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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th

11th January, 2012,


ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

GREEN MARKETING : AN ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS

By
Tanusree Bhowmick, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration Durgapur Society of Management Science

&
Subhojit Chakraborty, Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration, Durgapur Society of Management Science

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

INTRODUCTION
Ecological issues are, today, the concerns of all corporate, who are being called upon to maintain the ecological balance by ensuring that their products are bio-degradable or they do not involve indiscriminate use of scarce natural resources. Further, environmental activism has led to legislations and hence firms are now required to comply with regulatory mechanism. Thus, ecological marketing, also called green marketing or environmental marketing, or sustainable marketing is a buzz word today. Green products and services are today increasingly being accepted by both companies and consumers. It is gradually being realized that the decay in cities and urban areas can be prevented only by maintaining an ecological balance, which in turn can be achieved by making green products and services an integral part of ones life. Even from the health point of view, customers are realizing that by using chemical made products and those which emit harmful gases can lead to permanent physical disorder. Hence, todays ecologically conscious consumers are increasingly shifting to green air conditioners, refrigerators, automobiles, cell phones and even personal toiletries. Although environmental issues influence all human activities, few academic disciplines have integrated green issues into their literature. This is especially true of marketing. It is through several distinct phases that the concern for environment has evolved. From the 1960s ecology movement focusing on pollution and energy conservation to the recent use of environmental issues as a source of competitive advantage in business, individual and societal concerns over environmental issues have become increasingly apparent in the 21st century. Since United Nations Earth Summit Conference in 1992, an international consensus has been generated to integrate environmental issues into manufacturing procedures and also in consumption patterns to achieve sustainable development. Governments around the world have become so concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. For example, in the United States, The Federal Trade Commission and the National Association of Attorneys-General have developed extensive documents examining green marketing issues. Many types of products from paint to paper to electronics are nowadays evaluated by eco-labelling organizations worldwide. Different Govt., non-profit and profit organizations have developed eco-label programs. Organizations can use eco-labels to inform purchasing decisions and procure greener products. With the growing awareness of the fragility of environment, marketers see increasing consumer interest in the environment as a marketing opportunity to target ecologically conscious consumers. As a result, they have begun to modify their behavior in an attempt to address the new concerns of these customers. Thus, growing number of firms are accepting environmental management systems and waste minimization and have integrated environmental issues into all organizational activities. Understanding attitude- behavior consistency helps marketers to link attitude to behavior and so assess the likelihood of purchase, target the types of consumers most likely to follow-through on their intentions and encourage planned purchase. The mushrooming environmental movement was christened the green movement; environmentally aware consumers called green consumers; products designed to protect the environment hailed as green products; and, not surprisingly, marketing that uses environmental claims called green marketing. Green marketing encompasses greening products as well as greening firms. In addition to manipulating the 4Ps of traditional marketing mix, it requires recognizing the fact that, the marketing actions of a firm have impact on the use of resources, generation of waste and subsequent pollution. Sustainable marketing by firms therefore require the development of a marketing mix compatible with the ecology, as successful integration of eco-system in marketing decisions creates a win-win situation. Further, ensuring customer satisfaction and retaining long term profitable customer relationship is the mantra to sustain business in the realm of survival of the fittest. This is possible through product and delivery system designs for environment protection. Firms can green themselves in three ways : a) value-addition process, b)

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 management systems and / or c) products. Greening the value-addition process would entail redesigning or eliminating them, modifying and / or inducting new technology etc. with a view to reduce environmental impact summative for all stages. Firms can adopt management systems accompanied by performance measures that create conditions for reducing environmental impact on the value-addition processes, for example, systems to promote environmental, health and safety objectives. Greening products may take place in ways like repairing or reconditioning products to extend its life, remanufacturing, reuse or recycling products so that it can be used multiple times or converted into raw material to be used in another or same product etc. The key issues to be addressed are thus : identification of the waste stream associated with the product in manufacturing and distribution stages, waste generated during use and product disposal, identification of the final disposal process, improvements that can be made in the existing manufacturing system and technology which help produce green products, the significance of green suppliers and customers perception of the product as eco-friendly or damaging. This paper is essentially exploratory in nature and focuses on two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the relationship between consumers attitude and perception towards green marketing and their buying intention of green products. The second is to identify the factors that influence consumers in their choice of eco-labelled or green products over other products. The paper begins with a theoretical background of the germane literature. Thereafter, the methodology and the results from quantitative study will be presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results and recommendations from the authors.

