# Matrix and Determinants

Determinants
• a square array of numbers enclosed by two bars
and is subjected to mathematical operation. The
elements of which have corresponding numbers
of rows to that of the columns.

where:
a
ij
= the element of the ith row and jth column
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
D
Sign of Operators
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ + ÷ +
÷ + ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ +
÷ + ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ +
= D
Properties of Determinants:
1. If the value of a single row or column are all 0 then D =
0.

2. If two rows or columns are interchanged, the sign of
the determinant is changed
0
6 3 0
5 2 0
4 1 0
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= D
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
9 6 3
7 4 1
8 5 2
9 6 3
8 5 2
7 4 1
D
Properties of Determinants:
3. If each element of a row or column of a determinant
can be multiplied by a common factor then the
determinant is multiplied by that number.

common factor =4

4
6 4 5
5 3 4
4 1 2
6 16 5
5 12 4
4 4 2
×
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= D
Properties of Determinants:
4. If two rows or columns are identical then D = 0.

identical
0
6 3 3
5 2 2
4 1 1
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= D
Properties of Determinants:
5. If two rows or columns are proportional then D is
equivalent to 0.

proportional
0
9 6 3
8 4 2
7 2 1
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= D
Properties of Determinants:
6. If the corresponding rows and columns of a determinant
are interchanged, its value is unchanged.

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
9 8 7
6 5 4
3 2 1
9 6 3
8 5 2
7 4 1
D
Properties of Determinants:
7. If three determinants D
1
, D
2
and D
3
have corresponding
equal elements except for a single row or column in
which the elements at D
1
are the sum of the
corresponding elements of D
2
and D
3
then D
1
= D
2
+
D
3

3 2 1
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
33 32 31 31
23 22 21 21
13 12 11 11
D D D
a a b
a a b
a a b
a a a
a a a
a a a
a a b a
a a b a
a a b a
+ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Properties of Determinants:
8. The product of two determinants of the same order is
also a determinant of the same order whose element
in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the products
of the ith row of the first determinant and the jth
column of the second determinant.

(
¸
(

¸

=
22 21
12 11
a a
a a
A
(
¸
(

¸

=
22 21
12 11
b b
b b
B
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
=
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
*
22 22 12 21 21 22 11 21
22 12 12 11 21 12 11 11
b a b a b a b a
b a b a b a b a
B A
Properties of Determinants:
9. The value of a determinant is the algebraic sum of the
products obtained by multiplying each element of a
column or row by its co-factor or signed minor.
(Expansion of Determinants by Minor)

Properties of Determinants:
Ex. Expansion by Row
D = a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33

=(+) a
11
a
22
a
23
+ (-) a
12
a
21
a
23
+ (+) a
13
a
21
a
22

a
32
a
33
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
32

Minor and Cofactors
• The Minor of the element A
ij
in the ith row and jth
column in any determinant order formed from
the element remained after isolating the ith row
and jth column.
M
13
= a
21
a
22
a
31
a
32
M
23
= a
11
a
12
a
31
a
32
where :
M
ij
= the minor of A
ij
Minor and Cofactors
• The cofactor of the element A
ij
in any
determinant of order n is that signed minor
determined by,

D
ij
= ( -1 )
i + j
( M
ij
)
D
13
= ( -1 )
1+3
( M
13
)
= ( +1 ) a
21
a
22

a
31
a
32

D
23
= ( -1 )
2+3
( M
23
)
= ( -1 ) a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32

where :
D
ij
= the cofactor of A
ij
Example
Find the cofactor using the minor of the
given matrix

D = 1 2 3
-2 3 1
3 2 1
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
1. Conventional Method
used for 2nd degree determinants and
commonly denoted as cross product method.

