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RC Circuits
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RC Circuits
An RC circuit is shown infig. 7.1. Since, in practical circuits, power is always switched on at certain time, a switch is provided here. This switch closes at time t = D.
Figure 7.1: An RC Circuit We are interested infinding how voltage across capacitor 'il!:'(t) changes with time? We can also assume that voltage across the capacitor is zero t
<
D. Using Kirchoff's voltage law across the only loop in
circuit we can find the equation relating 'il!:" 'il'l" and V. Using the characterstic equations of capacitors, resistors i.e., . Cd1J =~ dt
and using KVL
dV'
di dt = R dt
for t
+C
+i
i
for t
>
D
<
D ,i (t)
= [)
d1J dt
di RCdt
= e
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RC Circuits
RC~He:
....:IL

+ dt
iIi
~He:l,
....:IL
•
= ,C~He:
....:IL

dV
dt
For t > 0 ,V =constant
=0 dt
dV
"__
d( i~'!ta...::... )=
dt
n
U
::::}
.....:IL Tf 1,~ He: =.l.'l.
Thus, i (t) = K ~ da
; here 1( is constant
At t = 0, capacitor voltage will be Alternatively,
o. Hence i(t
= 0) = j;eda
Vf:=ViR
at t
= 0, '!..If: = 0
Thus, K=V R
Thus, (7.1)
The curves showing '!Jf:(t)
and i(t) are shown in the figures 7.2 and 7.3.
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RC Circuits
OCt)
Figure 7.2: ivs t
,,
Figure 7.3: VI!:.vs t
t
These show the exponetially decaying (growth) nature of current (voltage across capacitor). Consider the figure shown in 7.1. The switch is closed at t = D. Now,
V='!II!:.+iR
1 V=idt+iR C ._~
/_t
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RC Circuits
and 1JO'(t)
=
V  Ri(t)
=V
 Ril]
 Riel ~ ikI
1JO'(t)
=V
Ril] = V  Vc.(D)
:::} 'YO' (t)
= V_F 
(VF  1Je(D))~
ikI
For RC circuit with source voltage zero, and an initial capacitor voltage of 1J(D), this expression reduces
For constant current charging of a capacitor, as shown in 7.4. the analysis:
I
Figure 7.4: Constant current excitation ofa capacitor C=i=l dt
d1J
(7.2)
V :::} =t C
I
(7.3)
That is, voltage varies linearly with time on constant current charging.
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Figure 7.5:
o
n n n
Frcrntheab ave, wehave
Now consider the circuit shown infigure 7.6
t=[l
R 1=2.0. ie V
=
1.0.
l[lP
Figure 7.6: The switch is turned off at t = 5 sec. There is no charge on the capacitor initially. Therefore, after
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RC Circuits
t
o and before
t
5, the circuit is equivalent to figure 7.7
A
R=Ul 1
In
leF
B
Figure 7.7: Taking thevenin equivalent in the direction of the arrow leads to figure 7.8
A
11m
R=2n 1
+
sv
loft'
B
Figure 7.8: Therefore, RC
=
=
2.5 x 10 25
For 1.I!:.(rsec), we have the following equation
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RC Circuits
0.906volts
After t
=
5sec., the switch is once again thrown open and the equivalent circuit is shown infigure 7.9
2
n
Figure 7.9: Now,
o
'!I1
0.906
Therefore,
0<t<5
The graph of '!I!:'(t) with time is shown infigure 7.10
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RC Circuits
lV
I
.7
.5
t
Figure 7.10:
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Next: Sinusoidal Steady State Response Up: Introduction to Electronics Previous: Transient response ofRL Contents ynsingh 20070725
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