Earlier, organizational management gave very little importance to communication in an organization. But later studies discovered and emphasized the importance of organizational communication as it was communication that bound the personnel in an organization and linked them to their goals. An organizational communication network consists of the normal communication patterns developed between and among the people in an organization. In a large organization there could several channels of communication that are interconnected and have a vast network. This network is used to share knowledge, skills and experience. It is also used to activate personnel, provide guidance, restore confidence and help them achieve their goals.



 Management can use one or more channels in order to communicate with employees and obtain a feedback.  Some experts prefer to use the phrase “lines of communication” instead of “channels of communication”, and perhaps they are right for while describing these channels we use words to show the direction in which a line would move.  A general remark that can be made about channels is that efficient managements will try to keep them as short as possible.  Long channels of communication create more chances of original message to be distorted and misrepresented.





 FORMAL COMMUNICATION : Formal communication can be can be defined as, “A
presentation or written piece that strictly adheres to rules, convention, and ceremony, and is free of colloquial expression”.

 Formal communication is that which is connected with the
formal organizational arrangement and the official status or the place of the communicator and the receiver.

 Formal communications are mostly in writing and are written
in black and white.


 Media for formal communication are company newsletter,
employee handbook, brochure, memos, fax, etc.

 Advantages of formal

 It helps in fixation of responsibility.  It also helps in maintenance of the authority relationship in an organization.

 Generally time consuming.  Leads to a good deal of distortion of time.



 A newsletter may be issued externally or it may take the form of an in-house newsletter. COMPANYNEWSLETTER:-  It is an informal publication. or house journal. issued periodically by an organization or agency to provide information to a particular audience. 6 . used to aid the internal communication process.  It is becoming more common for newsletters to be issued in electronic information.

COMPANY NEWSLETTER  Employee HANDBOOKS:-  A document that includes information that employees may need to refer frequently in order to meet the terms and condition of their employment.  The Handbook/Manual is a statement of the polices of the business and how the business is to be conducted.  The company employee handbook is one of the most important communication tools between your company and employees. 7 .

 Not only does it set forth company expectations for employees. formal. the atmosphere in such meetings is generally somber.  As the title suggests.  It has a predetermined set of topics that one wishes to discuss along with a set of objectives that one wishes to achieve at the end of a meeting. but it also describes what they can expect from the company. EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK  Formal meeting:-  A formal meeting is a preplanned meeting. 8 .

however.  They are best used today when one wants to convey important. and other kinds of special announcements. promotions. making them a special message. awards and honors.  Today print letters are still used as advertising tools.FORMAL MEETING  Letters:-  Letters are primarily printed. formal business documents. the most effective ones are hose that individually customized. such as job offers or refusals. 9 . no routine information.

often designing the visual layout as carefully as they compose the text of the content.  Writers lay out the information carefully.LETTER  Brochure:-  Writers usually create brochures to provide information on a product or service. 10 .  This lean channel works effectively when one-way communication in a visual medium is needed.

 However. designed to be read quickly and passed along rapidly.BROCHURE  Memos:-  A memo is a no-nonsense professional document.  Memos can be used as formal as a business letter and used to present a report. 11 . Because generally memos are send to co-workers and colleagues. the heading and overall tone make a memo different from a business letter.

MEMOS  FAX:-  Fax is a telecommunication technology used to transfer copies of documents.  It is generally used to send documents to people at large distance. 12 .


 Vertical communication is critical to growth and development of an organization.  Types of vertical communication (a) (b) DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION UPWARD COMMUNICATION 14 . general manager to managers. head of department to cashiers.  The vision and energy of the leadership team flows through vertical communication channels. (A) VERTICAL COMMUNICATION:-  In an organization. etc.  Vertical communication is flow of information both downward and upward through the organizational chain of command. foreman to machine operator. Vertical communication is communication between those who are on different levels of authority within the company. Examples are: manager to employee.

 Downward communication may be conveyed by writing or speaking. top-level management produces decisions that are communicated down to tell employees how to perform their job. because when elder officers motivate their workers the working level of an employee is very high. bulletins and even annual reports. to deject lack of understanding and doubt.  The major purposes of downward communication are to advise. notices.  Downward communication plays most important part in raising motivation level of employees.  It is needed to get things done. Writing could be in the form of letters. This communication is very helpful for raising the total efficiency of an organization. because downward communication run from top level of organization to inferior level of organization or workers. (a) DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION:-  Downward communication kind of speaks for itself. to prepare for changes. circulars. direct. and to develop 15 . and evaluate employees and to provide organizational goals and policies. memos. inform.

g. 16 .  E.feeling of pride of being well-informed about all organizational matters. management communication with the employees.

17 .

 To inform about organizational rules and regulations. employee’s performance and organization’s success.  To be supportive in their organizational and personal problems.  To highlight the link between the job. 18 .  To apprise subordinate about their performance. Objectives of downward communication  To give specific job instructions and directives.

