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Paper One Questions by Topic

1992. The Origins and nature of the Cold War 1945-1962 1992. Developments in Vietnam 1954-1973 1994. Causes of the Second World War to its Outbreak in Europe, Sept. 1939: The following questions relate to the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact 1995. The Rise of Hitler and the Nazis in Germany, 1923 to 1936: The following extracts relate to Nazi Propaganda 1998. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State- 1917 to 1929: These documents relate to War Communism and Lenins New Economic Policy. 1998. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to the treatment of Eastern Europe and Germany, 1945 to 1947. 1999. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These documents relate to the Bolshevik Revolution, October 1917. 1999. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to Cuba and the Cold War in the early 1960s. 2000. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These documents relate to political activity 1917 to 1924. 2000. Origins of the Second World War in Asia 1931-1941: The following documents relate to the results of the Japanese attack on China in July 1937 after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. 2000. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to rising tension in the Cold War in Europe 1946 to 1951. 2001. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These documents relate to the period between the two 1917 revolutions. 2001. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to the Cold War in the period 1946- 1949. 2002. The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917- 1929: These documents relate to the 1917 February/ March Revolution. 2002. The Cold War 1945- 1964: These documents relate to developments in the Cold War in the early 1950s. M2003. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to Stalins economic policy. 2003 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources relate to the Great Leap Forward 19581961. 2003. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to the nature of the Cold War in the period 1960-1969. N2003 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: The following sources relate to Stalins use of terror and purges between 1934 and 1939. 2003 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: The following sources relate to the collectivization programmes introduced in China after 1952 by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). 2003. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: The following sources relate to United States involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s.

M2004 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to the purges under Stalin. 2004 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources relate to political unification from early toleration of different classes in 1949 to thought control in the early 1950s. 2004. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to developments in the Cold War in the early 1960s N2004 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources relate to Stalin.s foreign policy in relation to Germany. 2004 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources relate to Mao Zedong.s (Mao Tse-tung) Hundred Flowers Campaign, 1956. 2004 The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to Nixon.s foreign policy of dtente. M2005 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to the struggle for leadership after the death of Lenin. 2005 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources relate to Mao Zedongs (Mao Tse-tung) successful emergence as leader of the Peoples Republic of China, 1946-49. 2005. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These questions relate to developments in the eastern bloc in 1968, and their impact on the Cold War. The accompanying sources are on pages 8 to 10 in the Source Booklet. N2005. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to Stalins cult of personality. 2005 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources relate to industrial developments in the first Five Year Plan (1953-57) 2005. The Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These questions relate to Soviet-Cuban relations between 1962 and 1968. M2006 The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These sources refer to industrialization under Stalin. 2006 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources refer to Maos consolidation of power between 1949 and 1954. 2006 Cold War, 1960 to 1979: These sources relate to US Cold War policies and the Vietnam War. N2006. The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941: These questions relate to purges and terror under Stalin, and their impact on Russian society. N2006 The emergence and development of the Peoples Republic of China 1946-64: These sources refer to the period of the Civil War in China from 1946 to 1949 between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Guomindang (Kuomintang).

N2006. These questions relate to the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and its effect upon the Cold War. The accompanying sources are on pages 8 to 10 in the Source Booklet. M2007 These questions relate to collectivisation under Stalin.

M2007 These questions relate to mass campaigns: the Three and FiveAntis campaigns and the Hundred Flowers campaign. M2007 These questions relate to nuclear disarmament and the SALT I agreements in the 1970s. N2007 These questions relate to Stalins rise to power after the death of Lenin, 1924 to 1929. N2007 These questions relate to the second Five Year Plan in China 19581962. N2007 These questions relate to relations between the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China in the 1960s. M2008 These sources refer to industrialization under the Five Year Plans. M2008 These sources relate to economic reconstruction in industry and agriculture under Mao, 19521962. M2008 These sources relate to the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. N2008 These sources relate to the extent of Stalins power in the 1930s. N2008 These sources relate to the political consolidation of China after 1949. N2008 These sources relate to United States Cold War policies and the Vietnam War.

Paper Two Questions


Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- World War I 1. Examine the part played by each of the following in the outbreak of the First World War: alliances, mobilization, Balkan nationalism. (N2006) 2. How valid is the claim that in 1914 states went to war due to fear rather than for motives of gain? (2004) 3. Assess critically three causes of the First World War. (2003) 4. To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance system? (1999) 5. Germany must bear the ultimate responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War. How far do you agree with this judgment? (1995) 6. How valid is it to claim that Europe stumbled into a world war in 1914? (1992) Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- World War II 1. Discuss briefly the immediate effects that the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 had on the progress of the Second World War. Comment on how the existence of the bomb has subsequently affected the practices of war in terms of global conflict. (1992) Topic 1- Causes, practices and effects of war- General NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!) 1. Analyse the causes of one of the following: the Spanish Civil War (19361939); the Arab-Israeli wars (1948/9 and 1956); the Nigerian Civil War (19671970). (N2008) 2. Define total war and examine to what extent either the First World War or the Second World War was a total war. (N2008) 3. To what extent did outside intervention contribute to the outcome of two civil wars, each chosen from a different region? (N2008) 4. Assess the economic and social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. (N2008) 5. With reference to two wars examine the impact of technological developments in air and sea power. (N2008) 6. Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War. (M2008 TZ2) 7. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen from a different region. (M2008 TZ2) 8. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe? (M2008 TZ2) 9. Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement. (M2008 TZ2)

10. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it? (M2008 TZ2) 11. Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War. (M2008 TZ1) 12. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the outcome of twentieth century wars? (M2208 TZ1) 13. Even in the twentieth century the term total war could not be applied to any war. To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (M2008 TZ1) 14. Analyse the results of either the Mexican Revolution or the Russian Civil War. (M2008 TZ1) 15. In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different region, affect the role and status of women? (M2008 TZ1) 16. Examine the reasons for, and the contribution of, guerrilla warfare to the outcome of one twentieth-century war. (N2007) 17. Ideological differences were the most important reasons for both the outbreak of, and outside intervention in, civil wars. Assess the validity of this claim with reference to one of the following: the Russian Civil War; the Chinese Civil War. (N2007) 18. Analyse the economic and social results on the civilian population of one twentieth-century war. (N2007) 19. Compare and contrast the reasons for Germanys involvement in the First and Second World Wars. (N2007) 20. Define the term limited war. With reference to two wars, each chosen from a different region, explain why they remained limited. (N2007) 21. With reference to specific examples, account for the adoption of guerrilla warfare and assess its effectiveness. (N2006) 22. In what ways, and with what success, did post-war peacemakers attempt to deal with the problems which produced the conflict? Specific reference should be made to two peace settlements. (N2006) 23. Compare and contrast the reasons for, and impact of, foreign involvement in two of the following: Russian Civil War; Spanish Civil War; Korean War. (N2006) 24. With reference to two wars, each chosen from a different region, explain to what extent the role and status of women was affected. (N2006) 25. Compare and contrast the results of the First World War and the Second World War. (2006) 26. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars? (2006) 27. No twentieth century war could be called a limited war. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? (2006) 28. Analyze the causes of either the Spanish Civil War or the Korean War. (2006)

29. Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2006) 30. Analyze the results of either the First World War or the Second World War. (2005) 31. Account for either the defeat of the Central Powers in the First World War or the Axis powers in the Second World War. (2005) 32. To what extent do you agree with the view that war accelerates social change? (2005) 33. Evaluate the contribution made towards the war effort by civilians on both the home front and the battle front in two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2005) 34. Compare and contrast the reasons for, and impact of, foreign involvement in two of the following: Russian Civil War; Spanish Civil War; Chinese Civil War. (2005) 35. Peace settlements create conditions for new conflicts. With reference to at least two settlements explain to what extent you agree with this statement. (2005) 36. Assess the social and economic causes of one twentieth century war. (2005) 37. Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2005) 38. For what reasons, and with what results, was limited warfare a feature of the second half of the twentieth century? (2005) 39. Evaluate the social and economic consequences of two twentieth century wars. (2004) 40. To what extent did guerilla warfare determine the outcome of the Vietnam War? (2004) 41. Why did foreign intervention occur so frequently in civil wars of the twentieth century and what impact did this intervention have on two civil wars each chosen from a different region? (2004) 42. Assess the role of air power in two twentieth century wars. (2004) 43. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World War? (2004) 44. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific examples must be given from at least two wars. (2004) 45. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2004) 46. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two countries involved, in the ten years following the end of the war. (2004) 47. Compare and contrast the causes of two wars (excluding the First World War) each chosen from a different region. (2003) 48. Analyze the reasons for the outcome of one civil war. How did the outcome affect the country in which the war was fought? (2003) 49. The most important military development of the twentieth century was the development of nuclear weapons. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2003) 50. Assess the economic and social impact of either the Arab-Israeli Wars, or the Vietnam War, on the countries involved. (2003)

51. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth-century wars? Specific evidence from at least three wars should be used. (2003) 52. How and why did technological developments play an important part in twentieth-century wars? (2003) 53. Analyse the causes and results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (19451949); Mexican Revolution (19101940); Spanish Civil War (19361939). (2003) 54. War causes more suffering to women than to men. War liberates women. Using evidence from at least two wars explain which statement you consider is more appropriate. (2003) 55. Assess the aims of two countries entering the First World War. To what extent were they successful in achieving their aims? (2002) 56. In what ways, and with what results for twentieth century wars, did tactics change? (2002) 57. Compare and contrast the causes of the Russian Civil War and the Spanish Civil War. (2002) 58. Analyze the use and effects of propaganda in two wars, each chosen from a different region. (2002) 59. Why were the intentions of those responsible for treaties rarely fulfilled? (2002) 60. Analyze the changes in the nature of warfare during the twentieth century. (2002) 61. Examine the effects of war and the fear of war on the civilian population of two countries, each chosen from a different region. (2002) 62. Compare and contrast the causes of the First and Second World Wars. (2002) 63. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing the causes if conflict, and restoring peace and normality. (2001) 64. Using specific examples explain the popularity of war themes in (a) films and (b) films and/or plays. (2001) 65. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or Korea in 1950. (2001) 66. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role in two civil wars, each chosen from a different region? (2001) 67. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which necessitated the treaties. (2000) 68. Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars. (2000) 69. In what ways have wars (a) caused suffering and hardship to women and (b) helped promote womens equality? Specific evidence must be given from at least two regions. (2000) 70. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910 to 1940) or the Vietnam War (1964 to 1975). (2000) 71. In what ways and for what reasons have tactics changed in twentieth century warfare? (1999)

72. Evaluate the role of ideological differences in two civil wars each chosen from a different region. (1999) 73. To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance system? (1999) 74. How valid is the claim that treaties are not necessary to end wars? Support your answer with evidence from at least two regions. (1999) 75. To what extent should Germany be held responsible or causing both the First and Second World Wars? (1998) 76. How and why has guerilla warfare been used in the twentieth century? Examples should be given from at least two different regions. (1998) 77. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women; the arts; the media. (1998) 78. Each war has its own particular causes. Is this the case, or can evidence be given that given that twentieth century wars have common causes? Support your answer with evidence from at least two wars, each chosen from a different region. (1997) 79. What were the major developments in military technology from 1914 to 1945? (1997) 80. To what extent has war resolved the issues of conflict between Arabs and Israelis? (1997) 81. What do you understand by total war? Select one twentieth century war to illustrate your understanding. (1997) 82. The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to settle. How far do you agree with this quotation? (SPC) 83. This is not a peace. It is an armistice for twenty years. How accurate was Marshall Fochs assessment of the Treaty of Versailles? (1995) 84. Wars are caused by the miscalculation of the aggressor and the failure of politicians to exercise crisis management. Discuss the validity of this statement with reference to one twentieth century war. (1993) 85. Assess the significance and importance of air power in any two twentieth century wars. (1993) 86. Peace settlements are ineffective unless accompanied by total military victory. Does twentieth century warfare bear this out? (1993) 87. Wars create more problems than they solve. Discuss this claim with reference to the causes and results of any two wars (each chosen from a different region) during the twentieth century. (1992) 88. With reference to any civil war of the twentieth century, examine the social, economic and political background to the divisions in the society involved. T Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars. (2000) what extent were the problems which produced the war resolved in the post war period? (1992) 89. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women? (SPEC) 90. The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to settle. How far do you agree with this quotation? (SPEC)