LITERATURE REVIEW
The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975. According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller in Marketing Management has discussed about the relevance of green marketing in the past few decades and the explosion of environmentally friendly products. From the branding perspective green marketing programs have not been very successful. Marketers tried and failed with green sales pitches over the last decade because of certain obstacles which the movement encountered. The consumer behaviour is such that most consumers appear unwillingly to give up the benefits of other alternatives to choose green products. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases - Ecological green marketing (all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies), Environmental green marketing (the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues) and Sustainable green marketing (it came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000). Cateora Graham, in International Marketing, has drawn a parallel line between green marketing and product development. The author has used the term to identify concern with the environmental consequences of a variety of marketing activities. It very evident from the authors research and examples that packaging and solid waste rules are burdensome but there are successful cases of not only meeting local standards but also being able to transfer this approach to other markets. Polonsky (1994) finds world-wide evidence which indicates people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior accordingly. As a result there is a growing market for sustainable and

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 socially responsible products and services. Unfortunately, a majority of people believe that green marketing refers solely to the promotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristics and terms like Phosphate Free, Recyclable, Refillable, Ozone Friendly, and Environmentally Friendly are some of the things consumers most often associate with green marketing. Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment. Roberts and Bacon (1997) says in general green marketing is a much broader concept, one that can be applied to consumer goods, industrial goods and even services. Anja Schaefer from The Open University (BBC) opines that green marketing is there in a sizeable market segment of green consumers who are willing to pay a little more for environmentally friendly products from environmentally friendly companies. Producers and retailers will react to this green demand and environmentally friendly practices will be pushed through the supply chain. Green marketing dates back several decades now, with specialist manufacturers and retailers such as Ben and Jerrys, the body shop and so forth, leading the way. Jacquelyn A. Ottman, the author of Green Marketing Opportunity for Innovation has explained green marketing from an organizational standpoint, environmental considerations should be integrated into all aspects of marketing new product development and communications and all points in between. According to the author, environment should be balanced with primary customer needs. The so-called green consumer movement in the US and other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and to remain in the forefront of shoppers minds. The lack of consensus by consumers, marketers, activists, regulators and influential people has slowed the growth of green products. DSouza et al. (2004) infers that hopes for green products also have been hurt by the perception that such products are of lower quality or don't really deliver on their environmental promises. And yet the news isn't all bad, as the growing number of people willing to pay a premium for green products from organic foods to energy-efficient appliances. Research on the demand of green products Jolly et al. (1989) report that, although the majority of consumers have a positive attitude towards green produce, this does not translate into purchasing behaviour. The main reasons are the price premiums and limited availability. The authors also point out that consumers only moderately or occasionally purchase these products. In another study, Grunert and Kristensen (1990) attempt to determine the factors that motivate Danish consumers to prefer green products. The results of their study suggest that life values, environmental consciousness, food consciousness and product-specific attributes are the most important factors. According to Mostafa (2007), green purchase behavior refers to the consumption of products that are benevolent or beneficial to the environment, recyclable or conservable and sensitive or responsive to ecological concerns. Based on the idea that attitudes predict actual behavior, several studies found that environmental concerns positively correlate with green purchase behavior where people with strong environmental concern are likely to behave environmentally responsible compared to those with less environmental concern. (Roberts, 1996; Roberts & Straughan, 1999; Schlegelmilch et al., 1996; Kim & Choi, 2005; Mainieri et al.,1997)

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 According to Hackett (2000) although public opinion polls consistently show that consumers would prefer to choose a green product over one that is less friendly to the environment when all other things are equal, those "other things" are rarely equal in the minds of consumers. Prothero and McDonagh (1992) suggests marketers to keep in mind that consumers are unlikely to compromise on traditional product attributes, such as convenience, availability, price, quality and performance. It's even more important to realize, however, that there is no single green-marketing strategy that is right for every company.

SOME KEY CONCEPTS What Is Sustainable Development ?


In essence, sustainable development means meeting the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. The most broadly accepted criterion for corporate sustainability constitutes a firms efficient use of natural capital. This eco-efficiency is usually calculated as the economic value added by a firm in relation to its aggregated ecological impact. This idea has been popularised by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) under the following definition: "Eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the earths carrying capacity."

What Is Green Marketing ?


The Oxford English Dictionary defines green marketing as the marketing of products on the strength of their environmental friendliness. In its first workshop on Ecological Marketing in 1975, the American Marketing Association (AMA) defined ecological or green marketing as the study of the positive and negative aspects of marketing activities on pollution, energy depletion and non energy resource depletion. In simple words, green or environmental or sustainable marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases : Ecological green marketing (all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies), Environmental green marketing (the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues) and Sustainable green marketing (it came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000). However, majority of people believe that green marketing refers exclusively to the promotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristics. They often associate terms like Phosphate Free, Recyclable, Refillable, Ozone Friendly and Environment Friendly, with green marketing. While these terms are green marketing claims only, in general, green marketing is a much pervasive concept that is applied to consumer goods, industrial goods and even services. For example, around the world there are hotels which have started promoting them as eco-friendly, as they involve use of herbal toiletries, nosmoking rooms, stationery from recycled paper, educating guests on the need to protect Mother Earth by using less detergents or wasting less water and spending money on developing their gardens and orchards. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities like product modification, changes in existing technology or production process, packaging changes as well as modifying advertising.

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

What Is A Green Product ?


