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# Matrix and Determinants

Determinants

• a square array of numbers enclosed by two bars

and is subjected to mathematical operation. The

elements of which have corresponding numbers

of rows to that of the columns.

where:

a

ij

= the element of the ith row and jth column

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

D

Sign of Operators

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+ ÷ + ÷ +

÷ + ÷ + ÷

+ ÷ + ÷ +

÷ + ÷ + ÷

+ ÷ + ÷ +

= D

Properties of Determinants:

1. If the value of a single row or column are all 0 then D =

0.

2. If two rows or columns are interchanged, the sign of

the determinant is changed

0

6 3 0

5 2 0

4 1 0

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

= D

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ =

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

9 6 3

7 4 1

8 5 2

9 6 3

8 5 2

7 4 1

D

Properties of Determinants:

3. If each element of a row or column of a determinant

can be multiplied by a common factor then the

determinant is multiplied by that number.

common factor =4

4

6 4 5

5 3 4

4 1 2

6 16 5

5 12 4

4 4 2

×

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

= D

Properties of Determinants:

4. If two rows or columns are identical then D = 0.

identical

0

6 3 3

5 2 2

4 1 1

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

= D

Properties of Determinants:

5. If two rows or columns are proportional then D is

equivalent to 0.

proportional

0

9 6 3

8 4 2

7 2 1

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

= D

Properties of Determinants:

6. If the corresponding rows and columns of a determinant

are interchanged, its value is unchanged.

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

9 8 7

6 5 4

3 2 1

9 6 3

8 5 2

7 4 1

D

Properties of Determinants:

7. If three determinants D

1

, D

2

and D

3

have corresponding

equal elements except for a single row or column in

which the elements at D

1

are the sum of the

corresponding elements of D

2

and D

3

then D

1

= D

2

+

D

3

3 2 1

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

33 32 31 31

23 22 21 21

13 12 11 11

D D D

a a b

a a b

a a b

a a a

a a a

a a a

a a b a

a a b a

a a b a

+ =

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

Properties of Determinants:

8. The product of two determinants of the same order is

also a determinant of the same order whose element

in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the products

of the ith row of the first determinant and the jth

column of the second determinant.

(

¸

(

¸

=

22 21

12 11

a a

a a

A

(

¸

(

¸

=

22 21

12 11

b b

b b

B

(

¸

(

¸

+ +

+ +

=

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

*

22 22 12 21 21 22 11 21

22 12 12 11 21 12 11 11

b a b a b a b a

b a b a b a b a

B A

Properties of Determinants:

9. The value of a determinant is the algebraic sum of the

products obtained by multiplying each element of a

column or row by its co-factor or signed minor.

(Expansion of Determinants by Minor)

Properties of Determinants:

Ex. Expansion by Row

D = a

11

a

12

a

13

a

21

a

22

a

23

a

31

a

32

a

33

=(+) a

11

a

22

a

23

+ (-) a

12

a

21

a

23

+ (+) a

13

a

21

a

22

a

32

a

33

a

31

a

33

a

31

a

32

Minor and Cofactors

• The Minor of the element A

ij

in the ith row and jth

column in any determinant order formed from

the element remained after isolating the ith row

and jth column.

M

13

= a

21

a

22

a

31

a

32

M

23

= a

11

a

12

a

31

a

32

where :

M

ij

= the minor of A

ij

Minor and Cofactors

• The cofactor of the element A

ij

in any

determinant of order n is that signed minor

determined by,

D

ij

= ( -1 )

i + j

( M

ij

)

D

13

= ( -1 )

1+3

( M

13

)

= ( +1 ) a

21

a

22

a

31

a

32

D

23

= ( -1 )

2+3

( M

23

)

= ( -1 ) a

11

a

12

a

31

a

32

where :

D

ij

= the cofactor of A

ij

Example

Find the cofactor using the minor of the

given matrix

D = 1 2 3

-2 3 1

3 2 1

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

1. Conventional Method

used for 2nd degree determinants and

commonly denoted as cross product method.

Ex.

