols. Input variables are factors that determine whether a particular outcome will occur. Technically we should include all of these factors as additional inputs. However. Consider the following scenario.
OR and NOT. or binary. Boolean logic is a set of rules specifically relating to logical variables that can only take on two possible values. These hardware devices are the fundamental building blocks of all digital electronic equipment. We will restrict ourselves to just three of these: AND. mobile phones and MP3 players. including PC’s. If there are M input variables in a Boolean expression. you might be able to understand the reasoning behind your parents’ decision.) It can be shown that these three types of gates are sufficient to build any logic circuit that you can design. or 1-0. (Even then. As long as M is fairly small – say three or four – then we can reasonably consider all possibilities. OR and NOT gates to implement the various functions. we will look at generic properties only. There are literally thousands of different types of gates manufactured. logic. and evaluate the expression for each possible combination. The ability to consider all possible combinations is one of the key attractions of Boolean. We can then consider all possible combinations of A and B (there are four of them). In making their decision.The main difficulty here is in the number of possible values that each input variable can take. there are 2M possible combinations to consider. Suppose a particular Boolean expression has two inputs A and B. 60 Personal and public transport . To do so. These values might be True – False. Combinational logic circuits A logic gate is an electrical circuit that is specifically designed to implement a particular Boolean logic function. These combinations of gates to implement logic functions gives rise to the term ‘combinational logic’. the logic behind the decision is harder to understand. But when the variables can take on many possible values. your parents will have taken into account variables such as: • • • How long will it take? How much school will you miss? How much will the petrol cost? If the possible answers to each question were a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’. we use combinations of AND. Yes – No.
Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 61 . and readers should be aware of these developments. The switch on each gate input allows one of two possible voltages to be connected to that input of the AND gate. However.36 Logic circuit with AND gate The AND gate is represented by the elongated ‘D’ shape.36 to 4. The operators can be represented symbolically as shown in figures 4. Figure 4. and 0 Volts to represent.36 shows a digital logic circuit with a single AND gate. and its output is on the right hand side. together with switches A and B to control the inputs.36 to 4.38. OR and NOT. Let us look more closely at the input. +Vcc (+5 Volts) [A] (0 Volts) AND gate +Vcc (+5 Volts) [B] Lamp Z (0 Volts) Lamp Z comes on when switch A is on AND switch B is on. We can use the switches to represent whether or not the input statement (variable) is true. (It should be noted that the symbols shown in figures 4.38 are currently the most frequently used in engineering practice.Common logic gates The three logical operators we have considered are AND. new symbols are finding their way into some texts.) Figure 4. and a lamp Z that is illuminated when the output of the gate is true. By convention its inputs are on the left hand side. These voltages are +5 Volts to represent a True. The symbols +Vcc and the three lines used to represent Ground or 0 Volts are the conventional electrical symbols for these same voltages.
The OR gate is represented by the shape shown.38 shows a NOT gate. and the right hand side has a pronounced point. +Vcc [A] Z Lamp Lamp Z comes on when switch A is not on. Figure 4. Figure 4. we do not bother to show the return connections that allows the current to flow back to the source. +Vcc +Vcc [A] OR gate [B] Z Lamp Lamp Z comes on when switch A is on OR switch B is on. Its left hand side curves inwards. but do not bother to draw them so that the diagram does not get too cluttered. there is only one input switch.38 Logic circuit with NOT gate We look to see how these gates can be used to implement logic functions. Figure 4.In drawing logic ciruits. The circuit is arranged with switches and a lamp in the same way as figure 4.37 shows a circuit containing an OR gate.36.37 Logic circuit with OR gate. In this case. 62 Personal and public transport . Figure 4. We assume that such connections must always be present for the circuit to work.
37 had only two inputs. (It is not clear how we might easily ensure all passengers were seated. we would use a switch physically connected to the door to implement this part. When the doors closed input A would be automatically connected to +Vcc.39 shows a logic circuit to implement this function. If the statement is false. while the OR gate in Figure 4. Then if the doors were open. but then we realise that we have three inputs to manage. Input B (‘Passengers are seated’) works the same way. input A to the AND gate would be automatically connected to 0V. but we will assume that such a circuit exists!) The output lamp Z will be illuminated when the bus is safe to depart. the switch should be moved to the lower (0V position).’ Figure 4. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 63 .’ This seems straightforward at first. How can we design a circuit to implement the logical expression: ‘The bus can depart if the doors are closed and the passengers are seated.Simple logic circuits Let us revisit a previous example. In practice. +Vcc Doors are closed [A] AND gate +Vcc The bus can depart Passengers are seated [B] Z Figure 4. Let us look now at another problem: ‘The driver should stop the car if the traffic light is red or if there is a pedestrian on the crossing or if the wheels fall off.39 Logic circuit to implement bus departure problem The statement ‘Doors are closed’ is associated with +Vcc (or +5V or true).
40 that we have used two two-input OR gates to solve the problem. It can be shown using the laws of Boolean algebra that such an equality holds. is designed to carry out all of the arithmetic and logical processes required by the computer's software. there are more gates in them. Arithmetic logic units (or ALU's) are no more conceptually difficult than the design we have just completed.7 and 4. together with one-input NOT gates.Figure 4.8 in the exercise section. Yes. but it is really only repetition of the same concepts. This device. 64 Personal and public transport . You might like to try exercises 4. We have used the fact that (A OR B) OR C is the same as A OR B OR C. as the name suggests. Note these are optional exercises.40 Logic circuit to implement the driver stopping problem We can see from figure 4. +Vcc Traffic light is red +Vcc Pedestrian on crossing +Vcc Wheels fallen off [C] C [A] (A or B) Z [B] (A or B) or C Driver should stop Figure 4. but two-input AND and OR gates.40 shows a logic circuit that implements the driver stopping problem. OR and NOT gates sufficient to build any logic circuit. is sufficient! The heart of any microprocessor (the ‘brain’ inside a computer) is a device called an ‘arithmetic logic unit’. Not only are AND.
On the other hand. etc). lighting. the most sophisticated means of public transport is the modern aircraft. we will look at electrical systems in a small sample of transport vehicles. there is also a need to generate significant quantities of electrical power on board the aircraft to supply all of these systems. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 65 . Perhaps the most simple means of transport is walking. and boats. buses. communications. This approach will not only foster an appreciation of current technologies. They are used for motive power (that is. entertainment. heating. In between these extremes are many. We will not attempt to investigate or describe all of these systems. propulsion). Of course. Power generators are duplicated and paralleled to give back-up systems in case of failures. and indeed for the autopilot. rudder. They are used in cars. there is no mechanical connection between the pilot and the principle control surfaces (flaps. Instead. but also enable us to understand new technologies as they are developed. trucks.Electrical systems in transport This section now looks at applications of electrical systems in personal and public transport. This review is necessarily brief: almost every conceivable means of transport has some degree of electrical infrastructure. and to categorise them according to some simple parameters. Electronics are also used for navigation. signalling and communications. many applications of electrical systems. we will try to understand these systems in terms of the electrical concepts we have learned. but instead electronic signals are sent from the cockpit to servo mechanisms and motors in various parts of the aircraft. That is. In each case. The term ‘fly by wire’ has been coined to describe a flight control system that relies completely on electronics to function.
or is it used for information/communication? If power/energy: • • • • • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? Is the power being consumed as it is generated. Lighting • Is the system used for power/energy. we would argue that lighting is a power application. Most commonly we find only a couple of electrical systems on board. 66 Personal and public transport . we will use the following: • Is the system used for power/energy. the better the system. or is it used for information/communication? If we consider a bicycle in isolation. These are : • • lighting speedometer/odometer. or is the power associated with some form of storage? What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? What quantities of power or energy are being used? If information/communication: • • • • What is the source of the information? Is the signal analogue or digital? Is the main function of the system arithmetic or logical? Is the information represented in text or graphical form? Electrical systems in bicycles Bicycles are one of the most simple (and indeed efficient) modes of transport.Parameterising electrical systems in transport There are many ways to parameterise electrical systems in transport. That is. we are interested in the ability of the lighting system to illuminate the road ahead: the more lighting power we have. For this exercise.
we will classify the lighting system as a power application. the batteries are re-charged using mains powered chargers.If we considered a bicycle amongst other traffic in a built-up area with street-lighting. we could equally well argue that the lighting system is used as a means of signalling the bicycle's presence to other road users: that is. • Is the power being consumed as it is generated. bicycle lighting systems were powered by small generators driven directly off the revolving tyre. The frequency of that power is proportional to the speed of the rotor. Figure 4. the lights are a source of information. bicycle lighting has been powered by rechargeable batteries. Figure 4. In the case of batteries. the source of power was the rider's legs! More recently. • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? Historically. or is the power associated with some form of storage? In the generator case. For the purposes of this exercise. the power is being consumed from chemical energy stored in the battery. In this case. The batteries supply DC power. • What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 67 . and hence to the speed of the bicycle. • Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? The generator supplies AC power. In this case.41 shows a typical battery powered headlamp for a bicycle.41 Battery powered bicycle lamp. the power is consumed as it is generated.
Electrical pulses are carried by wire to the processor unit that is shown on the lower left. the energy is converted to light. or is it used for information/communication? A bicycle speedometer/odometer unit is shown in figure 4. there would be no heat generated. • Is the signal analogue or digital? 68 Personal and public transport . and heat.42 Bicycle speedometer/odometer unit • What is the source of the information? The information is generated by the receiver unit in response to rotation of the bicycle wheel. This gives a current of 0. These batteries have a storage capacity of around 0. • What quantities of power or energy are being used? The lamps in bicycle headlights are of the order of 5 Watts at 6 Volts. The batteries used in the lamps are usually AA-sized rechargeables. The part on the upper left is known as the ‘sender unit’ and is mounted on a spoke. Speedometer/Odometer • Is the system used for power/energy. Ideally. The heat component is undesirable and wasted.6 to 1 Amp hour. and average and maximum speeds. Figure 4.42. These devices are used to calculate and display distance travelled. The component on the right is mounted on the frame of the bicycle and detects the sender unit as it passes on each rotation of the wheel.In each case.8 Amps.
for signalling to other traffic. • Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 69 . as seen on the screen of the unit in figure 4. • Is the main function of the system arithmetic or logical? The function of the speedometer/odometer is to calculate distances and speeds from the pulses received.42. or it is not. which are correlated with the unit's own internal clock. Electrical systems in motorcycles Figure 4. since either a pulse is sent. Motorcycles contain many electrical systems not found in bicycles. The types of electrical systems found on a typical motorcycle include: • • • • • • • an alternator to generate electrical power (typical power outputs are of the order 200 to 300 Watts at 12 Volts) a battery to store energy for starting and for use when alternator output is too low (for example. the device is performing arithmetic functions. • Is the information represented in text or graphical form? The information provided to the user is in text format. In this sense.43 shows a typical road registered motorcycle. and for instrumentation (such as warning lights to indicate low oil pressure) a horn to signal your presence to other road users and pedestrians.The information is considered to be digital. while idling with lights on) a rectifier to convert the AC current from the alternator into DC current for storage in the battery a voltage regulator to limit the voltage supplied to the battery: batteries are designed to have a fixed voltage a spark ignition system to supply high voltage pulses to the sparkplugs to ignite the fuel-air mixture in the cylinders a starter motor to start the engine lights for illumination of the road ahead. There is no continuous range of signal.
one on the pedal) so that either switch closes the circuit between the battery and the brake lamp. Therefore it is used for information/communication. • What is the source of the information? The information source is the switches on both lever and pedal that close the circuit to the stop lamp. • Is the information represented in text or graphical form? 70 Personal and public transport . in this case. the ‘either’ is implemented by using two switches in parallel (one on the lever. • Is the main function of the system arithmetic or logical? The main function is logical. • Is the signal analogue or digital? The stop lamp is either on or off. The ‘either’ function here is identical to the OR logical function seen previously. or is it used for information/communication? This form of lighting is used to signal the rider's intention (to stop) to other road users behind the motorcycle. • Is the system used for power/energy. Hence the signal is digital.43 A road going motorcycle Brake light system The brake light system illuminates the rear brake lamp(s) when either the front brake (lever) or the rear brake (pedal) is activated.Figure 4. There is no proportional illumination of the lamp to indicate rate of stopping.