Ex.
D = 2 1
8 5
D = [ ( 2 x 5 ) - ( 8 x 1 ) ]
D = ( 10 - 8 ) = 2
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
2. Diagonal Method
used for 3rd degree determinants commonly
described as the sum of products of the
diagonal leaning \ minus the sum of products
of the diagonal leaning / .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
Ex.
D = 2 5 4
5 0 1
1 -3 3

D = [( 2 x 0 x 3 ) + ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) + ( 4 x 5 x -3 )]
- [( 1 x 0 x 4 ) + ( -3 x 1 x 2 ) + ( 3 x 5 x 5 )]
D = ( 0 + 5 + -60 ) - ( 0 + -6 + 75 )
D = - 55 - 69 = - 124
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
3. Expansion by Minor Cofactor Method
used for 3rd degree and higher degree order
of determinants.
a. Expansion by Row
¿
=
=
n
k
ik ik
D A D
1
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
Find the determinants of the given matrix
using expansion by row.

D = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
b. Expansion by Column
¿
=
=
n
k
kj kj
D A D
1
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
Find the determinants of the given matrix
using expansion by column.

D = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
• Chio’s Method
–Another method in evaluating the
determinant of an (m x m) order matrix
where a
11
is not equal to zero.
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
• Chio’s Method (3x3)
3 3
33 31
13 11
32 31
12 11
23 21
13 11
22 21
12 11
) 2 (
11
3 3
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
) (
1
. det
×
÷
×
=
=
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a
A
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
m
where: m is the size of
the square matrix
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
• Chio’s Method (4x4)
where: m is the size of
the square matrix
4 4
44 41
14 11
43 41
13 11
42 41
12 11
34 31
14 11
33 31
13 11
32 31
12 11
24 21
14 11
23 21
13 11
22 21
12 11
) 2 (
11
4 4
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11
) (
1
. det
×
÷
×
=
=
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a
A
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
A
m
EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
Find the determinants of the given matrix
using Chio’s method.

D = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

Techniques in Altering the
Elements of the Determinants.
• used for 3rd degree and higher degree
order of determinants.

a. Alteration by zero
The element of any row (or column) may
be multiplied by a constant and the result
added to the corresponding element of
any other row (or column) without
changing the value of the determinants.
Techniques in Altering the
Elements of the Determinants.

D = A B C
D E F
G H I

D = A B C
0 E F
0 0 I

D = ( A x E x I )
Techniques in Altering the
Elements of the Determinants.
Find the determinants of the given matrix
using alteration by zero.

D = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

Techniques in Altering the
Elements of the Determinants.
b. Pivotal Element Method
Steps:
1. Select a pivot element except zero.

2. Draw cancellation lines along the row and column of
the pivotal element.

3. Replace the remaining element by subtracting from
the original element, the product of the elements
intersecting the cancellation lines and perpendicular
lines dividing it by the pivot element.

4. Multiply the resulting determinant by the pivot
element along with its corresponding sign of cofactor.
Techniques in Altering the
Elements of the Determinants.
Find the determinants of the given matrix
using pivot element method.

D = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

Matrix
• It is a rectangular array of numbers or functions enclosed
in a pair of brackets and subject to certain rules of
operation.
A = a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
3x3
A = /a
ij
/
mxn
where: a
ij
= element of matrix A
mxn = size of order of matrix
m = number of row matrix
n = number of column matrix

Note: m & n may or may not be equal
Special Type of Matrices
1. Row Vector Matrix
A matrix which contains only one row and several
columns.
Ex.
B = [ 1 2 3 4 ….. n ] 1 x n
Special Type of Matrices
2. Column Vector Matrix
A matrix which contains only one column and several
rows.

Ex.
C = 1
2
3
.
.
.
n m x1
Special Type of Matrices
3. Square Matrix
It is a matrix whose elements have equal number of
rows and columns.

Ex.

A = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4
Special Type of Matrices
4. Null or Zero Matrix
It is a square matrix whose elements are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 0 0
0 0
Special Type of Matrices
5. Diagonal Matrix
It is a square matrix wherein the values lie in the main
diagonal and the rest are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 3 0 0
0 4 0
0 0 3
Special Type of Matrices
6. Unity or Identity Matrix
It is a square matrix whose elements in the main
diagonal are all 1’s and the rest are all zeros.

Ex.

A = 1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
Special Type of Matrices
7. Symmetric Matrix
It is a square matrix whose element A
ij
is equal
to the element A
ji
or the elements of the rows
corresponds to that of the column.

