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Metacentric Height INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can he treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid. The hydraulics bench service module, Fl-l 0, provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the MetaCentric Height Apparatus, Fl-14. This consists of a pontoon whose centre of gravity may be varied A full description of the apparatus is givenlater in these texts.
Plumb Line ,, , ,
Degree Scale e
Adjustable Mass ,
I I I
Figure 4.1 Metacentric Height Apparatus, (Sketch)
which may be adjusted to vary the position of the centre of gravity of the pontoon. using the flexible bench supply pipe connected to the bench outlet. The apparatus comprises a rectangular pontoon. The vertical mast carries a sliding mass. This heel is controlled by a traversely adjustable mass. The weight of pontoon with the traverse weight applied. A plumb line. NOMENCLA TURE Column Heading Pontoon Length Pontoon Width Pontoon Height Unit~ m m m kg Nom I b d W Type Input Input Input Input Description Given. whose position is indicated on a linear scale. Total Weight 26 . Fl-14. See Theory for diagram of apparatus.2 Metacentric Height Apparatus. Given. with a vertical mast. Sec Theory for diagram of apparatus. Given. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. attached to the top of the mast. The apparatus may be used on the hydraulics bench by filling the volumetric tank. is used to measure the angle of heel of the pontoon in conjunction with a degree scale.Figure 4.
• of the Metacentric Height apparatus we need a The FI-lO Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure tlow by timed volume collection. The value required is the distance from the base of the pontoon.Traversing Weight Center of Gravity kg m P y Input Input Depth of Immersion Metacentric Height (Based of geometry and depth of irrunersion) Position of Traversing Weight Angle of tilt Metacentric Height (from including experiment) m m d. The center of gravity value is established as described in Equipment Set Up. as it is traversed across the width of the pontoon. Measured on the scale. by determining its distance from the centre of gravity (G): this distance (GM) is known as the Metacentric Height. Measured from the plumb line. the rneracentric height (GM) can be determined experimentally by measuring the angle of heel (9) produced at each position of a movable mass. GM = -cotB W Px EXPERIMENT A Objective To locate the position of the Metacentre (M) of a floating body. 27 . GM Calculated Calculated The weight applied to the traverse arm. Method The centre of gravity of the pontoon assembly can be varied by adjusting the position of a sliding mass on the mast. Equipment In order to complete the demonstration n umber of pieces of eq uipment.-lb 1000 b GM=.) 12d 2 j 2 m x Input degree 9 GM Input Calculated The di stance of the traverse weight from the center of the pontoon. For a fixed position of the centre of gravity.( y--' d.. W+P . = ---:-.1 d. Note: it is a condition for stable equilibrium that M remains higher than G.
the total weight. Pontoon length Pontoon width Pontoon height I = 0.200 m m Dl d = 0. y b (a) For adjustable position traversed weight experiments:Metacentric height. W. 28 .. For static equilibrium of the pontoon. GI-------+di d/2 BI----. the metacentre M is identified as the point of intersection between the line of action of the buoyancy force (always vertical) and BG extended. which is located at the centroid of the immersed cross-section.350 b = 0.075 THEORY Theoretical results given here are derived in many first-level fluid mechanics text-hooks..• • The FI-14 Metacentric Height Apparatus. Weigh Balance (not supplied) TECHNICAL DATA The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations.. (which acts through the centre of gravity G) must he equal to the buoyancy force which acts through the centre of buoyancy B. M must be above G.. For stable equilibrium.. if required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements.. When the pontoon heels through a small angle.
... L is the length of the pontoon............ By substitution from above. is at a distance y above the base.... j d y __ ' ) 2 29 ..GM =- Px W cote as e tends to 0 . W.. BM. is defined as = BM . Since the buoyancy force (upthrust) is equal to the total weight. can be determined by calculation........ as the pontoon heels.....b 12d 2 (. This immersed volume. of pontoon and its load then Vpg = W The depth of immersion (di) can then be found from The Point B is at the centroid of the immersed area... V...... (1) where P = weight of movable mass and the mast of the pontoon.. can be defined as BM where T = = T IV I is the second moment of area of the plane of floating about an axis through the centroid perpendicular to the plane of rotation.... It is at distance dd 2 from base... B is the width of the pontoon and V is the immersed volume. the following result is obtained. GM=-.BG The Metacentric radius.. G.. and x = distance between the movable mass and the maC'ltof the pontoon.... The center of gravity.. (b) Based upon geometry and depth of immersion The Metacentric GM height. GM..
depth. GM. Traverse the mass to the right in 10 mm increments to the end of the scale and note the angular displacement (0) of the plumb line for each position. locate the 30 . Edge of steel rule or tensioned string Measure the distance of G from the base of the pontoon and record this distance. for comparison with Procedure . mast and both masses and determine the total weight (W). Float the pontoon in the tank and measure the immersed the calculated value (see Theory). Assemble the pontoon. Suggested positions arc at the maximum height and then a location midway between maximum height and the position used in the first test. y. d. then remove the filling tube from the tank (to prevent back-siphoning through to the main tank). kg). Hence. Tying a light string tightly around the mast and carefully allowing the whole assembly to be suspended from it. repeat the above test and determine the metacentric height. used for traversing across the pontoon width. Repeat this procedure traversing the mass to the left of centre. e Change the position of the pontoon centre of gravity by moving the sliding mass up the mast. then adjust the tilt of the mast mounting (by slackening securing screws which pass through slotted holes) to give = O.Procedure . Position the sliding mass on the mast to give the location of the centre of gravity (G) for the whole assembly at the level of the top of the pontoon. adjusting the position of the suspension point until the mast direction becomes horizontal. Fill the hydraulic bench volumetric tank with water.Equipment Set Up Weigh the traversable mass (= P.. For each new position of G.Taking a Set of Results Move the traversing mass to the central position in the pontoon. The position of G can be determined by: • • Use of a knife-edge.
Explain how unstable equilibrium might be achieved. using the results from all three tests. 31 .1 IS Angle of Tilt GM (m) x (m) e Mctaccurric Height GM (m) (rn) I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Application • • • of Theory Comment on the effects of changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre. Comment on why the values of GM at lowest levels of e are likely to he less accurate. (m) Metacoutric Position 0 Height 1\1.position of the metacentre M (= y + GM) from the base of the pontoon. PROCESSING RESUL T5 All readings should be tabulated as follows: Pontoon length I em) Pontoon width b (m) Pontoon height J (m) Total Weight W (kg) Traversing Weight P (kg) Center of Gravity Y (m) Depth of Immersion d.
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