Topic 2- Nationalist and Independence Movements, Decolonization and Challenges Facing New States 1. Assess the methods used by one nationalist leader to achieve independence in a non-European colonial state. (N2006) 2. In what ways, and for what reasons, were two newly independent non-European states affected by the Cold War? (N2006) 3. Analyze the factors favoring the growth of independence movements in one nonEuropean colonial state. (2006) Topic 3- The Rise and Rule of Single Party States NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!) 1. To what extent did the following aid the rise to power of either Lenin or Mussolini: a. the First World War (b) weakness of the existing regime (c) ideological appeal? (N2008) 2. Analyse the methods used to eliminate opposition by two singleparty rulers, each chosen from a different region. (N2008) 3. Compare and contrast the treatment of either women, or religious groups, in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (N2008) 4. Assess the global impact of one left-wing and one right-wing leader of a single-party state. (N2008) 5. Charismatic appeal rather than successful domestic policies enabled single-party leaders to maintain power. With reference to one of the following, to what extent do you agree with this statement: Castro, Nasser, Pern? (N2008) 6. Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. (M2008 TZ2) 7. Compare and contrast the regime of one right wing and one left wing single-party state. (M2008 TZ2) 8. With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and economic policies for rulers of single-party states. (M2008 TZ2) 9. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign policy to support his regime? (M2008 TZ2) 10. To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims? (M2008 TZ2) 11. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (M2008 TZ1) 12. To what extent was either Mussolini, between 1922 and 1945, or Nasser, between 1954 and 1970, successful in achieving his aims? (M2008 TZ1) 13. In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support his regime? (M2008 TZ1)

14. Analyse the successes and failures of the political career of either Lenin or Nyerere. (M2008 TZ1) 15. Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of singleparty states. (M2008 TZ1) 16. A vigorous foreign policy played a vital part in the maintenance of power of single-party regimes. With reference to two examples, explain to what extent you agree with this statement. (N 2007) 17. To what extent was ideology an important factor in the rise to power of one of the following: Lenin; Mussolini; Nyerere? (N 2007) 18. By what methods, and with what success, did single-party rulers in power establish totalitarian regimes? Reference should be made to two examples, each chosen from a different region. (N 2007) 19. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of one left wing and one right wing single-party ruler. (N 2007) 20. Analyse the conditions which led to the establishment of either Perns regime in Argentina or Nassers regime in Egypt. (N 2007) 21. It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of singleparty states to power. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N2006) 22. Analyse the methods used to maintain power in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (N2006) 23. Examine the economic and social policies of two of the following: Lenin; Mussolini; Pern. (N2006) 24. Compare and contrast the global impact of two of the following: Castro; Hitler; Nasser. (N2006) 25. In what ways, and for what reasons, were culture and education controlled by rulers of single-party states? (N2006) 26. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability? (2006) 27. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region. (2006) 28. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Peron to remain in power. (2006) 29. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state? (2006) 30. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century singleparty states. (2006) 31. Account for the ineffectiveness of internal opposition to two rulers of single-party states. (2005) 32. Assess the successes and failures of the domestic polices of one of the following: Nasser; Nyerere; Peron. (2005)

33. With reference to two examples each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with the claim that ideology was the most important factor in the rise to power of single-party leaders? (2005) 34. How successful was either Lenin (1917-1924) or Mussolini (1922-1943) in solving the problems he faced? (2005) 35. Identify the aims of educational and youth policies in two single-party states, and evaluate the extent to which they were achieved. (2005) 36. Analyze the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state. (2005) 37. Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state. (2005) 38. Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime. (2005) 39. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and Mao. (2005) 40. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (2005) 41. Fascisms rise to power in Italy and Germany in the inter-war years largely resulted from the consequences of the First World War. To what extent do you agree with this verdict? (2004) 42. Assess the role of economic and social policies as factors explaining the consolidation and maintenance of power of two of the following: Castro, Mussolini, Peron, Nasser. (2004) 43. For what reasons, and with what success, have single party states attempted to control either education or the arts? (2004) 44. To what extent was the rise to power of one left wing and one right wing single party ruler, the result of previous political problems? (2004) 45. Assess the role of terror and force in maintaining the ruler in power in two totalitarian states each chosen from a different region. (2004) 46. Analyze the methods used by one single-party state ruler in his successful bid for power. (2004) 47. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers of single-party states: Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyrere. (2004) 48. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (2004) 49. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Pern improve social and economic conditions? (2004) 50. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single-party state. (2004) 51. Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states. (2003) 52. Assess the methods used by either Peron or Lenin to maintain his position as ruler of a single-party state. (2003) 53. For what reasons, and with what results, were there so many single-party states in the twentieth century? (2003) 54. Examine critically the successes and failures of either Castro or Mussolini, as a leader of a single-party state. (2003)

55. How and why was propaganda used in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region? (2003) 56. In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be ruthless, blind to human suffering and yet charismatic. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? (2003) 57. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro, Mussolini, Nasser. (2003) 58. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin. (2003) 59. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right wing rulers of single party states differ? (2003) 60. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each chosen from a different region. (2003) 61. Assess the main difficulties faced by two would-be rulers of single party states in their bid for power. (2002) 62. Analyze the foreign policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region. (2002) 63. Explain the successes and failures of either Mao in China or Peron in Argentina. (2002) 64. To what extent was the USSR an orthodox Communist state under either Lenin or Stalin? (2002) 65. Evaluate the impact of the policies of two rulers of single-party states on the role and status of women. (2002) 66. Analyze conditions that led to single-party states during the twentieth century. (2002) 67. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Stalin. (2002) 68. In what ways, and for what reasons, did two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, fail to achieve their objectives? (2002) 69. Explain and examine the methods used by one of the following rulers of single-party states, to obtain and keep power: Lenin; Mao, Peron. (2002) 70. Assess the treatment women and religious groups in two single-party states. (2002) 71. promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for would-be single-party rulers than ideological pronouncements. How far do you agree with this claim? (2001) 72. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist state. (2001) 73. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as ruler of a single-party state. (2001) 74. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, to control and use the media. (2001) 75. In what ways, and for what reasons, did rulers of single-party states play an important role in world affairs between 1917 and 1945? (2000) 76. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles were put into practice by one Communist ruler between 1900 and 1990. (2000)

77. Account for the rise to power and longevity of the rule of either Fidel Castro in Cuba or Julius Nyerere in Tanzania. (2000) 78. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining in power two single-party rules, each chosen from a different region. (2000) 79. Analyze the role of women in two of the following: Maoist China; Nazi Germany; Peronist Argentina. (2000) 80. Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to instill [increase] knowledge. How far do you agree with this judgment? (1999) 81. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of Marxism/Communism under Mao Zedong? (1999) 82. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state? (1999) 83. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region. (1999) 84. In the twentieth century right-wing Single Party states have often been the result of a conservative reaction to change whilst left-wing Single-Party states have achieved power as the outcome of a revolutionary process against tradition. Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you agree with this quotation. (1999) 85. Account for the rise of either Juan Peron or Francisco Franco, and assess the impact upon either Argentina or Spain of your chosen ruler. (1998) 86. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most important factor for a single party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different region. (1998) 87. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region. (1998) 88. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by the ideological beliefs of Nazism? (1998) 89. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in controlling the minds of young people than in providing genuine education? (1998) 90. Despite the appearance of order and discipline, Nazi government was poorly organized. How far do you agree with this statement? (1997) 91. Single party states in Europe did little to improve the position of women; outside Europe, they allowed women to play a fuller role in society. How accurate is this assertion? (1997) 92. In what ways did Hitler and follow the aims and ideologies that he had set out in Mein Kampf? (1995) 93. How far can single party regimes be justified by the changed economic and social conditions that sometimes follow their establishment? Use examples from at least two different regions. (1995) 94. Compare and contrast the circumstances that gave rise to the regimes of Juan Peron and Fidel Castro in Latin America. (1995)