Some heat is generated in resistive losses inside the DC motor. or is it used for information/communication? The starter motor system is used for power to turn the engine over sufficiently quickly to start it. since the alternator is not being driven by the engine before it is started. • What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? The electrical power in the motor is converted to mechanical energy to spin the engine. The battery in a large motorcycle is rated at around 15 to 20 Amp hours. Starter motor • Is the system used for power/energy. it is clear that we should not run the starter motor for too long. • What quantities of power or energy are being used? The starter motor is rated at around 700 Watts. • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? The energy for the starter motor comes from the battery. The high maintenance usually associated with a DC motor is generally not a problem with starter motors since they are used relatively infrequently.) Given that the battery voltage is 12 Volts. The variable speed capability of the DC machine is not used. Given that we should not discharge a lead acid battery more than 50 per cent of its (theoretical) capacity. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 71 . The battery is in turn charged by the alternator that is driven off the engine. (Note that the maximum output of the alternator is only around 250–300 Watts.The information (that the bike is slowing or stopping) is presented in graphical form by illumination of the lamp (there are no words to read). an alternator (that runs when the engine is running). or is the power associated with some form of storage? The starter motor must use stored energy from the battery. and for its ability to run directly off the battery without the need for additional electronics. chosen for its high starting torque. compared to say. • Is the power being consumed as it is generated. the current drawn by the starter motor is 700/12 = 58 Amps. The original energy source is thus the petrol used to fuel the engine. • Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? The starter motor is a DC motor.
thus avoiding wheel lockup. The antilock system works by monitoring wheel rotation speed using a sensor in close proximity to a toothed wheel (usually cast into the wheel itself).44 Toothed rotor on antilock braking system of a motorcycle When the system detects that the wheel has stopped rotating under braking conditions (determined by activation of the brake light circuit).) Locking of the front wheel also severely degrades steering capability. The wires running from the sensor can just be made out to the right (behind) of the fork tube in line with the rotor teeth. though in this case there are many more trigger pulses per revolution of the wheel. The hydraulic pressure is released by an electrically operated servo (effectively. The bike becomes much less stable if one wheel is locked. It is important to prevent wheel lockup because the rotating wheels are the principal source of gyroscopic stability for the two-wheeled machine.Antilock braking system Antilock or antiskid braking systems are used to prevent either wheel on the motorcycle from locking during severe braking. Figure 4. pressure in the hydraulic linkage between lever/pedal and the brake caliper is released momentarily to allow the wheel to resume rotating. • Is the system used for power/energy. Figure 4.44 shows the toothed rotor on the front wheel of a motorcycle. an electromagnet that activates a piston in the hydraulic line). (The bike is almost impossible to control if both wheels lock. or is it used for information/communication? 72 Personal and public transport . The wheel speed sensing technique is not dissimilar to that seen in the bicycle speedometer/odometer.
and in particular the locomotives and power units in passenger trains are more complicated again. This electronics would draw a few Watts. • Is the power being consumed as it is generated. Electrical systems in rail transport We have seen that a motorcycle is significantly more complicated than a bicycle in terms of its electrical systems. Furthermore. in this section we look to understand a little about how electric passenger vehicle and diesel electric locomotives operate. so too does a rail system. just as we observed that motorcycles are dependent on a much larger traffic infrastructure that itself has many electrical components. • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? The electrical power to energise the pressure relief servo and to run the speed sensor is provided by the motorcycle's electrical system. • Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? The motorcycle's electrical system is direct current. Rail transport. which ultimately gets its energy from the fuel fed to the engine. or is the power associated with some form of storage? Sufficient current is probably provided by the alternator while the engine is running to power the antilock braking system.The system is clearly reacting to information provided by the rotor sensor. This force acts on hydraulic valves to relieve pressure. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 73 . but its action is one of applying a force to relieve the pressure in the hydraulic braking line. • What quantities of power or energy are being used? There is some electronics involved in sensing wheel speed. and can continue to provide electrical power even if the engine stalls. However. Instead of examining individual components of locomotives or the infrastructure and classifying them as power or information as we have previously for bicycles and motorcycles. The servo would consume tens of Watts while it is activated. • What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? The electrical energy is converted into a linear force in the servo. the battery is an integral part of the electrical system.
Power is fed from the overhead conductors by a catenary system. Figure 4. (They do of course include many subsystems used for information/communication. Lithgow and Wollongong. We will consider the motive power aspects of these trains in terms of the parameters set out above. 74 Personal and public transport .46 shows a closer view of the pantograph used to make contact with the overhead wiring. This pantograph is spring loaded so as to be able to maintain vertical pressure on the overhead wire to ensure continuity of supply. The V sets were progressively introduced between 1970 and 1989. Figure 4.45 shows a V Set driver motor unit on an electrically powered passenger train. and have a maximum speed of 120 kph.45 V Set driver motor carriage operated by CityRail • Is the system used for power/energy. The rail authority operates its own distribution network along the rail corridors.Electric passenger trains Figure 4. These trains are operated by Cityrail on the interurban network between Newcastle. with the return current path being provided by the steel rails on which the train runs.) • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? The trains are powered by the overhead electrical supply. but our focus here is on the motive power. or is it used for information/communication? The trains are used to provide power. This supply is in turn obtained from the mains grid.
and was initially restricted to the Sydney suburban areas. At the time the network was established. More recent developments in motor control technology have made AC drives more cost efficient. this voltage was considered ideal for the DC motors that propelled trains with high starting torque and variable speed. and hence is consumed as it is produced. Lithgow and Wollongong. when hydro plants are used to supplement coal-fired power stations. the network has expanded to include rail corridors to Newcastle. During evening peak hour. or is the power associated with some form of storage? Power is obtained from the grid network. some energy is being obtained from hydro storage.46 Pantograph used to connect electric trains to overhead catenary • Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? The New South Wales electric train network was established in the 1920s. • Is the power being consumed as it is generated. It is interesting to note that electric trains can regenerate electricity. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 75 . DC motors can also be used as DC generators.Figure 4. but the substantial investment in the existing network prevents consideration of a change of system voltage. Since then. The system operates on a voltage of 1500 Volts DC.
Trains motoring up the various grades in the network (such as over the Blue Mountains) use considerable energy to lift the train mass to higher elevations. This form of locomotive uses a diesel engine to drive an electrical generator to power electric motors geared to the wheels. Diesel electric locomotives Figure 4. when the trains descend the same grades. (The typical mass of the unit shown in Figure 4. A complete train of four power cars plus four unpowered trailers has a mass of around 400 tonnes. including intercapital freight and (until recently) passenger services. most of their time was on the southern line or the Hunter Valley. • What quantities of power or energy are being used? Each powered unit has four 150 kW motors. were built by Clyde Engineering at Clyde's Kelso plant near Bathurst in Central West New South Wales. though this has now expanded. and 1600 Amps. They are used for a variety of purposes. 76 Personal and public transport . and is much more energy efficient than dissipating the mechanical energy of the train into heat as is the case with conventional braking systems. on full load. the motors are used as generators. Early on. Each motor thus draws 100 Amps on full load. introduced into NSW from 1982. converting the mechanical energy from the train into electrical energy for use by other trains on the network. This technique is called regenerative braking. In essence. as well as for export coal and grain haulage.47 shows a New South Wales 81 Class diesel electric locomotive.46 is around 60 tonnes. These locomotives are typical of the principal form of motive power employed on railways all over the world. The 81 Class. A train of four power cars thus draws 2400 kW. operating at 1500 Volts. trains coming down the Blue Mountains are powering trains climbing the same section. • What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? The electrical power consumed by the train motors is converted to kinetic energy in the moving mass of the train.) However.
The extensive instrumentation to monitor the locomotive's various subsystems can be seen set out before the driver. (This is somewhat larger than a typical 8 cylinder five litre petrol engine used in large cars!) The diesel engine drives main and auxiliary alternators. Figure 4. or is it used for information/communication? The principal purpose of the locomotives is to provide motive power. • What is the source of energy used to provide the electrical power? The source of the power is a turbo-charged 16 cylinder 169 litre four stroke diesel engine. • Does the circuit use AC or DC voltages and currents? The main alternator provides power for the six traction motors (one on each axle).47 New South Wales 81 Class diesel electric locomotive • Is the system used for power/energy. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 77 . Since the traction motors are DC. heating and instrumentation. the engine cooling radiators.Figure 4.48 shows the driver's seat of an 81 class locomotive. An auxiliary alternator provides AC power for the large fans needed to cool the traction motors and main alternator (remember the resistive losses). It consumes fuel at the rate of approximately 500 litres per 100 kms. The engine idles at a speed of 300 rpm. and the dynamic brake. An auxiliary generator is used to provide DC power for other locomotive systems such as lighting. and an auxiliary generator that converts mechanical thrust into electrical power. the alternator output has to be rectified (converted from AC to DC) before feeding the traction motors. and has a maximum speed of just 900 rpm.
The main alternator has a nominal voltage of 600 Volts and can produce up to 7000 Amps for distribution to the six traction motors.Figure 4. the three radiator cooling fans. Some degree of regeneration is possible and is used for ‘dynamic braking’. the DC traction motors are used as generators. The auxiliary generator charges the storage battery and supplies low voltage direct current for the control and lighting circuits. In this mode. 78 Personal and public transport . but does not provide much usable power (the regenerated power can drive the main alternator. and the inertial separator blower motor. The electrical power so produced is dumped (wasted) in a large heating element situated on the roof of the locomotive. or is the power associated with some form of storage? The power generated for traction. The auxiliary alternator produces around 200 Volts AC. but the diesel fuel cannot be reconstituted!) • What form of energy is the electrical power converted to? The main traction alternator supplies high voltage AC to a power rectifier assembly which then delivers high voltage DC to the traction motors for locomotive pulling power. The companion alternating current generator furnishes power to the static exciter. cooling and auxiliary systems is consumed instantaneously. while the auxiliary generator produces 10 kW at 72 Volts DC. • What quantities of power or energy are being used? The diesel engine produces 2640 kW on full load. This provides braking force.48 Driver's view in an 81 class diesel electric locomotive • Is the power being consumed as it is generated. various transductors.
Figure 4. Figure 4. (The voltage and current are not linearly related in a DC motor under load.49 Traction motor on the axle of an 81 class diesel electric locomotive One of the main instruments used by the driver of an 81 class locomotive to control the speed and load on the motors is the main alternator ammeter. This is used primarily for starting the diesel engine. The four cables feeding the motor represent one pair each for the stator and rotor windings of the DC motor.49 shows a traction motor on the axle of an 81 class locomotive. The ammeter is the largest dial on the right of the four dials in figure 4. and is an indicator of the efficiency at which the locomotive is being operated. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercises 4. with one being hung from each of the locomotive's axles. Battery capacity is of the order of 420 Amp hours at 72 Volts DC. This instrument shows the current being produced by the main alternator and being fed to the traction motors.Each traction motor consumes over 400 kW of power. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 79 .48.9 to 4.). with currents of the order of 1000 Amps and voltages up to 600 Volts. Six such motors are used.12.
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___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 81 .1 Describe the two main uses for electricity.Exercises Exercise 4. Give three examples of devices that correspond to each usage.
2 Complete the following table: Type of Generator Example of Type Source of Energy Amount of Power Generated by Given Example 2640MW Coal-fired power station Wind turbine Solar power Hydroelectric Diesel electric locomotive Motorcycle alternator Bicycle lighting battery Bayswater Coal Exercise 4. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 82 Personal and public transport .Exercise 4.3 Explain why three-phase systems are preferred over single-phase systems in most high power applications.
5 Why are DC motors relatively expensive to manufacture and maintain.4 a Explain why transmission towers use strings of porcelain discs to support electrical conductors. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 4. particularly in comparison with induction machines.Exercise 4. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 83 . _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Explain why transmission lines use several small diameter conductors instead of one large diameter conductor for each phase.
7 – optional extension exercise Design a combinational logic circuit to implement the following statement.Exercise 4. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 84 Personal and public transport . _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Where are they used? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Why are they used? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 4.6 a What is a ‘universal motor’. ‘The TV will turn on if the door is shut and the lights turned off’.
Exercise 4. or if she completes all of the assessment tasks and submits them on time.8 – optional extension exercise Design a logic circuit to implement the following statement: 'A student will pass the subject if her examination mark is greater than 50 per cent.' ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 85 .
how long does it take for the train to accelerate from rest to its top speed at its maximum rate of acceleration? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 86 Personal and public transport . a windscreen wiper motor _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b tail lights _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c car radio _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 4.Exercise 4.10 A V Class interurban train has a mass of 400 tonnes. a How much kinetic energy does the train have a maximum speed? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b If the train's sixteen DC traction motors are capable of delivering 150 kW each. and is capable of travelling at 120 kph.9 Evaluate the following three sub-systems found in a modern car according to the parameters described in the section on electrical systems in transport.
