Lighting Research and Technology

http://lrt.sagepub.com/ The natural lighting of the mosaics in the Rotunda at Thessaloniki
IG Iliadis Lighting Research and Technology 2001 33: 13 DOI: 10.1177/136578280103300106 The online version of this article can be found at: http://lrt.sagepub.com/content/33/1/13

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Lighting Res. Technol. 33,1 (2001) p. 13–24

The natural lighting of the mosaics in the Rotunda at Thessaloniki
IG Iliadis PhD EEng Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities, Kavala, Greece Received 19 June 2000; in final form 15 November 2000 This study examines the distribution of natural light on the mosaics in the dome of the Rotunda in Thessaloniki. It reveals that the monument is governed by a system of geometrical proportions which is repeated in the zones of mosaics in the dome. An important role in the illumination of the mosaics is played by the suitably fashioned sills of the large windows and the use of gold tesserae in the dome. The lighting is also assisted by the form of the dome and the appropriate inclination of the surface of the mosaic in relation to the light entering the large arched windows and also the light entering the lunettes which lie at the base of the dome.

List of symbols dwall dint ϕ a, b E1, E2 O = = = = = = width of wall (m) internal diameter of the Rotunda ratio of the Golden Section axes of the ellipse foci of the ellipse centre of the ellipse

1. Introduction The Rotunda, a circular building dating from the time of the tetrarchy, was built by Galerius in about 300 AD as part of a large palace complex. The structure measures 24.5 m in diameter and is covered by a dome (Figure 1). Its height, from the present floor-level up to the apex of the dome, is 29.8 m. Its cylindrical wall is 6.3 m thick and is constructed of rubblework and bands of brick bound by strong mortar. It is pierced by eight rectangular barrel-vaulted bays which open onto the interior. Above the bays eight large arched windows1 form the main source of light for the interior of the Rotunda.2–5 Extensive alterations were carried out in the
Address for correspondence: IG Iliadis, Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities, 14 Odos Kyprou, 651 10 Kavala, Greece. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2001

Rotunda during the Early Christian period (fourth to sixth centuries), when it was converted into a Christian church. The square bay on the east side was extended to create a large spacious sanctuary with an apse. A circular stoa was also added around the outside of the building. At the same time the interior surfaces of the walls from floor-level up to the springing-line of the dome were faced with marble. In addition, superb mosaics were added: (a) to the soffits of the lunettes at the base of the dome (b) to the soffits of the barrel-vaults of the rectangular bays on

Figure 1 Rotunda: southwest view 1365–7828(01)LI003OA

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Natural lighting of mosaics This study aims to provide an answer to this question. It examines, therefore, the way in which natural light is distributed onto the mosaics of the Rotunda’s dome and also looks at the structural symmetry of the monument and the role this plays in the distribution of light. Furthermore, the conclusions arising from the study will serve as the basis for a system of artificial lighting for the mosaics. 2. Structural lay-out and symmetry In order to understand how the mosaics in the dome are illuminated, first of all there should be an investigation of the possibility that symmetrical principles were applied when the building was erected. The use of such principles is suggested partly by the fact that the amount of light entering the interior through the windows is not the same in all cases, owing to their different orientations, and partly by the fact that visitors (the faithful) were able to see the mosaic composition clearly. How could the latter have been possible if, in their conception and execution of the mosaic, the craftsmen had not been aware of the constructional symmetry of the building? At this stage of the investigation, the following questions were posed: 1) Is the thickness (6.3 m) of the outer wall due only to its function as a load-bearing structure? 2) Do the number and the position of the windows in relation to the path of the sun affect the distribution of light onto the mosaics and, if so, in what way? 3) What relationship is there between the surface of the dome and the surface area illuminated by the large arched windows? A study of the plans of the building produced the following observations: 1) The 6.3 m thickness of the outer wall is approximately 1/5 of the external height of the monument and 1/6 of the external diameter (i.e., dwall ≅ 1/4 dint). The internal height of the large windows equals the thickness of the