Those products or services whose manufacturing, purchase and use allows for economic development, while still conserving for future generations, are referred to as green products. In general, products which do not pollute the earth or abort natural resources, and can be recycled or conserved, are ecological or environment-friendly or green products. For example, organic food, herbal toiletries, jute bags, CFL Lamps, hybrid cars etc. Selected attributes that describe green or sustainably produced products and services may include: They are energy efficient and energy saving, durable, and have low maintenance requirements They incorporate recycled content (post-consumer and/or post-industrial) or have been salvaged from existing or demolished products or buildings for reuse They do not contain highly toxic compounds, and their production does not result in highly toxic by-products They can be easily reused (either whole or through disassembly) They can be readily recycled (preferably in a closed-loop recycling system) They are biodegradable They are made using natural and/or renewable resources They do not contain ozone depleting substances

Companies use the term green to promote goods and services by making environmental marketing claims and with eco-labels.

What Is Eco - Label ?


Eco-labels and Green Stickers are labeling systems for food and consumer products. They are a form of sustainability measurement directed at consumers, intended to make it easy to take environmental concerns into account when shopping. Some labels quantify pollution or energy consumption by way of index scores or units of measurement; others simply assert compliance with a set of practices or minimum requirements for sustainability or reduction of harm to the environment. Usually both the precautionary principle and the substitution principle are used when defining the rules for what products can be eco-labeled. Eco-labeling is a shift away from traditional command and control measures imposed by governments towards market governance which is a self-regulatory new environmental policy instrument. Taking into consideration the potentiality of eco-labels to attain sustainability, various eco-labeling schemes have been introduced since early 90s. The International Organization for Standardization has developed standards for addressing environmental labeling with the ISO 14000 family which grew out of ISO's commitment to support the objective of sustainable development discussed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992. Governments of many countries have environmental protection agencies. These agencies are mandated watchdogs of industry and regulate releasing chemical pollution into the environment. Some of them administer labeling standards, other set minimum requirements for manufacturers. Examples of eco-labels from around the world are Energy Star, Blue Angel, Green Seal, Eco Flower, Nordic Swan etc.

Who Are Green Consumers ?


Without getting technical, a green consumer is someone who is very concerned about the environment and, therefore, only purchases products that are environmentally-friendly or eco-friendly. Products with little or

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 no packaging, products made from natural ingredients and products that are made without causing pollution are all examples of eco-friendly products. The green consumer would be the type to drive a hybrid vehicle, buy products made with hemp or those made from recycled materials. Common attitudes and beliefs of these customers, as described by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), is as follows : Commitment to green lifestyles Critical of their own environmental practices and impact Looking for companies that incorporate green practices Want environment protection to be easy Tend to distrust companies environmental claims Eager to learn about environmental issues

WHY ARE FIRMS GOING GREEN ?


The need for firms to be eco-friendly is across the entire gamut and greatly influenced by consumer forums and the judiciary. Several reasons can be cited for the increased use of green marketing by firms, like : Perception of an opportunity through green marketing that can be used to achieve organizational objectives Belief in the moral obligation to be more responsible socially Governmental Bodies mandating firms to implement eco-friendly systems and processes Pressure from competitors Cost factors associated with waste disposal or reduction in material usage

There are numerous examples of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible in an attempt to better satisfy customer needs. Videocon, one of the largest Indian consumer durables manufacturer, announced green television sets with features like Digital Sensi Eye, SVMC Technology, Selectable sound etc. To communicate that it is a green product, the advertising copy was made green. With taglines Eco Logic for a Sustainable Life and Keeping products Eco-Fit, Videocon communicated the message in a loud and clear manner. Astonishingly, it offered substantial price reduction also on these products. McDonalds replaced its clam shell packaging with waxed paper in the face of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and ozone depletion. Honda launched its Honda Civic hybrid car in India in 2006 as a symbol of responsible citizenship. Given these facts, as demands change, firms see these changes as opportunities to be exploited. Firms have started integrating environment issues into their corporate culture owing to the realization that they are members of the wider community and must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion, to achieve profit vis--vis environmental objectives. Firms may adopt two strategies in this context. They can either use the fact that they are environmentally responsible, as a marketing tool, as in the case of Nokia, or, can act responsible without promoting this fact, like Coca-Cola, who in spite of investing huge money in modifying its packaging and recycling activities do not promote it as a marketing tool. The Government of different countries have established regulations to protect both the consumer and the society. To control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms, the Government issues various environmental licenses, thus modifying organizational behavior. In some cases, it also tries to induce final consumers to become responsible citizens by imposing taxes and penalties on those who act in an

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 irresponsible fashion. The more recent Government regulation is the establishment of guidelines to control green marketing claims by firms, to ensure that consumers have the right information to assess a firms environmental claims and to make more informed decisions. Many companies are taking up green marketing to maintain a competitive edge. There are instances where by emulating its competitors, firms try to upgrade itself to eco-friendly behavior. The green behavior of many niche companies like Xerox, Body Shop and others, have prompted many mainline competitors to follow suit. Sometimes disposing of environmentally harmful by-products are not only difficult, but it also increase the cost. Therefore, firms that can reduce production of such wastes will incur substantial cost savings, since an attempt to diminish waste will require re-examining of the existing production process, which in turn may lead to developing more effective production processes that will curtail wastes and also raw materials. This would be a double-sided gain for manufacturers. Again, two or more firms may develop symbiotic relationship among themselves wherein the waste generated by one will be used by another as a costeffective raw material. For example, the fly ash generated by thermal power plants, which would otherwise contribute to a gigantic quantum of solid waste, is used to manufacture fly ash bricks for construction purposes.