D = 2 1

8 5

D = [ ( 2 x 5 ) - ( 8 x 1 ) ]

D = ( 10 - 8 ) = 2

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

2. Diagonal Method

used for 3rd degree determinants commonly

described as the sum of products of the

diagonal leaning \ minus the sum of products

of the diagonal leaning / .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

Ex.

D = 2 5 4

5 0 1

1 -3 3

D = [( 2 x 0 x 3 ) + ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) + ( 4 x 5 x -3 )]

- [( 1 x 0 x 4 ) + ( -3 x 1 x 2 ) + ( 3 x 5 x 5 )]

D = ( 0 + 5 + -60 ) - ( 0 + -6 + 75 )

D = - 55 - 69 = - 124

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

3. Expansion by Minor Cofactor Method

used for 3rd degree and higher degree order

of determinants.

a. Expansion by Row

¿

=

=

n

k

ik ik

D A D

1

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

Find the determinants of the given matrix

using expansion by row.

D = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

b. Expansion by Column

¿

=

=

n

k

kj kj

D A D

1

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

Find the determinants of the given matrix

using expansion by column.

D = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

• Chio’s Method

–Another method in evaluating the

determinant of an (m x m) order matrix

where a

11

is not equal to zero.

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

• Chio’s Method (3x3)

3 3

33 31

13 11

32 31

12 11

23 21

13 11

22 21

12 11

) 2 (

11

3 3

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

) (

1

. det

×

÷

×

=

=

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a

A

a a a

a a a

a a a

A

m

where: m is the size of

the square matrix

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

• Chio’s Method (4x4)

where: m is the size of

the square matrix

4 4

44 41

14 11

43 41

13 11

42 41

12 11

34 31

14 11

33 31

13 11

32 31

12 11

24 21

14 11

23 21

13 11

22 21

12 11

) 2 (

11

4 4

44 43 42 41

34 33 32 31

24 23 22 21

14 13 12 11

) (

1

. det

×

÷

×

=

=

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a a

a

A

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

A

m

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

Find the determinants of the given matrix

using Chio’s method.

D = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

Techniques in Altering the

Elements of the Determinants.

• used for 3rd degree and higher degree

order of determinants.

a. Alteration by zero

The element of any row (or column) may

be multiplied by a constant and the result

added to the corresponding element of

any other row (or column) without

changing the value of the determinants.

Techniques in Altering the

Elements of the Determinants.

D = A B C

D E F

G H I

D = A B C

0 E F

0 0 I

D = ( A x E x I )

Techniques in Altering the

Elements of the Determinants.

Find the determinants of the given matrix

using alteration by zero.

D = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

Techniques in Altering the

Elements of the Determinants.

b. Pivotal Element Method

Steps:

1. Select a pivot element except zero.

2. Draw cancellation lines along the row and column of

the pivotal element.

3. Replace the remaining element by subtracting from

the original element, the product of the elements

intersecting the cancellation lines and perpendicular

lines dividing it by the pivot element.

4. Multiply the resulting determinant by the pivot

element along with its corresponding sign of cofactor.

Techniques in Altering the

Elements of the Determinants.

Find the determinants of the given matrix

using pivot element method.

D = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

Matrix

• It is a rectangular array of numbers or functions enclosed

in a pair of brackets and subject to certain rules of

operation.

A = a

11

a

12

a

13

a

21

a

22

a

23

a

31

a

32

a

33

3x3

A = /a

ij

/

mxn

where: a

ij

= element of matrix A

mxn = size of order of matrix

m = number of row matrix

n = number of column matrix

Note: m & n may or may not be equal

Special Type of Matrices

1. Row Vector Matrix

A matrix which contains only one row and several

columns.

Ex.

B = [ 1 2 3 4 ….. n ] 1 x n

Special Type of Matrices

2. Column Vector Matrix

A matrix which contains only one column and several

rows.

Ex.

C = 1

2

3

.

.

.

n m x1

Special Type of Matrices

3. Square Matrix

It is a matrix whose elements have equal number of

rows and columns.

Ex.

A = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

Special Type of Matrices

4. Null or Zero Matrix

It is a square matrix whose elements are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 0 0

0 0

Special Type of Matrices

5. Diagonal Matrix

It is a square matrix wherein the values lie in the main

diagonal and the rest are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 3 0 0

0 4 0

0 0 3

Special Type of Matrices

6. Unity or Identity Matrix

It is a square matrix whose elements in the main

diagonal are all 1’s and the rest are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

Special Type of Matrices

7. Symmetric Matrix

It is a square matrix whose element A

ij

is equal

to the element A

ji

or the elements of the rows

corresponds to that of the column.

Ex.

A = 1 -5 6

-5 7 2

6 2 3

Special Type of Matrices

8. Skew Matrix

It is a square matrix whose element A

ij

is equal

to the negative of the element A

ji

.

Ex.

A = 1 5 -6

-5 7 2

6 -2 3

Special Type of Matrices

9. Singular Matrix

It is a square matrix whose determinant value is

equivalent to 0.

Ex.

A = 1 4

2 8

Special Type of Matrices

10. Non-singular Matrix

It is a square matrix whose determinant value is not

equivalent to 0.

Ex.

A = 1 4 3 determinant value

4 4 5 /A/ = 3

2 5 4

MATRIX LAWS

1. A + B = B + A (Matrix addition is commutative)

2. A + 0 = 0 + A = A (0 is the zero for matrix addition)

3. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = 0 (-A is the negative of A)

4. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)(Matrix addition is associative)

5. (sA)B = A (sB) = s(AB) (Scalars can be moved through

products)

6. For A

mxn

, I

m

A = Ai

n

= A (I is the identity for matrix

multiplication)

7. (A + B)C = AC + BC (Right distributive law)

8. A(B + C) = AB + AC (Left distributive law)

9. A(BC) = (AB) C (Matrix multiplication is

associative)

MATRIX OPERATION

• In matrix operation, only addition, subtraction,

and multiplication are defined. Division is done

by a different technique.

1. Addition / Subtraction

-two matrices may be conformable to

addition/subtraction, if and only if the size

of the two matrices are equal.

A

mxn

+ B

mxn

= C

mxn

MATRIX OPERATION

Example:

Evaluate A & B

A = 1 2 3

3 2 1 2x3

B = 1 2

4 1

0 1 3x2

A + B = not possible because they are not of the

same order.

MATRIX OPERATION

Example:

Find the sum and difference of the two matrices

based on the following conditions:

a. C = A + B

b. C = B – A

A = 1 4 7 B = 2 5 1

2 5 8 1 6 4

3 6 9 3x3 0 3 7 3x3

MATRIX OPERATION

2. Multiplication

a. By scalar

Example:

A x 5 where A = 1 0 1

3 -4 3

4 5 2

A x 5 = 5 0 5

15 -20 15

20 20 10

MATRIX OPERATION

b. By another matrix

-two matrices can be multiplied if the number of

column (left hand) of the first matrix is equal to

the number of row (right hand) of the second

matrix.

MATRIX OPERATION

A * B = a

11

a

12

a

13

b

11

b

12

a

21

a

22

a

23

b

21

b

22

a

31

a

32

a

33 3x3

b

31

b

32 3x2

MATRIX OPERATION

A * B = (a

11

b

11

+a

12

b

21

+a

13

b

31

) (a

11

b

12

+a

12

b

22

+a

13

b

32

)

C

11

C

12

(a

21

b

11

+a

22

b

21

+a

23

b

31

) (a

21

b

12

+a

22

b

22

+a

23

b

32

)

C

21

C

22

(a

31

b

11

+a

32

b

21

+a

33

b

31

) (a

31

b

12

+a

32

b

22

+a

33

b

32

)

C

31

C

32

MATRIX OPERATION

A * B = C = c

11

c

12

c

21

c

22

c

31

c

32 3x2

MATRIX OPERATION

3. Division

Inverse of a matrix

B = 1 = A

-1

A

where: A

-1

inverse of matrix A

MATRIX OPERATION

a. Inverse of a matrix

A

-1

= 1 adj A

T

/A/

where: /A/ = determinant value of a matrix

A

T

= transpose of a matrix

adj = adjoint of a matrix

Note: Division operation is not conformable to

matrices of unequal rows & columns. Hence, this

operation is restricted to square matrices only.