Ex.

A = 1 -5 6
-5 7 2
6 2 3
Special Type of Matrices
8. Skew Matrix
It is a square matrix whose element A
ij
is equal
to the negative of the element A
ji
.

Ex.

A = 1 5 -6
-5 7 2
6 -2 3
Special Type of Matrices
9. Singular Matrix
It is a square matrix whose determinant value is
equivalent to 0.

Ex.

A = 1 4
2 8
Special Type of Matrices
10. Non-singular Matrix
It is a square matrix whose determinant value is not
equivalent to 0.

Ex.

A = 1 4 3 determinant value
4 4 5 /A/ = 3
2 5 4
MATRIX LAWS
1. A + B = B + A (Matrix addition is commutative)
2. A + 0 = 0 + A = A (0 is the zero for matrix addition)
3. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = 0 (-A is the negative of A)
4. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)(Matrix addition is associative)
5. (sA)B = A (sB) = s(AB) (Scalars can be moved through
products)
6. For A
mxn
, I
m
A = Ai
n
= A (I is the identity for matrix
multiplication)
7. (A + B)C = AC + BC (Right distributive law)
8. A(B + C) = AB + AC (Left distributive law)
9. A(BC) = (AB) C (Matrix multiplication is
associative)
MATRIX OPERATION
• In matrix operation, only addition, subtraction,
and multiplication are defined. Division is done
by a different technique.

1. Addition / Subtraction
-two matrices may be conformable to
addition/subtraction, if and only if the size
of the two matrices are equal.
A
mxn
+ B
mxn
= C
mxn
MATRIX OPERATION
Example:
Evaluate A & B
A = 1 2 3
3 2 1 2x3
B = 1 2
4 1
0 1 3x2
A + B = not possible because they are not of the
same order.
MATRIX OPERATION
Example:

Find the sum and difference of the two matrices
based on the following conditions:
a. C = A + B
b. C = B – A

A = 1 4 7 B = 2 5 1
2 5 8 1 6 4
3 6 9 3x3 0 3 7 3x3
MATRIX OPERATION
2. Multiplication
a. By scalar
Example:
A x 5 where A = 1 0 1
3 -4 3
4 5 2

A x 5 = 5 0 5
15 -20 15
20 20 10

MATRIX OPERATION
b. By another matrix
-two matrices can be multiplied if the number of
column (left hand) of the first matrix is equal to
the number of row (right hand) of the second
matrix.
MATRIX OPERATION
A * B = a
11
a
12
a
13
b
11
b
12

a
21
a
22
a
23
b
21
b
22

a
31
a
32
a
33 3x3
b
31
b
32 3x2

MATRIX OPERATION
A * B = (a
11
b
11
+a
12
b
21
+a
13
b
31
) (a
11
b
12
+a
12
b
22
+a
13
b
32
)
C
11
C
12

(a
21
b
11
+a
22
b
21
+a
23
b
31
) (a
21
b
12
+a
22
b
22
+a
23
b
32
)
C
21
C
22

(a
31
b
11
+a
32
b
21
+a
33
b
31
) (a
31
b
12
+a
32
b
22
+a
33
b
32
)
C
31
C
32

MATRIX OPERATION
A * B = C = c
11
c
12

c
21
c
22

c
31
c
32 3x2

MATRIX OPERATION
3. Division
Inverse of a matrix

B = 1 = A
-1

A

where: A
-1
inverse of matrix A

MATRIX OPERATION
a. Inverse of a matrix
A
-1
= 1 adj A
T

/A/
where: /A/ = determinant value of a matrix
A
T
= transpose of a matrix

Note: Division operation is not conformable to
matrices of unequal rows & columns. Hence, this
operation is restricted to square matrices only.