It is usually for superior to be committed to the total organization. Drawbacks of downward communication  ONE WAY COMMUNICATION: . This leads to confusion and causes unpleasant environment in the organization.In several cases still behaves in an institution is as authoritative manner and does not encourage feedbacks.The feeling of mistrust appears when there lack of frequent superior-subordinate contact. Superior typically views their contributions in terms of achievement while subordinates are more likely to see themselves as only contributing long hours and hard work.  DIFFERENCES IN VALUES AND PRECEPTIONS: . The subordinate knows that superior controls his rewards and 19 .  MISTRUST: . while subordinates relate to his department or sub group. Such disparate view points can be barrier to downward communication because subordinates may filter out parts of the downward messages conveyed to them.

 INNER CONFLICTS OF LEADERSHIP: . ignoring the other parts. 20 .It’s a psychological barrier in which employee’s belief that all communication from a higher authority will be anti-employee and if at all there is a positive one. To build up his friendly image. So any downward communication is viewed with hostility. They accept or acknowledge only parts of the message that they are comfortable with.The pressure of their ‘position’ can cause inner conflicts or status anxiety in a superior. the superior could talk too much leading to leakage of confidential information.each downward message is viewed with mistrust and some ulterior motivate.  RESISTANCE TO AUTHORITY: . He is torn between responsibilities of his ‘status’ and the desire to be popular among subordinates. there will be unpleasant motive for it.

21 . instill interest in their work and lead them to achieve their goals. He should be aware of his responsibility and should encourage his subordinates. METHODS TO OVERCOME DRAWBACKS OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION  Two way communication (both downward and upward communication)  Superior –subordinate communication must be frequent  Superior should have belief in himself.

 A business report from the branch manager of a company to the managing director is an example of upward communication. 22 .  Upper communication includes judgments.  On the strength of upward communication. appeals. the management amends its programs and strategies and makes further plans. complaints. grievance committees.  It is also very good for employees because they feel that they are being noticed in the organization.  It is very important because it serves as the response on the success of downward communication. exit interviews. suggestion box. and so forth. reports. which is a response to the downward flow of communication. estimations.  Other examples of upward channel include business proposals. propositions.  It is an interpersonal process. (b) UPWARD COMMUNICATION: -  Upper communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher levels of authority. etc.

 Objectives of upward communication  To response to downward communication like orders.  To improve inter personal relationship. directives and instructions.  To suggest and submit ideas for organizational development. 23 .  To encourage participation of subordinates in the decision making process.  To inform about commencement and progress of departmental activities.

the greater the chance for distortion.  ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES: . The physical distance between superior and subordinates also restrict upward 24 . message they feel will improve their standing with their bosses and to withhold the information that will damage their image.There is always a tendency on the part of subordinates to transmit upwards. The stronger the interest in advancement or promotion. They could block upward communication. Drawbacks of upward communication  ATTITUDES OF THE SUBORDINATE: . there is deliberate distortion of information.  ATTITUDES OF THE SUPERIOR: .Some organization follow rigid structures and procedures. They perceive such subordinates as ‘treble makers’. Thus.Superiors are responsible for this distortion of upward communication. They do not encourage subordinates who are willing to face them with challenging or unpleasant information.

They ensure that only pleasant messages reach the superiors. There may be some subordinates who decide what information should reach these superior.Subordinates find it convenient to relate to superiors who are amicable.communication.g. 25 . If the senior manager accedes to the request there are bounds to be breaks in the communication channels-between the officer and the junior executive and between the officer and the senior manager. . They ignore their superior and approach the more senior person who may be friendly but is not their boss. For e.  SKIPPING RANKS: .A junior executive who is not friendly with the officer above him approaches the senior manager with a request.

The employee should find the environment conductive to present the information as it is. ceremonial occasions and frequent tours to factory. 26 . plants and field areas. The superiors display their willingness to communicate with the subordinates.  The management should provide an environment that enables subordinates to reach/approach superior whenever required.  Superiors should increase the informal contacts with the subordinates through social events.  The superior must take the initiative to keep the communication flow among the lines of authority. Methods to overcome drawbacks of upward communication  Superiors have to encourage the open-door policy. which suggests that superiors are approachable and ready to listens the grievances of employees.

27 . To resolve conflicts. To solve problems. suggestions and solution between the employees of same level to help bring the organization to a better level. To share information.      Objectives of horizontal communication To coordinate functions throughout the organization. (b) horizontal communication: -  HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION means sharing of ideas.  Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work  Communication with peers provides the much required social support for a person.  They tend to turn towards their peers for support than to those above and bellow them.