Top Ten Global Green Brands 2011 Ranking Ranking


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Source : www.interbrand.com

Brand Name

Country of Origin
Japan United States Germany United States United States Germany Japan United States United States Japan

Sector
Automotive Diversified Diversified FMCG Electronics Automotive Automotive Electronics Business Services Electronics

Scores
64.19 63.33 63.08 59.41 59.06 58.90 58.85 58.81 57.66 57.32

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

PROBLEMS IN THE PATH OF GREENNESS


Though green marketing dates back several decades now, with specialist manufacturers and retailers such as Philips, Tata Group, Taj Chain, Ben and Jerrys, the Body Shop and so forth, leading the way. But there are problems with this nice idea of greening the world through marketing. And thats not even so much that companies do it in order to increase sales or profits. Of course they do. They are not charities, after all. And if they really deliver environmental goods, why would it matter? The biggest problem is that expecting consumer demand to drive a green revolution may not work. There is no doubt a (small) segment of dedicated green consumers who will go to significant lengths in order to inform themselves about the environmental footprint of their consumption and to reduce this as much as possible. But how many consumers will really be able to interpret carbon footprints on product information, even if Tescos actually manage to calculate these with any degree of accuracy? And that is only one environmental issue to worry about. In addition there are things like packaging, organic production, sustainable resource use, and so on and so forth. Its all a bit much for the average consumer even to get interested in, never mind knowledgeable about. And, if taken to natural conclusions, green consumption would surely require some sacrifices, i.e. no strawberries in winter, less cod and many more. Can we really expect millions of individuals to make these decisions for themselves so that the green demand then can ooze through the supply chain? More likely it would at least require some rigorous action from consumers, government and industry to start tackling the problem. Market forces alone may not solve it. Another problem is that firms using green marketing must ensure that their activities are not misleading to consumers or industry, and do not contravene any of the regulations or laws dealing with environmental marketing. While governmental regulation is designed to give consumers the opportunity to make better decisions or to motivate them to be more environmentally responsible, there is difficulty in establishing policies that will address all environmental issues. Guidelines developed to control environmental marketing, address only a very narrow set of issues, i.e., the truthfulness of environmental marketing claims. If governments want to modify consumer behavior they need to establish a different set of regulations. Thus governmental attempts to protect the environment may result in a proliferation of regulations and guidelines, with no one central controlling body. Very often consumers perceptions are not correct. Thus, firms who modify their products due to increased consumer concern may face problems. As is the case with McDonalds. Scientific evidence propose that polystyrene is less environmentally harmful than the plastic coated paper in the replaced clam shells. While attempting to become socially responsible, firms may face the risk that todays environmentally responsible action may be found harmful in the future. Given the limited scientific knowledge at any point of time, it may be unfeasible for a firm to be definite that they have taken the correct environmental decision. This may explain the point why firms may vacillate publicizing their greenness in order to defend depressing backlash in the future. The followers when blindly following the leader, as a corollary, can suffer from costly aftermaths. The level of "greenwashing" has spiked sharply and arguably, the greenwashers get away with it more often than not when they try to make themselves look more eco-friendly than they really are. According to a report Dont Be Fooled, released by Earth Day Resources for Living Green, General Motors falsely promotes its cars as environmentally friendly, with ads that place GM SUVs in natural habitats as if they were as natural as the birds. In fact, SUVs get very few miles to the gallon and are far more harmful to the environment than most other automobiles. General Motors is a member of the Coalition for Vehicle Choice, an organization that opposes clean air legislation and laws directed at reducing auto emissions.

1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

FROM TRADITIONAL MARKETING TO GREEN MARKETING CHANGES IN MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE


Bringing swifter progress towards sustainability requires taking a new approach to marketing communications programs. This approach recognizes important differences between traditional marketing and green marketing. Most traditional marketing communications focus on functional or emotional benefit of a product or service. Green marketing, instead of selling to customers functional or emotional benefits promotes a radically different message : Our product, process or philosophy is better than another and those who do it the other way are wrong.