MATRIX OPERATION

Transpose of a matrix ( A

T

)

-to determine the transpose of a matrix,

interchange the corresponding rows and

columns of the given determinant.

Example:

A = 1 4 3 A

T

= 1 4 2

4 4 5 4 4 5

2 5 4 3 5 4

MATRIX OPERATION

Adjoint of a Matrix ( adj. )

-to obtain the adjoint of any matrix, replace each

element by its corresponding co-factor.

Example:

A = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

MATRIX OPERATION

adj A = (+)4 5 (-)4 5 (+)4 4

5 4 2 4 2 5

(-)4 3 (+)1 3 (-)1 4

5 4 2 4 2 5

(+)4 3 (-)1 3 (+)1 4

4 5 4 5 4 4

MATRIX OPERATION

Ex. Solve for the inverse matrix.

A = 1 4 3

4 4 5

2 5 4

Solutions to Linear Equations

• Cramers Rule

• Gauss-Jordan Methods

Cramer’s Rule

• It is a theorem, which gives an expression for

the solution of a system of linear equations with

as many equations as unknowns, valid in those

cases where there is a unique solution.

• The solution is expressed in terms of the

determinants of the (square) coefficient matrix

and of matrices obtained from it by replacing

one column by the vector of right hand sides of

the equations.

Cramer’s Rule

• Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system:

4x - y + z = -5

2x + 2y + 3z = 10

5x – 2y + 6z = 1

GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS

• Gauss-Jordan Elimination

• Gauss-Jordan Reduction

Gauss-Jordan Reduction

• To obtain the values of the unknown

variables in a given linear equation: plot

the constants along with the coefficients

of the unknown variables and then apply

alteration by zero producing simplified

equations to solve for the unknown

variables.

Gauss-Jordan Reduction

A

1

X

1

+ B

1

X

2

+ C1 X

3

= D

1

A

2

X

1

+ B

2

X

2

+ C2 X

3

= D

2

A

3

X

1

+ B

3

X

2

+ C3 X

3

= D

3

A

1

B

1

C

1

: D

1

A

2

B

2

C

2

: D

2

A

3

B

3

C

3

: D

3

A

1

B

1

C

1

: D1 1

0 B

2

’ C

2

’ : D2’ 2

0 0 C

3

’ : D3’ 3

X

1

X

2

X

3

K

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

• To obtain the values of the unknown

variables in a given linear equation: plot

the constants along with the coefficients

of the unknown variables and then apply

row-by-row transformation to change the

given matrix to a unity matrix thus,

altering the value of the constants

yielding the values of the unknown

variables.

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

A

1

X

1

+ B

1

X

2

+ C

1

X

3

= D

1

A

2

X

1

+ B

2

X

2

+ C

2

X

3

= D

2

A

3

X

1

+ B

3

X

2

+ C

3

X

3

= D

3

A

1

B

1

C

1

: D

1

A

2

B

2

C

2

: D

2

A

3

B

3

C

3

: D

3

1 0 0 : X

1

0 1 0 : X

2

0 0 1 : X

3

Cramer’s Rule

• Use Gauss-Jordan Reduction and Gauss-

Jordan Elimination to solve the given

system:

4x - y + z = -5

2x + 2y + 3z = 10

5x – 2y + 6z = 1

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

of a Matrix

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

( )

( )

0

0

0

0

0

0

x x

M

y y

x x

M

y y

x x

M I

y y

x

M I

y

ì

ì

ì

ì

( (

=

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( ( (

÷ =

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( ( (

÷ =

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( (

÷ =

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

M is a matrix and λ is a scalar constant

Rearranging…

In order to factorise scalar λ must turn

into a matrix by multiplying it by the

identity matrix.

now it can be factorise…

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

( )

( )

( )

0

0

0

0

0

0

x

M I

y

a b

M

c d

a b

M I

c d

a b

M I

c d

a b x

c d y

ì

ì

ì

ì

ì

ì

ì

ì

ì

( (

÷ =

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

(

=

(

¸ ¸

( (

÷ = ÷

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷

(

÷ =

(

÷

¸ ¸

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

If the determinant of (M- λI) was non-

zero, it could be inverse and multiplied

by the RHS.