MATRIX OPERATION
Transpose of a matrix ( A
T
)
-to determine the transpose of a matrix,
interchange the corresponding rows and
columns of the given determinant.
Example:

A = 1 4 3 A
T
= 1 4 2
4 4 5 4 4 5
2 5 4 3 5 4

MATRIX OPERATION
Adjoint of a Matrix ( adj. )
-to obtain the adjoint of any matrix, replace each
element by its corresponding co-factor.
Example:
A = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

MATRIX OPERATION
adj A = (+)4 5 (-)4 5 (+)4 4
5 4 2 4 2 5

(-)4 3 (+)1 3 (-)1 4
5 4 2 4 2 5

(+)4 3 (-)1 3 (+)1 4
4 5 4 5 4 4

MATRIX OPERATION
Ex. Solve for the inverse matrix.

A = 1 4 3
4 4 5
2 5 4

Solutions to Linear Equations
• Cramers Rule
• Gauss-Jordan Methods

Cramer’s Rule
• It is a theorem, which gives an expression for
the solution of a system of linear equations with
as many equations as unknowns, valid in those
cases where there is a unique solution.
• The solution is expressed in terms of the
determinants of the (square) coefficient matrix
and of matrices obtained from it by replacing
one column by the vector of right hand sides of
the equations.
Cramer’s Rule
• Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system:
4x - y + z = -5
2x + 2y + 3z = 10
5x – 2y + 6z = 1
GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS
• Gauss-Jordan Elimination
• Gauss-Jordan Reduction
Gauss-Jordan Reduction
• To obtain the values of the unknown
variables in a given linear equation: plot
the constants along with the coefficients
of the unknown variables and then apply
alteration by zero producing simplified
equations to solve for the unknown
variables.
Gauss-Jordan Reduction
A
1
X
1
+ B
1
X
2
+ C1 X
3
= D
1
A
2
X
1
+ B
2
X
2
+ C2 X
3
= D
2
A
3
X
1
+ B
3
X
2
+ C3 X
3
= D
3

A
1
B
1
C
1
: D
1
A
2
B
2
C
2
: D
2
A
3
B
3
C
3
: D
3

A
1
B
1
C
1
: D1  1
0 B
2
’ C
2
’ : D2’  2
0 0 C
3
’ : D3’  3

X
1
X
2
X
3
K
Gauss-Jordan Elimination
• To obtain the values of the unknown
variables in a given linear equation: plot
the constants along with the coefficients
of the unknown variables and then apply
row-by-row transformation to change the
given matrix to a unity matrix thus,
altering the value of the constants
yielding the values of the unknown
variables.
Gauss-Jordan Elimination
A
1
X
1
+ B
1
X
2
+ C
1
X
3
= D
1
A
2
X
1
+ B
2
X
2
+ C
2
X
3
= D
2
A
3
X
1
+ B
3
X
2
+ C
3
X
3
= D
3

A
1
B
1
C
1
: D
1
A
2
B
2
C
2
: D
2
A
3
B
3
C
3
: D
3

1 0 0 : X
1
0 1 0 : X
2
0 0 1 : X
3
Cramer’s Rule
• Use Gauss-Jordan Reduction and Gauss-
Jordan Elimination to solve the given
system:
4x - y + z = -5
2x + 2y + 3z = 10
5x – 2y + 6z = 1
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
of a Matrix
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
x x
M
y y
x x
M
y y
x x
M I
y y
x
M I
y
ì
ì
ì
ì
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( (
÷ =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
M is a matrix and λ is a scalar constant
Rearranging…
In order to factorise scalar λ must turn
into a matrix by multiplying it by the
identity matrix.
now it can be factorise…
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
M I
y
a b
M
c d
a b
M I
c d
a b
M I
c d
a b x
c d y
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
( (
÷ =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
=
(
¸ ¸
( (
÷ = ÷
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
(
÷ =
(
÷
¸ ¸
÷
( ( (
=
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
If the determinant of (M- λI) was non-
zero, it could be inverse and multiplied
by the RHS.
Write (M- λI) in the following way and
then simplify the equation.
Write M as a matrix…
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
a b x
c d y
x a b
y c d
x
y
ì
ì
ì
ì
÷
÷
( ( (
=
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
( ( (
=
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
If the determinant of (M- λI) was non-
zero, it could be inverse and multiply it
by the RHS.
This would mean that the vector was
zero.
This means that the determinant of
(M- λI) must be zero so is singular.
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
0
0
0
a b
c d
a d bc
a d ad bc
ì
ì
ì ì
ì ì
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ =
This is called the characteristic
equations and will allow to find the
eigenvalues (characteristic values)
The Eigenvalues represent the scale factor of the distance our position
vector (which we still need to find) moves in relation to its original
position. There may be 1, 2 or no real eigenvalues in a 2x2 matrix.
This bit is the useful bit to remember
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
x x
M
y y
ì
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Once the Eigenvalues have found, substitute these back to find their
corresponding Eigenvectors.
Eigenvectors represent Invariant Lines. These are the lines of points
that map onto themselves after a transformation.
This represents the Eigenvector.
It is not unique as any multiple of
it would still be an Eigenvector!
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
• Find the eigenvalues and corresponding
eigenvectors of matrix A.
3 2
4 1
= A