Differences Between Traditional Marketing And Green Marketing : Traditional Marketing


Starts with the identification of needs of their target customers Customers need is at centre point for decision making Self centred approach with short term orientation and without giving the attention to environment

Green Marketing

Starts with the identification of the needs of their target customers Environmental needs is at the centre point for decision making Social cost benefit approach with long term orientation and giving importance to environment Development of product as per their needs, Development of product by analyzing ecological delivering and providing the after sales services compatibility of the product, its raw material, packaging and reuses etc. With an aim of achieving satisfied customers Customer satisfaction in an environment friendly way Practicing is good for company as well as customers Remedy for mitigating climate change and global warming Practicing is good for mankind as well as environment Remain with satisfied customers Remain with satisfied eco-friendly customers Focus on tangible goods Focus on products as services Reactive approach to waste management Proactive approach to waste management Total quality environmental management Total quality management Use of strategic alliances to accomplish sustainable goals Use of strategic alliances to accomplish traditional goals

THE GREEN MARKETING MIX (THE 4 GREEN Ps)


Just as the traditional 4Ps of marketing, companies have come up with green Ps, to cope with innovative eco-friendly products, access new markets and magnify their market shares and profits. The challenge reclines on how innovatively the marketers can design their 4Ps for green marketing.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

Product
Reduction of resource consumption and pollution are the ecological objectives in planning green products. Products are to be developed according to the customers who prefer environment friendly products to satisfy their needs. The marketer's role in product management includes providing product designers with market-driven trends and customer requests for green product attributes such as energy saving, organic, green chemicals, local sourcing, etc.

Price
Green pricing should be adopted in such a way that it not only ensures efficient productivity, but also takes care of the entire people, planet and profit. Most consumers will only be prepared to pay additional value if there is a perception of extra product value. This value may be in the form of improved performance, function, design, visual appeal, or taste. Green marketers should take all these into consideration while charging a premium price.

Place
Aiming to reduce carbon footprint, by way of managing logistics, to cut down on transport emanations, is at the core of green place. The preference of where and when to make a product obtainable will have major impression on the customers. Very few customers will go out of their way to buy green products.

Promotion
Green promotion involves re-shaping advertising, marketing materials, websites, videos and presentations to attract customers on the basis of performance, economy, health and convenience, or simply environmental friendliness, so as to target a wide range of green consumers. Three types of communication can be effective in this regard one which addresses a relationship between a product/service and the biophysical environment, one that promotes a green lifestyle by highlighting a product or service and one that present a corporate image of environmental responsibility.

ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


Unfortunately, a majority of people believe that green marketing refers solely to the promotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristics and terms like Phosphate free, Recyclable, Refillable, Ozone friendly, and Environmentally friendly are some of the things consumers most often associate with green marketing (Polonsky,1994). While these terms are green marketing claims, in general green marketing is a much broader concept, one that can be applied to consumer goods, industrial goods and even services (Roberts and Bacon, 1997). Green marketing has not lived up to the hopes and dreams of many managers and activists. Although public opinion polls consistently show that consumers would prefer to choose a green product over one that is less friendly to the environment when all other things are equal, those "other things" are rarely equal in the minds of consumers (Hackett, 2000). Environmentally Consci ous Behavior (ECCB) is consumer behavior based on some awareness of the environmental impacts associated with a product or service, and a desire to reduce those impacts. Many researchers in the field of consumers psychology and market research have demonstrated

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 a substantial growth in ECCB across a range of markets. It has been demonstrated through case studies that how product developers and marketers have capitalized on this positive attitude and effectively differentiated their product in terms of their environment friendly character. The term environmental consciousness does not have a standardized definition in the body of academic literature; the reason can be due to arousal of the term out of political and ever yda y language. Environmental consci ousness is the desire to protect flora and fauna, a willingness to scrutinize the consequences of economic activity and a willingness to combine long-term with short-term planning. Research about the identity and nature of green consumer has been the central character in the development of green marketing, as business attempt to understand and respond to external pressures to improve their environmental performance. Marketing practitioners and academics are attempting to identify and understand green consumers and their needs, and to develop market offerings that meet these needs.

Fig. 1 : Conceptual Model Of Consumers Green Buying Behavior


CONSUMER DEMOGRAPHIC (Age, Gender, Income, Education)

ELEMENTS OF GREEN MARKETING Product Price Place Promotion PURCHASE DECISION

GREEN MARKETING MYOPIA AND THE FUTURE OF GREEN MARKETING


The aim of green marketing is twofold one is improved environmental quality and the other customer satisfaction. Misjudging any one and overemphasizing environmental quality at the expense of customer satisfaction, can be termed as green marketing myopia. Prof. Theodore Levitt warned that too much obsession on a product, discarding consumer needs is bound to be a failure, because consumers select those products that offer benefits as per their desire. Research indicates that many green products in the market fail due to marketers myopic attention on the greenness of his product rather than consumers expectations. So to avoid this green myopia, the thumb rule of green marketing is to focus on customer benefits. Focusing on the primary reason why consumers buy certain products in the first place and thereby motivating them to switch brands or even pay premium for a greener alternative, will help avoiding the