Write (M- λI) in the following way and

then simplify the equation.

Write M as a matrix…

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

a b x

c d y

x a b

y c d

x

y

ì

ì

ì

ì

÷

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( (

=

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

If the determinant of (M- λI) was non-

zero, it could be inverse and multiply it

by the RHS.

This would mean that the vector was

zero.

This means that the determinant of

(M- λI) must be zero so is singular.

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

( )( )

( ) ( )

2

0

0

0

a b

c d

a d bc

a d ad bc

ì

ì

ì ì

ì ì

÷

=

÷

÷ ÷ ÷ =

÷ + + ÷ =

This is called the characteristic

equations and will allow to find the

eigenvalues (characteristic values)

The Eigenvalues represent the scale factor of the distance our position

vector (which we still need to find) moves in relation to its original

position. There may be 1, 2 or no real eigenvalues in a 2x2 matrix.

This bit is the useful bit to remember

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

x x

M

y y

ì

( (

=

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

Once the Eigenvalues have found, substitute these back to find their

corresponding Eigenvectors.

Eigenvectors represent Invariant Lines. These are the lines of points

that map onto themselves after a transformation.

This represents the Eigenvector.

It is not unique as any multiple of

it would still be an Eigenvector!

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

• Find the eigenvalues and corresponding

eigenvectors of matrix A.

3 2

4 1

= A

Determinants

• a square array of numbers enclosed by two bars and is subjected to mathematical operation. The elements of which have corresponding numbers of rows to that of the columns. a11 a12 a13 D a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 where: aij = the element of the ith row and jth column

Sign of Operators

D

Properties of Determinants: 1. the sign of the determinant is changed 1 4 7 2 5 8 D 2 5 8 1 4 7 3 6 9 3 6 9 . If the value of a single row or column are all 0 then D = 0. If two rows or columns are interchanged. 0 1 4 0 2 5 0 D 0 3 6 2.

Properties of Determinants: 3. If each element of a row or column of a determinant can be multiplied by a common factor then the determinant is multiplied by that number. 2 4 4 2 1 4 D 4 12 5 4 3 5 4 5 16 6 5 4 6 common factor =4 .

Properties of Determinants: 4. 1 1 4 2 2 5 0 D 3 3 6 identical . If two rows or columns are identical then D = 0.

1 2 7 D 2 4 8 0 3 6 9 proportional .Properties of Determinants: 5. If two rows or columns are proportional then D is equivalent to 0.

its value is unchanged. If the corresponding rows and columns of a determinant are interchanged. 1 4 7 1 2 3 2 5 8 4 5 6 D 3 6 9 7 8 9 .Properties of Determinants: 6.

Properties of Determinants: 7. D2 and D3 have corresponding equal elements except for a single row or column in which the elements at D1 are the sum of the corresponding elements of D2 and D3 then D1 = D2 + D3 a11 b11 a12 a 21 b21 a22 a31 b31 a32 D1 a13 a11 a12 a13 b11 a12 a13 a b a23 21 a22 a23 21 a22 a23 a33 a31 a32 a33 b31 a32 a33 D2 D3 . If three determinants D1.

Properties of Determinants: 8. a11 a12 A a21 a22 b11 b12 B b21 b22 (a11b11 a12b21 ) (a11b12 a12b22 ) A* B (a21b11 a22b21 ) (a21b12 a22b22 ) . The product of two determinants of the same order is also a determinant of the same order whose element in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the products of the ith row of the first determinant and the jth column of the second determinant.

(Expansion of Determinants by Minor) . The value of a determinant is the algebraic sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of a column or row by its co-factor or signed minor.Properties of Determinants: 9.

Properties of Determinants: Ex. Expansion by Row D = a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 =(+) a11 a22 a23 a32 a33 + (-) a12 a21 a23 + (+) a13 a21 a31 a33 a31 a22 a32 .

M13 = a21 a22 a31 a32 M23 = a11 a12 a31 a32 where : Mij = the minor of Aij .Minor and Cofactors • The Minor of the element Aij in the ith row and jth column in any determinant order formed from the element remained after isolating the ith row and jth column.