Determinants
• a square array of numbers enclosed by two bars and is subjected to mathematical operation. The elements of which have corresponding numbers of rows to that of the columns.  a11 a12 a13  D  a21 a22 a23     a31 a32 a33    where: aij = the element of the ith row and jth column

Sign of Operators
   D                             

Properties of Determinants: 1. the sign of the determinant is changed 1 4 7  2 5 8  D   2 5 8    1 4 7      3 6 9  3 6 9      . If the value of a single row or column are all 0 then D = 0. If two rows or columns are interchanged. 0 1 4  0 2 5   0 D  0 3 6    2.

Properties of Determinants: 3. If each element of a row or column of a determinant can be multiplied by a common factor then the determinant is multiplied by that number.  2 4 4  2 1 4 D  4 12 5  4 3 5  4     5 16 6 5 4 6     common factor =4 .

Properties of Determinants: 4. 1 1 4  2 2 5  0 D  3 3 6   identical . If two rows or columns are identical then D = 0.

1 2 7  D  2 4 8   0   3 6 9    proportional .Properties of Determinants: 5. If two rows or columns are proportional then D is equivalent to 0.

its value is unchanged. If the corresponding rows and columns of a determinant are interchanged. 1 4 7  1 2 3  2 5 8   4 5 6 D     3 6 9  7 8 9      .Properties of Determinants: 6.

Properties of Determinants: 7. D2 and D3 have corresponding equal elements except for a single row or column in which the elements at D1 are the sum of the corresponding elements of D2 and D3 then D1 = D2 + D3  a11 b11 a12 a  21 b21 a22 a31 b31 a32  D1 a13   a11 a12 a13  b11 a12 a13    a   b  a23   21 a22 a23   21 a22 a23  a33  a31 a32 a33  b31 a32 a33        D2  D3 . If three determinants D1.

Properties of Determinants: 8.  a11 a12  A  a21 a22  b11 b12  B  b21 b22   (a11b11  a12b21 ) (a11b12  a12b22 )  A* B    (a21b11  a22b21 ) (a21b12  a22b22 ) . The product of two determinants of the same order is also a determinant of the same order whose element in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the products of the ith row of the first determinant and the jth column of the second determinant.

(Expansion of Determinants by Minor) . The value of a determinant is the algebraic sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of a column or row by its co-factor or signed minor.Properties of Determinants: 9.

Properties of Determinants: Ex. Expansion by Row D = a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 =(+) a11 a22 a23 a32 a33 + (-) a12 a21 a23 + (+) a13 a21 a31 a33 a31 a22 a32 .

M13 = a21 a22 a31 a32 M23 = a11 a12 a31 a32 where : Mij = the minor of Aij .Minor and Cofactors • The Minor of the element Aij in the ith row and jth column in any determinant order formed from the element remained after isolating the ith row and jth column.

Dij = ( -1 )i + j ( Mij ) D13 = ( -1 )1+3 ( M13 ) = ( +1 ) a21 a22 a31 a32 D23 = ( -1 )2+3 ( M23 ) = ( -1 ) a11 a12 a31 a32 where : Dij = the cofactor of Aij .Minor and Cofactors • The cofactor of the element Aij in any determinant of order n is that signed minor determined by.

