SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

Ownership. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 102-104) E. 134-142) G. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. 105-108) 2. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 75-85. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. Marriage settlements (Arts. 94-95) 4. 43(3). 76-81) B. 109-115) 3. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 121123) 5. General provisions (Arts. 86. Proof of filiation (Arts. 147-148) VI. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts.A. 149-151) B. 143-146) H. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. Void donations by the spouses (Art. 124-125) 6. 96-98) 5. The Family A. 126-128) 7. The family home (Arts. 91-93) 3. 163-171) B. General provisions (Arts. Legitimate children (Arts. 129-133) F. 116-120) 4. The family as an institution (Arts. Paternity and Filiation A. What constitutes community property (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. 88-90) 2. administration. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 161 and 162 VII. 50) C. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 87) D. 99-101) 6. 157. 82-83. 172-174) 4    .

205) 5    . entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. Legitimated children (Arts. Support during marriage litigation (Art. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. 176 as amended by R. No. What it comprises (Art.C. No. R.A. Who can be adopted 3. Amount (Arts. When demandable (Art. 206-208) C.M. 8043) 1. Illegitimate children (Art. Support A.” B. 195-197.A. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. 9523. Options (Art. 177-182) Exclude: A. Who can adopt 2.A. 204) G. Attachment (Art. 183-188. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 198) D. 194) B.A. 8552) 1. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. 203) F. Who are obliged (Arts.M. Arts. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 175 and Art. Who can adopt 2. 201-202) E. Rule on Adoption (A. Adoption A. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. 199-200. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts.

305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. Parental Authority A. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. 216-219) C. 225-227) Exclude: R. as amended by R. 356-363.A. Child Abuse Law (R.X. 228-233)   1. Absence (Civil Code.A. 234 and 236. Use of Surnames Arts. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art.M. 43. 8980) D.A. 256) Exclude: Arts. 03-04-04-SC) 3. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. Arts. 364-369. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. 220-224) Exclude: 1. Art. Civil Code) XV.A. Art. No. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. General provisions (Arts. 03-02-05-SC) 2. 209-215) B. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. 257 of the Family Code XIV. 9231. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. Emancipation (Arts. 7610)  XI. No. 8972) 4. 254-255. 41 Family Code) 6    . Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A.A. Funerals (Civil Code.M. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts.

449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. 9048 PROPERTY I. Civil Registrar A.A. Rule 108. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. 387. 441-444) 2. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 461-462 and P. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. planter. 440) 1.”) C. 9048. 407-413 B.A. Correction of Clerical Errors (R.D. planter. planter. 415-418) A. 384-386) C. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 381-383) B. Classification (Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. Fruits (Arts. Characteristics II. Right of accession (Art. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. 438-439) B. 390-392) Exclude: Arts. sower in bad faith (Arts. sower in good faith (Arts.A. Hidden treasure (Arts. Arts. Presumption of death (Arts. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts.389) D. 448-456) (ii) Builder. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. Declaration of absence (Arts. 579) 3.

not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. eminent domain. state of necessity).c) Avulsion (Arts. By object 1. By nature 1. vindicandi. Fungible/non-fungible III. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Distinction between real and personal rights B. nuisance. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. Real or immovable 2. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Personal or movable D. police power 2. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. Of public dominion 2. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. 464-465) C. Right in general 1. General limitations: taxation. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. 459-463) 4. Derivative C. By owner 1. Islands (Arts. Ownership A. Limitations 1. accion publiciana. abutendi. Consumable/non-consumable vs. Original 2. fruendi.

industrial. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. islands) 2.IV. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V.D. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. avulsion. Source of co-ownership 9    . In general 2. Right to hidden treasure B. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. 476-481) A. General rules 1. rivers. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. or dissolution of the condominium B. Requirement B. commixtion/ confusion. declaration of restrictions. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. planting. 6552. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction.A. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. Accession A. 957. Co-ownership A. adjunction.

taxes) 5. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. in name of another F. holder. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. 559. In concept of owner. Right to partition 4. 552) D. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Possession A. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. 531) C. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. 719-720) 3. How acquired (Art. 544.C. 548) 2. 1506) E. Effects of possession 1. 1133) 2. Usufruct A. Classification 10    . Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. 1132. Waiver 6. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. in one’s own name. 1140. 1134. Loss/termination VIII. 549. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. Rights of the possessor G. Rights of co-owners 1. Effect of partition 2. Characteristics B. Termination/extinguishment 1. Characteristics B. Possessor in good faith (Arts. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. 1505(3)) 1. Period to recover (Arts. 449.

Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Voluntary easements (Art. Occupation (Art. 746) 2. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Easement of light and view (Arts. Rights of the owner E. 613. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Compulsory easements (Arts. Extinction/termination IX. 713) B. 725-726. 620-624) 2. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    .C. Classification 1. Definition (Arts. Classification C. Definition B. Nuisance (Arts. Easements (Arts. Characteristics B. 615-616) A. 712) A. 669-673) D. Remedies XI. 694-707) A. How terminated X. Donation 1.

1117) 1. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 760-761. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. Void donations (Arts. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. conditional 4. 739-740. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. Acquisitive (Art. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. Characteristics 2. 733) Simple.3. Qualifications of donor. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. 749) 5. Definition (Art. 765. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. 728) Onerous donation (Art. donee 6. 1129-1130) 12    . 1027) 8. 759) 7. modal. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. Arts. 82-83. 1106) A.

649) 2. No Prescription Applicable A. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Characteristics 2. Requisites 3. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 6.) Requisites (Arts. 1132. 1143. 1529) C. To recover movables (Art. 1133) B. Distinguished from laches G. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. Registered lands (P. 1410) F. Civil Code 1. second par. 1141) C. 1142-1149) IV. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. 1134. By offender (Art. 494) 1. Definition 13    . Other actions (Arts. Property of public dominion III. Extraordinary (Arts. 1137 and 1132. Art.D. 4.3. Extinctive 1. Void contracts (Art. To recover immovables (Art. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. Action to demand partition (Art. 5. To abate a nuisance D. Periods II. Interruption (Art. 1140) B. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E.

1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. requisites D. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Classification of Obligations V. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. An indeterminate or generic thing B. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. A determinate or specific thing 2. Natural obligations C. Default. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event.II. Sources of obligations (Arts. Elements of an Obligation III. Specific performance 14    . Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Obligation to do or not to do C. exceptions (Art. 1171) 4. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. 1156-1157) A. Complete failure to perform 2. Extra-contractual obligations VI. Obligation to give 1. Breaches of obligations 1.

Kinds of Civil Obligations A. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1190. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Effect of improvement. 3) C. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. par. 1652. in any event 4. Resolutory period 3. Resolutory condition 3. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. Conditional (Art. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 1181) 1. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. 1193) 1. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. Damages. 1189) 6. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. Suspensive condition 2. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1196) 2. 1893) VII. 1182) 4. 1608. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . Pure (Arts. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 1179-1180) B. 1199) 1. unless a purely personal act 2. 1729. 1198) 2. Alternative or facultative (Art. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5.

Extinguishment of Obligations A. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. Form of payment (Art. 1274) 16    . 1226. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1272. 1252-1254) 5. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. Implied (Arts. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. Application of payment (Art. 1217. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Payment (Arts. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. 1271. Dation in payment (Art. 1215) 2. 1262. 1225) E. others not liable for his share (Art. 1245) 2. 1216. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. 1222) 3. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. 1214. compensation. 1266-1267) C. Joint indivisible obligation 1. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1270) 2. 1249) 3. 1270) 1. 1228-1230) IX. Solidary obligation 1. 1236-1238) 1. Divisible and indivisible (Art. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1209) B. a) Effect of any novation. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1256-1261) B.VIII. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. 1250) 4. 1212).