Dij = ( -1 )i + j ( Mij ) D13 = ( -1 )1+3 ( M13 ) = ( +1 ) a21 a22 a31 a32 D23 = ( -1 )2+3 ( M23 ) = ( -1 ) a11 a12 a31 a32 where : Dij = the cofactor of Aij .Minor and Cofactors • The cofactor of the element Aij in any determinant of order n is that signed minor determined by.

Example Find the cofactor using the minor of the given matrix D= 1 -2 3 2 3 3 1 2 1 .

Conventional Method used for 2nd degree determinants and commonly denoted as cross product method.8 ) = 2 . D = 2 1 8 5 D = [(2x5)-(8x1)] D = ( 10 .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 1. Ex.

.EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 2. Diagonal Method used for 3rd degree determinants commonly described as the sum of products of the diagonal leaning \ minus the sum of products of the diagonal leaning / .

55 .[( 1 x 0 x 4 ) + ( -3 x 1 x 2 ) + ( 3 x 5 x 5 )] D = ( 0 + 5 + -60 ) .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Ex.69 = .( 0 + -6 + 75 ) D = .124 . D = 2 5 1 5 0 -3 4 1 3 D = [( 2 x 0 x 3 ) + ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) + ( 4 x 5 x -3 )] .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 3. Expansion by Minor Cofactor Method used for 3rd degree and higher degree order of determinants. a. Expansion by Row D Aik Dik k 1 n .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Find the determinants of the given matrix using expansion by row. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

Expansion by Column D Akj Dkj k 1 n .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS b.

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Find the determinants of the given matrix using expansion by column. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method – Another method in evaluating the determinant of an (m x m) order matrix where a11 is not equal to zero. .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method (3x3) a11 A a 21 a31 a12 a 22 a32 a13 a 23 a33 where: m is the size of the square matrix 33 a11 a 21 1 det . A (a11 ) ( m 2 ) a11 a31 a12 a 22 a12 a32 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a13 a 23 a13 a33 33 .

A (a11 ) ( m 2 ) a31 a11 a 41 a 21 a11 44 where: m is the size of the square matrix a12 a 22 a12 a32 a12 a 42 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a11 a 41 a13 a 23 a13 a33 a13 a 43 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a11 a 41 a14 a 24 a14 a34 a14 a 44 44 .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method (4x4) a11 A a 21 a31 a 41 a12 a 22 a32 a 42 a13 a 23 a33 a 43 a14 a 24 a34 a 44 a11 1 det .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS

Find the determinants of the given matrix using Chio’s method. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4

**Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants.
**

• used for 3rd degree and higher degree order of determinants.

a. Alteration by zero The element of any row (or column) may be multiplied by a constant and the result added to the corresponding element of any other row (or column) without changing the value of the determinants.

**Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants.
**

D = A D G

A 0 0

B E H

B E 0

C F I

C F I

D

=

D

=

(A x E x I )

D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. Find the determinants of the given matrix using alteration by zero.

Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. b. 4. 3. . Replace the remaining element by subtracting from the original element. the product of the elements intersecting the cancellation lines and perpendicular lines dividing it by the pivot element. Select a pivot element except zero. Multiply the resulting determinant by the pivot element along with its corresponding sign of cofactor. 2. Draw cancellation lines along the row and column of the pivotal element. Pivotal Element Method Steps: 1.

D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. Find the determinants of the given matrix using pivot element method.

A = a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 3x3 A = /aij/mxn where: aij = element of matrix A mxn = size of order of matrix m = number of row matrix n = number of column matrix Note: m & n may or may not be equal .Matrix • It is a rectangular array of numbers or functions enclosed in a pair of brackets and subject to certain rules of operation.

.Special Type of Matrices 1. Row Vector Matrix A matrix which contains only one row and several columns. Ex. B = [ 1 2 3 4 …. n ] 1 x n .

n m x1 .Special Type of Matrices 2. . Ex. C= 1 2 3 . Column Vector Matrix A matrix which contains only one column and several rows. .