Example Find the cofactor using the minor of the given matrix D= 1 -2 3 2 3 3 1 2 1 .

Conventional Method used for 2nd degree determinants and commonly denoted as cross product method.8 ) = 2 . D = 2 1 8 5 D = [(2x5)-(8x1)] D = ( 10 .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 1. Ex.

.EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 2. Diagonal Method used for 3rd degree determinants commonly described as the sum of products of the diagonal leaning \ minus the sum of products of the diagonal leaning / .

55 .[( 1 x 0 x 4 ) + ( -3 x 1 x 2 ) + ( 3 x 5 x 5 )] D = ( 0 + 5 + -60 ) .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Ex.69 = .( 0 + -6 + 75 ) D = .124 . D = 2 5 1 5 0 -3 4 1 3 D = [( 2 x 0 x 3 ) + ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) + ( 4 x 5 x -3 )] .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS 3. Expansion by Minor Cofactor Method used for 3rd degree and higher degree order of determinants. a. Expansion by Row D   Aik Dik k 1 n .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Find the determinants of the given matrix using expansion by row. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

Expansion by Column D   Akj Dkj k 1 n .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS b.

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS Find the determinants of the given matrix using expansion by column. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method – Another method in evaluating the determinant of an (m x m) order matrix where a11 is not equal to zero. .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method (3x3) a11 A  a 21 a31 a12 a 22 a32 a13 a 23 a33 where: m is the size of the square matrix 33 a11 a 21 1 det . A  (a11 ) ( m  2 ) a11 a31 a12 a 22 a12 a32 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a13 a 23 a13 a33 33 .

A  (a11 ) ( m  2 ) a31 a11 a 41 a 21 a11 44 where: m is the size of the square matrix a12 a 22 a12 a32 a12 a 42 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a11 a 41 a13 a 23 a13 a33 a13 a 43 a11 a 21 a11 a31 a11 a 41 a14 a 24 a14 a34 a14 a 44 44 .EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS • Chio’s Method (4x4) a11 A a 21 a31 a 41 a12 a 22 a32 a 42 a13 a 23 a33 a 43 a14 a 24 a34 a 44 a11 1 det .

EVALUATION OF DETERMINANTS
Find the determinants of the given matrix using Chio’s method. D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4

Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants.
• used for 3rd degree and higher degree order of determinants.

a. Alteration by zero The element of any row (or column) may be multiplied by a constant and the result added to the corresponding element of any other row (or column) without changing the value of the determinants.

Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants.
D = A D G
A 0 0

B E H
B E 0

C F I
C F I

D

=

D

=

(A x E x I )

D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. Find the determinants of the given matrix using alteration by zero.

Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. b. 4. 3. . Replace the remaining element by subtracting from the original element. the product of the elements intersecting the cancellation lines and perpendicular lines dividing it by the pivot element. Select a pivot element except zero. Multiply the resulting determinant by the pivot element along with its corresponding sign of cofactor. 2. Draw cancellation lines along the row and column of the pivotal element. Pivotal Element Method Steps: 1.

D = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .Techniques in Altering the Elements of the Determinants. Find the determinants of the given matrix using pivot element method.

A = a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 3x3 A = /aij/mxn where: aij = element of matrix A mxn = size of order of matrix m = number of row matrix n = number of column matrix Note: m & n may or may not be equal .Matrix • It is a rectangular array of numbers or functions enclosed in a pair of brackets and subject to certain rules of operation.

.Special Type of Matrices 1. Row Vector Matrix A matrix which contains only one row and several columns. Ex. B = [ 1 2 3 4 …. n ] 1 x n .

n m x1 .Special Type of Matrices 2. . Ex. C= 1 2 3 . Column Vector Matrix A matrix which contains only one column and several rows. .

Square Matrix It is a matrix whose elements have equal number of rows and columns.Special Type of Matrices 3. Ex. A = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 .

Ex. A = 0 0 0 0 .Special Type of Matrices 4. Null or Zero Matrix It is a square matrix whose elements are all zeros.

A = 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 .Special Type of Matrices 5. Ex. Diagonal Matrix It is a square matrix wherein the values lie in the main diagonal and the rest are all zeros.