Donations (Arts. 1328-1344. 1390-1402) 17    . Kinds (Arts. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Formality (Arts. 1191 B. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 1261) II. 1773) 3. Real C. 1357. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 1356. 1283) e) Facultative 2. 1272) E. Defective Contracts A. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Consensual B. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Stipulation to charge interest (Art.D. Essential Requisites (Art. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. 1771. 1278. 1744) 7. Formal or solemn 1. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Chattel mortgage 8. 1381) 1. 1275. 1874) 5. 2134) 4. Novation (Arts. Kinds of Contracts A. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. Compensation 1. 1358) IV. Antichresis (Art. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. Sale of large cattle III. 1956) 6. 748-749) 2. Voidable contracts (Arts. Obligations not compensable (Art. 1287-1288) F.

Obligations created (Art. Absolute incapacity (Arts. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1165) E. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. Introduction A. Void contracts (Arts. Pactum leonina (Art. 1399) C. 2130. Pactum commissorium (Arts. 1458. 1390) 2. Effect of contracts (Art. 1409. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Capacity of parties (Arts. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1470) B. Definition of sales (Arts. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Subject Matter A. 1505) C. Relative incapacity: married persons D. Pactum de non alienando (Art. 1346) 1. 1799) V. 1459-1465) 18    . 2088. 1403-1408. 1327. 2130) 3. Characteristics of a contract of sale F.C. 1489-1492) B. 1317) D. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1311) SALES I. Sale is title and not mode G. 1491-1492) III. Stages of contract of sale D. 1397.

1482) VI. 1459) 1. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . Transfer of Ownership A. Art. Meaning of price (Arts. Formation of Contract of Sale A. 1475) 2. Right of first refusal 4. Earnest money vs. Exceptions B. 1474) F. Particular kinds IV. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1462. 1355. Offer (Art. 1403 (d) (e) VII. 1479) B. 1319. Preparatory (Art. Price A. Perfection (Arts. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. How price is determined D. Option money (Art. Formalities of the contract. 1477. 1479) 1. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. Option contract (Arts. 1326) C. 1505. 559) V. 1470) E. Requisites for a valid price C.B. 1324) 3. 1475. 1469-1474) B. 1325. 1479. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. When no price agreed (Art. 1496-1501) B. 1506. Manner of transfer (Arts.

When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. Kinds of delivery D. 1263. 1516) F. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Non-negotiable documents of title E. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. 1519. When loss occurred before perfection C. When ownership is transferred (Art. 1504) IX. Definition (Art. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. Negotiable documents of title D. 1520) X. payment of capital gains tax. General rule (Arts. Performance of Contract 20    .C. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. 1493 and 1494) D. Property Registration Decree 1. 1636) B. Documents of Title A. Risk of Loss A. Double sales (Art. 1525) B. 1514. 1189) B. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1544) E. Purpose of documents of title C.

Sale of movable 2. Breach of Contract A. 957. Causes (Arts.A. Secs. 1522. Sale of immovables (Arts. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. Conventional redemption (Art. Effects of waivers E. Sale of movables B. Period of redemption (Art. 1484-1486) C. 24 2. 1636. 1543) 3. Equitable mortgage (Arts.D. Sale of immovables XIV. 1547) C. P. Implied warranties (Art. Delivery of thing sold 1. 1602-1604) D. 23. 1480) 2. Sale of movables (Arts. Inspections and acceptance B. 1539. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1231) B. 1537. Remedies of the buyer 1. Effects of warranties D. 1599) XIII. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1601) C. 1602) E. 1606) 21    . Warranties A. 1594) 1. Sale of immovables 1. Express warranties B. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. 1600. Payment of price XII.

Bulk Sales Law (Act No.A.D. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. The Condominium Act (R. 1619) H. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 774-780) A. devisees.F. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. legatees (Art. 781) B. 1616) G. 776. Legal redemption (Art. 795) 2. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 777) C. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. General Provisions (Arts. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 1619) XV. Wills 1. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. When succession occurs (Art.A. 782) II. Public Land Law. 774. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 8792). 957) XVI. Age redemption (Art. Testamentary Succession A. Kinds of successors: heirs. 784-785.