Square Matrix It is a matrix whose elements have equal number of rows and columns.Special Type of Matrices 3. Ex. A = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

Ex. A = 0 0 0 0 .Special Type of Matrices 4. Null or Zero Matrix It is a square matrix whose elements are all zeros.

A = 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 .Special Type of Matrices 5. Ex. Diagonal Matrix It is a square matrix wherein the values lie in the main diagonal and the rest are all zeros.

Unity or Identity Matrix It is a square matrix whose elements in the main diagonal are all 1’s and the rest are all zeros.Special Type of Matrices 6. A = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 . Ex.

Ex. A = 1 -5 6 -5 7 2 6 2 3 . Symmetric Matrix It is a square matrix whose element Aij is equal to the element Aji or the elements of the rows corresponds to that of the column.Special Type of Matrices 7.

Skew Matrix It is a square matrix whose element Aij is equal to the negative of the element Aji.Special Type of Matrices 8. A = 1 -5 6 5 7 -2 -6 2 3 . Ex.

Singular Matrix It is a square matrix whose determinant value is equivalent to 0.Special Type of Matrices 9. A = 1 2 4 8 . Ex.

Ex.Special Type of Matrices 10. Non-singular Matrix It is a square matrix whose determinant value is not equivalent to 0. A = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 determinant value /A/ = 3 .

(sA)B = A (sB) = s(AB) (Scalars can be moved through products) 6. ImA = Ain = A (I is the identity for matrix multiplication) 7. A(BC) = (AB) C (Matrix multiplication is associative) . A + B = B + A (Matrix addition is commutative) 2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)(Matrix addition is associative) 5. A(B + C) = AB + AC (Left distributive law) 9. For Amxn.MATRIX LAWS 1. A + 0 = 0 + A = A (0 is the zero for matrix addition) 3. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = 0 (-A is the negative of A) 4. (A + B)C = AC + BC (Right distributive law) 8.

and multiplication are defined. if and only if the of the two matrices are equal. 1. Addition / Subtraction -two matrices may be conformable to addition/subtraction. subtraction. Division is done by a different technique. only addition.MATRIX OPERATION • In matrix operation. size Amxn + Bmxn = Cmxn .

MATRIX OPERATION Example: Evaluate A & B A= 1 2 3 3 2 1 2x3 B= 1 2 4 1 0 1 3x2 A + B = not possible because they are not of the same order. .

C = A + B b.MATRIX OPERATION Example: Find the sum and difference of the two matrices based on the following conditions: a. C = B – A A= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3x3 B= 2 1 0 5 6 3 1 4 7 3x3 .

By scalar Example: A x 5 where A = 1 3 4 0 -4 5 1 3 2 Ax5= 5 15 20 0 -20 20 5 15 10 . Multiplication a.MATRIX OPERATION 2.

MATRIX OPERATION b. By another matrix -two matrices can be multiplied if the number of column (left hand) of the first matrix is equal to the number of row (right hand) of the second matrix. .

MATRIX OPERATION A*B= a11 a21 a31 a12 a22 a32 a13 a23 a33 b11 b21 b31 b12 b22 b32 3x3 3x2 .

MATRIX OPERATION A * B = (a11b11+a12b21+a13b31) (a11b12+a12b22+a13b32) C 11 C 12 (a21b11+a22b21+a23b31) (a21b12+a22b22+a23b32) C 21 C 22 (a31b11+a32b21+a33b31) (a31b12+a32b22+a33b32) C 31 C 32 .

MATRIX OPERATION A * B = C = c11 c21 c31 c12 c22 c32 3x2 .

MATRIX OPERATION 3. Division Inverse of a matrix B=1 A = A-1 where: A-1 inverse of matrix A .

. this operation is restricted to square matrices only. Inverse of a matrix A-1 = 1 adj AT /A/ where: /A/ = determinant value of a matrix AT = transpose of a matrix adj = adjoint of a matrix Note: Division operation is not conformable to matrices of unequal rows & columns.MATRIX OPERATION a. Hence.

