Rome Study Sheet | Constantine The Great | Augustus

Made by Alex Hilger

M r . Ma l R om e Qu i z I d e nt i fi c a t i on s
Second Triumphant = Made up of Octavian, Antony & Lepidus (formed by them for mutual gain), deals with the assassins of Caesar Augustus = aka Octavian was the nephew of Caesar and heir to power when Caesar dies Lepidus = influential politician added to make Triumvirate Antony = Joined second triumphant and was one of Caesars best generals (Thinks that should have gotten throne) Title of Princepes = way of being a dictator but, not called one. Powers of tribune, supreme military command and used till fall of Rome Bureaucracy = day to day jobs in the gov. “Panem et Circenses” = Augustus’s (or Octavian’s) slogan, Food and Entertainment free to public Pontifex Maximus = Head of Roman state religion Julia = daughter of Augustus, playgirl, banished from kingdom Gaius Maecenas = Talent Scout for Augustus Ovid = Scouted out for talent Livy = Scouted out for talent Virgil = Wrote the Aeneid Pharaoh = ruler of Egypt Quintilius Varus = General, arrogant, fights Germanic tribes, 3 legions die under his rule Jesus = Born Bethlehem, Parents Joseph & Mary, Baptized in Jordan River by John the Baptist, arrested during last supper, killed on cross, Romans accused him sedition, Jews blasphemy Tiberius = Augustus’ stepson, marr ied Julia (before banished), used lex maiestatis Vispsania Agrippina = pregnant wife of Tib Lex maiestatis = People are punished for saying bad things about the emperor 1

Made by Alex Hilger Sejanus = Tiberius’ trusted friend, empire turned over to him, abuses power, killed Tiberius’ son, Tiberius get him killed Caligula = crazy man, brain fried, got killed, no respect for senate , tried to invade Brittan with no boats Claudius = Praetorian guard makes him emperor, Augustus not want him scene in public, was sequestered and turns to school, conquers Brittan, Killed by Locusta Julia Agrippina = 4th wife of Claudius, son Nero, unpleasant woman, bullied Claudius into adopting Nero, hired Locusta to poison Claudius Nero = kills mom, maries Claudius’ daughter Octavia, best known f or great fire of Rome, people said that he played a lyre and danced while fire burned, he was 35 miles away when it happened and he helped victoms Locusta = poisoned Claudius Great Fire of Rome = Fire that burned in Rome during the rule of Nero, Christians blamed and terribly persecuted, St. Peter and Paul die, after fire Nero rebuilds grander Vespasian = restores power to senate, reorganizes army, begins Coliseum, taxes everything, puts Rome back on good financial basis Titus = puts down rebellion in Judea kills over 600,000 Jews, destroys temple in Jerusalem, finishes Coliseum Pompeii = city destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius Herculaneum = city destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius Domitian = bad a Nero, ruled 15 years, paranoid and had huge spy system, had women trouble, divorced Donaitia Longia and she later kills him Nerva = fixed gov. finances, begins policy of adopting heir, first of 5 great emperors Trajan = good military commander, extends borders farther than ever before, keeps close eye on administrators in conquered areas Hadrian = Platina nurses Trajan in final days and when he dies she says he made Hadrian the emperor, Pulled back borders (to hard to defend) , builds a wall in Brittan 73 miles long, Fixes up Jerusalem (calls it Aelia Capitolina), creates anti-jew laws and people rebel, He dies Antonius Pius = never left Rome, peace during reign, did not like killing, restricted torture of slaves in trials, penalties for adultery made same for men 2

Made by Alex Hilger and women, established fund in honor of dead wife to educate young gir ls, made severe punishments for an owner who kills a slave Marcus Aurelius = Well educated and trained, married Antonus Pius’ daughter Faustina, had many children most die in child birth, spent whole reign putting down revolts and holding Barbarians, Germa nic tribes get into northern Italy but army made (using draft), sold palace to raise money, maps out careful campaign, drives them back, there are smaller invasions but they held back, writes book while campaigning Meditations, 5 great emperors = Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius Commodus = Bored with being emperor, loved fighting in the arena, killed by concubine Marcela, she criticized his behavior, Century of Chaos = 100 years when there was no distinct leader of Rome for more than 5 years Septimus Severus = wins auction of being emperor of Rome, rules with iron fist, like communism, gives empire to his 2 sons Caracalla and Geta = sons of Septimus Severus, both get throne, hate each other, Palace divided in 2, Caracalla kil ls Geta and kills many of Geta’s supporters, builds a triumphal arch i n fathers name and public baths Elagatalus = claimed Caracalla was father, and got throne, tries to change state religion, married a vestal virgin, angered people, created a senate for women, spent a lot on luxuries, soldiers kill him Alexander Severus = authority of senate was restored, thought he was great, taxes reduced, prostitutes arrested, Coliseum restored, thought he was equivalent to Alexander the Great Verus Maximus = huge man, over 8 feet tall, strong man, no formal education, never saw Rome, ruled for 3 years, murdered in tent while sleeping by his own men Age of Anarchy = starts after death of Verus Maximus, lots of chaos Diocletian = wins position of emperor, made way up the ranks, talented/ruthless, Wars go well, Persians driven out of Mesopotamia, personal freedoms eliminated, huge bureaucracy created, industries taken over by gov., people leave, becomes communism, tortured people for info, excuse “Barbarians might attack” breaks empire into 2 parts East and West, Felt Rome was to far out of the way, Fixed problem of succession, he and Maximilian retire after 20 years, both would get title of Augustus Maximilian = get half of the empire