the ground floor, and (c) to the whole of the dome.6–8 The mosaics in the second and third groups are of a decorative character and include geometric motifs and animal and plant designs. However, the colours of the tesserae in the barrel-vaults of the bays are different from those of the tesserae in the lunettes. In the mosaics which adorn the bays, bright colours predominate, such as dark red, green and blue on a gold or silver ground. By contrast, in the soffits of the lunettes use is made of softer shades of colour: light green, greenishyellow, lemon and pink on a ground of white marble tesserae. The third group of mosaics at the Rotunda consists of the mosaics in the dome, which are divided into three successive zones.9 The bottom zone is the broadest and is divided into eight equal panels, separated by vertical bands with plant motifs, composed of gold, black and silver tesserae, as well as others in sea-blue and wine-red tones. The panels each portray magnificent buildings, Christian churches, with the figures of two saints in an attitude of prayer. The mosaic in the east panel has been destroyed and replaced by an oil painting (late nineteenth to early twentieth century). The uniquely beautiful chromatic variety of the tesserae lends emphasis to the details and the expressions of the figures and faces portrayed. The middle zone of the dome is almost completely destroyed. Only its lower section survives, which depicts short grass and bushy plants, amongst which pairs of feet can be seen and parts of the garments of moving figures. Above these figures there are figures of flying angels dressed in white, depicted in various attitudes of adoration and supporting a round ‘glory’ composed of the colours of the rainbow, a wreath of the fruits and flowers of all the seasons, and a circle of multi-rayed stars. At the centre of the glory there is a depiction of Christ. In the semi-dome of the sanctuary apse there survives a fresco (ninth century) depicting the Ascension of Christ.2,10–14 How, though, are the mosaics in the dome illuminated, since the large windows, which are the main source of light, lie below the base of the dome?

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Figure 2 Section B–B. Structural lay-out

wall and also the height of the bottom zone of mosaics in the dome (the ‘martyrs’ frieze’). Also, the ratio of the distance between the level of the original floor and the lowest point of the window to the height of the window is equal to the ratio of the Golden Section ϕ ≅ 1.62. The keystone of the dome together with the diameter of the base of the building form an equilateral triangle ABC. A second, inverted equilateral triangle, DMN, is formed between the centre of the circular base and the edges of the conical roof (Figure 2). 2) Each bay is positioned opposite a window and each arched window contains a sill which slopes at an angle of approx.17o in relation to the floor. A notional continuation of this line intersects the outer perimeter of the base at a point diametrically opposite; this point lies at a level of about 0.5–0.7 m lower than that of the present-day floor of the Rotunda2,15,16 (Figure 3). Observations have revealed that the surfaces of the window-sills, with their

particular angles of inclination, function as reflectors of the incoming light (semidiffused reflection). Therefore, the particularly thick walls, whose thickness is required to create the appropriate surface area in the sills, do not serve merely as a load-bearing structure but also to illuminate the mosaics in the dome. 3) The height of the first zone of mosaics in the dome can be viewed from points Z and Z´ respectively, at an angle of 17o. From the same points the entire height of the Rotunda is also visible, at an angle of 68o (Figure 3). The angle B´AC´ is also 17o. If points B and C´ are projected in the direction of the sanctuary, they coincide with the angles of the piers of the sanctuary arch. The sanctuary opening is visible from the entrance to the monument at an angle of 17o. Also, the horizontal distance between the west entrance and the sanctuary apse is equivalent to the interior height of the monument. The whole of the dome is visible

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Natural lighting of mosaics

Figure 3 Section B–B. Angles of incidence and reflection of the sun’s rays in the east window. Angles of view.