95. In what ways can dictatorships of the Right and Left be most clearly distinguished from each other? Use examples from at least two different regions. (1995) 96. How, why and with what consequences did Stalin distort the role of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union? (1993) 97. How successful were the following in solving Chinas economic problems (a) Chiang Kai-Shek, 1928 to 1949, and (b) Mao Tse-Tung, 1949 to 1976? (1993) 98. The Roman understanding of dictatorship- an efficient temporary arrangement for dealing with a specific crisis- is that often quoted by dictators of the twentieth century. Choose any non-European dictatorship, and analyze its aims and performance in light of their Roman definition. (1993) 99. To what extent is organization more important than ideology in the rise of single party states? Discuss, with reference to TWO single party states each chosen from a different region. (1993) 100. The establishment of single party states has invariably been a desperate response to a political crisis. Evaluate this statement with reference to ONE European state before the Second World War and ONE non-European state after the Second World War. (1992) 101. In most casesthe single party state declined in effect to a no-party state. Consider this statement with reference to any TWO single party states in Africa, Asia, OR Latin America. (1992) 102. The glorification of the leader and the nation inevitably leads to the devaluation of the individual and the destruction of human rights in the single party state. How far is this a fair comment? Answer with examples from TWO different regions. (1992) 103. To what extent can you call the rule of General Franco in Spain a fascist dictatorship? (1992) Topic 5- Cold War NOTE: For MAY 2007 Questions see MAY 2005 (??!!) 1. The importance of ideology as the major cause of the Cold War has been greatly exaggerated. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N2008) 2. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Soviet Union become involved with Cuba after 1959? (N2008) 3. Explain how the Cold War affected the art and culture of one country from 1945 to 1991. (N2008) 4. In what ways, and with what results, did the US implement the policy of containment in Asia between 1950 and 1975? (N2008) 5. Why did the Cold War end? (N2008) 6. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Second World War allies become post-war enemies? (M2008 TZ2) 7. In what ways did developments in Germany affect the Cold War between 1945 and 1961? (M2008 TZ2)

8. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Cuba in the Cold War. (M2008 TZ2) 9. Gender issues played no part in the Cold War. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (M2008 TZ2) 10. Assess the economic and social effects of the Cold War on one superpower. 11. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War. (M2008 TZ1) 12. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affect Cold War development? (M2008 TZ1) 13. Compare and contrast the roles of Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War. (M2008 TZ1) 14. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; dtente. (M2008 TZ1) 15. When and why did the Cold War end? (M2008 TZ1) 16. The breakdown of East-West relations was due to the failure of both sides to appreciate the fears of the other. With reference to the period 194553, to what extent do you agree with this statement? (N2007) 17. How effective was the United States policy of containment up to 1962? (N2007) 18. For what reasons, and with what results for East-West relations, did the superpowers become involved in the affairs of one of the following: Korea; Vietnam; the Middle East? (N2007) 19. To what extent was the collapse of communist regimes the result of domestic problems rather than external pressures? (N2007) 20. Compare and contrast the role of education and the arts in one communist and one non-communist state. (N2007) 21. Analyse the responsibility of the USA and the USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War, up to 1949. (N2006) 22. Compare and contrast the economic policies and military alliances of the USSR and USA after 1947. (N2006) 23. To what extent was the movement for non-alignment a development of the Cold War? (N2006) 24. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Vietnam War affect superpower relations? (N2006) 25. Assess the importance of economic issues in ending the Cold War. (N2006) 26. An unnatural alliance that was bound to fall apart after the defeat of the common enemy. To what extent does this statement explain the origins of the Cold War? (2006) 27. In what ways, and with what results, did the United States Cold War policy of containment affect Cuba after 1959? (2006)

28. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Germany in the Cold War. (2006) 29. Analyze the importance of dtente in ending the Cold War. (2006) 30. Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War. (2006) 31. To what extent were Soviet policies responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? (2005) 32. In what ways, and for what reasons, was the Middle East important in the Cold War? (2005) 33. Identify and explain the significance of two of the following in the development of the Cold War: COMECON; Marshall Plan; NATO; Warsaw Pact. (2005) 34. Compare and contrast the social and economic effects of the Cold War on two countries each chosen from a different region. (2005) 35. Analyze the factors which led to the ending of the Cold War. (2005) 36. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War. (2005) 37. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? (2005) 38. Analyze the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War. (2005) 39. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold war after 1970. (2005) 40. To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War? (2005) 41. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the relationship between the wartime allies deteriorate between 1945 and 1949? (2004) 42. Assess the impact of the Cold War on the economic developments of two states each chosen from a different region. (2004) 43. Why, and with what success, did the USA adopt a policy of containment in the period 1947-1962? (2004) 44. In what ways, and to what extent, did relations between East and West change in the period 1960-1970? (2004) 45. Why was Soviet control over East European satellite states successful in the period 1945-1968, and why did it collapse between 1988 and 1991? (2004) 46. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War enemies? (2004) 47. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955. (2004) 48. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development of the Cold War between 1947 and 1961. (2004) 49. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War be come less confrontational after 1970? (2004) 50. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes. (2004) 51. In what ways, and to what extent, did mutual distrust and suspicion cause the Cold War? (2003)

52. For what reasons, and with what results, was Germany a center of Cold War tension between 1945 and 1961? (2003) 53. Compare and contrast the part played by Korea and Cuba in the Cold War. (2003) 54. Analyze the nature of the Cold War and explain why, in spite of serious crises, it did not turn into a third world war. (2003) 55. The Cold War played little part in changing social and economic conditions for either side between 1945 and 1965. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? (2003) 56. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contribute to the origin of the Cold War? (2003) 57. Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development. To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2003) 58. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950 and 1970? (2003) 59. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War? (2003) 60. Assess the importance of dtente and internal opposition to Communist rule in Communist countries, in ending the Cold War. (2003) 61. Account for the emergence of the two superpowers from 1945 to 1950. (2002) 62. In what ways did the Cold War affect the lives of people living in two developing countries? (2002) 63. Assess the effects of events in Cuba on the development of the Cold War. (2002) 64. To what extent was the Vietnam War a part of the Cold War? (2002) 65. Define containment, and analyze its importance in Cold War developments. (2002) 66. In what ways, and for what reasons, did superpower rivalry dominate international politics between 1945 to 1961? (2002) 67. Analyze the role of Germany in the origin and development of the Cold War? (2002) 68. Explain and evaluate the impact of the Cold War on developing countries. (2002) 69. A product of the Cold War, and a reason for the prolonging of Cold War tension. To what extent do you agree with this statement about the Vietnam War? (2002) 70. For what reason, and with what effects, did social and cultural differences affect the origin and development of the Cold War? (2002) 71. The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression. To what extent does this view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949? (2001) 72. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two countries, each chosen from a different region. (2001) 73. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact up to 1970. (2001)

74. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt the policy of containment? (2001) 75. Excluding the superpowers, assess the role of two countries in the development of the Cold War after 1950. (2001) 76. Account for the emergence after the Second World War of the two superpowers and explain why they had become enemies by 1948. (1992) 77. Discuss the view that the tension between the superpowers led to the support of undemocratic regions by the United States. Give evidence from at least TWO countries. (1992) 78. What were the advantages of (a) neutrality and (b) non-alignment during periods of tension between the power blocs? Refer to at least TWO regions. (1992) 79. Assess the relative importance of the following for raising the temperature of the Cold War: (a) the arrival of Chinese volunteers to support the North Koreans, 1950/51; (b) the building of the Berlin Wall, 1961; (c) the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962. (1992) 80. No area demonstrates more vividly than Germany the differences that emerged between the former wartime allies. How far is this a valid assertion for the years 1945 to 1962? (1993) 81. Assess the implications for the course of the Cold War of THREE of the following: (a) the proclamation of the Korean Peoples Democratic Republic, 1948; (b) the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc, 1948; (c) the entry of Greece and Turkey into NATO, 1952; (d) the battle of Dien Bien Phu, 1954; (e) events in Hungary, 1956. (1993) 82. Explain the significance of the Sino-Soviet split with respect to relations between East and West. (1993) 83. The last crusade- how useful is it to emphasize ideology when studying the United States policy of containment after 1945? (1993) 84. In what ways could Stalin be held responsible for the origin and development of the Cold War? (1995) 85. Explain the circumstances in which NATO and the Warsaw Pact were formed. What contribution did each make to the intensification of the Cold War? (1995) 86. Assess John F. Kennedys handling of Cold War problems during his presidency. (1995) 87. Explain how relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were affected by the relations of each with China. (1995) 88. How did fear contribute to the origin and development of the Cold War? (1997) 89. In what ways was Korea a typical example of Cold War conflict? (1997) 90. Examine the role of Fidel Castro in East/West relations. (1997) 91. Define spheres of influence and assess their role in Cold War politics. (1997) 92. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War. (1998)

93. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of the Cold War: Marshall Aid, Warsaw Pact; arms control; dtente. (1998) 94. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the superpowers), each chosen from a different region. (1998) 95. The buildup of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative, and unjustified action. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (1998) 96. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War? (1998) 97. Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development of the Cold War. How far do you agree with this statement? (1999) 98. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East? (1999) 99. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the Cold War. (1999) 100. Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the following: the Yalta Conference; Berlin; the Arms Race; non-alignment; South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). (1999) 101. Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two countries each chosen from a different region. (1999) 102. Ideological differences played little part in the origin of he Cold War. How far do you agree with this judgment? (2000) 103. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963? (2000) 104. Define superpower rivalry and assess its importance in international politics since 1945. (2000) 105. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War. (2000) 106. Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on two countries each chosen from a different region. (2000)

Paper Three Questions By Topic


Slavery 1. What were the major similarities and differences in the master-slave relationship in the slave cultures of any two countries of the region. (1995) 2. Who opposed slavery in the Americas and why? (1997) 3. In the nineteenth century blacks were allowed greater economic and social mobility in Latin America than in the United States. How do you account for this difference? (1998) 4. Analyze the reasons why slavery in the Americas was supported by different social and economic groups. (1999) 5. Why was the slave rebellion on Haiti successful, while slave rebellions elsewhere in the Americas before 1850 failed? (2000) 6. Analyze the major similarities and differences in the master-slave relationship in the slave culture of two countries of the region during the nineteenth century. (2001) 7. Examine the success or failure of two slave rebellions in any country of the region. Support your answer with specific examples. (N 2001) 8. The dominant response of blacks to slavery was a complex one: a combination of adaptation and resistance. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your answer with specific examples from one country of the region. (N 2001) 9. Analyze the conditions that produced slave insurrections either in the United States or Brazil. To what extent were these insurrections successful? (2002) 10. Evaluate the main arguments for and against slavery in the Americas. (2002) 11. The wasteful economy of slavery was replaced by the productive economy based on salary. With reference to two countries of the region, explain to what extent you agree with this view. (2003) 12. Analyse the arguments and activities of the Abolition movement in the United States from the1830s to the 1860s (N 2003). 13. Who opposed slavery in the Americas, and why? (2004) 14. Assess the economic and social conditions of free African Americans in one country of the region during the nineteenth century. (N 2004) 15. Analyze the main arguments of (a) those who supported slavery; (b) those who opposed slavery. (2005) 16. Analyse the impact of slave revolts in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. (N 2005) 17. For what reasons, and in what ways, did supporters of slavery in the nineteenth century use legal, religious, and economic arguments in its defense? (2006) 18. For what reasons did non-slaveholders in the Americas support the institution of slavery? (N 2006) 19. Evaluate the economic and social conditions of free African Americans in one country of the region during the nineteenth century. (M2007)