Both classes of locomotive are rated at 2880 kW each. The forty eight locomotives are currently set aside in favour of diesel electric locomotives for use on electrified lines because under the current pricing structures for diesel and electricity.c What happens to the kinetic energy calculated in part (a) when the train slows to a halt at a station? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 4. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 87 . and designed to do the work of diesel electric locomotives in the electrified rail corridors between Newcastle.11 The New South Wales railway system has around ten 85 Class and thirty eight 86 Class electric locomotives currently in storage. Lithgow and Wollongong. Give reasons why this policy should be questioned. it is cheaper to run the diesel electric locomotives than it is to run the electric locomotives.
88 Personal and public transport .
boardofstudies.edu. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.Progress check In this part you investigated applications of electricity/electronics in engineering. © Board of Studies. I have learnt to: • • • • identify the electrical systems used in the transport industry investigate the principles and application of electric motors used in the transport indusrty analyse the basic principles of control technology as applied to the transport industry explain elementary digital logic. Refer to <http://www. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 89 . ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree I have learnt about: • power generation/distribution – electrical energy and power • • AC/DC circuits electric motors used in transport systems – principles [and] applications • control technology – digital technology. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement.au> for original and current documents. NSW. In the next part you will develop your freehand sketching.nsw. 1999.
90 Personal and public transport .
9 ❐ Exercise 4.11 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.1 to 4. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.2 ❐ Exercise 4. Part 4: Transport systems – engineering/electronics 91 .4 ❐ Exercise 4.10 ❐ Exercise 4.7 (optional) ❐ Exercise 4.6 ❐ Exercise 4.1 ❐ Exercise 4.Exercise cover sheet Exercises 4.11 Name: _______________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 4.3 ❐ Exercise 4.8 (optional) ❐ Exercise 4.5 ❐ Exercise 4.
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Part 5: Transport systems – communications
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Part 5 contents
What will you learn?...................................................................2
Preparing drawing sheet.............................................................5
Technical drawing, the universal language ....................................7
Symbols, AS 1100 101 – 1992....................................................8 Additional AS 1100 standards...................................................21
Exercises............................................................................................37 Progress check .................................................................................53 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................55
Part 5: Transport systems – communications
In this part you will consolidate the communications content covered in previous modules from both the Preliminary Course and the HSC Course. You will further develop your freehand sketching, completing some pictorial drawings and designing solutions to orthogonal drawing problems. Some of the drawings will require you to use CAD. However, the option will be there to complete these drawings using instruments. You will learn to produce orthogonal drawings involving the use of AS 1100 standards, and be introduced to some new AS 1100 standards. You will learn how to represent compression springs, knurls, and how to indicate a flat surface on a cylindrical object. You will further your knowledge of AS 1100 standard dimensioning techniques, including the standards from AS 1100.101 – 1992 where symbols replace the written word for such features as countersink, counterbore, spotface, and spherical surfaces. You will complete activities in this part to give you more experience in orthogonal drawing.
What will you learn?
You will learn about: • • • freehand sketching, designs, pictorial, orthogonal Australian standard AS 1100 computer graphics, Computer Assisted Drawing applications solving problems.
You will learn to: • • • produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate AS 1100 produce quality graphics apply dimensing to AS 1100 standards.
Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au> for original and current documents.
Personal and public transport
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In the Preliminary Course you covered many AS 1100 drawing standards. You were introduced to standard dimensioning methods, detail drawings and various methods of sectioning. You also were shown how to prepare a sheet by drawing a border and title block. All of these will be used in this section of work. In Module 1 of the HSC course you were shown some specialised techniques used in orthogonal drawing as applied to Civil structures. You learnt the method of representing webs when they are sectioned. You also learnt more about fastenings, standard and special sized nuts, and bolts, and their representation, using AS 1100 standards. Some of these techniques will be used again in this part.
References and research
The following notes and exercises were researched from a number of reference areas. Past Engineering Science examination papers were referred to for many of the drawings through the Board of Studies web site, <http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au>. Research was also conducted at Standards Australia, both at their information centre, referencing the relevant publications and through their web site. The address of Standards Australia is: 1 The Crescent Homebush NSW 2140 Sales: phone 1300 65 46 46, web site <email@example.com> Internet site <www.standards.com.au> The publication used were: • • AS 1100.101-1992 Technical Drawing, Part 101 General principles AS 1100.201-1992 Technical Drawing, Part 201 Mechanical engineering drawing.
Part 5: Transport systems – communications
The cost of these publication is high, currently $114.00 and $69.50 respectively. However, your local library, school library or distance education centre may have a reference copy. Alternatively, an abridged version is available, SAA/SNZ HB1: 1994 Technical drawing for students, the current student price is $17.60. This is not a replacement for AS 1100, but contains information that Standards Australia considers sufficient for technical drawing students, both secondary and tertiary. AS 1100 standards also contain three other parts but these are not considered to be included in the content of the syllabus. They are: • • • AS 1100.301–1985 Technical Drawing, Part 301 Architectural drawing, plus 1 supplement – 1986 AS 1100.401–1984 Technical Drawing, Part 401 Engineering survey drawing, plus 4 supplements – 1984 AS 1100.501–1985 Technical Drawing, Part 501 Structural engineering drawing, plus 1 supplement – 1986.
Textbooks with current AS 1100 standards are not always available. Some of the standards used have been superseded by the 1992 publication. When using textbooks you must be aware that the standards may have changed. If unsure, refer to the notes in these modules of work, they are current. Some of the textbooks that contain drawing relevant to your course are:
• • • • Boundy, A .W. and Hass, I. L. 1992, Technical Drawing, An Australian Course in Graphics, McGaw Hill, Sydney. Mullins, R. K. and Cooper, D. A. 1977, Programmed Technical Drawing, Book 1, Book 2 and Book 3, Hutchinson, London. Park, A. Dodds, K. and Bland, S. 1989, Technical Drawing, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne. Rochford, J. 2000, Engineering Studies – A Student’s Workbook, KJS Publications, Gosford.
Other publications, such as those used in Distance Education Centres and Schools, are good reference materials. Engineering Science – 2 Unit Course Technical Drawing, Lobes 1, 2 and 3 are excellent TAFE – Introduction to CAD – Using AutoCAD. Many schools have developed their own resources and programs for teaching technical drawing and you may be able to access some of these.
Personal and public transport
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Preparing a drawing sheet
Borders, title blocks and materials lists
In the preliminary module on Landscape Products you were introduced to borders, title blocks and materials lists. You will need to refer to this section of work when you commence the drawing exercises. However, the title block will be modified to suit the HSC course and to cover the requirements of AS 1100 standards. From now on all of your drawing sheets must have a border and title block. The exercises you have to complete will be presented to you on sheets with a border and title block. For your engineering report, all drawings completed by you must also be presented with a border and title block, and, if necessary, a materials list. A convenient way to do this is to draw the border and title block using a CAD or Draw Program, and saving the drawing to disk. Whenever you need to complete a drawing exercise you can print off a copy of the prepared sheet using the computer, then use the sheet for your drawing. Exercise 5.1 will require you to prepare a sheet with a title block and border, using a CAD program, or alternatively, using technical drawing instruments. Copies of this prepared sheet can then be used each time you have to complete a drawing.
AS 1100.101 – 1992. Title block requirements
The title block featured in the communication section of Landscape products will now be developed. The new title block will include a logogram, that is, a symbol that indicate the angle of projection used to complete the orthogonal drawing. The preferred method is third angle projection, so you will learn to draw the third angle projection logogram. The title block also needs to include the size of the drawing sheet on which the original drawing was completed. This is required as measurements are sometimes scaled from the drawing. If the drawing has been reduced by photocopying, or printed to a reduced scale, the method of scaling from the drawing will produce an incorrect dimension. If the size of the original drawing sheet is given, this problem can be avoided. Another addition to the title block is the date that the drawing is completed. This is important in industry as often the drawings are modified and the date can be used to indicate which drawing is current.
Part 5: Transport systems – communications
These changes require the original sizes to be modified. The left hand column needs to be enlarged to 25 mm, the right hand column to 20mm, and the space for the Drawing Title reduced to 80 mm. All other sizes remain the same. The following figure shows the new sizes and modifications to be used in your HSC course.
DATE DRAWN THIRD ANGLE LOGO DRAWING NUMBER
DRAWING TITLE STUDENT NAME 50 SCALE USED 30
SHEET SIZE (A4)
12 - 2 - 01
SAMPLE HSC TITLE BLOCK DISTED STUDENT SCALE 1:1
WE 5.1 A4
Figure 5.1 Title block (not to scale)
Third angle projection logogram
There are no standard sizes given in the AS 1100 standards book for the third angle projection logogram. The sizes given in the drawing below will produce a logogram similar in proportion to the ones drawn in the standards book, and will give a logogram that will fit into the 10 mm x 25 mm space on the left hand side of the title block.
6 Ø4 10 7 9 3
Ø8 SCALE 2:1 Figure 5.2 Sizes for the third angle projection logogram
Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 5.1.
Personal and public transport
and since 1989. the universal language Technical drawing is used to convey specific design. Technical drawings have been standardized. With the growth of electronic technology. Standards Australia is a member of. interpreted and understood internationally. Part 5: Transport systems – communications 7 . spotface. depth of a hole. You need to know and be able to interpret these symbols. Technical drawing is the only international and universal language.Arial Arial bold Technical drawing. countersink. and active participant in this organization. accurately and without ambiguity so that the receiver understands fully the information supplied and items can be manufactured to fulfil their function. through the International Organisation for Standardisation. manufacturing and technical information quickly. world wide. Symbols have been used extensively to replace written notes and words on drawings.101 – 1992 to replace notes and abbreviations for. (ISO). technical drawings can be transmitted almost instantaneously throughout the world. New symbols were introduced in the revised standard AS 1100. counterbore. that is understood and used throughout the world. Symbols are independent of language and therefore can be more easily understood. the use of the World Wide Web. spherical diameter and spherical radius. The drawings need to be read.
4 h h Figure 5. SYMBOL 2x SIZE h 15 TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW Figure 5. so the hole passes right through the component. This is a very important standard which must be interpreted correctly for the correct manufacture of a product. A round hole of diameter 15 mm is indicated as shown in the following diagram. The shape is indicated by the symbol preceding the size of the hole. which must be used for the symbols.3 Indicating a square. Note that again no depth is indicated. the hole passes right through the component. through hole ∞ 60 TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW 8 Personal and public transport . are given with reference to ‘h’. AS 1100.101 – 1992 Shape of holes The shape of a hole can be square or round. where ‘h’ is the size of the dimensioning that is being used on the drawing. Note that when no depth is given. A square hole of size 15 mm is indicated as shown in the following diagram.4 Indicating a round. SYMBOL 4x 15 SIZE 1.Symbols. through hole The standard sizes.
6 h drill TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW Figure 5.5 Indicating a round hole of depth 25 mm Countersink The countersinking of a hole is used to widen the top of a drilled hole to provide a tapered seat that allows a countersunk screw to fit flush with. Previous standards used the abbreviation ‘C’sink’. A round hole of diameter 10 mm and depth 25 mm is indicated as shown in the following diagram. the depth of a round hole is always measured as the distance of the full diameter of the hole. The countersink is indicated by the countersink symbol. You may still see this used in older textbooks and drawings. and does not include the distance to the pointed end. or just below the surface of a component. countersink drill is used to countersink the drilled hole. As indicated in the Preliminary module on Braking systems. followed by the required depth of the hole. followed by the diameter of the top of the countersink.Arial Arial bold Depth of holes The depth of a hole is indicated by the depth symbol. SYMBOL 10 25 h h SIZE 0. You should be able to appreciate why the ISO and Australian Standards prefer to use symbols for this universal language. The countersink details are given in conjunction with the size of the original hole and are written after the given size of the original hole as indicated in figure 5. Part 5: Transport systems – communications DEPTH 9 . A tapered. and the required angle of the tapered hole.6.
you may still see this used in older textbooks and drawings. counterbore drill is used to counterbore the drilled hole. the counterbore details are given in conjunction with the size of the original hole and are written after the given size of the original hole as indicated in the diagram below. The counterbore is indicated by the counterbore symbol. A specialized. passing through the component. followed by the diameter of the counterbore. countersunk diameter 16 mm at an angle of 90∞ is shown in the following diagram. The depth is then given. Again. Again. SYMBOL 90∞ h SIZE 8 countersink drill TOP VIEW 16 x 90∞ FRONT VIEW Figure 5. Previous standards used the abbreviation ‘C’bore’. 10 Personal and public transport . or just below the surface of a component.6 Indicating a countersink on a round hole Counterbore The counterboring of a hole is used to widen the top of a drilled hole to provide a cylindrical seat that allows a socket head screw to fit flush with. using the depth symbol followed by the required depth. A round hole of diameter 8 mm. cylindrical.A round hole of diameter 8 mm. passing through the component. counterbored diameter 16 mm to a depth of 6 mm is shown in the following diagram.