from the centre of the Rotunda with an angle of view of 68o. The angle of 17o, therefore, together with its multiples, represents a decisive factor which is related to the angle of view.17 3. The form of the dome The dome of the Rotunda is spherical, based on two centres,12,16,18 or even three.13 Thus it could be regarded as having an elliptical and not a spherical surface, in accordance with the proposition below. 3.1 Proposition The typological link which is evident between the Pantheon in Rome and the Rotunda gives rise to the following considerations: a) If we rotate the spherical surface of the Pantheon’s dome around its horizontal diameter, we obtain a true sphere, which fits perfectly in the interior of the monument.

b) By extension, if we form a symmetrical outline of the section B–B of the dome of the Rotunda around the axis KK´ (Figure 2), we observe that this outline does not intersect the base. Therefore, the interior does not enclose a true sphere, unlike the Pantheon. If, however, we form a symmetrical outline of the section of the dome around the axis EE´ (Figure 2), then the interior of the Rotunda encloses a solid whose apex is intersected by D. This point lies in the centre of the original floor. c) On the basis of the above data, we believe that the three spherical surfaces in the dome together form an ellipsoidal surface i.e., an ellipsoid of revolution. This figure possesses the true qualities of an ellipse: for instance, ‘the sum of the distances of any point on the periphery from the two foci E1 and E2 is always constant.’ The position of the focus E1 is significant because at this point the

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IG Iliadis 17 stilting of the dome commences and this has a direct bearing on the angle at which the mosaics are illuminated. If the path of the light reflected from the window-sills is observed more closely, it will be noticed that this light illuminates the mosaics in the first and second zones in particular, at an angle of almost 90o. Experiments carried out on many different types of mosaics have shown that these show up better when they are illuminated by light falling directly upon them. I believe that the craftsmen of the time were aware of this. The axes of the ellipse AD and FG intersect at the centre O (Figure 2). The diagonals BN and CM also pass through this centre. 4. The relationship between the surface of the dome and windows It was mentioned previously that from points Z and Z´ (Figure 3) the interior of the Rotunda can be seen, from the floor up to the highest point A, at an angle of view of 68o. Both the angle of inclination of the window-sills and the height of the windows in the circular nucleus of the monument play a role in this. The sunlight which falls on points Z and Z´ and on the surface of each of the other window-sills is reflected towards the surface of the dome directly opposite (Figure 3). For this reason we need to determine the relationship between the illuminated surface of the windows and that of the dome. The surface area of each arched window in the Rotunda is calculated to be 18 m2 (height 5.30 m; width 3.60 m). The light is reflected on the window-sills, changes direction and illuminates the surface of the mosaics almost at right angles (90o). Since the illuminated surface of one window is 18 m2, the total illuminated area of the windows is 18 × 8 = 144 m2. As for the area of the ellipsoidal dome, this can be calculated from the following equations: The ellipse is given by the relation x2 y2 — + — =1 b2 a2 (1) and the surface area of the ellipsoid of revolution by the equation: 2p.a2b a2 – b2 E = 2p.b2 + ———— arcsin ———— a2 – b 2 a (2)

If a = 14.6 m and b = 12.2 m, then, on the basis of the foregoing equation, it emerges that the surface area of the dome is E ≈ 1000 m2. The ratio of the total surface area of the dome to the illuminated surface of the windows is 1000/144 ≅ 7 i.e., the total illuminated surface of the windows is ‘expanded’ seven times in order to illuminate the mosaics in the dome. 5. Natural lighting in the interior of the Rotunda The orientation of the windows in the Rotunda coincides with the major and minor points of the compass. On the basis of Table 7.4 in the IES Lighting Handbook 1984,19 we have calculated the data for the height of the sun and the azimuth, according to the Old Calendar. On-the-spot observations have revealed that direct sunlight enters the Rotunda through the windows which possess the following orientation: east, south-west, southeast (sanctuary), south and west. For example, in Thessaloniki, which lies at latitude 40o 43´ N, on 21 June at 6.30 am the height of the sun is 18o and the azimuth is 105o. With the sun in this position, the sunlight enters the interior of the monument directly through the NE window (Figure 4). Today, unfortunately, the morning sunlight is prevented from entering the Rotunda by the blocks of flats which lie to the east. When the sanctuary was created the amount of light in the interior of the monument increased compared to that which existed during the Roman period. The arrangement of the five-light window in the sanctuary contributes to the unimpeded entry of light almost all day long, thus succeeding in captivating the visitor’s gaze, both literally and figuratively.