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 green myopia. If a product is developed such that it is absolutely green in various aspects but does not stand tall in respect of customer satisfaction, it will be meaningless. In fact, marketers need to master many lessons to avoid the green marketing myopia, one of which is applying green marketing principles to deliver green products desired by customers. Ottman, Staford and Hartman emphasizes on the three Cs to avoid green marketing myopia : Consumer Value Positioning (promoting and delivering consumer-desired value of environmental products), Calibration of Consumer Knowledge (educate consumers with marketing messages that connect environmental product attributes with desired consumer value) and Credibility of Product Claims (employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific, meaningful, unpretentious and qualified). All said and done, the vital question that remains is what is the future of green marketing ? Though according to business scholars, green marketing is a fringe topic violating the traditional axioms of marketing like, give customers what they want and sell as much as you can, but in observance, the rise in prices of energy, increasing population and its pressure on consumption, growing awareness to save the planet and political pressures are driving to incorporate green elements in all marketing activities. However, steering business onto a more sustainable path, will require product dematerialization i.e., a shift of the focus from sale of goods to sale of services, and the success of product dematerialization and sustainable services will in turn depend on how plausibly consumer-desired value is communicated and delivered in the marketplace. Thus, green marketing should not be viewed just as an approach to marketing, but must be trailed with much greater verve, as it has an environmental and social facet attached to it.

METHODOLOGY
i)

Research Objective The main objective of the study is to

Investigate the factors that influence consumers choice of eco-friendly or green products over conventional products, and ii) Find out the relation between consumers attitude and perception towards green marketing under four value-added areas of product, price, place and promotion, and their buying intention w.r.t. price sensitivity and quality consciousness. Research Design This study is prone to cross-sectional descriptive research design. Sources of Data The data presented in this study are both primary and secondary. Primary data has been collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Meanwhile personal interviews and observations were also made. In order to ensure an acceptable number of responses, a convenience sample was used. Data were collected through the self administrated questionnaires by the researchers themselves and trained field assistants. The questionnaire comprised 18 questions including close ended questions. Secondary data were collected by website published articles, research reports, newspapers, relevant journals etc. Sample Size, Sample Unit and Sample Design Data were collected from 150 respondents in the age group of 25-30 years by means of convenience sampling. Limitations of The Research The constraints to this research mainly pertained to the following : i) Data collection was restricted to City Centre and Bidhannagar region, and hence no generalization can be made. The accuracy depends upon the respondents information.

ii) Unawareness of people about green products / marketing, and

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 iii) The time duration for doing an in-depth research and analysis on green marketing was limited.

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Table 1 : Distribution of Respondents Based On Socio Economic Status Variables
Male

No. Of Respondents
82 68 12 26 68 44 40 20 43 36 11 34 68 30 18

Percentage
54.67 45.33 08 17.33 45.33 29.33 26.67 13.33 28.67 24 7.33 22.67 45.33 20 12

Gender

Female

Primary Higher secondary

Education

Graduate Post Graduate Service Business

Occupation

Home-maker Student Unemployed Below 10,000

Monthly Family Income (in Rs)

10,000-20,000 20,000-30,000 30,000 & above

It is understood from Table 1, that male respondents constitute 54.67 percent and remaining 45.33 percent were females. As far as occupation is concerned, 26.67 percent respondents are service holders, 13.33

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 percent are businessmen, 28.67 percent are home makers, 24 percent are students and only 7.33 percent of the respondents are unemployed. About 22.67 percent of respondents have a monthly family income below Rs.10,000, 12 percent have a monthly family income above Rs.30,000, 45.33 percent of respondents fall in the monthly family income group of Rs.10,000-20,000 and the rest 20 percent are in the category of Rs.20,000-30,000 family income per month. The classification of respondents based on education shows 29.33 percent are post graduates, 45.33 percent are graduates and 8 percent and17.33 percent of respondents have received education up to primary and higher secondary levels respectively.

Table 2 : Distribution of Respondents Based on Purchase Behavior Variables No. of Respondents


Yes No May purchase in future 84 66 60 42 30 12 66 53 97 06 10 22 20 14 07

Percentage

Ever buy green products

56 44 75 28 20 08 44 35.33 64.67 6.67 11.11 24.44 22.22 15.56 7.78

Purchase green products over traditional products

Always Frequently Sometimes Never

Willingness to pay price premium

Yes No TV Radio Magazines Newspaper

Familiarity through
Internet Friend/relative/associate

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 In store On use 11 75 06 69 12.22 89.29 9.09 46

Recommending green products to others


Source: Primary Data

Without use Never

Data in the above Table 2, shows that 56 percent respondents have ever purchased a green product, whereas, 44 percent have not purchased yet and 75 percent of this 44 percent respondents who are yet to purchase green products may buy it in the future. 28 percent respondents always prefer buying green products over traditional products, 20 percent respondents frequently buy green products over traditional products, 8 percent sometimes buy green products over traditional products whereas 44 percent respondents never buy green products over traditional products. When it is the question to pay premium to purchase green products, only 35.33 percent are willing to pay. Regarding familiarity with green products, it has been reported that 24.44 percent of respondents have come to know about green products through magazines, the next highest familiarity is through newspapers 22.22percent, 15.56 percent have come across green products on the internet and 12.22 percent have been acquainted with it in store. Surprisingly, the role of electronic media (TV and Radio) is negligible in creating familiarity to green products. As far as recommending green products to others is concerned, 89.29 percent of green product users are willing to recommend, 9.09 percent of respondents would like recommending green products, though they themselves have not yet used, on account of factors like environment protection responsibility, safe for health etc. The rest finds green products not worthy of recommendation due to a host of factors like costlier, not much difference in performance or quality, customers are cheated by companies in the name of green products etc.