The spotface is indicated by the spotface symbol. followed by the diameter of the spotface. you may still see this used in older textbooks and drawings. The spotfacing operation produces a flat surface so depth is not required. Note that the spotface symbol is the same as the counterbore symbol. Previous standards used the abbreviation ‘S’face’. A round hole. A specialised spotfacing drill is used to form the flat surface around the top of the previously drilled hole. Part 5: Transport systems – communications 11 . spotface diameter 25 mm is shown in the following diagram.2 Spotface Spotfacing is used to provide a flat surface on a rough or curved area to allow a nut or bolt to fit flush with the surface of a component. diameter 12 mm. Again. but that in the spotfacing operation no depth is indicated.7 Indicating a counterbore on a round hole Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 5. passing through the component.Arial Arial bold SYMBOL h SIZE 2h TOP VIEW counterbore drill 8 16 6 FRONT VIEW Figure 5.
a normal size chamfer and a small chamfer. Various methods are shown in the standards book.8 Indicating a spotface on a round hole Spherical radius and spherical diameter Spherical radius is indicated using the letters SR before the given size. Previous standards used the abbreviation ‘Spher’. you only need to be shown two methods. you may still see this used in older textbooks and drawings. Spherical diameter is indicated using the letters S followed by the diameter symbol. 12 Personal and public transport .9 Indicating a spherical radius and a spherical diameter Dimensioning chamfers Chamfers must be dimensioned so that the size and the angle of the chamfer are fully described. Again.SYMBOL SIZE 2h (no depth) h TOP VIEW spotface tool 25 12 FRONT VIEW Figure 5.9. SYMBOL SR SR 20 SYMBOL S S 40 Figure 5. then the given size. A spherical radius of 20 mm and a spherical diameter of 40 mm are shown in figure 5.
10 x 45∞ 0. drawn to a scale of 1:1. If the 0. In this example.5 x 45∞ LARGE CHAMFER Figure 5. It shows a drawing that incorporates the work that has been covered in the notes. Lock nut A lock nut is used to ensure that the assembled parts remain tightly secured and not become loose due to vibration. Some of the work you should recall includes: Part 5: Transport systems – communications 13 .Arial Arial bold The method of dimensioning a small chamfer is used only when the drawing of the chamfer is too small for the conventional method to be used.5 mm chamfer. and thus would be dimensioned using the conventional method. the chamfer would no longer be considered as a ‘small chamfer’. The example shown below is for a 0. a detail drawing of a lock nut is presented. The drawing sheet was prepared using a CAD program. Revised work in this example You will notice that the drawing of the lock nut uses much of the work covered in previous modules.5 mm chamfer was drawn to a scale of 10:1. In this example. that is full size. that is ten times full size. The worked examples will also be used to revise some of the AS 1100 standards and drawing methods that you used in previous communication’s exercises. You must be careful when a ‘small chamfer’ is drawn using an enlarging scale. When assembled the lock nut and adjusting sleeve are screwed tightly together – they are secured by friction acting between the two surfaces.1 Worked example 5.10 Dimensioning chamfers SMALL CHAMFER Worked example 5. the use of a border. the modified title block and the third angle projection logogram are shown.1 is the first of five worked examples.
You should also recall that the detail drawing given is only one of a possible three accepted solutions. size and material for the lock nut half-sectional front view used for symmetrical components sizes used for. a single halfsectioned front view. A part-section could have been used to show the threaded hole as visible outline. Alternatively. with the dimensions of the thread and diameter shown on this view could have been used. the top view of an internal thread hatching the internal thread. sheet size and the third angle projection logogram the straight knurl. New work in this example The new work shown on the drawing of the lock nut. and the method of drawing.4 14 Personal and public transport .• • • • • detail drawing giving shape. diameter and the thread.3 and 5. the two view method was used. but as you needed to revise the top view method of drawing an internal thread. includes: • • the modified title block including date drawn. but this would not have given sufficient space to indicate the knurl. introduced during this section of the course. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 5. and not hatching the drilled hole dimensioning technique for the thickness.
Fully dimension the lock nut.Details of an adjusting barrel. adjusting sleeve and a lock nut are given below in an exploded pictorial drawing. (Note that this is a detail drawing) M6 x 1 Ø 10 TOP VIEW HALF-SECTIONAL FRONT VIEW LOCK NUT MATERIAL ALUMINIUM ALLOY DISTED STUDENT SCALE 5:1 4 WE 5. in third angle projection.1 A4 15 Part 5: Personal and public transport . using a scale of 5:1 a top view and a half-sectional front view of the lock nut.communications . Draw.
In this example.2 Worked example 5. Acorn nut An acorn nut is used on bicycle brake assemblies in place of a standard hexagonal nut for both aesthetic and safety reasons. that was introduced during this section of the course. a half-sectional front view and an internal thread the shape and depth of the drilled hole the depth of the thread – the end is shown by a thick dark line the use of the modified title block New work in this example The new work shown on the drawing of the acorn nut. curved edges are formed. The drawing sheet. with the border and the modified title block had previously been prepared using a CAD program. Revised work in this example The detail drawing of the acorn nut uses work covered in the Preliminary Course and in the notes for the HSC Course. a detail drawing of an acorn nut is presented. below the centreline. includes: • • • • dimensioning technique for the depth of the thread and of the drilled hole dimensioning technique for the spherical radius dimensioning technique for the distance across the flats dimensioning technique for the chamfer. The work you should recall includes: • • • • detail drawing.2 is the second of five worked examples. The construction of fillet curves is not in the content of the syllabus. however they will often need to be represented in an orthogonal drawing. The spherical end gives a neat appearance and a safe rounded end to the nut. The fillet curves Where the chamfered surface meets the flat surfaces of the hexagonal shaped portion of the nut. They are often referred to as fillet curves.Arial Arial bold Worked example 5. These are shown in the external drawing of the nut. Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 17 .
The top of the curve is level with the top of the chamfer. 18 Personal and public transport . The bottom of the curve occurs at the bottom of the chamfer. and occurs at the centre of the flat surface.5 and 5. Locate these top and bottom points then draw the fillet curves with a convenient size radius using your radius curves. The construction is shown on the drawing of the acorn nut.6. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 5.
a half sectional front view of the acorn nut. Complete in orthogonal projection. Complete the left side view. A partly completed left side view and front view are given in third angle projection. Fully dimension the acorn nut.2 A4 19 Part 5: Personal and public transport .communications . using a scale of 5:1.Shape and size details of an acorn nut are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. 8 AF 3 4 4 5 M5 x 1 4 45∞ SR 4 ACORN NUT DISTED STUDENT SCALE 5:1 WE 5.
trams. it may be formed during injection moulding on a polymer component. A knurl is usually formed on a lathe using a knurling tool. that provides a gripping area to hold when turning the component. 75∞ TO HORIZONTAL SMALL SPRING LARGE SPRING 60∞ TO HORIZONTAL Figure 5. The drawing must appear to be a spring. They are used in cars. The diamond knurl is drawn in a convenient position. Alternatively. The straight knurl is drawn in a convenient position. The two types that are covered by AS 1100 are a straight knurl and a diamond knurl.Arial Arial bold Additional AS 1100 standards Compression spring Compression springs are commonly used components in personal and public transport vehicles. drawn at a convenient angle. The standard representation has changed dramatically over the years. and must be able to be interpreted as such. usually on a fastener. and for longer springs. trains and monorails. using five thin dark parallel lines on the knurled area. and is now simplified to a line drawing. bicycles.11 Indicating compression springs Knurls A knurl is a raised area on the surface of a cylindrical shaped component. STRAIGHT KNURL DIAMOND KNURL Figure 5. The lines used are thin dark lines.12 Indicating a straight and a diamond knurl Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 21 . is 60∞ – you do not want to take up too much time completing the drawing. The angle suggested for small springs is 75∞. using crossed thin dark 30∞ lines on the knurled area. The angle is not specified in AS 1100.
CYLINDER PIPE SECTIONED PIPE SMALL LARGE RECTANGULAR RECTANGULAR Figure 5. you have to use your judgement. thin dark diagonal lines are drawn on the view of the flat surface. pipes and rectangular bars Assembly drawing An assembly drawing is a drawing involving two or more components which are part of an assembly or sub-assembly. AS 1100 indicates a standard for these ‘breaks’. When drawing a view in orthogonal projection it is often difficult to differentiate between the flat and the cylindrical surface. the standard does not define the difference between a long and short break. FLAT SURFACE LEFT SIDE VIEW Figure 5. and for a short break. rectangular bars and cylindrical tubes are often shortened in drawings. However. Similarly.13 Indicating a flat surface FRONT VIEW Breaks When drawing cylindrical shaped bars it is often more convenient to show only a portion of the length of the bar. To indicate that part of the cylindrical component is a flat surface. 22 Personal and public transport . used in smaller drawings. used in large drawings. and how the assembled parts function when fitted together. It is important to understand how the parts fit together.A flat surface on a cylindrical component Flat surfaces are frequently formed on cylindrical components.14 Indicating breaks for cylinders. The AS 1100 standard break for rectangular shaped components is different for a long break.
and as such you should always be given the size of any washer that you would be expected to draw. You must gain experience in understanding assembled components in the various areas of study. Differentiation of adjacent parts Assembly drawings usually involve a number of sectioned components. For these reasons you will need to know how to represent a standard washer.Arial Arial bold You will be shown two assembly drawings as worked examples. The washer is drawn as a rectangular shape. you must indicate that the components are different. diameter equal to 2D and thickness equal to D divided by 20. you will encounter standard washers in some textbooks and even in past examination questions. A good start is to look at a bicycle and see how various assemblies and sub-assemblies work. Standard washers The AS 1100 standards do not include details and sizes for drawing standard washers. However. plus 1 mm.15 Drawing a standard washer Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 2D D + 1 mm 20 23 . Differentiating the touching parts can be done using one of the following methods: • • by changing the direction or angle of the hatching by changing the spacing of the hatching. M20 WASHER Figure 5. For each drawing the specific function of the components will be explained. Where two or more sectioned components touch. where ‘D’ is the nominal size of the threaded component. The following diagram shows a standard washer to fit an M20 bolt.
New work in this example The new work shown on the drawing of the equalization mechanism. includes: • representation of a compression spring. using thin dark lines • representation of a flat surface on a cylindrical shaped component. using thin dark diagonal lines • a standard size washer • a break on the end of the cable • assembly of the components. Equalization mechanism Equalization mechanisms were used on handbrake assemblies on cars. then positioning the adjusting nut and the washer.Worked example 5. Revised work in this example The assembly drawing of the equalization mechanism uses work covered in the Preliminary Course and in the notes for the HSC Course. In this example. that was introduced during this section of the course. The work you should recall includes: • the standard representation of an external thread • the auxiliary view method of drawing a special size hexagonal nut. The spring then fits hard up against the washer.3 Worked example 5. hard up against the square portion. trucks and buses prior to the use of disc brakes on all wheels. “the threaded cable end is to protrude 11 mm through the adjusting nut”. The assembly of the components The components are drawn in the exploded isometric drawing in such a position as to indicate the way they are to be assembled. hard up against the flat portion of the balance shaft. and finally drawing the balance shaft then the compression spring. the balance shaft fits against the spring and the adjusting nut is screwed onto the threaded cable end. 24 Personal and public transport . you would commence by lightly drawing the threaded cable end.3 is the third of five worked examples. given the distance across the flats. The position of the adjusting nut is given. an assembly drawing of an equalization mechanism is presented. The washer fits onto the threaded cable end. If you were to draw this assembly. They equalized the force applied to the brakes when the handbrake lever was operated.
CABLE END FRONT VIEW AUXILIARY VIEW BRAKE EQUAL ISATION MECHANISM DISTED STUDENT SCALE 2:1 WE 5. in orthogonal projection using a scale of 2:1.Shape and size details of a hand-brake force equalisation mechanism are given below in an exploded pictorial drawing. a front view of the assembled mechanism. the threaded cable end is to protrude 11 mm through the adjusting nut.3 A4 25 Part 5: Personal and public transport . When assembled. Draw. Note do not show hidden detail.communications .