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Natural lighting of mosaics the aid of a portable Topcon IM-2D, which was placed at about a height of 1.0 m above the floor and at specific points (Figure 4). The results of the measurements are shown in Table 1. During the time the measurements were taken there was scaffolding in the interior of the monument, which of course did not affect the measurements, although it did restrict the lighting of the mosaics in the dome. When both the external and internal measurements were taken, the instrument’s sensor was placed in the shade, except at position 10 in column 5. The measurement at this point was affected by the sun’s rays. The high figures recorded at points 4 and 6 in column 2 are due to the brief reflection of the light on the surfaces of the large apses on the ground floor to the left and right of the sanctuary. The divergence (520 lux) in reading at point 11 between the 12 and 19 September due to the reflection of the light on the wall of the sanctuary at 10.00. Table 2 shows the figures for the vertical illuminance. The instrument was placed at successive 2-m intervals above the floor up to the first zone of mosaics. The figures in column A were obtained at various points at the edge of the existing scaffolding, while those in column B were obtained on the surfaces of the walls (Figure 5). All of the measurements were taken on the west side of the monument.

Figure 4 Ground plan of Rotunda. Direction of the sun’s rays inside the Rotunda and positions of the illuminance meter

5.1 Measurements of illuminance in the interior of the Rotunda The measurements of the illuminance (lux) in the interior of the Rotunda were carried out with

Table 1 Measurements of the illuminance in the interior of the Rotunda Date 12/9/1997 Time: 08.00 Measurement points Outside illuminance 4500 lux 1 25 12 10 12 13 18 13 13 40 50 145 Date 12/9/1997 Time: 09.30 Outside illuminance 6500 lux 2 55 82 19 155 33 85 35 50 90 510 2310 Date 17/9/1997 Time: 12.00 Outside illuminance 9200 lux 3 80 73 46 26 73 45 16 40 132 920 2000 Date 18/9/1997 Time: 08.30 Outside illuminance 4500 lux 4 32 20 15 15 30 12 17 35 60 210 280 Date 19/9/1997 Time: 10.00 Outside illuminance 6400 lux 5 50 56 20 22 142 38 30 40 110 8500 2830

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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Table 2 Measurements of vertical illuminance in the interior of the west side of the Rotunda Date 23/8/1997 Sunlight Outside: vertical illuminance horizontal illuminance Time 10.15 to 10.45 Points Height from the floor (m) 0.20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Vertical illuminance (lux) A 60 68 74 76 78 80 75 68 60 55 48 41

4300 (lux) 5000 (lux) Vertical illuminance (lux) B 18 24 29 31 33 38 36 32 27 25 22 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

From the figures in Table 2 we can see that there is an increase in illuminance up to a height of 10 m above floor-level, while above this point, up to a height of 22 m, the illuminance decreases. The reason for this is the fact that up to a height of 10 m there are no significant obstacles that might affect the measurements, while above 10 m the measurements were affected partly by the wooden platform of the scaffolding and partly by the protective screen on its outer surface. I believe that if these obstacles had not existed, the levels of illuminance above 10 m would have been higher than those recorded in Table 2. Moreover, the scaffolding obstructed the rays reflected by the internal cylindrical masonry. If one considers the fact that during the Christian period this masonry was faced with marble, then the reflections must have been much greater than those produced today.