Table 3 : Ranking of Variables Influencing The Purchase of A Green Product Variables (xi) No.of Respondents in favour of Percentage Probability (Pi) Rank of Variables

Product 70 46.66 0.47 1 Price 50 33.33 0.33 2 Place 20 13.33 0.13 3 Promotion 10 6.67 0.067 4 Total 150 100 1 From the above table it is inferred that the quality of the product is the top most priority factor, then price, place and promotion respectively. The probability of quality of product is 0.47, which is much more higher than other three variables.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

Table 4 : Distribution of Environmental Aspect Variable Towards Purchase of Green Products Variable / Opinion Yes Percentage Probability (Pi) Ranking No Total Price
02 2.33 0.02 5 -

Quality
12 14.28 0.14 3 -

Ecofriendly
30 35.71 0.35 1.5 -

Good for health


10 11.90 0.11 4 -

Certification
30 35.71 0.35 1.5 -

Total
84 100 1

06 150

If we go through the above table, it is clear that quality and certification are the two considerable variables (since got same rank with same probability) while purchasing green products. It is also clear that price is not at all a considerable variable for selection of green products, rather, being eco-friendly and good for health are much more important (according to probability and rank).

Exhibit 1: Role of Media In Creating Awareness About Green Marketing / Products

From the above fig. it is clear that, magazines, newspapers, internet and in store presentations and demonstrations are the main sources of awareness for green products and marketing among customers, of which magazines rank first (24.44 %), followed by newspapers (22.22 %) and internet (15.56 %).

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

Table 5 A): Ranking of Selected Variables Towards Willingness To Pay Premium Opinion / A Reason 08 Yes Percentage (15.09%) Rank
3

B
20 (37.73%) 1

C
10 (18.86%) 2

D
05 (9.43%) 5

E
05 (9.43%) 5

F
05 (9.43%) 5

Total
53 (100% ) -

In the above table, A stands for Environment Protection Responsibility, B stands for Saving Utility Bills, C stands for Eco-friendly, D stands for Enhanced Quality of Life, E stands for Free From Harmful Substances, F stands for All of These. The above table indicates that among 53 respondents who are willing to pay premium money for green features, 37.73 % of the total are in favor of saving utility bills and got Rank 1, 18.86 % respondents prefer paying premium because green features are eco-friendly and got Rank 2. 15.09% respondents are ready to pay premium as they feel responsible towards protecting the environment and got Rank 3.

Table 5 B ): Ranking of Selected Variables Towards Willingness To Pay Premium Opinion / Reason No Percentage (%) Rank A
12 12.37 3

B
10 10.30 4

C
20 20.61 2

D
01 1.03 9

E
07 7.21 6

F
02 2.06 8

G
31 31.95 1

H
08 8.24 5

I
06 6.18 7

Total
97 100 -

* A Cannot see the benefit of those features B - Prefer traditional products C Cannot afford more D Govt. should pay for them E Not much difference in performance

F Not much difference in quality G Developer should pay for them H Not value for money I Environmental issues are gimmic

In the above table, out of 97 respondents, 31.95 % respondents are not willing to pay premium for green features inherent in the product, because they think that developer should pay for the green features, not the consumers and so got Rank 1. 20.61 % respondents are unable to pay extra, because they feel green products are too expensive and was ranked second. 12.37 % respondents cannot see the benefit of green features and so doesnt want to pay more, as a result was ranked third.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

Exhibit 2: Awareness About Green Marketing / Products

Table 6 : Degree of Relationship Between Testable Variables Variable-1 Variable-2 Pearsons Correlation Coefficient
Product Price Place/ Distribution Promotion Purchase decision Purchase decision Purchase decision Purchase decision .612 .510 .212 .428

As per the above table, independent variables are classified as Variable 1 category and the dependant variable - purchase decision as Variable 2 category. The above analysis clearly shows that environment friendly products and price make the significant impact on customer buying decisions. The marketing communication with the environment friendly product information will also significantly impact on the buying decisions.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE VIEW POINT OF CUSTOMERS
Consumer behavior plays a major role in the choice of green products. The marketers of green products need to be innovative and dynamic in order to compete with the changing purchase behavior among customers. The importance of green marketing and green products was ignored for quite a long period. As a result of environmental sustainability, importance has shifted towards green products rather than conventional products. The study brought out the fact that the people are considerably well aware of green products, but not loyal entirely towards it due to a host of factors like expensive, not much difference when compared to traditional products in terms of performance and quality, commercials being perceived as gimmick only, etc. To attract customers more towards green products, the marketers must create promotions which are both realistic and have moral values and the product availability in terms of volume and variety are also important to become successful in marketing green products. Though considerable number of consumers are willing to purchase green products, many business organizations still lag behind the need of the eco friendly society. Therefore, business organizations should adopt following strategies, in order to get benefits from the eco-friendly approach, as green marketing offers business incentives and growth opportunities in the long term though it may involve start-up costs.