Auxiliary view constructions The shape and size of a flat surface You have been shown how to indicate a flat surface on a cylindrical surface. a method has to be used to determine the shape and position of the flat surface. The current AS 1100 standards were covered in the Preliminary course.16 Using an auxiliary view to determine flat surface Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 27 . The auxiliary view method was used to determine the sizes when drawing the non standard. and should be revised. when only a single orthogonal view of a component is drawn. 3 1 P1 5 P3 P2 FLAT SURFACE AUXILIARY VIEW CURVE OF INTERSECTION FRONT VIEW 4 2 Figure 5. The auxiliary view method of determining sizes for drawings has a wider application. Similarly. the drawing of standard machine nuts and bolts was covered in the Civil Structures. using thin dark diagonal lines. Sometimes. in which the distance across the flats was given. You will now be shown two applications that are relevant to this course.Arial Arial bold Threads and fasteners The representation of threads has also changed dramatically in the past thirty years. The drawing below shows how an auxiliary end view is constructed to determine the shape and position of the flat surface on the bicycle axle. You should revise the methods before proceeding with the exercises. The auxiliary view method is used. special hexagonal nuts and bolts.
2) project from this rotated position (3) project to the fillet in the front view (4) draw a vertical line from this position on the fillet to locate the ‘top point’ of the curved surface on the centreline of the front view (5) using radius curves draw a curve through the three located points. • – 28 Personal and public transport . and the thread and cylindrical break completed an auxiliary end view is drawn showing the position of the flat surface cutting the circle at points P1 and P2 project points P1 and P2. The ‘top point’ on this curve is numbered P3 in the auxiliary view to find point P3 in the front view: – – – – rotate point P3 onto the vertical centreline in the auxiliary view (1. where the flat surface cuts the circle in the auxiliary view.Method The following steps are used to determine the shape and position of the flat surface: • • • • the outline for the front view of the axle is commenced. the right side of the flat surface will be curved. to the position in the front view as the flat surface cuts the fillet.
to the centreline position of the drilled hole in the front view locate points P1 and P3 in the front view using radius curves draw a curve through the three located points P1. P2 and P3 in the front view repeat this method to locate the line of intersection at the top of the hole. P2 and P3 are numbered on the auxiliary view project point P2. The drawing below shows how an auxiliary end view is constructed to determine the shape and position of the line of intersection on the bicycle brake special bolt. Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 29 . where the drilled hole cuts the circle in the auxiliary view. a method has to be used to determine the shape and position of this line of intersection. using hidden outline technique an auxiliary end view is drawn showing the end view of the head and the position of the drilled hole points P1. The auxiliary view method is again used. a line of intersection is formed between the hole and the cylindrical surface. When a single orthogonal view of the component is drawn. shank.Arial Arial bold The shape and size of a hole drilled through a cylindrical shape When a circular hole is drilled through a cylindrical bar or shaft.17 Using an auxiliary view to determine the line of intersection Method The following steps are used to determine the shape and position of the line of intersection: • • • • • • • • the outline for the front view of the special bolt is commenced. and the head. LINE OF INTERSECTION P2 P1 P3 AUXILIARY VIEW P1 P2 P3 FRONT VIEW Figure 5. thread and cylindrical break completed draw the position of the drilled hole in the front view.
Revised work in this example The work you should recall includes: • • • the standard representation and dimensioning of an external thread the standard representation and dimensioning of a chamfer the standard representation of a break in a shaft.Worked example 5. Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 5. Hub screw Hub skewers are used on quick-release mechanisms for bicycle wheels. In this example. a front view of a hub skewer is presented.4 is the fourth of five worked examples.4 Worked example 5. that was introduced during this section of the course. New work in this example The new work shown on the drawing of the hub skewer. They allow the wheel to be released and removed quickly from the fork of the frames. 30 Personal and public transport . includes: • the plotting of the shape and size of a hole drilled through a cylindrical shape using an auxiliary view method.8.7 and 5.
A standard break is to be used in the 30 mm shank so that only portion of the unthreaded 105 mm length is shown in the drawing. Draw.4 A4 31 Part 5: Personal and public transport .communications .Shape and size details of a hub skewer from a quick-release mechanism of a bicycle wheel are shown below. a front view of the hub skewer. Fully dimension the skewer head and the thread. 1 x 45∞ 6 25 Ø 12 M5 x 1 Ø8 13 FRONT VIEW AUXILIARY VIEW BICYCLE HUB SKEWER DISTED STUDENT SCALE 2:1 WE 5. in orthogonal projection. using a scale of 2:1.
so the size is doubled to 40 mm. Revised work in this example The work you should recall includes: • • • • • • • the standard representation of an external thread the standard representation a chamfer the standard representation of a break in a shaft the standard representation of a flat surface how to draw a fillet the standard representation of a part-section the use of an auxiliary view to plot the size of a hexagonal shape. note that you are using a scale of 2:1.5 is the last of the five worked examples. includes: • • the plotting of the shape and size of the flat surface on a cylindrical shape using an auxiliary view method the hatching of the external thread when sectioned. a front view of a pedal crank axle is presented. New work in this example The new work that is shown on the drawing of the pedal crank axles. that was introduced during this section of the course. and mark in the position of the flat surface. commencing with the circle of diameter 20 mm. measure 20 mm on either side of the centerline and draw vertical lines to cut the circle project across to the front view of the flat surface where these vertical lines cut the circle • • Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 33 .Arial Arial bold Worked example 5. using the scale of 2:1.5 Worked example 5. Plotting of the shape and size of the flat surface Commence the drawing of the front view. The steps used to draw the size and shape of the flat surface are listed below: • lightly draw an auxiliary end view of the axle. In this example. Pedal crank axle Pedal crank axles are used to secure the pedals to the pedal cranks of a bicycle.
34 Personal and public transport .• • • outline the flat surface draw the circle of diameter 18 mm to represent the chamfer repeat the construction to determine where the flat surface cuts the chamfer.
A part-section is to be used to show the hexagonal hole as visible outline.Shape and size details of a pedal crank axle and crank from a bicycle are shown below. using a scale of 2:1. in orthogonal projection.communications .5 A4 35 Part 5: Personal and public transport . Draw. BICYCLE PEDAL CRANK AXLE DISTED STUDENT SCALE 2:1 WE 5. Show full details of the construction method used to determine the size of the hole and the flat surface. a front view of the pedal crank.
Include in the title block. Part 5: Public and personal transport – communications 37 .1 Use a CAD program or a draw program to prepare a drawing sheet showing a border and modified HSC title block. The sizes must conform to those given in this part.Arial Arial bold Exercises Exercise 5. your name. the word ‘scale’ and the sheet size ‘A4’. Save the drawing sheet to disk and use a copy when you are presenting any drawings for your engineering reports.
38 Personal and public transport .
2 A4 39 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications . A dimensioned top and front view of the counterdrilled hole is also given. FREEHAND DRAWING DISTED STUDENT SCALE NA EX 5. similar sketches to show details of a counterbored hole. is given below.A freehand pictorial drawing. It shows a sectioned view of a through drilled hole that has been counterdrilled. Draw freehand. using isometric projection.
Shape and size details of an adjusting sleeve are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. Do the drawing on a copy of the prepared sheet from Exercise 5. using a scale of 5:1. You are required to do this drawing using a CAD or Draw program. Draw. you may complete the drawing using drawing instruments. If you do not have access to a computer program.3 A4 41 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications .1. in orthogonal projection. ADJUSTING SLEEVE DISTED STUDENT SCALE 5:1 EX 5. a sectional front view of the adjusting sleeve.1. Be careful to retain the original drawing from Exercise 5.
Use freehand drawing techniques.4 A4 43 Part 5: Personal and public transport– communications . State the scale at which you have drawn the nut. The material is aluminium alloy. The drawing should be fully dimensioned. NEEDLE LOCK NUT EX 5.Freehand drawing Details of a needle lock nut from the valve of a bicycle tube are given below in a pictorial drawing of the needle lock nut. Draw a half-sectioned front view and a right side view.
Shape and size details of a brake cable clamping screw are given below in a dimensioned pictorial drawing. LEFT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW BRAKE CABLE CLAMPING SCREW DISTED STUDENT SCALE 5:1 EX 5. Dimension the spherical radius. using third angle projection. in orthogonal projection. the hole and the 8 mm diameter. using a scale of 5:1. Project. a left side view of the clamping screw. Draw.5 A4 45 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications . a front view of the clamping screw. the thread.
Note that it would be sufficient to draw a single. using a scale of 5:1. ADJUSTING BARREL SCALE 5:1 EX 5. half-sectional front view.Freehand drawing Details of an adjusting barrel are given below in a pictorial drawing. in orthogonal projection. The material used is aluminium alloy. Draw freehand. fully dimensioned to indicate the shape and size of the adjusting barrel.6 A4 47 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications . a detail drawing of the adjusting barrel.
7 A4 49 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications . BICYCLE VALVE CAP SCALE 5:1 EX 5. Draw. using a scale of 5:1. a half-sectional front view of the assembled parts when viewed from the direction of the arrow. in orthogonal projection.Instrument drawing Shape and size details of a bicycle valve cap are given below in an exploded pictorial drawing.
8 A4 51 Part 5: Personal and public transport – communications .) 4 x Ø 12 EVENLY SPACED Ø 300 Ø 200 Ø 15 0 50 100 25 DISC BRAKE ROTOR SCALE 1:5 EX 5. (Use an appropriate scale. In the space provided make an isometric andan oblique sketch of the rotor.A disc brake rotor is shown below.
In the next part you complete an engineering report based on the analysis of a transport system. orthogonal Australian standard AS 1100 computer graphics.boardofstudies. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Part 5: Public and personal transport . Computer Assisted Drawing applications solving problems. completing pictorial drawings and designing solutions to orthogonal drawing problems applying AS 1100.Arial Arial bold Progress check In this part you developed your freehand sketching skills. © Board of Studies. Refer to <http://www.edu.nsw.au> for original and current documents. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement. pictorial. I have learnt to: • • • produce orthogonal drawings applying appropriate AS 1100 produce quality graphics apply dimensing to AS 1100 standards.communications 53 . 1999. ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree I have learnt about: • • • freehand sketching. designs. NSW.
54 Personal and public transport .
5 ❐ Exercise 5.8 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.7 ❐ Exercise 5.8 Name: _________________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 5.6 ❐ Exercise 5.Arial Arial bold Exercise cover sheet Exercises 5.1 ❐ Exercise 5. Part 5: Public and personal transport .4 ❐ Exercise 5.3 ❐ Exercise 5.communications 55 . If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School(DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module.1 to 5. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.2 ❐ Exercise 5.
Arial Arial bold Personal and public transport Part 6: Transport systems – engineering report .
...............................................2 What you will learn?......................................................Arial Arial bold Part 6 contents Introduction.............................................................................................................................3 Structure of an engineering report................ 3 Sample engineering report .....................................................45 Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 1 .............................................................................. 5 Exercises ..........................................39 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................................41 Module evaluation ..35 Exercise cover sheet.............................................37 Progress check ..................................................................... 2 An engineering report ............................................................................
© Board of Studies. The third section provides background information before you commence your report on an alternative electric vehicle system. CD-ROM and libraries [working] collaboratively when appropriate engineering report writing. NSW.nsw.boardofstudies. The fourth section is the student exercise and requires you to analyse an electric vehicle and determine several design specifications. Refer to <http://www.Introduction This part contains four sections. The first section describes the components of an engineering report. 1999. The second section analyses a transport system (petrol engine vehicles) being used to transport workers to and from a work place. You will learn to: • • work with others and appreciate the value of collaborative working complete an engineering report based on the analysis and synthesis of an aspect of personal and public transport. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.au> original and current documents. What will you learn? You will learn about: • • • research methods including the internet. and explains what you will be asked to research for this part of the module. 2 Personal and public transport .edu.
The report is a formal document and needs to be constructed in a logical and sequenced format. This module’s student engineering report exercise is structured differently from previous engineering report exercise. You will be given guidelines to structure your report.Arial Arial bold An engineering report An engineering report requires analysis of a situation. In this exercise you are to analyse a proposed electric alternative vehicle. Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 3 . The structure of this engineering report The student engineering report should be written under the following headings: • • • • • • • • • title page abstract introduction analysis result summary conclusions and recommendations acknowledgments bibliography appendices. but you will need to make decisions on the most appropriate design features of the electric vehicle based on calculations and interpretation of data. You have previously been presented with a situation and then asked to analyse the alternatives. The required components of the report are described in the following text. A sample report has been provided that analyses a similar engineering situation. product or component.
identifies its writer or writers and the date when the report was completed. You might add a drawing of the object on the title page. A brief description of each section of the report should be made. It may contain background information regarding the topic. Tables and graphs are common features. Conclusions and or recommendations This section requires the writer to draw conclusions based on data collected. Introduction and the purpose of the report Outlines the subject. Information about materials and the mechanics of products should be collected or calculated for all engineering reports. and the approach or approaches used to complete the analysis (how the information was assembled). 4 Personal and public transport .Title page The title page gives the title of the report. then the selection is now stated and the reason for the selection is explained. The abstract should be no more than two or three paragraphs of text. Abstract The abstract is a concise summary of the report. Analysis This is the body of the report and should show evidence of research and experimentation. and shorter if possible. If the purpose of the report was to ‘select the best solution…. Result summary This section presents the results concisely.’.. The results will be used to justify your conclusions and recommendations. It should cover the scope of the report (what it is about). purpose and scope of the report. This section must contain information required to satisfy the aim and purpose of the report. The purpose of the abstract is to allow a reader to decide if the report contains information about which they are researching.