MATRIX OPERATION Transpose of a matrix ( AT ) -to determine the transpose of a matrix. interchange the corresponding rows and columns of the given determinant. Example: A= 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 AT = 1 4 3 4 4 5 2 5 4 .

replace each element by its corresponding co-factor.MATRIX OPERATION Adjoint of a Matrix ( adj. ) -to obtain the adjoint of any matrix. Example: A= 1 4 3 4 4 5 2 5 4 .

MATRIX OPERATION adj A = (+)4 5 5 4 (-)4 3 5 4 (+)4 3 4 5 (-)4 5 2 4 (+)1 3 2 4 (-)1 3 4 5 (+)4 4 2 5 (-)1 4 2 5 (+)1 4 4 4 .

A= 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 . Solve for the inverse matrix.MATRIX OPERATION Ex.

Solutions to Linear Equations • Cramers Rule • Gauss-Jordan Methods .

valid in those cases where there is a unique solution.Cramer’s Rule • It is a theorem. • The solution is expressed in terms of the determinants of the (square) coefficient matrix and of matrices obtained from it by replacing one column by the vector of right hand sides of the equations. which gives an expression for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns. .

y + z = -5 2x + 2y + 3z = 10 5x – 2y + 6z = 1 .Cramer’s Rule • Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system: 4x .

GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS • • Gauss-Jordan Elimination Gauss-Jordan Reduction .

.Gauss-Jordan Reduction • To obtain the values of the unknown variables in a given linear equation: plot the constants along with the coefficients of the unknown variables and then apply alteration by zero producing simplified equations to solve for the unknown variables.

Gauss-Jordan Reduction A1 X1 + B1 X2 + C1 X3 = D1 A2 X1 + B2 X2 + C2 X3 = D2 A3 X1 + B3 X2 + C3 X3 = D3 A1 A2 A3 A1 0 0 X1 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2’ 0 X2 C1 C2 C3 C1 C2’ C3’ X3 : : : : : : D1 D2 D3 D1 D2’ D3’ K 1 2 3 .

. altering the value of the constants yielding the values of the unknown variables.Gauss-Jordan Elimination • To obtain the values of the unknown variables in a given linear equation: plot the constants along with the coefficients of the unknown variables and then apply row-by-row transformation to change the given matrix to a unity matrix thus.

Gauss-Jordan Elimination A1 X1 + B1 X2 + C1 X3 = D1 A2 X1 + B2 X2 + C2 X3 = D2 A3 X1 + B3 X2 + C3 X3 = D3 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 : : : D1 D2 D3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 : : : X1 X2 X3 .

y + z = -5 2x + 2y + 3z = 10 5x – 2y + 6z = 1 .Cramer’s Rule • Use Gauss-Jordan Reduction and GaussJordan Elimination to solve the given system: 4x .

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Matrix .

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors x x M y y x x 0 M y y 0 x x 0 M I y y 0 x 0 M I y 0 M is a matrix and λ is a scalar constant Rearranging… In order to factorise scalar λ must turn into a matrix by multiplying it by the identity matrix. now it can be factorise… .

λI) in the following way and then simplify the equation. If the determinant of (M. . it could be inverse and multiplied by the RHS.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors x 0 M I y 0 a b M c d a b 0 M I 0 c d b a M I c d a c b x 0 y 0 d Write M as a matrix… Write (M.λI) was nonzero.

λI) was nonzero. This means that the determinant of (M. . x a y c x 0 y 0 This would mean that the vector was zero.λI) must be zero so is singular.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors a c b x 0 y 0 d b 0 d 0 1 If the determinant of (M. it could be inverse and multiply it by the RHS.

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors a c b d 0 This bit is the useful bit to remember a d bc 0 2 a d ad bc 0 This is called the characteristic equations and will allow to find the eigenvalues (characteristic values) The Eigenvalues represent the scale factor of the distance our position vector (which we still need to find) moves in relation to its original position. . There may be 1. 2 or no real eigenvalues in a 2x2 matrix.

. x x M y y This represents the Eigenvector. It is not unique as any multiple of it would still be an Eigenvector! Eigenvectors represent Invariant Lines. These are the lines of points that map onto themselves after a transformation. substitute these back to find their corresponding Eigenvectors.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Once the Eigenvalues have found.

A 1 4 2 3 .Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors • Find the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of matrix A.