20. Opponents of slavery in the Americas were united in their reasons for opposing slavery and in their proposals for ending the practice. Using one country in the region, explain to what extent you agree with this statement. (N2007) 21. For what reasons, and with what impact, did abolitionism develop in the north of the United States? (M2008) 22. To what extent, and for what reasons, were slave rebellions more numerous in Brazil than in the United States? (N2008) The US Civil War 1. The United States Civil War was entirely an economic struggle. To what extent do you agree with this assessment? (1995) 2. To what extent was the expansion of slavery into the territories the primary cause of the United States Civil War? (1996) 3. What were the political causes and results of the US Civil War? (1997) 4. Assess the contributions made by African- American soldiers during the United States Civil War. (1998) 5. Assess the successes and failures of Reconstruction in granting civil and political equality for former slaves in the Southern states of the United States. (1999) 6. Compare the political, economic, and military strengths and weaknesses of the North and South United States at the beginning of the United States Civil War in 1861. (2000) 7. The attempts in the Reconstruction period 1865 to 1877 to solve problems caused by the Civil War failed African-Americans. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2000) 8. Abraham Lincoln has been given greater credit than he deserves for the emancipation of slaves in the US. How far do you agree with this statement? (2001) 9. Slavery was the most important cause of the Civil War in the United States. To what extent do you agree with this judgement? (N 2001) 10. Why did the South (United States) resort to secession in 1861? (N 2001) 11. To what extent did economic and social differences cause the United States Civil War? (2002) 12. Explain the reasons why compromise was no longer possible between the North and South of the United States by 1861. (2002) 13. Analyze the immediate and longer-term political effects of the United States Civil War in the period 1865 to 18 96. (2003) 14. Why did the North win the Civil War in the United States? (N 2003) 15. Why did the United States Civil War break out in 1861? (2004) 16. To what extent, and for what reasons, did the election of Abraham Lincoln contribute to the onset of the Civil War in the United States? (N 2004) 17. Abraham Lincolns leadership was the main reason why the Union won the Civil War. To what extent do you agree with this claim? (2005)

18. Why was the South unwilling to continue within the Union after the election of Abraham Lincoln? (N 2005) 19. Assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the North and South at the beginning of the United States Civil War in 1861. (2006) 20. Territorial expansion was the main cause of the US Civil War. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N 2006) 21. Why, in spite of the advantages of the North over the South, did the Civil War in the United States last so long? (M2007) 22. By 1861 efforts to solve the conflict peacefully had been exhausted. To what extent does this explain the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States? (N2007) 23. Why was compromise no longer possible between the North and the South in the United States by 1860? (M2008) 24. How successful were the federal governments Reconstruction policies between 1865 and 1877? (N2008) US Foreign Policy in Latin America 1898 to 1945: 1. For what reasons, and with what results, did the United States intervene in Latin America in the period 1898 to 1932? (M 2000) 2. With reference to one state in either the Caribbean or mainland Latin America, assess the advantages and disadvantages of foreign investment in that state during the first half of the twentieth century. (M 2001) 3. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the US intervene in Latin America in the period 1898 to 1932? (M 2001) 4. Evaluate the changes in the United States policy towards Latin America from 1898 to 1941. (N 2001) 5. To what extent was the United States foreign policy toward Latin America, in the period 1890 to 1914, principally guided by economic motives? Support your views with specific examples. (N 2001) 6. How successful was the United States. foreign policy towards Latin America in the first decade of the twentieth century? (M 2002) 7. How successful were attempts at .hemispheric cooperation between 1930 and 1945? (N 2002) 8. Assess the success or failure of two interventions by the United States in Latin America before the First World War. (N 2002)

9. With reference to two countries in the region analyse the reasons for, and the effects of, the Good Neighbor Policy of the United States. (M 2003) 10. The Good Neighbor Policy enhanced both diplomatic and economic relations between the United States and Latin America. Assess the validity of this statement. (N 2003) 11. Analyse the key developments of United States policy in Latin America in the period 1898 to 1936. (M 2004) 12. What were the immediate and underlying causes of United States involvement in the Spanish-American War? (N 2004) 13. The Roosevelt Corollary turned the Monroe Doctrine on its head. To what extent, and for what reasons, do you agree with this statement? (N 2004) 14. The Spanish-American War of 1898 was a turning point in relations between the United States and Latin America. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (M 2005) 15. What was the Monroe Doctrine, and how was it used in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century? (N 2005) 16. Analyse the causes and impact of the Spanish-American War (1898). (N 2005) 17. The main aim of Franklin Roosevelts policy towards Latin America (1933-45) was to improve relations between the two regions. Assess the validity of this statement. (M 2006) 18. For what reasons, and with what effect on Cuba, did the United States enter the Spanish-America War in 1898? (N 2006) 19. Compare and contrast the policies towards Latin America of two United States presidents between 1900 and 1945. (M2007) 20. Analyse the effects of the Spanish-American War on both the United States and Cuba. (N2007) 21. Define what the Monroe Doctrine was and analyse how it was applied in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Support your answer with specific examples. (M2008) 22. Analyse the reasons for, and the effects of, the construction of the Panama Canal. (N2008)

Latin American Politics in the First Half of the 20th Century (Populism/Nationalism, Vargas and Peron): 1. What were the causes and characteristics of Peronism? (1995) 2. Analyse the policies of one populist leader in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century and assess their effectiveness. (M 2000) 3. Assess the domestic (internal) programme and policies of one populist leader of Latin America in the period 1900 to 1955. (M 2001) 4. Assess the evolution and impact of nationalism in one country of Latin America from the 1930s to the 1960s. (N 2001) 5. Between 1929 and 1950 a new generation of charismatic leaders in Latin America made broad economic and social changes in their states. To what extent do you agree with this view? Explain your answer with specific examples from one country of the area. (N 2001) 6. In what ways, and with what results, did either Pern or Vargas pursue populist policies? (M 2002) 7. Compare and contrast the programmes of two twentieth century Latin American leaders. (N 2002) PLEASE NOTE: THIS QUESTION APPLIES TO LEADERS DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY AS WELL! 8. In what ways, and to what extent, were the policies of either Vargas or Pern successful in achieving their aims? (M 2003) 9. How and why did nationalism evolve in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century? Illustrate your answer with examples from one country of the region. (N 2003) 10. Compare and contrast the ways in which Vargas and Pern maintained themselves in power. (M 2004) 11. Explain why Populist movements emerged in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century. Illustrate your answer with specific examples from one country of the region. (N 2004) 12. Analyse the aims and achievements of one populist leader in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century. (M 2005) 13. To what extent can one twentieth century Latin American leader be considered a populist leader? (N 2005) 14. For what reasons, and by what means, did either Peron or Vargas obtain power? (M 2006)

15. How did either Getulio Vargas of Brazil or Juan Pern of Argentina gain and retain the support of the urban workers? (N 2006) 16. Assess the nature and effectiveness of opposition to either Juan Domingo Pern (194655) or Getulio Vargas (193045). (M2007) 17. Examine the methods used and the conditions which helped the rise to power of one single party state leader in one country of Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century. (N2007) 18. For what reasons, and what with results, did Populist movements emerge in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century? Support your answer with specific examples from one country of the region. (M2008) 19. For what reasons was Getulio Vargass era (19301945) a significant turning point in Brazilian history? (N2008) Latin American Foreign Policy 1945 to 1995 (Relations with the US during the COLD WAR): 1. To what extent has either Canada or one Latin American country developed a foreign policy independent of the United States since 1945. (M 2002) 2. Explain why the Cold War provided favourable circumstances for the establishment of military leaders in any two countries in Latin America. (M 2003) 3. How far did the Cold War bring changes to either Latin America or Canada in their relations with the United States? (N 2003) 4. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on either Canada or Latin America in the period 1945 to 1960. (M 2004) 5. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between 1945-1953? (N 2004) 6. In what ways, and with what results, did the Cold War influence relations between either Latin America or Canada with the United States in the period 1945 to 1957? (M 2005) 7. Analyse the relations between the United States and either Canada or one country in Latin America, between 1945 and 1965. (M 2006) 8. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between 194553? (N 2006)