Standards for bibliography entries must follow the strict guidelines.Arial Arial bold Acknowledgments The acknowledgment section provides the opportunity to credit other people’s work that has contributed to the report. Bibliography You must demonstrate that the report is well researched. All references must be included. Sample engineering report The following section contains a sample engineering report which addresses each of the sections and indicates breadth and depth of information required. It is information that enhances the other data. Appendices This section contains information that has been separated from the main body of the report because it is not essential that every reader look at this information. Examples would be the comparison engineering drawings. Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 5 . The engineering report analyses a transport system (petrol engine vehicles) to convey workers to and from a workplace. During the engineering course this section will always contain a technical drawing.
6 Personal and public transport .
csiro. The long term objective of the town community is to develop a transport system based on an underlying philosophy of being ‘clean and green’. . This data along with other data from research into transport in London has been used as the basis for this report.au> and <www.Arial Arial bold Personal and public transport Title: Author/s: Date: Transport investigation Johnny Diesel January 2000 Abstract Analysis of pollution.epa.au>.nsw. The research for this project has been based on establishing the major pollutants in the environment that are created by transport vehicle emissions. The data provided in the NSWEPA web site is based on research carried out on transport emissions in the Sydney Region in 1992. This report will provide details of energy costs and pollution created by the transport system that relies on personal vehicles that are petrol engine powered.gov. Several tables of data that describe the pollution caused by this type of system are shown. this report is an analysis of that transport system. A summary of the data is made and several conclusions are presented. of a transport system that uses petrol internal combustion engines. The main mode of transport operating between the town and the industrial centre is by private vehicle. The source of this data has been Internet web-sites such as the New South Wales Government’s Environmental Protection Authority (NSWEPA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). and energy cost. The purpose of this engineering report is to provide data from which a comparison can be made between the pollution and cost of the present vehicle and a proposed electric vehicle. Introduction An isolated company town is analysing the effect of transporting its work force from home to the work place using internal combustion engine vehicles. The web sites for these institutions are <www.
cadmium. nitrogen dioxide. Pollutants The atmosphere is never completely free from impurities. .1. • • • • An illustrated overview of the transport system analysed in this report is shown in the appendix – figure 6. • • • Secondary pollutants include: • ozone. nitrogen and carbon related compounds organic compounds such as hydrocarbons (fuel vapour and solvents) acid gases including sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid particulate matter such as smoke and dust metal oxides and related compounds including those of lead.Analysis This analysis of transport between the Industrial Centre and the town is based on the following criteria: • the round trip distance is 20kms. Pollutants exist as primary or secondary pollutants. comprising 10kms in the morning and 10kms eight hours later at the end of a working shift each shift sees a total turnover of workers of 100 between the town and industrial area each vehicle transports 1 worker the cost of petrol is $1 per litre each vehicle has a fuel consumption rate of 1 litre per 10 km. copper and iron fluorides toxic and non-toxic odours radioactive substances. Primary pollutants: • • • • • oxides of sulphur. fire smoke and sea salt particles. It always contains materials from sources such as dust. and other components of photochemical smog.
NO2 is a respiratory irritant which may contribute to bronchitis in infants. and to retard mental development in children. Oxides of nitrogen. Ninety percent of the lead in urban air comes from motor vehicle exhausts. Lead is an extremely toxic chemical. .Arial Arial bold Pollutants that are the product of motor vehicles or engine emissions include lead. the oxidation in the atmosphere of methane. Motor vehicle engines are by far the greatest source of this gas. colourless gas which has as its natural source. Oxides of nitrogen remain in the atmosphere for several days before they are oxidised to nitric acid and to particulate nitrates and nitrides. children and older people. Studies have shown that 10 micrograms per decilitre increase in blood-lead concentrations is associated with a decrease of between 2 and 8 intelligence points (IQ) in young children. which can cause damage to human health when ingested or inhaled. Sector Motor vehicle Power generation Basic metal processing Non-metallicmineral processing Petroleum refining Coal mining Rail transport Commercial shipping Chemical manufacturing Kilograms per day 269 000 229 150 32 850 25 520 16 920 21 850 11 120 9 640 8 230 Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless. Research has indicated that there are high blood lead levels in children 0–4 years when they are surrounded by high lead levels in the atmosphere. Lead is known to cause neurological malfunction and learning disabilities. oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. which settle and are washed out by rain. In the presence of sunlight they undergo complex chemical reactions with hydrocarbons and oxygen to produce photochemical smog. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) are mainly produced from fuel combustion in motor vehicles.
These compounds can reach the ground in wet or dry form. authorities throughout the world such as Governments are setting standards that reduce pollution emissions from car exhausts.25 CO (g/km) 9. NOx – nitrogen oxides all in grams per kilometre and EVAP HC refers to evaporated hydrocarbons from a measured test). plants.93 0. Chemical reactions between sunlight. aldehydes and others. Ironically. neutralising agents such as lime are being added to lakes and soil to reduce acidity. animals and plants. Acid rain: Pure rain water is slightly acidic with a pH of from 6 to 5.0 2. ozone in the stratosphere is essential to life as we know it. HC (g/km) ADR 37/00 1997 ADR 37/01 1999 0. The problem of acid rain is being attacked in two ways. CO – carbon monoxide. as well as alcohols. buildings and people. new cars in Australia have had to have catalytic converters installed in their exhaust systems. protecting the earth from harmful ultraviolet light. Secondly.93 0. It can become more acidic due to fuel combustion and industrial processes which release compounds containing oxides of sulphur or nitrogen. ADR 37/00 will apply from 1997 for new models and ADR 3701 from 1999 for all existing passenger vehicles. Firstly. This means that a country or an area may have a clean environment but suffer the effects of pollution from other areas. both of which are harmful to soil. They occur in air mainly due to automotive fuels and industrial solvents.Volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a name given to hydrocarbons.3 2.1 NOx (g/km) 1. lakes. (The terms used in Table 2 are: HC – hydrocarbons. Acidic pollutants can travel thousands of kilometres in the air before they are deposited.0 Table 2 Design rules . VOCs and oxides of nitrogen form ozone which is a gas that is harmful to humans.61 EVAP HC (g/test) 2. Table 2 shows the tighter design rules (ADR 37/00 and ADR 37/01) for car exhaust that will be applied to passenger vehicles. Since 1986.
which are released by motor vehicles and industry. by the blood more readily than oxygen. Burning of fossil fuels. Lead Particles Motor vehicles. Exhaust gases from motor vehicles which use leaded petrol.Arial Arial bold Table 3 gives a summary of the major pollutants in the air. It can produce tiredness and headaches. difficulties and worsen bushfires. The lead can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. Table 3 Major air pollutants . burning Carbon monoxide is absorbed fossil fuels. Coal and oil burning Attacks the throat and lungs. respiratory diseases. thus reducing the amount of oxygen being carried through the body. Affects the throat and lungs. mineral ore processing and chemical manufacture. Some particles contain cancerproducing materials. power stations. Particles containing lead in the air can enter the lungs. Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Ozone Formed from nitrogen Ozone attacks the tissue of the oxides and hydrocarbons throat and lungs and irritates in sunny conditions the eyes. smelters. Pollutant Carbon monoxide Sources Health effects Car exhausts. their major sources and effects on health. Over a period lead can affect the nervous system and the body’s ability to produce blood. burning M a y cause breathing of plant materials.
91 1.7 0.7 1.5 18.1 NO x 2.com/fuels.0 14.22 0.22 0.4 1.2 4.0 9.8 4.htm>.2 VOC 2. Source category Mobile (transport) sources VOCS 83 820 NO x 83 480 CO 729 760 SO2 2 780 Domestic/commercial activity Industrial/commercial activity Annual Total (tonnes) 70 020 4 810 58 210 4 310 16 820 13 440 13 510 12 700 170 660 101 730 801 410 19 790 Table 4 Annual emission of pollutants from various sources in cities and major centres CO 2 Car Large Bus Average Bus Minibus Taxi Motorcycle 237 1035 670 944 330 119 CO 18. from the NSW Environmental Protection Authority based on research undertaken in 1992 in the Sydney Region gives the annual emission of pollutants from various sources in cities and major centres across Australia is extensive.50.pipex.8 17.5 2.7 14.dial. A copy of the article is also available at <www. .Table 4. All values are in tonnes.gda.7 2.6 1.0 SOx 0.5 17.43 0.06 Table 5 Emission rates for passenger vehicles (in grams per vehicle perkilometre) The figures given above are from a research project carried out on London's transport system by Wood in 1995 (1996).6 8.11 1.
the annual pollution is: 135 tonnes Fuel Costs: Each car travels 5 200 kilometres/year At a fuel economy rate of 1 litre per 10 kilometres. It would appear from these estimates and the community philosophy of attempting to become ‘clean and green’. The current transport vehicles are producing an excessive amount of pollutants as can be seen from the total emissions given at the bottom of the calculations section above. . In gross figures based on these estimates. The annual pollution therefore is: 5 200 x 0.260 = 1 352 kilograms/vehicle With 100 cars. Each vehicle travels 20 kilometres/day. which is 100 kilometres/week or 5 200 kilometres/year. and with 1 litre of fuel costing $1 The annual cost of fuel is: 100 cars = 520 000 kilometres 520 000/10 = 52 000 litres at $1/litre = $52 000 per year. transport between the town and the industrial centre is generating approximately 135 tonnes of pollution at an annual cost to workers of $52 000 in fuel costs.Arial Arial bold Calculations Pollution: Emission per vehicle equals 260 grams/kilometre travelled. Summary From the data in the table it is evident that pollutants caused by vehicle emissions are all harmful to the health of humans and to the environment in which they live. that there are alternative transport systems that are more appropriate.
A vehicle such as this should reduce localised pollution and be less expensive to run. as well as alcohols and aldehydes that occur mainly due to automotive fuels and industrial solvents aldehydes catalytic converter hydrocarbon neurological malfunction ozone particulate matter pH stratosphere vehicle emission volatile organic compounds . but are ‘suspended’ in a medium and may settle over time a measure of acidity from 1 to 7 that part of the atmosphere 10 – 40 km above the earth’s surface toxic gases emitted form the exhaust of cars a name given to hydrocarbons.Conclusions and recommendations The data indicates the current transport system using the internal combustion engine vehicle is producing a high level of pollution. Glossary acid rain acidic rainfall caused by the release into the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen any group of organic chemical compounds prepared by oxidation of primary alcohols device fitted to the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in order to reduce toxic emissions from the engine the basic molecules of fossil fuels. Forms a thin layer that protects the earth from ultraviolet rays small particles that may not be visible. This design should take advantage of alternative power sources such as electricity. made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms damage to the brain O3 – a form of oxygen with an extra atom caused by ultraviolet radiation or electrical discharge. It is recommended that an alternative transport vehicle be developed.
Arial Arial bold Appendices 90 80 70 70 80 Industrial area Residential area 80 90 70 70 80 90 100 90 80 70 60 70 80 90 100 Roadway Train track 0 Kilometres 0.1 Transport system .5 1 Figure 6.
Energy and power The terms ‘energy’ and ‘power’ are often used interchangeably. Energy is the total amount of work done and is measured in Joules. ‘Sustainable’ energy generally refers to the impact of a given technology on the environment.Arial Arial bold Preparation for your report Alternative power vehicles The community has decided to research a pollution-free strategy to move people to and from their work place. In New South Wales the majority of power is generated in coal-fired power stations. To power these vehicles a suitable source of pollution free energy will need to be identified. we must be sure we know exactly what we are referring to when it comes to calculations! ‘Pollution free’ power The term ‘alternative energy’ indicates that the source of energy is other than the most commonly used. The difference is the time. wind power from Kooragang Island near Newcastle. solar power from farms such as that near Singleton and land fill gas derived plants such as at Lucas Heights – are all alternatives to coal-fired plants. ‘sustainable’ or ‘green’ energy. Often the term ‘pollution free’ is synonymous with ‘alternative’.au/ >(accessed 01/08/03). If you have access to the internet you may like to visit the following sites for further information on alternate sources of energy: <http://www. We should be aware that power is the rate at which work can be done and is measured in Watts. The other sources of power – hydro systems in the Snowy Mountains.eneergy. Alternately.com. Energy is the product of power and time. While we have vast reserves of coal in New South Wales – quite enough to provide power for many years to come – the effects of burning that coal may not be sustainable. In most cases we understand what is meant when we use both energy and power in general conversation. The combustion process generates substantial quantities of carbon dioxide that can have Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 17 . not the energy. Due to costs. the current infrastructure (the road) will need to be the used with ‘greener’ vehicles. power is the rate of delivery of energy. However. Example: a person who runs 10 kms uses the same energy as a person who walks 10 kms.