Figure 5 Measurements of the vertical illuminance in the interior of the Rotunda (west side)

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Natural lighting of mosaics Three factors played a role in this: the lighting, the reflection of the light, and the luminance. 5.2.1 Lighting On sunny days the sun’s rays are reflected by the window-sills (semi-diffused reflection) and are directed towards the sections of the mosaics in the dome which lie opposite each window. This of course happens gradually, in accordance with the position of the sun. During the morning hours most of the light falls on the first zone of mosaics and as the sun rises the second and then the third zone are gradually lit up. The sun’s rays reflected in the windows are reckoned to strike the surface of the mosaics almost at right angles. This lighting is reinforced by the light diffused in the atmosphere which enters the monument through the windows and in particular the sanctuary. The marble revetment would have reflected the light into the interior, thus boosting the lighting of the mosaics. This lighting is supplemented by the light which comes through the lunettes, of which only those which face east, south or west receive direct sunlight, while the rest are illuminated by the light diffused in the atmosphere. The gently curved soffits of the lunettes function as reflectors which direct the light towards the dome.15 On cloudy days the distribution of light in the interior of the monument is even since more or less the same amount of light enters through each of the windows. The level of lighting on cloudy days is lower than that on sunny days, the ratio of the former to the latter ranging between 1:5 and 1:10. Figure 6 shows the light reflections in the windows, on the floor, on the cylindrical surface of the interior and in the dome. It should be noted that visitors usually move along the longitudinal axis (west entrance–sanctuary). It is when they find themselves in the centre of the Rotunda that they look up to observe the mosaics in the dome. From here the sills of the windows are not visible. The window-sills become visible only when the

The same conclusion will be reached if one carefully studies the interior of the Rotunda. The windows which exist in the large bays on the ground floor are small (except for those in the sanctuary), admit little light and because of the great thickness of the walls do not play an important part in the lighting of the central core of the building. During the Byzantine era these bays were open and communicated with a roofed ambulatory around the perimeter (the circular stoa) which functioned as a narthex. I believe that during this period the level of light in the nucleus of the building was even lower than it is today. Higher up towards the dome lie the large windows. The level of lighting at this level, therefore, is higher than at floor-level. Around the base of the dome lie the lunettes, the light from which supplements that which has been reflected by the window-sills and that which derives from internal reflections. Considering the fact that during the Byzantine era the interior was revetted with white-tinted marble, the amount of light which reached the mosaics in the dome must have been even greater than that which falls on them today. Furthermore, because of the shape of the dome and, by extension, the inclination of the gold tesserae in the ground of the mosaics, the light, after various reflections, is directed towards the apex of the dome. This study presents only indicative measurements which should help the reader to understand how natural light is distributed in the interior of the monument and also assist in the formation of a few useful initial conclusions. At this stage it is not possible to take measurements above a height of 22 m. 5.2 Lighting and luminance on the surface of the mosaics From the measurements shown above we can deduce that the same amount of light does not always enter the windows. We may assume, therefore, that the mosaics in the dome would have been illuminated unevenly during the course of the day. It is a fact, however, that the mosaics were visible during daylight hours.

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Figure 6 Schematic representation of the basic reflections in the interior of the Rotunda

visitor moves around the edge of the central core of the monument. What is particularly interesting, however, is the fact that the lighting in the sanctuary is direct, while that in the dome is indirect and depends on the height of the sun. The mosaics in the dome are illuminated at a slower rate than the sanctuary is. This is because the sanctuary, with its fivelight window and lateral windows – which are of a later date than the main building – are directly illuminated all day long. On the other hand, early in the morning when the sun is low, the sun’s rays are almost parallel with the sill of the east window, so little light is reflected. As the sun rises, however, more and more light is reflected on the sills of the windows and other points of the internal surfaces, changes direction and is directed towards the dome. After about 10–11 am most of the light entering the building comes through the east and south windows and the sanctuary. During the afternoon the south, west and north-west windows receive more light.