9. How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between 19531979? (M2007) 10. Compare and contrast the United States foreign policy, towards two countries of the region, between 1959 and 1985. (N2007) 11. To what extent did either Canada or one Latin American country develop a foreign policy independent of the United States after 1945? (M2008) 12. Assess the impact of Cold War policies on one Latin American nation between 1945 and 1965. (N2008)

Political and Economic Developments in the United States after WWII: 1. Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Lyndon B. Johnson. (1996) 2. At the time they left office, Presidents Truman and Eisenhower were both given low ratings in Presidential greatness polls. They are now both ranked among the top ten presidents. What factors account for this change? (1998) 3. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of any two United States Presidents in the period 1970-1990. (1999) 4. Assess the achievements and limitations of the domestic policies of any two Presidents of the United States of America in the period 1961 to 1988. (2000) 5. Analyze the political impact of the Vietnam War upon the US between 1964 and 1974. (2001) 6. To what extent, and with what results, had Ronald Reagan, by the end of his presidency, fulfilled his campaign promises in domestic policy? (N 2001) 7. Explain the rise of conservative politics in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. (N 2001) 8. Vietnam and Watergate destroyed the reputations of various United States. Presidents in the1960s and 1970s. To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (M 2002) 9. President Reagan.s policies brought great benefits to the United States in the period 1981 to1990. How far do you agree with this judgment? (M 2002) 10. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the President and Congress of the United States come into conflict between 1952 and 1980? (2002) 11. The outcome of the Vietnam War was determined not on the battlefield, but on the television screen. How far do you agree with this judgment? (M 2003) 12. Assess the achievements and limitations of the domestic policies of one of the following presidents: Lyndon B Johnson (19639); Jimmy Carter (197781); Ronald Reagan (19819). (M 2003) 13. Analyse the political impact of the Watergate Affair in the United States. (N 2003)

14. Their domestic policies brought significant improvements to the lives of many people in the United States. To what extent do you agree with this verdict on the domestic policies of either Lyndon B Johnson (1963-68) or Ronald Reagan (198188)? (M 2004) 15. Compare and contrast John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson with respect to their aims and their style of leadership. (N 2004) 16. The Watergate Scandal confirmed that in the United States the democratic process worked. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N 2004) 17. What factors led to the rise of the New Conservatism in the United States during the 1980s? (N 2005) 18. By the late 1960s it seemed to many Americans that the forces of chaos and radicalism were taking control of the nation. To what extent did the domestic policies of either Richard Nixon (1969-74) or Jimmy Carter (1977-81) address this situation? (M 2006) 19. Examine the role of the Supreme Court of the US government in promoting reform in the 1950s and 1960s. (N 2006) 20. Analyse the effects of the Vietnam War on the United States. (M2007) 21. Evaluate the successes and failures of the domestic policies of one US president between 1945 and 1976. (N2007)

US Foreign Policy 1945-1995 (THE COLD WAR): 1. Compare the policies of two United States presidents in regard to the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1985. Which was more successful and why? (1995) 2. How did the foreign policies of the United States government respond to the perceived threat of Communist aggression during the late 1940s and early 1950s? (1998) 3. Where, and with what effect, has the Truman Doctrine been applied in foreign policy? (1999) 4. Why did the United States intervene in Vietnam between 1961-1971? (1999) 5. In what ways, and to what extent, did Eisenhowers foreign policy demonstrate the limits of American power in the 1950s? (2000) 6. With reference to their aims and actions, examine the foreign policy of one of the following presidents of the US: Truman; Eisenhower; Carter; Reagan. (2001) 7. Why had President Nixon ended American involvement in the Vietnam War by 1973? (N 2001) 8. Evaluate President Trumans decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in 1945.(N 2001) 9. Evaluate the aims and successes of Nixons and Kissingers policy of dtente with China and the Soviet Union. (N 2001) 10. In what ways was Jimmy Carters foreign policy a success? (N 2001)

11. Explain why the Cuban Missile Crisis did not cause a war between the United States and the Soviet Union. (N 2001) 12. Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of Truman and Eisenhower. (2002) 13. Evaluate the impact of two of the following on the development of the Cold War: the Truman Doctrine; the Marshall Plan; the Berlin Blockade; NATO. (2002) 14. Analyze the aims and achievements of the foreign policies of Harry S Truman (1945- 53) and George Bush (1989-93). (2003) 15. How effective was Jimmy Carter in applying the principle of human rights to United States foreign policy? (N 2003) 16. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Harry S Truman (1945-52) or Richard Nixon (1969-74). (2004) 17. For what reasons, and with what results, did the United States become involved in Vietnam? (N 2004) 18. The Vietnam War had a disastrous effect on the presidencies of both Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2005) 19. Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of two of the following US presidents: Harry S Truman (1945-53); Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961); Ronald Reagan (1981-1989). (2005) 20. Compare and contrast the foreign policy toward Vietnam of two United States presidents between 1945 and 1969. (N 2005) 21. Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Eisenhower (1952-60) or Kennedy (1961-3). (2006) 22. In what ways, and to what extent, did the foreign policy of Ronald Reagan (19811988) affect the Cold War? (2006) 23. Compare and contrast the Vietnam War policies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon. (N 2006) 24. Why, and with what consequences, did the United States get involved in Korea? (M2007) 25. How successful was Kennedys foreign policy towards the USSR between 1961 and 1963? (N2007) 26. Analyse the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Richard Nixon (19691974) or George H W Bush (19891993). (M2008) 27. Analyse the consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis for the Kennedy administration (19611963). (N2008) 28. Compare and contrast the Vietnam War policies of Harry Truman (19451953) and Lyndon Johnson (19631969). (N2008)

