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You are on page 1of 11

1. Choose the correct answer from the following options (20 pt: 4 points each):

(1) At boundaries, fluid particles adhere to the walls, and so their velocities are

zero relative to the wall. This characteristic is referred to as

(A) surface tension; (B) bulk modulus of elasticity; (C) no-slip condition.

(2) How many meters of water are equivalent to 760 mm Hg (in terms of

pressure)? S

Hg

= 13.6.

(A) 13.60; (B) 10.34; (C) 0.76.

w

h =

Hg

0.76 h = 0.76(

Hg

/

w

) = 0.7613.6 (m)

(3) The center of pressure is always the centroid.

(A) below; (B) above; (C) coincident with.

(4) The dimension of force F is .

(A) ML/T

2

; (B) lbf; (C) N.

(5) Which of the following is the formula for the gage pressure within a very

small spherical droplet of water?

(A) p = o/(2r); (B) p = 2o/r; (C) p = 4o/r.

o2tr = ptr

2

p = 2o/r

2

2. (20 pt): Students are given a simple device called a rotational cylindrical viscometer,

as shown in Fig. 1, and asked to determine the viscosity of an unknown liquid. The

outer cylinder is fixed while the inner cylinder is rotating at a constant angular speed

of e by applying a torque T. (A) Derive an equation for the viscosity in terms of

angular velocity, e, torque, T, submerged inner cylinder height, L, inner cylinder

radius, R

i

, and outer cylinder radius, R

o

; (B) Calculate the viscosity value when e =

55 rev/min, T = 0.9 N m, L = 0.3 m, R

i

= 0.12 m and R

o

= 0.13 m.

SOLUTION:

Step-1: Find the dynamic viscosity of the fluid: = ?

Step-2: Schematic as shown in the figure.

Velocity Profile of the Fluid between the Gap of the Cylinders

Step-3: Assumptions: (1) The liquid is a Newtonian fluid; (2) The gap between the

cylinders is small and the velocity profile is linear, i.e., du/dr ~ Vu/Vr=U/(R

o

- R

i

); (3)

Neglect the end effects of the cylinders; and (4) the force (F) is perpendicular to its

moment arm (r), hence the torque is given by T = Fr.

Step-4: Equations

The torque is given by multiplying the force with its moment arm. That

is,

T = Fr

The force can be expressed in terms of the shear stress and area as

follows:

F = t (2trL) = T/r

Rearrange terms to yield

3

t = T / 2tr

2

L

According to Newton's law of viscosity for Newtonian fluids,

t = du/dr

The negative sign is inserted to indicate that u decreases as r increases. Note that the

velocity profile is assumed to be linear, as shown in the figure. The end conditions are

known and are given by: u = eR

i

at r = R

i

and u = 0 at r = R

o

.

Equating the above two equations and integrating from

r = R

i

to R

o

:

Step-5: Known parameters

e = 55 rev/min, T = 0.9 N m, L = 0.3 m, R

i

= 0.12m and R

o

= 0.13 m.

Step-6: Calculations

Substitution of the known values into the derived equation for dynamic viscosity yields

the viscosity of the liquid

Step-7: Discussion

Based on the assumptions, the dynamic viscosity can also be approximated as:

2

3

s/m N 480 . 0

2

) (

=

=

i

i o

R L

R R T

e t

The thinner the gap layer is, the more accurate the solution is.

4

3. (20 pt): Mercury is poured into the U-tube in the figure until the mercury occupies

1.0 ft of the tube's length. An equal volume of water is then poured into the left leg.

Locate the water and mercury surfaces. Also determine the maximum pressure in the

tube.

SOLUTION:

5

6

the specific weight of mercury

Hg

= 847 lbf/ft

3

, and note that p

1

= p

2

= 0,

7

4. (20 pt): The air above the liquid is under a pressure of 5 psig, and the specific gravity

of the liquid in the tank is 0.80. If the rectangular gate is 6 ft wide and if y

1

= 1 ft and

y

2

= 10 ft, what force P is required to hold the gate in place?

SOLUTION:

8

9

10

5. (20 pt): A long solid cylinder of radius 0.8 m hinged at point A is used as an

automatic gate, as shown in the following figure. When the water level reaches 5 m,

the gate opens by turning about the hinge at point A. Find (a) the magnitude and line

of action of the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder when the gate opens and (b)

the weight W

cyl

of the cylinder per m length of the cylinder.

SOLUTION:

Step-1: Find (a) F

R

and x

cp

y

cp

; (b) W

cyl

.

Step-2: Schematic as shown in the figure (b).

Step-3: Assumptions: (1) Friction at the hinge is negligible. (2) Atmospheric pressure

acts on both sides of the gate, and thus it cancels out.

Step-4: Equations

(a) Horizontal force on vertical surface:

F

H

= F

x

= PA = hA (1)

Vertical force on horizontal surface (upward):

F

V

=PA = HA (2)

The weight of displaced water:

W = V

ABC

=[(tR

2

/4)1] (3)

F

y

= F

V

+ W (4)

2 2

y H R

F F F + = (5)

A y

I

y y

xx

cp

+ = (6)

y

v

cp

F

R W R F

x

) 3 / 4 ( ) 2 / ( t +

= (7)

F

H

W

F

V

F

R

B

F

y

(a)

(b)

C

A

11

(b) When the water level is 5 m high, the gate is about to open and thus the reaction

force at the bottom of the cylinder is zero. Then the forces other than those at the

hinge acting on the cylinder are its weight, acting through the center, and the

hydrostatic force exerted by water. Taking a moment about point A at the location

of the hinge and equating it to zero gives

0 sin = R W R F

cyl R

u W

cyl

= F

R

sinu (8)

Step-5: Known parameters

In Equation (1) = 9810 N/m

3

, h = 4.2 + 0.8/2 = 4.6 m, A = 0.81 = 0.8 m

2

.

In Equation (2) H = 4.2 (m), A = 0.81 = 0.8 m

2

.

In Equation (3) t = 3.14, R = 0.8 m.

In Equation (6)y = 4.2+0.8/2 = 4.6 m, A = 0.81 = 0.8 m

2

,I

xx

= 10.8

3

/12 = 0.0427 m

4

.

Step-6: Calculations

Substitution of the known values into equations (1) (3) yields

F

H

= F

x

= hA = 98104.60.8 = 36100.8 N = 36.10 kN

F

V

=hA = 98104.20.8 = 32961.6 N = 32.96 kN

W = [(tR

2

/4)1] = 9810(t0.8

2

1/4) = 4931 N = 4.93 kN

Substituting F

V

= 32.96 kN and W = 4.93 kN into Eq. (4) gives

F

y

= F

V

+ W = 37.89 kN

Substituting F

y

= 37.89 kN and F

H

= 36.10 kN into Eq. (5) results in

(kN) 34 . 52 89 . 37 10 . 36

2 2 2 2

= + = + =

y H R

F F F

F

R

= 52.34 kN

tanu = F

y

/ F

H

= 37.89/36.10 = 1.05 u = 46.4

o

.

Substitutingy = 4.6 m, A = 0.8 m

2

, R = 0.8 m,I

xx

= 0.0427 m

4

, F

V

= 32.96 kN, F

y

=

37.89 kN, and W = 4.93 kN into Eqs. (6) and (7) gives

y

cp

= 4.612 m and x

cp

= 0.392 m

Substituting F

R

= 52.34 kN and u = 46.4

o

into Eq. (8) leads to

W

cyl

= 52.34 sin(46.4

o

) = 37.90 kN

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