1039) b) Common requirements (Art. Codicils (Arts. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 854 3. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts.3. 17. 830) 7. 815-817. 855. Incorporate by reference (Art. Concept – Art. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 827) 6. Revocation (Arts. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. Institution of heirs (Arts. Preterition vs. 818-819) 4. 839) B. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art.15. 906-918 23    . devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. 840-856) 1. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 16. Preterition (Art. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5.

960-1014) A. Unworthiness vs. 857-870) 1. Definition (Art. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 1104-1105) 24    .C. Reserva troncal (Art. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 1015-1016) B. 970-977) B. 1079. Effects of partition (Arts. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. 871-885) E. Simple substitution (Art. 1032) 2. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. Substitution of heirs (Arts. 857) 2. 858-860) 3. 1080) 2. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. Partition (Arts. 891) 4. 1100. Kinds (Arts. 1061-1062) E. Definition and requisites (Arts. Partition inter vivos 3. Order of intestate succession (Arts. General provisions (Arts. Legitime (Arts. 887-903) 3. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. Right of representation (Arts. Right of accretion (Arts. 1078-1105) 1. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 1027. Collation (Arts. 978-1014. 918) 5. 863-866. 739.1041-1057) D. 886-914) 1. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1024-1040) 1. 1091. 924-959) III. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 963-969) 2. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. Relationship (Arts. 1097. 960-969) 1. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 859) 4. 908-910. Definition (Art. 869) D. 1015-1023) 1. Disinheritance C. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 1015-1105) A. 886) 2. 992) IV.

Partnership by estoppel H. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. General vs. Definition 25    . Partnership v. 1058-1060). Limited Partnership A. Limited G. 1830) VI. Particular. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Joint venture I. Definition B. Partnership term F. Elements C.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Dissolution (Art. How partnership is formed E. Management (Arts. Professional partnership J. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. Universal vs. Contract of Partnership A. Rules to determine existence D. 1800-1803) II.

Modes of Extinguishment 26    . 1883) III. Agency by Estoppel V. 1927-1930) XI. Definition of Agency II. Express vs. Powers (Arts. To bind principal (Arts. Irrevocable Agency (Arts.B. 1877-1878) A. General vs. Exception (Art. Implied Agency IV. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. 1897-1902) B. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Special Agency VI. Agency by Operation of Law IX.

Interest and the suspension of usury law II.COMPROMISE I. Loan A. 2028) II. Judicial deposit III. Voluntary deposit B. Definition (Art. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Effects of guaranty C. Necessary deposit C. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Commodatum vs. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Void Compromise (Art. 2037. Pledge 27    . 2035) III. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Nature and extent of guaranty B. Deposit A. Mutuum B. Effect (Arts. Extinguishment of guaranty D.

Quasi-contracts A. Solutio indebiti 28    . Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Definition and characteristics B. Registration VIII. Real Mortgage A. Foreclosure (Arts. 2093. 2096) G.A. Chattel Mortgage A. Antichresis A. Kinds C. 2140. Essential requisites C. Pledge by operation of law (Art. 1484) V. 2121-2122) I. Definition and characteristics B. 2112. Obligation of pledge E. Perfection (Arts. Definition and characteristics B. Definition B. Foreclosure VI. 2115) H. Negotiorum gestio B. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Rights of pledgor F. Essential requirements D.

Prohibitions 29    . Suspension of payments C. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Registration C. Voluntary insolvency D. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Insolvency Law A. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Exempt property D. Order of preference of credits X. Usury Law LEASE I.IX. Lease of Things II. Definition of insolvency B. Qualified persons B. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Classification of credits E. Lease of Work or Services III.

Individuals and corporations IV. Regalian Doctrine A. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I.IV. Who may apply 1. Citizenship Requirement A. Certificate of title II. Under P. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Original Registration A. Effects C.D. Concept B. Contract of Labor A. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. 1529 30    . Torrens System A. time immemorial possession III. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Concept of native title. Concept and background B. Household Service VII.

Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7.A. Subsequent Registration A. orders and partitions 4. Involuntary dealings VI. Remedies D. Non-registrable Properties VII. Liability without fault D. Assurance fund 5.2. Under R. Abuse of right. Acts contrary to law 31    . Registration of patents 6. Under C. elements B. Registration process and requirements C. Registration of judgments. 8371 B. 141 3. Unjust enrichment C. Principles A. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I.A. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Consultas. Cadastral registration V. History of land laws 2. Voluntary dealings B.

and the Family Code. Civil Code) 32    . According to manner of commission: intentional. joint or solidary? 2. 2180. According to scope: general or specific III. Juridical persons B. negligent and strict liability B. The direct tortfeasor 1. Joint tortfeasors (Art. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. 218-219. 2194. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Acts contrary to morals II. Persons made responsible for others 1. Classification of Torts A.E. Natural persons 2. Arts. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. 221 (i) Elements. The Tortfeasor A.

Test 3. Injury to persons 2. Definition 2. Concept 1. Legal cause 1. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Concept of act V. Classes of injury 1. Last clear chance VI. Cause vs. Proximate Cause A. Concept B. Natural and probable consequences 2. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Injury to relations VII. Elements of right C. Substantial factor test 2. Foreseeability D. Efficient intervening cause E. Intentional Torts 33    . Legal Injury A.IV. Violation of right or legal injury D. Concurrent causes C. Condition F. Cause in fact 1. Injury to property 3.

Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. physical injuries (Art. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. Concept 2. General 1. Interference with relations 1. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. 33.A. General 34    .

Emergency rule D. Negligence A. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Standard of care 1. press. Concept B. Art.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Civil Code. Evidence 35    . Art. 1173 2.) 6. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. Art. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. etc. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. assembly and petition. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5.

(Ch. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Defenses 1. General 1. Secs. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2.A. cities and municipalities G. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Provinces. Legal provisions 2. 92-107. 1)] C. Res ipsa loquitur G. Owner of motor vehicle H. Arts. Nuisance (Civil Code. 7394. Violation of civil liberties E. Special Liability in Particular Activities A.F. Attractive nuisance D. Head of family 36    . Products liability 1. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Art. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. Presumption of negligence 1. 1146. Concept B. Arts. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. 2177) IX. 694-707) 1. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. 1144.

Component elements 1. Value of loss.X. According to purpose 3. Moral Damages 37    . Extent or scope of actual damages 1. Products liability (supra) 1. Concept B. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Interest D. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Classification 1. unrealized profit 2. Under Art. Animals 1. Easement against nuisance C. Requisites 1. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. General Considerations A. Nuisance (supra) 1. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Special and ordinary II. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. Possessor and user of an animal B. Not speculative C. According to manner of determination 4. Strict Liability A. In crimes and quasi-delicts III.

In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Art. 2219-2220) 1. In acts referred to in Arts. 32. Concept (Arts. Arts. 28. 2229) B. 29. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. Art. 26. 27. Graduation of Damages 38    . Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. 2217-2218) B. 21. Art. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. 2226) B. Concept B.A. Concept (Civil Code. rape and other lascivious acts 2. Art. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. 2233. 34 & 35. abduction. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Concept (Civil Code. 2230) 2. Civil Code. 2234 VIII. 2232) C. Liquidated Damages A. Requisites 1. When awarded VI. When awarded V. When recovered 1. In seduction. When recoverable (Arts. Damages in Case of Death A. Nominal Damages A. Concept B. 2231) 3. Art. 3.

Exemplary with moral. Damages that must co-exist 1. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Miscellaneous Rules A. doctrines. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. 2203 B.A. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. Duty of injured party 1. 5. 2. Nominal damages (Art. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Art. Damages that must stand alone 1. temperate. 2227) Compromise X. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. Art. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. 2012. liquidated or compensatory C. Rules 1. 39    . Art. 2214) In contracts. Art. 4. 2223) 2. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. 3. Actual and liquidated (Art. Nominal with other damages (Art. 2226) B.

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