State where the plant is. Sources: <www.au/environment/pureenergy. List examples of four types of sustainable energy as used in Australia. coal fired power stations might be considered not ‘sustainable’. 22 metres. 66 kW. how much power is generated. this number of passengers does not make allowance for an energy source to power the vehicle! There will be less passengers once we include the energy source into the total weight calculation. passengers and the energy source. and often used by the popular media to describe alternative or sustainable energy sources. 3 blades. that the vehicle could carry a total of: 1200 kg divided by 70 kg/passenger = 17. methane gas from landfill. 2 Wind turbine – Kooragang Island. ‘Green’ energy is another term for the same technologies. The payload is the amount of weight the vehicle can carry in addition to the weight of the vehicle itself.energy. 80 silicone solar cells. Vestas V44 turbine. In that sense.harmful effects on the atmosphere. 4 Bio-mass – Bare Creek Sydney.1 passengers (We'd better call that 17 passengers. 1 generator.com. for example. since finding 0. Let us assume that the driver and passengers have an average weight of 70 kgs.1 passengers to make up the difference could be difficult!) However. 6 500 watts. and how the power is used.5 MW. 3 Hydro power – Glenbawn Dam. This vehicle has a single 12 Volt electric motor rated at 18 kW already fitted to a suitable transmission. 5. The vehicle also has a total payload capacity of 1200 kgs.asap> A prototype electric vehicle The company has agreed to purchase one prototype electric vehicle to allow us to experiment. 2 turbines. 1 2 3 4 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? 1 Solar energy – Newcastle foreshore. This payload is to include a driver. 4 MW. This means. 18 Personal and public transport .
solar and hydro generation are all used or under development in Australia. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Solar panels have no moving parts. However.aeva.08. wind. The Australian Electric Vehicle Association has its own web site at: <http://www. Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 19 . the term 'photovoltaic cells' refers to the thin semiconductor wafers that do the actual energy conversion. The photovoltaic cell mounted in its frame is often called a ‘solar panel’ or ‘solar cell’. Consequently. The cells are blue/black in colour. In practice. Consider fitting our electric vehicle with direct solar power: that is. with solar panels connected to the motor via a speed controller. Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy (from the sun) directly into electricity. Of these types of sustainable energy. Tidal. Strictly speaking. There are already many solar powered vehicles in development and in use today. therefore are low maintenance and sunlight is available most days. tidal/hydro need to be near water and wind requires appropriate geographical position. the cells are mounted in aluminum frames (for lightness) and covered in glass for protection.03).au/>(accessed 01. solar power is probably the best suited to mounting on a vehicle. these structures are very brittle and need to be mounted in something more solid for use in normal applications. Each has its own benefits in particular situations. Explain why you think solar power is the most appropriate for use in an electric vehicle.asn.Arial Arial bold Which is the best source of power for the electric vehicle? There are many sources of alternative or sustainable energy. Power from solar energy The key component in a solar powered system is the photovoltaic cell.
You will probably have seen solar panels in use. They are found attached to cars and boats, street lighting, on roofs of houses and other buildings, or even at solar energy farms, usually aligned to face the strongest sunlight. a b c Identify a particular application of solar electrical generation near you. _______________________________________________________ Describe how the photovoltaic cells are mounted. _______________________________________________________ Indicate what the electricity generated is used for. _______________________________________________________ There is also quite a deal of research being conducted into the development of photovoltaic cells, and particularly into making them more efficient. Typical photovoltaic cells have maximum efficiencies of only about 20 percent – that is, only 20 percent of the solar energy that illuminates the cell is available as electrical energy. The efficiency is dependent on factors such as: • • • operating temperature (the cooler the better) intensity of solar illuminance cleanliness of the solar panel.
State the maximum efficiency obtained from photovoltaic cells. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? The maximum efficiency of solar cells is about 20%.
The most efficient cells in the world are made in Australia! Much ground breaking work has been undertaken by researchers at the University of New South Wales where they have developed solar cells that are 24.7% efficient. How much solar power is required?
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Getting back to our electric vehicle: can you calculate how many solar cells are needed to power our motor? Table 1 shows various parameters relating to a range of commercial solar panels available in Australia.
Model Number SX85 SX80 SX75 SX65 SX60 SX55 SX50 SX40 SX30 SX20 SX10 SX5 Current (Amps) 4.97 4.75 4.54 3.77 3.56 3.33 2.97 2.37 1.78 1.19 0.59 0.27 Power (Watts) 85 80 75 65 60 55 50 40 30 20 10 5 Length mm 1456 1456 1456 1110 1110 1110 939 767 594 424 421 250 Width mm 502 502 502 502 502 502 502 502 502 502 269 269 Weight kg 9.50 9.50 9.50 7.20 7.20 7.20 5.70 4.90 3.50 2.50 1.50 0.80
Table 1 Solar panel characteristics
Determine the approximate power developed per square metre of solar panel using the data in Table 1 model number SX80. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? Using SX80 with a power of 80W and area = 1.456 m x 0.502 m = 0.73 m2 Power per square metre of panel =
Part 6: Transport systems – engineering
Recall that the motor we want to supply is rated at 18 kW. We can now calculate how many square metres of solar panels are required to supply the necessary power to drive our motor. Determine how many solar panels are required to supply 18kW using the SX80 panel and the information derived in the previous exercise. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Don't be surprised if the number you obtain seems unrealistic!
Assume that the electric vehicle made available to us is the size of a small mini-bus. Sketch the electric vehicle with the required area of solar cells attached. Remember that the panels should be oriented towards the sun for maximum efficiency.
Did you answer? The SX80 model provides 110/m 2 Total area required = 18000 110
= 164 m2 if each panel has an area of 0.73 m2 then the number of panels = = 164 0.73 225 panels
Note: panels could not be inclined to the direction of sunlight.
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5m Figure 6.2
Outline why you think this vehicle is not a feasible proposition. __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? The panel area is too large.
How many passengers? Let’s continue with the concept of the solar powered vehicle for a moment longer. Now that you have figured out how many solar panels you will need, you can calculate the total weight of the solar panels, and therefore how much weight carrying capacity is left for the passengers. (Remember the total payload of driver plus passengers plus energy source is 1200 kgs.) a State the total weight of the solar panels that you have decided will need to be used. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Indicate the number of passengers the vehicle can carry without exceeding the 1200 kg capacity. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
Did you answer? a SX80 No of panels Weight per panel Total weight = = = 0.73 = 225 9.5 kg 2138 kg
Part 6: Transport systems – engineering
Nil 2138 kg is greater than the capacity of 1200 kg
Again, don't be alarmed if the outcome seems unworkable. We now have a couple of reasons to explore other approaches!
Concentrating the energy into a smaller space
You probably discovered that the total weight of solar panels required exceeds the payload of the vehicle! And that is even without carrying any passengers! There is also the problem of powering the vehicle on cloudy days, or even at night! There must be a better way! Mounting the solar panels directly onto the vehicle means that the panels have to generate the electrical power at the same instant and same rate that it is consumed. If there was a way in which we could generate energy, store that energy until it is needed, and then use it later, we might be able to make the system work! Furthermore, we might not have to generate the energy at the rate we use it, because we could save up energy over a long period, then use it up in a shorter period. That might lead to weight or space savings on our vehicle! You have probably already thought of a way to store electrical energy: batteries.
Storing electrical energy in batteries
Strictly speaking, batteries do not store electrical energy. Instead, the energy is converted from electrical energy into chemical energy as the battery is being charged. The chemical energy is stored in various forms in different types of batteries – lead/acid, lithium, nickel/cadmium and so on. The energy is converted back from chemical to electrical energy when the battery is discharged. There is also much work being done to develop new battery technologies for electric vehicles. If you have access to the Internet visit the following site for further information on the many applications of batteries: <http://www.batteryallsorts.com.au> (accessed 01.08.03).
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State the aspects of battery construction and performance are being investigated for use in electric vehicles. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? • reliability • life cycle – maintenance free • increased battery energy • efficient battery plates • faster battery recharging.
Lead acid batteries Of all the technologies currently available, lead/acid batteries are the most economical due to the mass production techniques used in their manufacture. (This will almost certainly change as new battery technologies are proven and adopted.) Let us focus on these types for our electric vehicle. There are several types of lead/acid batteries available to us: automotive, marine, deep cycle, industrial. All of these use the same basic construction and chemical process to store energy. The differences in them reflect the different applications in which they are used. A car battery, for example, is required to provide large amounts of power for relatively short durations (that is, when the starter motor is being used to start the car). On the other hand, a car battery can be significantly degraded if it is allowed to run flat. This is not normally a problem though, as most cars have good charging systems to put the energy back into the battery as soon as the engine is running. A deep cycle battery has a slightly different internal construction (thicker lead plates) which allows it to give up more of its stored energy without being damaged. The downside is that these types of batteries cannot produce the same amount of short term power as a comparable car battery. Deep cycle batteries are designed for use where the battery has to supply power for extended periods between charging.
Part 6: Transport systems – engineering
Explain why you think a car battery or a deep cycle battery would be best for our electric vehicle application. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
Did you answer? A deep cycle battery would be best because of the constant power over longer periods and no high peak starting requirements.
Measuring battery capacities
Batteries come in many different sizes. What sized battery do we need for your electric vehicle? How many batteries will you need? Before you can answer these questions, you need to understand how battery sizes are measured. Obviously all batteries have physical dimensions – length, width, height and weight. Batteries are also measured in terms of their electrical storage capacity. Because car batteries and deep cycle batteries are used in different applications, their electrical storage capacities are stated in different ways. Car batteries are measured in terms of the ‘cranking current’ (CA) or ‘cold cranking current’ (CCA). This is a measure of how much current they can deliver for a short period of time. The distinction between CA and CCA is the temperature at which the test is done. Batteries perform better at lower temperatures, and the CCA is invariably higher than the CA figure. Deep cycle batteries are measured in terms of their ‘ampere hour’ capacities. This is a measure of the product of current and time. For example, a capacity of 100 ampere hours means that the battery can (theoretically) deliver 100 amperes for 1 hour, or 10 amperes for 10 hours, or 1 ampere for 100 hours. There are of course limits, it is unlikely that a 100 ampere hour battery will be able to deliver 1000 amperes for 0.1 hours. The most common figure used to determine the capacity of deep cycle batteries is the ampere hours delivered over a 20 hour period. This is often referred to as the C20HR rating. Other figures sometimes quoted are the C5HR or C2HR ratings – these are the battery ampere hour capacities delivered over a five hour or two hour period respectively.
Personal and public transport
The motor voltage is 12 V. Indicate the corresponding motor current. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 27 . you can work out what battery capacity you need. this information will give us the maximum amp hours. In your calculations you will assume that the electric motor is running at full power all of the time.Arial Arial bold Indicate the measure of battery capacity most appropriate for determining its suitability for our electric vehicle application. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? If we assume the vehicle is running at maximum power. Will this assumption give you the minimum or maximum ampere hours that will be drawn from the battery. Calculating the number and size of batteries required The motor power is 18 kW. If you know how long you want the vehicle to run for between rechargings. Note: more ‘time’ will be available if the battery is not used at full power. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Amp hours – this tells us how long the battery will provide power current while ranking current only indicates the maximum power.
Using the motor current calculated above. Also note the weight of each battery. calculate the ampere hour rating of the battery (or batteries) you will require for the vehicle (allow an outward journey of 45 mins and a return journey of 45 mins).5 hours = 2 250 amp hours Often it is impractical to use a single battery for large loads. together with the number of hours you expect the vehicle to run between charges. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Total running time = 45 min + 45 min = 90 min = 1. In such cases it is more convenient to use a number of smaller batteries. and what type they are using the data from the following web page.Did you answer? Current = Power Voltage 18000 12 1 500 amps = = How many hours do you expect the vehicle to run for between charges? Note there is no right or wrong answer here . 28 Personal and public transport .it is simply your own opinion of how long the vehicle should be able to run without having to stop to charge the batteries.5 hr Amp hour rating = Battery current x hours in use = 1 500 x 1. Determine how many batteries you will require. Don't forget – you need 12 V batteries.