 Drawbacks of horizontal communication  INCREASED SPECIALIZATION: . The larger the organization the more the variety of jobs to be handed and so more the specialization. so their common interest may be few.There is not much encouragement from the organization.Even within a department.g. Then the lack of communication between personnel of two departments can be easily visualized.  SUPERVISION OF DIFFERENCES: . For e. Their silence could affect the organization adversely.: . This effect communication between them. two people occupying similar status may be in-charge of two different projects or areas. 28 .  LACK OF RECOGNITION AND REWARD: .Some people are too diplomatic and express disagreement. They would prefer to go with the group rather than speak up question.We live in a world specialization.

As horizontal communication is between peers. so that hampers the work of another are some of the pretty tactics pursued by people of the same status. EGO CLASHES: . ego clashes are very common. 29 . withholding information. Unhealthy competition projecting oneself better than one’s peers.

 Methods to overcome drawbacks of horizontal communication  There should be rotation of handling of specialized areas by personnel.  Organizational goals should be given importance. those who should be rewarded.  Mature behavior should be shown by the employees at the same level. The message is clear. 30 .  The organization should ignore the myth of equality and reward people according to the value of their contribution.

 Telephone:-  A somewhat richer channel is the telephone. TELEPHONE 31 .  Some receivers view the telephone as invasive. Others view the telephone as an important way of doing business. relying on voice-mail systems to get messages. immediate responses. It transmits sound rather than printed words and sound can enrich the message’s words with emphasis and emotion.  It also allows for immediate feedback. qualifying it as a richer channel one would use to get important.

 It’s a two way communication process. INSTANT MESSAGING:-  Instant messaging is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. 32 .  IM allows effective and efficient communication. featuring immediate receipt of acknowledgement or reply.

33 .  While e-mail is a fast and efficient channel. E-mail: -  E-mail messages are widely used in business as well as in personal life. leaving special or nonroutine messages for other channels. video e-mail is still a one way communication channel.  The lack of interactivity makes it appropriate for messages that need richness but not real-time feedback.  Video e-mail messages:-  A relative new variant of e-mail is video e-mail.  While much richer than text-based e-mail. it is considered lean because it allows for no eye contact and few nonverbal cues.  Business users. choose e-mail for conducting the routine affairs of the business.


rumors and unclear data.  Disadvantages of informal communication  Informal contains facts.  The informal channels of communication of may transmit completely imprecise information that may harm rather than help an organization. It acts as a valuable purpose in expressing certain information that cannot be channeled via the official channels. deceptions. 35 . Advantages of informal communication  An organization can make efficient use of informal channels to fortify the formal channels of communication.  Informal communication also facilitates to ameliorate managerial decisions as more people are involved in process of decision-making.

other publication. newsletter.) to inform workers about organizational matters. 36 . answer questions and correct the misconceptions coming from junior employees. work methods or personnel so that they can address complaints.  Keep the employees will informed about prospective changes in procedures. notices. etc. briefing.  Use as many communication vehicles or channels as possible (regular staff meetings. Methods to control over the informal communication  Accept the presence of the grapevine as a source of feedback.

It is established around the societal affiliation of members of the organization. he passes it onto his informal group and so on. is implicit.  Informal communication.  Normally. 37 .e. Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication. i. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION GRAPEVINE:-  Informal communication arises out of all those channels that fall outside the formal channels and it is also known as grapevine. It oftenly works in group of people. when one person has some information of interest.  Informal communication takes place due to the individual needs of the members of an organization and subsists in every organization. sign or silence. spontaneous multidimensional and diverse. such communication is oral and may be expressed even by simple glance.

38 .It’s a pattern in which one person transmits the message to different people or group of people. (b) Random Pattern:.It spreads in hapahazard manner between people who know and who do not know the ‘news’. Researches have been able to trace some patterns that give rise to different types of grapevines: (a) Chain Pattern:. He is at the centre of the wheel.The pattern which involves a series of people one to one and communication also passes in the same way. (c) Wheel Pattern:.

 Additionally. such as planning new products. negotiating issues. the face-to-face meetings of teams often provide a synergistic effect that improves the outcome of their actions. and solving or resolving problems. FACE-TO-FACE MEETING 39 .  Companies find such meetings to be a good choice for nonroutine business. Face-to-face discussion:-  Face-to-face meetings are ranked at the top of the richness scale because they allow complete use of all senses and continuous feedback.

 In the world of business all activities center round the exchange of money. poor morale and poor worker participation in decision-making. goods and services. It is for this reason very important that the proper channels are used. the use of appropriate channels is essential for the development of the business. Often the people who buy and sell are thousands of miles away from each other and can correspond only through communication. both formal and informal. Use of a wrong channel may result in heavy losses for the business. Therefore.CONCLUSION: An efficient and progressive enterprise uses multiple channels of communication. It would be almost suicidal to have only one channel of communication as this would result in bottlenecking and a definite fall in the level of efficiency as a result of poor information circulation. 40 .

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