Unity or Identity Matrix It is a square matrix whose elements in the main diagonal are all 1’s and the rest are all zeros.Special Type of Matrices 6. A = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 . Ex.

Ex. A = 1 -5 6 -5 7 2 6 2 3 . Symmetric Matrix It is a square matrix whose element Aij is equal to the element Aji or the elements of the rows corresponds to that of the column.Special Type of Matrices 7.

Skew Matrix It is a square matrix whose element Aij is equal to the negative of the element Aji.Special Type of Matrices 8. A = 1 -5 6 5 7 -2 -6 2 3 . Ex.

Singular Matrix It is a square matrix whose determinant value is equivalent to 0.Special Type of Matrices 9. A = 1 2 4 8 . Ex.

Ex.Special Type of Matrices 10. Non-singular Matrix It is a square matrix whose determinant value is not equivalent to 0. A = 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 determinant value /A/ = 3 .

(sA)B = A (sB) = s(AB) (Scalars can be moved through products) 6. ImA = Ain = A (I is the identity for matrix multiplication) 7. A(BC) = (AB) C (Matrix multiplication is associative) . A + B = B + A (Matrix addition is commutative) 2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)(Matrix addition is associative) 5. A(B + C) = AB + AC (Left distributive law) 9. For Amxn.MATRIX LAWS 1. A + 0 = 0 + A = A (0 is the zero for matrix addition) 3. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = 0 (-A is the negative of A) 4. (A + B)C = AC + BC (Right distributive law) 8.

and multiplication are defined. if and only if the of the two matrices are equal. 1. Addition / Subtraction -two matrices may be conformable to addition/subtraction. subtraction. Division is done by a different technique. only addition.MATRIX OPERATION • In matrix operation. size Amxn + Bmxn = Cmxn .

MATRIX OPERATION Example: Evaluate A & B A= 1 2 3 3 2 1 2x3 B= 1 2 4 1 0 1 3x2 A + B = not possible because they are not of the same order. .

C = A + B b.MATRIX OPERATION Example: Find the sum and difference of the two matrices based on the following conditions: a. C = B – A A= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3x3 B= 2 1 0 5 6 3 1 4 7 3x3 .

By scalar Example: A x 5 where A = 1 3 4 0 -4 5 1 3 2 Ax5= 5 15 20 0 -20 20 5 15 10 . Multiplication a.MATRIX OPERATION 2.

MATRIX OPERATION b. By another matrix -two matrices can be multiplied if the number of column (left hand) of the first matrix is equal to the number of row (right hand) of the second matrix. .

MATRIX OPERATION A*B= a11 a21 a31 a12 a22 a32 a13 a23 a33 b11 b21 b31 b12 b22 b32 3x3 3x2 .

MATRIX OPERATION A * B = (a11b11+a12b21+a13b31) (a11b12+a12b22+a13b32) C 11 C 12 (a21b11+a22b21+a23b31) (a21b12+a22b22+a23b32) C 21 C 22 (a31b11+a32b21+a33b31) (a31b12+a32b22+a33b32) C 31 C 32 .

MATRIX OPERATION A * B = C = c11 c21 c31 c12 c22 c32 3x2 .

MATRIX OPERATION 3. Division Inverse of a matrix B=1 A = A-1 where: A-1 inverse of matrix A .

. this operation is restricted to square matrices only. Inverse of a matrix A-1 = 1 adj AT /A/ where: /A/ = determinant value of a matrix AT = transpose of a matrix adj = adjoint of a matrix Note: Division operation is not conformable to matrices of unequal rows & columns.MATRIX OPERATION a. Hence.

MATRIX OPERATION Transpose of a matrix ( AT ) -to determine the transpose of a matrix. interchange the corresponding rows and columns of the given determinant. Example: A= 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 AT = 1 4 3 4 4 5 2 5 4 .

replace each element by its corresponding co-factor.MATRIX OPERATION Adjoint of a Matrix ( adj. ) -to obtain the adjoint of any matrix. Example: A= 1 4 3 4 4 5 2 5 4 .