Made by Alex Hilger Constantine = problems start at start of succession, Constantine + Galerius assume title of augustus, Constantine wins in the end, becomes a Christian, sees cross in the sky and makes people paint crosses on their shields Licinius = wins half of empire, revokes Edict of Mullan, in his half of empire Christians persecuted some bishops switch faiths to live Edict of Mullan = created to help christens by Constantine, law, war breaks out over this, Constantine wins! Donatus = Bishop of Carthage, says all things done by bishops that switched are revoked (baptisms, marriage, ext.), Big meeting held in Arles with Constantine and they say evil people can still do good things Athanasius = disagreed with Arius Arius = claimed Christ is not eternal, bishop of Alexandria throws him out of Church, problem continues, Constantine steps in Council of Nicea = lots of bishops attended, 2 sides give their case, council votes Athanasius, Arius and followers of him thrown out Helena = mother of Constantine and sometimes Christianity, Creates church of Holy Sepulcher on Jesus’ tomb , Has chapel built over Christ’s birth site Crispus = Constantine’s Child from Mineva that would not help Constantine politically so he devorces and goes to Flavia Mazima Fausta, grows up helping Constantine with battles for the thr one, rumor goes out the Crispus seduced Flavia, he gets poisoned, then Minerva tells Constantine that it was Flavia that seduced Crispus, Flavia roasted to death Constantinople (Istanbul) = originally called new Rome, made by Constantine, on shores of Bosporus; great harbor, Natural crossroads, good place to face barbarian threat, to ties to old Pagan religion, city dedicated to Trinity & Virgin Mary, Good craftsmen and goodies from Rome were brought here Julian = Gets empire after Constantine because all o ther heirs die, was know as Julian the apostate (deserting religion), banished from capital and taught in Athens, embraced Pagan religion, Felt Pagans were more polished, cultured, merciful, became Governor of Gaul, Huns come, He Gaul’s people in the way so he gets them to fight for him or they all die and he defends from the Huns, asked to take army and fight Persia, says no because people enlist to defend homes, becomes emperor Bishop Jeorge = makes fun of Pagan religion and they kill him Jovian = Restores religion to Christianity, Huns move west and he lets the Visigoths come inside the borders of Rome to hide with no weapons, Corrupt


Made by Alex Hilger Roman Officials Plunder the Visigoths settlements and then the Visigoths rebel Alaric = emerges as leader of Visigoths, s acked Rome, Rome pays ransom to not be destroy of crazy fees, He leaves then comes back, Rome does not pay second time, Rome plundered, many things plundered, many killed, works of art melted down for metals, Churches of St. Peter and Paul not hurt at all , 1000’s of prisoners taken , legend has it he was buried under Busento river with many riches Adolf= Alaric’s brother in-law, forms Visigoth kingdom of Gaul Attila and the Huns = Nasty people, move across empire west, from Mongolia, great horse riders, Huns feared, Marries Ildico (girl he likes) dies after wedding from nose bleed Battle of Troyes = Huns vs. Romans and Visigoths, Huns retreat Pope Leo = Saves Rome, talks to the Huns, Pope Leo make Huns go away , Also makes deal with Gaiseric take what you want but no murder, no rape, no torture, no fire, Gaiseric agrees Vandals = Group of people who rampage though Rome, word vandal comes from them, take all of North Africa Gaiseric = Leader of Vandals, bastard son of slave, had lame leg, good negotiator/ warrior, sacks Rome, builds a huge pirate fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, Situation in Rome chaotic Romulus Augustulus = last leader of Rome, 14 years old, Barbarians tribes come, Romulus Augustulus overthrown, Barbarians feel sorry for him and let him live under house arrest for the rest of his life and give him a villa 476 FALL OF WEST ROME Reasons Rome survived so long 1) 2) 3) 4) Language Government Architecture Art

As political ties break cultural ties remain

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