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CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

The z-transform is a very important tool in describing and analyzing digital

systems.

It offers the techniques for digital filter design and frequency analysis of

digital signals.

¿

·

÷· =

÷

=

n

n

z n x z X ] [ ) (

Definition of z-transform:

For causal sequence, x(n) = 0, n < 0:

Where z is a complex

variable

All the values of z that make the summation to exist form a region of convergence.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

2

Example 1

Given the sequence,

find the z transform of x(n).

Problem:

Solution:

We know,

Therefore,

1

1

1

1

1

1

) (

1

÷

=

÷

=

÷

=

÷

z

z

z

z

z X

When, 1 | | 1 | |

1

> ¬ <

÷

z z

Region of convergence

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

3

Example 2

Given the sequence, find the z transform of x(n).

Problem:

Solution:

Therefore,

a z

z

z

a

az

z X

÷

=

÷

=

÷

=

÷

1

1

1

1

) (

1

When,

a z az > ¬ <

÷

| | 1 | |

1

Region of convergence

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

4

Z-Transform

Table

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

5

Example 3

Find z-transform of the following sequences.

Problem:

a. b.

Solution:

a. From line 9 of the Table:

b. From line 14 of the Table:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

6

Z- Transform Properties (1)

Linearity:

a and b are arbitrary constants.

Example 4

Find z- transform of

Line 3

Line 6

Using z- transform

table:

Therefore, we get

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

7

Z- Transform Properties (2)

Shift Theorem:

Verification:

Since x(n) is assumed to be causal:

Then we achieve,

n = m

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

8

Example 5

Find z- transform of

Problem:

Solution:

Using shift theorem,

Using z- transform table, line 6:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

9

Z- Transform Properties (3)

Convolution

In time domain,

In z- transform domain,

Verification:

Eq. (1)

Using z- transform in Eq. (1)

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

10

Example 6

Problem:

Solution:

Given the sequences,

Find the z-transform of their

convolution.

Applying z-transform on the two sequences,

From the table, line 2

Therefore we get,

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

11

Inverse z- Transform: Examples

Find inverse z-transform of

We get,

Using table,

Find inverse z-transform of

We get,

Using table,

Example 7

Example 8

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

12

Inverse z- Transform: Examples

Find inverse z-transform of

Since,

By coefficient matching,

Therefore,

Find inverse z-transform of

Example 9

Example 10

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

13

Inverse z-Transform: Using Partial Fraction

Find inverse z-transform of

First eliminate the negative power of z.

Example 11

Dividing both sides by z:

Finding the

constants:

Therefore, inverse z-transform is:

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

14

Inverse z-Transform: Using Partial Fraction

Example 12

Dividing both sides by z:

We first find B:

Next find A:

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

15

Example 12 – contd.

Using polar form

Now we have:

Therefore, the inverse z-transform is:

CEN352, Dr. GhulamMuhammad

King Saud University

16

Inverse z-Transform: Using Partial Fraction

Example 13

Dividing both sides by z:

m = 2, p = 0.5

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

17

Example 13 – contd.

From Table:

Finally we get,

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

18

Partial Function Expansion Using MATLAB

Example 14

The denominator polynomial can be

found using MATLAB:

Therefore,

The solution is:

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

19

Partial Function Expansion Using MATLAB

Example 15

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

20

Partial Function Expansion Using MATLAB

Example 16

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

21

Difference Equation Using Z-Transform

The procedure to solve difference equation using z-transform:

1. Apply z-transform to the difference equation.

2. Substitute the initial conditions.

3. Solve for the difference equation in z-transform domain.

4. Find the solution in time domain by applying the inverse z-transform.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

22

Example 17

Solve the difference equation when the initial condition is

Taking z-transform on both sides:

Substituting the initial condition and z-transform on right hand side using Table:

Arranging Y(z) on left hand side:

Problem:

Solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

23

Example 17 – contd.

Solving for A and B:

Therefore,

Taking inverse z-transform, we get the solution:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

24

Example 18

A DSP system is described by the following differential equation with zero initial condition:

a. Determine the impulse response y(n) due to the impulse sequence x(n) = o(n).

b. Determine system response y(n) due to the unit step function excitation, where

u(n) = 1 for n > 0.

Taking z-transform on both sides:

Problem:

Solution:

Applying on right side

a.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

25

Example 18 – contd.

We multiply the numerator and denominator by z

2

Hnece the impulse

response:

Solving for A and B:

Therefore,

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad

King Saud University

26

Example 18 – contd.

The input is step unit function:

Corresponding z-transform:

b.

[Slide 24]

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