US Civil Rights Movement

1. How did the views of Booker T Washington an W E B DuBois differ on the best ways to advance African-Americans in the United States? (1996) 2. How successful have minority groups been in the use of political action in any two countries of the region since 1945? (1996) 3. With what justification could it be said that Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X had similar philosophies but used different methods to campaign for civil rights? (1998) 4. How successful was Chief Justice Warren in challenging segregation in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s? (1999) 5. Compare the significance of the events at Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 with those at Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 in the campaign for civil rights by AfricanAmericans. (2000) 6. Assess the extent to which Booker T. Washington offered African-Americans effective leadership in the period between 1880 an 1915. (2000) 7. Analyze the objectives and methods for advancing African-Americans in the US of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. (2001) 8. In what ways, and for what reasons, were there differences in the philosophy and methods of the campaigns for civil rights of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X? (2001) 9. Assess the impact of Martin Luther King on the Civil Rights movement. (N 2001) 10. What impact did Black Power have on the civil rights movement? (N 2001) 11. Analyze the successes and failures of the United States Civil rights movement between 1954 and 1964. (2002) 12. Why had the civil rights movement come to the forefront of national attention in the United States by 1964? (N 2002) 13. Account for the development of the Civil Rights movement in the USA during the 1950s. To what extent had the movement achieved its aims by the time of the March on Washington (August 1963)? (2003) 14. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the African American struggle for civil rights in the United States change between the early and late 1960s? (N 2003) 15. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964? (2004) 16. Compare and contrast the ideas of Booker T. Washington and W E B DuBois on improving the position of African-Americans in the United States. (2004) 17. What arguments and strategies did Booker T Washington and W E B DuBois offer for dealing with the problems faced by African Americans at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries? (N 2004) 18. Explain why and how the Civil Rights movement became more radical as the 1960s progressed. (N 2004) 19. Compare and contrast the views of Booker T Washington (1856-1915) and Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) on the advancement of African-Americans. (2005) 20. Evaluate the impact of Black Power on the civil rights movement in the United States during the second half of the 1960s. (2005) 21. Compare and contrast the significance of Booker T Washington and W E B Dubois in the advancement of African-American rights. (N 2005)

22. Explain how and why the position of African Americans improved in United States society between 1877 and 1945. (2006) 23. For what reasons, and in what ways, did the Civil Rights movement in the United States become more radical between 1965 and 1968? (2006) 24. In what ways, and for what reasons, was there a shift in the focus and activities of US civil rights organizations by the mid-1960s? (N 2006) 25. To what extent had African Americans in the United States gained their civil and political rights by 1968? (M2007) 26. Analyse the reasons for the rise of the Civil Rights movement in the United States after the Second World War. (N2007) 27. With reference to two United States presidencies between 1945 and 1969, assess the role of the US Federal Government in the achievement of African-American civil rights. (M2008) 28. What were the reasons for the change in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States during the second half of the 1960s? (N2008) Political and Economic Developments in Latin America after WWII: A. Cuba/Chile/Nicaragua/Guatemala relevancy questions: 1. With reference to either the different regions of Canada or to any two countries in mainland Latin America, analyse the impact of economic changes between 1960 and 1990. (M 2000) 2. Analyse the main political and economic developments in either Canada or one country in mainland Latin America during the period 1960 to 1990. (M 2001) 3. Explain why the United States overthrew the Arbenz government in Guatemala in 1954. (N 2001) 4. To what extent has economic failure been characteristic of Latin American military governments between the 1960s and 1980s? Explain your answer using examples of two countries of the region. (N 2001) 5. Analyse the factors which contributed to the revolutions in one of the following countries: Guatemala, Nicaragua, or Chile. (N 2001) 6. Analyse the reasons for the United States. intervention in Guatemala in 1954. (M 2002) 7. Social problems were the main motivation for revolutionary changes in Latin America after the Second World War. Discuss the validity of this statement with reference to one country of South or Central America, or the Caribbean. (N 2002)

8. Land reform is the single most important issue in Latin America since 1945. Evaluate this view with specific reference to one country of the region. (N 2002) 9. Analyse the reasons for the transition to democracy in one country of Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s. (N 2003) 10. To what extent did domestic events lead to a political and social revolution during the post-Second World War period in either Guatemala or Nicaragua? (M 2004) 11. Compare and contrast the causes of two revolutionary movements in Latin America after 1945. (N 2004) 12. For what reasons, and by what means, did the United States intervene in Chile in 197073? (N 2005) 13. Compare and contrast the causes of two revolutionary movements in Latin America after 1945. (M 2006- NOTE: A repeat question from N 2004!) 14. With reference to at least two countries in the region, analyse the major causes of revolutionary movements in Latin America after the Second World War. (N 2006) 15. For what reasons, and with what results, did the military intervene in one country in Latin America between 1960 and 1980? (M2007) 16. Evaluate the political and economic impact of military rule in Chile between 1973 and 1989. (N2008) B. Questions specific to Castro and the Cuban Revolution: 1. Analyze the reasons for the longevity of Fidel Castros rule in Cuba. (1998) 2. Explain the reasons for the long survival of the regime of Fidel Castro. (1999) 3. To what extent was Castro able to achieve his aims between 1959 and 1990, and what prevented him from achieving more? (2000) 4. Cuba, unlike other Latin American countries, has created a true social revolution. How valid is this assessment of the impact of Castros regime upon Cuba? (2001) 5. Why did Cuba become a Marxist-Leninist state closely tied to the Soviet Union by 1961? (N 2001) 6. Castros rule in Cuba from 1959 to 1990 was mainly successful. How far do you agree with this claim? (N 2001) 7. Why, and with what results, did Castro replace Batista as ruler of Cuba? (2002) 8. Analyze the successes and failures of Castros social and economic policies in the period 1960-1990. (2003)

9. Analyze the short-term and longer-term consequences for Cuba between 1959 and 1995 of Castros rule. (2004) 10. For what reasons, and with what results for the economy of Cuba, did Castro become ruler of Cuba? (2005) 11. In what ways did the Cuban Revolution have a powerful impact on relations between the US and Latin America? (N 2005) 12. By 1962 Castros domestic policy had successfully transformed Cuba. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (N 2006) 13. How and why did Fidel Castro rise to power in 1959? (N2007) 14. Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba because of the weaknesses of Batistas regime. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (M2008) C. OAS Questions. 1. Discuss the view that the Organisation of American States (OAS) had more successes than failures in the period 1950 to 1990. (M 2000) 2. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) able to achieve its aims in the period 1970 to 1990, and what factors hindered greater success? (M 2001) 3. Why was the Organization of American States (OAS) founded and how successful has it been in achieving its aims? (M 2002) 4. In what ways was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful between 1950 and 1990? (N 2002) 5. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful in achieving its aims in the period 1950 to 1970? (M 2003) 6. Evaluate the role of one international organization as mediator in two conflicts in the region in the period 1960 to 1990. HINTOAS! (N 2005) 7. To what extent was the Organization of American States (OAS) successful as a mediator in hemispheric conflicts between 1950 and 1990? (M 2006)