MATRIX OPERATION adj A = (+)4 5 5 4 (-)4 3 5 4 (+)4 3 4 5 (-)4 5 2 4 (+)1 3 2 4 (-)1 3 4 5 (+)4 4 2 5 (-)1 4 2 5 (+)1 4 4 4 .

A= 1 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 4 . Solve for the inverse matrix.MATRIX OPERATION Ex.

Solutions to Linear Equations • Cramers Rule • Gauss-Jordan Methods .

valid in those cases where there is a unique solution.Cramer’s Rule • It is a theorem. • The solution is expressed in terms of the determinants of the (square) coefficient matrix and of matrices obtained from it by replacing one column by the vector of right hand sides of the equations. which gives an expression for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns. .

y + z = -5 2x + 2y + 3z = 10 5x – 2y + 6z = 1 .Cramer’s Rule • Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system: 4x .

GAUSS-JORDAN METHODS • • Gauss-Jordan Elimination Gauss-Jordan Reduction .

.Gauss-Jordan Reduction • To obtain the values of the unknown variables in a given linear equation: plot the constants along with the coefficients of the unknown variables and then apply alteration by zero producing simplified equations to solve for the unknown variables.

Gauss-Jordan Reduction A1 X1 + B1 X2 + C1 X3 = D1 A2 X1 + B2 X2 + C2 X3 = D2 A3 X1 + B3 X2 + C3 X3 = D3 A1 A2 A3 A1 0 0 X1 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2’ 0 X2 C1 C2 C3 C1 C2’ C3’ X3 : : : : : : D1 D2 D3 D1 D2’ D3’ K    1 2 3 .

. altering the value of the constants yielding the values of the unknown variables.Gauss-Jordan Elimination • To obtain the values of the unknown variables in a given linear equation: plot the constants along with the coefficients of the unknown variables and then apply row-by-row transformation to change the given matrix to a unity matrix thus.

Gauss-Jordan Elimination A1 X1 + B1 X2 + C1 X3 = D1 A2 X1 + B2 X2 + C2 X3 = D2 A3 X1 + B3 X2 + C3 X3 = D3 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 : : : D1 D2 D3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 : : : X1 X2 X3 .

y + z = -5 2x + 2y + 3z = 10 5x – 2y + 6z = 1 .Cramer’s Rule • Use Gauss-Jordan Reduction and GaussJordan Elimination to solve the given system: 4x .

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Matrix .

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors x  x M     y  y x  x  0 M         y  y  0 x  x  0 M     I        y  y  0  x  0 M  I        y  0 M is a matrix and λ is a scalar constant Rearranging… In order to factorise scalar λ must turn into a matrix by multiplying it by the identity matrix. now it can be factorise… .

λI) in the following way and then simplify the equation. If the determinant of (M. . it could be inverse and multiplied by the RHS.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors  x  0  M  I        y  0  a b  M  c d    a b   0  M  I      0  c d    b  a   M  I    c d     a    c  b   x  0   y   0 d       Write M as a matrix… Write (M.λI) was nonzero.

λI) was nonzero. This means that the determinant of (M. .  x  a    y   c     x  0  y   0     This would mean that the vector was zero.λI) must be zero so is singular.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors a    c  b   x  0   y   0 d       b  0 d    0    1 If the determinant of (M. it could be inverse and multiply it by the RHS.

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors a c b d  0 This bit is the useful bit to remember  a    d     bc  0  2   a  d     ad  bc   0 This is called the characteristic equations and will allow to find the eigenvalues (characteristic values) The Eigenvalues represent the scale factor of the distance our position vector (which we still need to find) moves in relation to its original position. . There may be 1. 2 or no real eigenvalues in a 2x2 matrix.

.  x  x M     y  y This represents the Eigenvector. It is not unique as any multiple of it would still be an Eigenvector! Eigenvectors represent Invariant Lines. These are the lines of points that map onto themselves after a transformation. substitute these back to find their corresponding Eigenvectors.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Once the Eigenvalues have found.

A 1 4 2 3 .Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors • Find the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of matrix A.

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