5.2.2 Reflection The process whereby light is reflected on the surface of a material occurs in the following two ways: First way: A small amount of light is reflected directly by the surface of the material (mirror reflection), without changing colour. Second way: The light penetrates beneath the surface, into the main body of the material, before being reflected in all directions. The material has already absorbed some of the light rays and the light is affected by the colours of the material. If its surface contains white hues, then the reflected rays will also be white i.e., they will contain all the colours of the spectrum. On the basis of the above analysis, we can conclude that the Rotunda’s marble revetment must have contained mainly white tones, so that the reflected light would contain all the colours of the spectrum. Otherwise, if the reflecting surfaces had had a tendency to absorb specific colours, then certain colours would have been

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Natural lighting of mosaics Green: Light blue: Yellow: Flesh tones: 16% 10% 13% 25%

absent from the spectrum in the reflected light and the tesserae would not have been visible or their colours would have appeared subdued. For this reason, the marble in the window-sills, the floor and the revetment of the walls must have contained white hues. 5.2.3 Luminance We know from photometry that luminance is a quantity which plays an important role in the observation of objects. It depends on the following factors: • Illuminance. • The size of the illuminated surface and the reflection coefficient. • The angle of view. On the basis of this theory, we may interpret various matters relating to the viewing of the mosaics in the Rotunda. (a) The gold and silver tesserae increase the luminance of the mosaics. These tesserae consist of three layers: the first is of glass and is fixed onto the mortar, the second is of fine gold or silver leaf, and the third is the top glass coating. The third layer protects the gold or silver leaf from oxidization and also functions as a mirror, together with the second layer. Calculations of the reflection coefficient in the various colours of the tesserae in the first zone of mosaics in the Rotunda give the following values: Gold: 15–20% The reflection coefficient can be read from tables is 60–70%. The loss of the glass coating in the gold tesserae amounts to 30–40%. The loss of silver tesserae amounts to 90–98%. The reflection coefficient can be read from tables is 90–92%. Unfortunately, the silver tesserae are very badly damaged and so the reflection coefficient recorded here would differ considerably from the true figure.

The number of silver tesserae is much smaller than the number of gold ones. The gold ground reflects the light over the whole surface of the dome, with the result that the tesserae are more brightly lit. The gold ground of the mosaics enables the viewer to focus his attention on the essence of the pictorial representation and at the same time helps the outlines of the figures to rise off the flat surface and appear three-dimensional.20 This is aided by the fact that it is mainly the warm colours which appear to stand out, while the cold ones appear to recede into the background. It has been proved that for normal vision yellow light can be more clearly perceived than any other light of the same luminance (this of course depends on the putity of the colour). The relative effectiveness of various colour combinations, in relation to viewing distance, has been recorded as follows,21 with the most effective listed first: • • • • • Black on yellow. Green on white. Red on white. Blue on white White on blue, etc.

In the Rotunda mosaics many of the above combinations can be found. A few examples are provided below: (i) The use of black on a yellow (golden) ground occurs in the outlines of most of the figures of the saints, the outlines of the architectural structures and also the inscriptions beside each saint. (ii) Combinations of green and white and blue and white occur in the screens, in the wreath of the ‘glory’ with the intertwined flowers and fruit, in the tunics of some of the saints, and in some of the arches in the buildings. (iii) A variety of different hues has been used – red, yellow and orange tesserae – to render

Silver:

