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Continuous amplitude

Analog Signal

Continuous amplitude

Discrete-time Signal

Continuous time

Discrete time

Discrete amplitude

Digital Signal

Discrete time

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Digital Signal – contd.

Analog Signal

Discrete-time Signal

Digital Signal

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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**DSP (Digital Signal Processing)
**

A digital signal processing scheme

To avoid aliasing for sampling

Analog to Digital Converter

Digital to Analog Converter

To avoid aliasing for sampling

**Computer / microprocessor / micro controller/ etc.
**

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 3

**Some Applications of DSP
**

• Noise removal from speech.

Noisy Speech

Clean Speech

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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**Some Applications of DSP
**

• Signal spectral analysis.

Time domain

Single tone: 1000 Hz Frequency domain

Double tone: 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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**Some Applications of DSP
**

• Noise removal from image.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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**Some Applications of DSP
**

• Image enhancement.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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**Summary Applications of DSP
**

Digital speech and audio:

• Speech recognition • Speaker recognition • Speech synthesis • Speech enhancement • Speech coding • Image enhancement • Image recognition • Medical imaging • Image forensics • Image coding • Internet audio, video, phones • Image / video compression • Text-to-voice & voice-to-text • Movie indexing

Digital Image Processing:

Multimedia:

……..

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 8

Sampling

For a given sampling interval T, which is defined as the time span between two sample points, the sampling rate is given by

fs

samples per second (Hz).

1 T

For example, if a sampling period is T = 125 microseconds, the sampling rate is determined as fs =1/125 s or 8,000 samples per second (Hz).

**Sample and Hold
**

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 9

Sampling - Theorem

Freq. = 2 / 23

Freq. = 7 / 23

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Freq. = 22/ 23

10

Sampling - Theorem

The sampling theorem guarantees that an analog signal can be in theory perfectly recovered as long as the sampling rate is at least twice as large as the highest-frequency component of the analog signal to be sampled.

The condition is:

For example, to sample a speech signal containing frequencies up to 4 kHz, the minimum sampling rate is chosen to be at least 8 kHz, or 8,000 samples per second.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Sampling - Theorem

Sampling interval T= 0.01 s Sampling rate fs= 100 Hz Sinusoid freq. = 4 cycles / 0.1 = 40 Hz

Sampling condition is satisfied, so reconstruction from digital to analog is possible.

Do this by yourself!

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Sampling Process

x(t): Input analog signal p(t): Pulse train

T

1 fs

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Sampling Process

In frequency domain:

Xs(f): Sampled spectrum X(f): Original spectrum X(fnfs): Replica spectrum

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Sampling Process

Original spectrum

Original spectrum plus its replicas

Original spectrum plus its replicas

**Minimum requirement for Reconstruction Reconstruction not possible
**

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Original spectrum plus its replicas

15

**Shannon Sampling Theorem
**

For a uniformly sampled DSP system, an analog signal can be perfectly recovered as long as the sampling rate is at least twice as large as the highest-frequency component of the analog signal to be sampled.

Half of the sampling frequency fs/2 is usually called the Nyquist frequency (Nyquist limit), or folding frequency.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 1

Problem:

Solution:

Using Euler’s identity,

Hence, the Fourier series coefficients are:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 1 – contd.

a.

b.

After the analog signal is sampled at the rate of 8,000 Hz, the sampled signal spectrum and its replicas centered at the frequencies nfs, each with the scaled amplitude being 2.5/T

**Replicas, no additional information.
**

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 18

Signal Reconstruction

First, the digitally processed data y(n) are converted to the ideal impulse train ys(t), in which each impulse has its amplitude proportional to digital output y(n), and two consecutive impulses are separated by a sampling period of T; second, the analog reconstruction filter is applied to the ideally recovered sampled signal ys(t) to obtain the recovered analog signal.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Signal Reconstruction

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Signal Reconstruction

Aliasing Perfect reconstruction is not possible, even if we use ideal low pass filter.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 2

Problem:

Solution:

Using the Euler’s identity:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 2 – contd.

a.

b. The Shannon sampling theory condition is satisfied.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 3

Problem:

Solution:

a. b.

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Quantization

L: No. of quantization level m: Number of bits in ADC : Step size of quantizer i: Index corresponding to binary code xq: Quantization level xmax: Max value of analog signal xmin: Min value of analog signal Example:

Unipolar

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 25

Quantization – contd.

Bipolar

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Example 4

Problem:

Solution:

a. b. d. 101

c.

Quantization error:

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University 27

Periodicity

In discrete-time case, a periodic sequence is a sequence for which

x[n] x[n N ], for all n

where the period N is necessarily an integer.

Example:

x[n] cos(n / 4)

Period of N = 8

x[n 8] cos( (n 8) / 4) cos(n / 4 2 ) cos(n / 4) x[n]

CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

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Periodicity

Example:

x[n] cos(3n / 8)

Not periodic with N = 8

**x[n 8] cos(3 (n 8) / 8) cos(3n / 8 3 ) cos(3n / 8) x[n]
**

But periodic with N = 16

**x[n 16] cos(3 (n 16) / 8) cos(3n / 8 6 ) cos(3n / 8) x[n]
**

However,

x[n] cos(n) is not periodic, because there is no such N.

Determine whether the following signals are periodic or not.

**sin(n / 5) x[n] e and x[n] n CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad
**

j ( 3n / 4 )

King Saud University

29

- Slides 2up
- DSP for Explicit FEA AUC1999
- Intro_DSP
- Digital Communication
- z Transform
- Sampling What Nyquist Didn t Say and What to Do About It Wescott
- SPL_orals
- Lecture Notes on DSP - JNTU
- Quantization and Sampling Using Matlab
- chapter 1 introduction.ppt
- (Www.entrance Exam.net) Digital Communication
- p9
- lecture2(1)
- SDAN_0025-0158_C
- p15_gwaltney_s
- A High-Speed, Hierarchical 16×16 Array of Array
- Sampling
- DN-02-03-05
- ECE
- Introduction to SDR
- Lab5
- DSP
- 07571162 (1).pdf
- FFT Windows
- Error tolerant adders
- Analogue-electronics Laboratory Protocol
- Bandwidth Efficient GMSK Modem Using Advanced Digital Signal Processing Techniques
- Digital Communication
- IEEE DFR Report
- m.tech. (Electronics & Communication Engineering)(Regular & Part-time)(Batch 2016)

- wirles communication
- 2_20100711083213
- JIMMA Electrical&ComputerEng
- DSP CEN352 Ch3 Linear
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- DSP_CEN352_ch5_z
- Slides on Data Structures tree and graph
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- 3_20100711083841
- Lecture SQL
- Interfacing Lecture
- E2.05 Signals and Systems 2006
- Tutorial AutoCAD 2007 4(2)
- Introductory Electromagnetics - Z. Popovic, B. Popovic
- Electrical Installation Calc s Blackwell
- Chapter 4 Functions
- signals Sampling
- Artificial Light
- Magnet 1
- 3-phaseCkt
- deltawye
- Signals and Systems (Simon Haykin _ Barry Van Veen)
- Matlab Basics
- EBCS-10 Ethiopian Building Code Standard Electrical Installation of Buildings
- EE113 Course Notes Rev0 stanford university
- MATLAB Workshop
- Pointers Structures

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