3 Web page Remember that the total payload for the vehicle is 1200 kgs.3 batteries 18 batteries Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 29 . ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Choosing a SSB12/3 gives the greatest amps Hours/kilograms Need 2 250 amp hours 2 250 \ = = = 130a amp / hours / battery 17.Arial Arial bold CODE SSB6/1 SSB6/2 SSB12/1 SSB12/2 SSB12/3 SSB24/1 SSB224/2 VOLTAGE 6 6 12 12 12 24 24 Amps C5Hr 80 100 30 115 150 160 200 Amps C2Hr 70 83 26 100 130 120 187 LENGTH 215 304 213 237 237 450 435 WIDTH 202 173 195 210 230 230 250 WEIGHT 15.9 24 22 26 28 43 44 Figure 6.
change them. (This is often the case where there is no singular correct solution.State how many passengers can the vehicle carry given the total battery weight calculated above. and recalculate the answer.) 30 Personal and public transport . and many possible options have to be explored. In these cases you have to go back to some assumptions you made. Don't forget about the driver! __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? 18 batteries Each weighs 28 kg \ total = 18 x 28 = 504 kg Maximum payload – battery weight = 1 200 – 504 = 696 kg Passangers = 696 = 10 passangers (9 + driver) 70 Sometimes you don't always make the best judgements first time.
Using the available remaining payload capacity for the batteries. Recharging the batteries Obviously we will have to recharge the vehicle batteries at some stage. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 31 . Because we know that the battery operates at 12 volts.Arial Arial bold Recalculating battery requirements Suppose you are told that the vehicle must carry at least five people (driver plus four passengers). calculate the maximum range in hours of running you can obtain using the same. batteries to those used previously. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ If the motor is not at full power all of the time. or different. will the maximum range actually be greater or less than the figure you have just calculated? __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Greater. 1 How many Watt hours are required to recharge the batteries? Hint: remember Watts are the product of volts and amperes. How much will it cost? We have already calculated the required energy storage capacity of the battery in ampere hours. we can work out the total energy required to recharge the batteries.
Joules is often the measurement for energy. Sometimes. 32 Personal and public transport . in applications involving electrical energy. and that there are 3600 seconds in an hour.2 How many Joules are required to recharge the batteries? Hint: remember that Joules are equivalent to Watt seconds. you use Watt hours. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? 1 Battery capacity Battery voltage = 18 x 130 = 2 340 amp hours =12 V Total energy to recharge =2 340 x 12 = 28 080 amp volt hours =28 080 watt hours =28 kW hours 2 Energy required =28 080 watt hours = 28 080 watt hours x 60 minutes/hour = 1 684 800 watt minutes x 60 seconds/minutes = 1.01 x 108 watt seconds = 1. or kiloWatt hours (abbreviated as kWhrs).01 x 108 Joules = 101 MJ In physics.
15 cents/kWhr = = = Cost of recharge = 28 080 watt hours 28 kWhr 10.15 cents $2. Does it measure energy consumption in Joules or kWhrs? How much are you charged per unit of energy? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2 If you had to charge the batteries in the electric vehicle from your domestic supply. You have also worked through the notes on the use of solar energy and electric vehicles. Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 33 . how much would it cost for one full charge? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Did you answer? 1 kWhrs Total charge 2 Energy Cost/kWhr = 10.Arial Arial bold 1 Find a copy of your household electricity bill.85 cents You have read the engineering report analysing the transport system based on private vehicles using petrol engines. It is now time to begin your report.
34 Personal and public transport .
In your report you should identify: • • • • • number and type of batteries required on board the bus to meet the expected running times number of passengers that can be carried on each trip (assume an average weight of 75 kgs per passenger. the data used for those calculations and the source of that data sketches of the electrically powered bus showing relative space available for driver. at an average speed of 40 kph. The minibus is based on a 12 volt 18 kW motor and has an available payload of 2 400 kg (twice that available in the previous work). Two runs will be made before 8:00 am and two runs after 4:00 pm. Your report should include: • • calculations used to design the vehicle’s energy system. size and power rating of the solar panels required to charge the batteries during the day or during the night. During the trial period.Arial Arial bold Exercises Exercise 6.1 A company has decided to sponsor a solar electric transport system using an electric powered minibus with batteries charged by solar energy. and don’t forget to include a driver) number. • Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 35 . the vehicle is expected to run the 20 km round trip four times per day. conclusion. abstract and references. total amount of electrical energy used in one year to power the electric vehicle an estimate of the amount of pollution avoided through not using petrol powered vehicles and how many journeys those vehicles would have made. passengers and batteries (you will need to note the dimensions of the batteries used) the usual headings employed in an engineering report. including an introduction.
36 Personal and public transport .Present your report following the structure of the sample engineering report.
Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 37 .1 Name: _________________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercise? ❒ Exercise 6. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses as you complete each part of the module. Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip. 1 • • • • • • • • • title abstract introduction analysis result summary conclusions acknowledgments bibliography appendices.Arial Arial bold Exercise cover sheet Exercises 6.
38 Personal and public transport .
Refer to <http://www. I have learnt to: • • work with others and appreciate the value of collaborative working complete an engineering report based on the analysis and synthesis of an aspect of personal and public transport using appropriate software and computer assisted drawing.nsw.au> for original and current documents.boardofstudies. © Board of Studies. 1999. Part 6: Transport systems – engineering 39 . NSW. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement. You have also learned about how to analyse a transport system. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Congratulations! You have completed Personal and public transport.edu. CD-ROM and libraries [working] collaboratively when appropriate engineering report writing. you have gained more practice in writing and researching for an engineering report.Arial Arial bold Progress check In this part. ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ ✓ ❏ Agree – well done Disagree – revise your work Uncertain – contact your teacher Agree Uncertain Disagree I have learnt about: • • • research methods including the internet.
1974.org.enternet. Basford.dbce.org. S. Transistways.Bibliography Amp D1 Brake System. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. 1966. Ballantine.htm Construction Methods. Richards’ ultimate bicycle book.au/~cbrnbill/maps / Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Board of Studies NSW. http://www. Assessment and Reporting. Composites Extend the Life of Concrete Structures . 1999.html> Board of Studies. The Australian automotive industry – history of innovation . Marston and Co. 1999.A.au/inno-web/1099/transistways.htm Australian Concept Car Project.au/road/stats/timefatl. <http://www. Engineering Technology. 1992. Board of Studies.htm Australian Rail Maps.cn/news/m39.html 41 . Bicycle Wheel Manufacturing and Composition.com. L. Road fatalities – time series statistics.P. www. SPI Composites Institute. Board of Studies NSW. http://www. R. and Barno. and Kogan. Sydney. 1996. Sydney. J.nsw.edu/MSM/dept/KWON/wheel. http://amp-research.egr.wittbicycles.austemb. Board of Studies NSW. Busel. Stage 6 Engineering Stuidies Support Document. The Australian automotive industry – history of innovation .austemb. 1999.cfm Avner. Australian passenger rail service developments. McGraw-Hill. Sydney. Stage 6 Engineering Stuidies Syllabus. http://www. D.gov. Parramatta rail link. London. City Rail NSW. Singapore. R.cn/news/m39.csiro. Sydney. P.au/projects/parramatta_raillink.msu.gov.com/constructionmethods. http://people. http://www.htm Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. http://www. R D Press. and Grant.com Australian Concept Car Project.atsb.cityrail. Sampson Low. Board of Studies. Stage 6 Engineering Stuidies Examination.
aardvarkcycles. 1992. Properties of Engineering Materials. Tokyo. http://www. http://www. 42 . London. John.V. How High-Speed Trains Make Tracks. Desh. Timber: Its Structure and Properties. CollinsEducational. 1972. http://www. Motor vehicle studies. R. R. Asphalt – Pocket Reference for Highway Engineers. 1970. Harding.com Geotex Geotextiles.W. New York. Guy. Materials and Processes in Manufacturing. Materials. Macmillan.com/bicycle. B.C. Higgins. MacMillan.ksa.P. Troxell and Wiskocil. & Griffiths. http://hydroweave. E. D. DeGarmo. The Wonderful World of Engineering. McGraw-Hill. Hibbler. Hydroweave – The fabric designed with cool in mind. Science Press. 1964.com Jackson.G. How bicycles work. MacMillan.com. P. Introduction to Materials Science. http://geplastics. London. London. Introduction to Engineering Materials.com. 1989. London. L.htm Hubbard. Edward Arnold.B. London. Macmillan. 1974.govt. and Gray. Cranks and Chain Rings – Aardvark Cycles. http://www.fixsoil. 1969.nasa. A. R. The Testing and Inspection of Engineering Materials .com How Stuff Works. Macdonald.com Davis. Materials for the Engineering Technician. 1991. http://corrosion. T. Hewitt.Corrosion in Concrete.howstuffworks. Engineering Mechanics – Statics.com/whatsnew. 1992. 1985. 1966. The Asphalt Institute. McGraw-Hill. R. London.htm Holden. http://www.didyouknow.sciam.nilex. 1937. Roadway Construction .A. Tokyo. High Speed Trains. Edward Arnold.E. GE Plastics – Product Portfolio. A Guide to Engineering Mechanics. 1987. H. http://www. London. Geotextile Applications. Longman. D. Higgins.A.E.
html Scientific American. http://www. London. http://www. 1974.uk/lt/fact_21. Engineering Mechanics. Roads and Traffic Authority NSW. B. Government Printers. http://www. Sydney Rochford. Introduction to Materials Science. 1999.railwaytechnology. B.R.htm Materials. UK. 1977.doe.com/1197issue/1097wouk. http://www. 2000.htm Railway Technology. Occupational Health and Safety Act 200 No 4. Sydney. Olympic Park station and rail link. http://www.Lafferty. RTA. Longman. The Story of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.com/materials. http://www. Olympic Co-ordination Authority.html MatWeb.com/1196sperling. and Jefferis.edu Scientific American. 1990. P. Light rail. Schlenker. Wiley. Schlenker. Sydney.nsw. Science of Cycling. Sydney. J. Big wheels Roads & Traffic Authority. Jacaranda Press.shimano. 1989.oca. Gosford. 1983. B.com Office of Transportation Technologies. Hybrid electric vehicle program. http://www.exploratorium. http://www.ott. Sydney light rail . and McKern. Introduction to Materials Science.html Shimano.wittbicycles. Engineering Studies – Student’s Handbook. Schlenker.K. 2000. http://www. R. 1990. KJS Publications.sciam. NSW. RTA.londontransport.htm Pedaling History. Pedal power – The story of the bicycle.pedalinghistory. D. National Centre for Excellence in Metalworking Technology.gov. London Transport. Jacaranda Press.com 43 .sciam. Material Standards for Powder Metallurgy Alloys.com Mullins.com/projects/sydney/ Repco.ctc. www. http://www.co. The Online Materials Information Resource. Hybrid electric vehicles. Action for bikes – BikePlan 2010 NSW.gov/hev/ NSW Government.matweb. Introduction to Engineering Mechanics. D. http://www. Franklin Watts.au/HBB_Trans_Olympicstation. 1983.com/Phbikbio. A quick history of bicycles.ncemt. Sydney. The case for electric vehicles.
com. Penguin Books Ltd. 1975. 1973. 1993. Watson.org. E. http://www. http://www.com The Correspondence School. http://unioncarbide.Siemens – High Speed Trains. A Textbook of Materials Technology. http://www. London. Walker.com Sydney Morning Herald. K.trekbikes. 1978.railpage. Sydney. http://www. Redfern. Sakoga. 1984. O. Middlesex. A . The age of cars. http://www. XPT Design and Construction. Construction Science – Books 1 & 3. Gray.Performance Fabric Division. L. The penguin book of the bicycle.synthetic.and Barry. Fundamentals of Engineering Mechanics. Learning Materials Production Centre. Engineering Science – 2 Unit Course. 1973. Light rail for inner west .thomasregister. Hutchinson. R. Ward-Harvey. Union Carbide.au/news/9811/10/pageone/pageone6. Addison-Wesley. Cheshire The Carbon Fibre Revolution. http://calfeedesign.au 44 .American Cycle Technology. S.com Twite.com Taylor.com. Massachusetts. M.html Synthetic Industries . Trek . Product Catalogue. and Morgan. Fundamental Building Materials.smh. London. 1997 Van Vlack.H.siemens. Hamlyn Publishing Group. 1975. M. Waterloo Wisconsin. Trek Bicycle Corporation. 1999.
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