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IG Iliadis 23 the facial features, together with tonal gradations of white and pink. (b) For the flesh tones of the saints smaller tesserae have been used due to the fact that small tesserae render graduations of colour more effectively. It is a well-known fact that when mosaicists wish to render flesh tones in wall mosaics they always use small tesserae with suitable graduations of colour in order to depict the volumes of the bodies more effectively and make them stand out from the rest of the mosaic. 6. Conclusions To sum up the evidence of the above observations, we find that the Rotunda is governed by a system of geometrical proportions. This symmetry was partly followed by the craftsmen in their execution of the mosaics in the dome. Their main aim was to direct the light indirectly towards the dome. In order to achieve this they fashioned the sills of the windows appropriately and faced the interior of the Rotunda with marble. In addition, they faced the soffits of the lunettes with mosaics composed of light-coloured tesserae. An important role in all this was played by the shape of the dome and the mode of execution of the mosaics. The division of the mosaic into zones was directly connected with the issues of lighting and viewing. The interior is arranged around two axes: the horizontal and the vertical. The horizontal axis lies between the west entrance and the sanctuary, while the vertical axis lies between the floor and the vault. In the first case, the external light decreases in the centre of the interior at a much greater rate than it does in the sanctuary. In other words, as the faithful enter the interior of the Rotunda their gaze is drawn towards the brightness of the sanctuary. The same impression is also created on the vertical axis. The light increases in relation to the height of the building. Thus, at floor-level the level of lighting is low, while higher up towards the dome it increases. In order to create this effect the craftsmen had to make use of certain devices, since the existing windows lie beneath the dome. It was for this reason that they fashioned the window-sills in an appropriate manner, faced the interior of the building with marble, and used gold tesserae in the grounds of the mosaics. The light, therefore, after being repeatedly reflected on these surfaces, would be directed towards the apex of the dome, to where Christ was depicted within a shining circular ‘glory’. The reflected light was supplemented by that entering the monument through the lunettes. What is particularly interesting is the fact that the light in the sanctuary is direct, while that in the dome is indirect and depends on the height of the sun. That is, the mosaics in the dome are illuminated at a slower rate than the sanctuary is. Acknowledgements My thanks are due to the Ephor of Antiquities Mr Charalambos Bakirtzis for the assistance he afforded me during the course of taking the measurements, his structural amendments to the text, and his constructive criticism. I would also like to thank the painter and mosaicist Mrs Demetra Kamaraki for her invaluable advice on matters of colour analysis and the composition of wall mosaics. The drawings come from the archive of the Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities in Thessaloniki. 7. References
1 Prokopiou G. O Kosmologikos Symvolismos stin architechtoniki tou Vyzantinou Naou (Cosmological symbolism in the architecture of the Byzantine church). Athens, 1980. 2 Pazaras Th. I Rotonda tou Agiou Georgiou sti Thessaloniki (The Rotunda of St. George in Thessaloniki). Thessaloniki: IMXA, 1985. 3 Grabar A. A propos des mosaïques de la coupole de Saint Georges à Salonique. Cah. Arch. 1967; 17. 4 Hebrand E. Les travaux du Service Archéologique de I’Armée d’Orient à I’arc de triomphe de Galére et I’église de St.Georges à Salonique. BCH 1920; 44.

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Natural lighting of mosaics
Nea stichia kai aposafiniseis me aformi tis anastilotikes ergasies (The Rotunda at Thessaloniki – new data and light provided by the restoration works). DChAe, 1992, Athens. Xyngopoulos A. I tichografia tis Analipseos en ti apsidi tou Ag. Georgiou tis Thessalonikis (The fresco of the Ascension in the sanctuary apse of St. George in Thessaloniki). Archaiologike ephemeris 1936; 101–36. Potamianos Jac. To fos sti vyzantini ekklesia (Light in the Byzantine church). Thessaloniki: University Studio Press, 2000. Moutsopoulos N. Meleti apokatastaseon zimion (1) (Study of the repairs to the damage). Thessaloniki, 1980. Egan D. Conception architectural lighting. New York: Mc Crawhill, 1983. Sotiriou GM. Provlimata tis ikonografias tou troullou tou naou Ag. Georgiou Thessalonikis (Problems of iconography in the dome of the church of St. George in Thessaloniki). DChAE 1972; 6: 191–203, Athens. IES Lighting handbook reference Volume. New York : Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 1984. Kamaraki D. Zografiki apodosi se protochristianika psifidota Mnimeion Thessalonikis (Painting in Early Christian mosaics in the monuments of Thessaloniki) Symposium on ‘From the Fayum Portrait to early Byzantine icon painting’. Heraklion, 1998. Sargent W. To chroma sti fisi kai stin techni (Colour in nature and in art). Athens, 1980.

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