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# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

Table of Contents

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

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b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. P.1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms. ar3. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . An Arithmetic Progression (A.b)2= 4ab 10. or 8 2. (a + b)2 + (a .r] 17.ab + b2) = (a . A number is divisible by 8. A number is divisible by 2. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. (a + b)2 . A number is divisible by 11. A Geometric Progression (G. 4.b) = (a + b)(a2 .sonker.(a . (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. [a + (n .) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15.2ab + b2 9. P. (a + b)2 8. Tn = a + (n .b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. arn-1 nth term.1)d] nth term. ar2.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4. … … …. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. (a2 – b2) 12. [(a + 2d)]. A number is divisible by 4. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . starting from the RHS. A number is divisible by 9. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6.com .rn)] / [1 . [(a + d)]. ar. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16. 2. if. if its unit’s place digit is 0. (a3 + b3) 13. A number is divisible by 3. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . … … …. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. (a .

not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. a0 26. 30. = a(m + n) = a(m .C. then the increase in consumption. C. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. ( 31. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . × Their L. . 27. am / an 23.sonker. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. then the reduction in consumption. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.R] } % 36. C. (ab)m 24. F.F & L. To express a / b as a percent.C. we have x% = x / 100 33. M. am × an 22.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32.M of Numbers 20. Product of two numbers = Their H. Surds & Indices 21. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%.com / 28. (a / b)m 25. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. 29. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. To express x% as a fraction.

then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. c. (a . If a / b = c / d. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write.b) / b = (c . (c : d).Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d.c. d are in proportion. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. Product of extremes = Product of means 43.R/100)N 39. then. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48.p. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49.sonker. Also. then.d) / d. then.b) = (c + d) / (c . b. 52.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. x α y.d). Mean proportion between a and b is 44. 51. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. while the second and third are known as means.c. which is called the componendo & dividendo. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. which is called the componendo. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46.a is P (1 . If a / b = c / d. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p.com .p. 53. 42.a is P / [(1 . (a + b) / (a . 50. If a : b = c : d. If a / b = c / d. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. In a proportion.R/100)N] 40. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47. which is called the dividendo.

then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. u > v) in the same direction. Time & Work 59. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. 57.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. 61. then on opening both the pipes. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. then A can finish the work in n days.com . 60. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 58.v)] hrs 65.sonker. 56. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. If A can do a piece of work in n days.

m) : (m . Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. Rate of stream = ½ (a . then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. Alligation or Mixture 71. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. d. Boats & Streams 69.sonker.com .v) km/hr.I. . Let Principle = P. We represent the above formula as under: 75. 73. then: : ). then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. S.I. 70. b.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d . P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then. ) / ( P × T ). A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67.I. = ( 100 × S.I. c. Speed upstream = (u . a. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr.c) Simple Interest 76.b) km/hr. = ( 100 × S. ) / ( P × R ). Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. ) / ( R × T ). Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. 68. Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. Then. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. 72. 74.

Then. loga x g. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. 2nd. When interest is compounded Annually. say 3⅞ years.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. loga x h. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. Then. it is taken as 10 i. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. namely characteristic and mantissa. and 3rd year respectively. R3% for 1st. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. When Rates are different for different years. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . The logarithm of a number contains two parts.loga y = 1 (i. 82.com . loga (xy) b. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. I. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78.e. loga (x/y) c. say R1%. Present worth of Rs. but the time is in fraction.e.sonker. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. Then. When base is not mentioned. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Properties of Logarithms: a. loga 1 e. other than 1 and am = x. Let Principle = P. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. loga (xp) f. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. R2%. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. When interest is compounded Annually.

g. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. Rectangle: a. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. II. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. Antilog: If log x = y. where s = ½ (a + b + c). Area of square = (side)2 b. b. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. IV. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. c are the sides of the triangle c. we look through the log table. and a. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b.com .0234 0. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. In this case. Square: a. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. Triangle: a.34 0.sonker. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Area of a triangle = . Area 83.234 0. then antilog y = x. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86.00234 III. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85.456 2. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. In this case. Number 234. e.56 23.

Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Surface Area c. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. Then. 90. breadth = b & height = h units Then. a. units . Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. where R is the radius of the circle: a. Area of a rhombus c. Then. Area of a sector 91. units = units d. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. a.sonker. units c. 92. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. units b. Cuboid: Let length = l.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. Area of trapezium 88. Surface Area c. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. Volume = (πr2h) cu. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. Volume b. Then.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. Circle/Arc/Sector. Volume b. Area of a circle = πR2 b. a.

if S. 100 stock is said to be: a.P. 9% stock at 95’.) = Rs. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. True Discount 100. 99. (156 . brokerage is added to the cost price. When the stock is sold. units 93. 156 due 4 years hence. Surface Area 94. Slant height.) = Rs. is Rs.W. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 800. is less than Rs. Then. 100. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. 96. units Stocks & Shares 95. Clearly. 95. a. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. at par.D. below par (or at discount). 800. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq.100) = (Sum due) – (P. By ‘a Rs. is more than Rs.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a.com . True Discount (T. Present Worth (P. 100. 100 stock is Rs. When stock is purchased. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. a. b. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. 100 exactly.P. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. units = (4πr2) sq. c. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. 156 in 4 years. 98. the payment of Rs. l b.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.P. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. We say that: Sum due = Rs. units c. Then. units d. So. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. 97. if S. The selling price of a Rs. 100. if S.sonker. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. 156 due 4 years hence. Volume c. above par (or at premium). units b. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq.W. Rs. Volume b.

= = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) = (B.G.W. (S.) / (B.D.] – [T. Interest is reckoned on R.D. × T. When the sum is put at compound interest.W. 109. T.D.D. = (P.D. B.D. = (T.) = S. c.D.D.W. 102.I. 112. Amount 114. copy. Amount = Interest on P.] × [T.) + (T.I. on bill for unexpired time = (B. copy.W. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104.htm before you share. B.I.D.D.)2 / P.I.) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) = ([S. Banker’s Discount (B.) / (R × T) = (P.D.D. Be sure to read the copyright information and terms of use of the documents at http://www.G.) 103. Copyright Notice: Feel free to share.) – (T. distribute this document for free. 111.I.sonker.D.) = S.I. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.sonker.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 101.W.com/sagar/Copyright. T.G. When the date of the bill is not given.com .D. on T. e.D. T.D.) is the S.]) / ([S. print. Then. then P. 113. grace days are not to be added 108.D. = S. Sum = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T.D.I.) = (B. b.D. 106. Make sure to preserve this copyright notice alongwith the header and footer with the copyright note of www. = Amount / (1 + R/100)T Banker’s Discount 105. Let rate = R% per annum & time = T years. T.W. T.) – (T. – T. on T.D. × 100) / (Rate × Time) 110.D.) for the unexpired time 107.) – (T.com. Banker’s Gain (B. distribute this document.W.]) d. Page 11 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. P.D.D. B.D. print.) = (B. a.sonker.

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