Either Fold It Or Let It Be Unfold


If any consumer company is not playing in the green space, then it is actually competing against it. The acumen lies in either folding green practices into the marketing strategy, or having a clear competitive advantage over green competition.

Just Being Green Is Not Enough - Be Transparent


The purists look for green products. But the majority of people don't make decisions purely on green. Although many consumers think green is nice, when given a choice, they select the brand they like or the lowest-priced product. For many green brands that leave them nowhere, since they are not the cheapest and own a weaker brand position. Therefore consumers expect companies to have green products that are superior or at least at par with the conventional products. Therefore, product companies and retailers should focus on disclosing product information about environmental impact to differentiate themselves in the market rather than trying to define new green labels. Disclosures provide consumers with information that can inform purchase decisions rather than certify a products greenness. This is what HP has done with its launch of Eco Highlights labels on its products. Avoid skepticism fueled by the propelling fallacious claims to gain competitive advantage in this era of go green. Remember maintaining legitimacy in the products and specific claims presented before the customers.

Know Your Consumers


The essence is in knowing the customers first by the companies. If a marketer wishes to sell greener products to consumers, he has to first make sure that the consumer is aware of and concerned about the issues that his product attempts to address. Marketers should stratify customers into different shades of green (light green and dark green customers), based on demographics, behavior and segmentation plans.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26

Empower Your Consumers


Make sure that, the consumers, by themselves or in gig with all other users of your product, feel that they can make a difference. This empowerment is the momentum behind customers purchasing green products.

One Size Doesnt Fit All


Companies need to align green attributes to the product categories. There is no single green attribute that drives the purchase of all green products. In a crowded category, just remaking the product into something that is green is unlikely to be compelling. A better approach is to create a new category. Potential new categories should combine green with another strong attribute. People are a bit hesitant on green. So provide that extra motivating factor, that extra push into green. Green + convenience -- With our busy lives, convenience is sought out. Green + highest performance -- You may want to spend even more to make your green product the premium category. Green + costs savings -- Consumers like to save money. Energy saving products made inroads. Green + feel-good -- Most consumers are not just self-centered. They want to put some green into their life, if easy.

Make Yourself Audible To The Customers


Green initiatives by companies do influence consumers purchase behavior, but only when communicated through the right channels. Consumers need to believe that the product performs the job it is supposed to do they wont be sacrificing on the product quality in the name of environment. Unsatisfactory products find their way to trash bins, which is no way friendly to the environment!

Mull Over Pricing


While charging a premium for your product (due to economies of scale and use of higher quality ingredients), ensure that the consumers can spare the premium, feeling its worth. Costing more is not a bad thing if provided by a strong brand, as one definition of a brand itself says it is a product that consumers

will pay more for than the equivalent commodity. Consumers generally perceive that a green product would cost more, given the difficulty of making a product green.

Selecting The Right Name


A great name is unique. Using a word that provides a connotation of what the product does is ideal. Using too generic words like green, natures or natural should be avoided in the name as so many brands uses it and using the same jargon is meaningless, if a marketer wants a stand-alone brand for himself. Using green symbols or visual differences or color for a brand can be a great deal instead.

Take Advantage Of Government Regulation That Mandates Behavior Change


As more governments grapple with how to reduce carbon emissions, governments will take action in order

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 to accelerate change in consumer behavior. For example, the adoption of fluorescent light bulbs by consumers has been slow for a variety of reasons -unconventional shape (though companies have started to change this) and high initial price (though bulbs last longer and save significant money on electricity bills over time). However, legislatures have stepped up to fill the green behavior void with legislation passed (EU, Australia) or up for consideration (California and Canada) to effectively phase out incandescent bulbs (by making efficiency standards higher than what can be currently achieved by current technology). In effect, regulation would force consumers to switch en masse to more efficient light bulbs and do so without first influencing consumer attitudes. It is therefore recommended that marketers should include consumer attitude measurement programme in their marketing plan and embrace all aspects of green marketing, to fulfill its corporate social responsibility. Not only that, they are also responsible to make customers understand the need for and benefit of green products, compared to traditional ones. Firms can also form strategic alliances, including product endorsements and corporate sponsorships from environmental groups that provide credibility to their environment claims. Also, firms willing to provide clear, comprehensive and credible information, must ensure that consumers have low cost access to it. Most striking finding is that, although significant, environmental concern does not play an integral role in ecologically conscious consumer behavior. A common mantra in green marketing is that if you want the masses to buy your product, focus your messaging on more traditional attributes such as price, quality or service. A products greenness is likely secondary for many mainstream consumers. For green marketers then, the holy grail may be to offer a product that is competitive on dimensions both traditional and ecofriendly. This would result in the greatest number of products sold and greatest impact on the environment.

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ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 12. Abdul-Muhmin, A.G. 2007. Exploring consumers willingness to be environmentally friendly. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 237-247. 13. Chyong, H.T, Phang, G, Hasan, H. and Buncha, M.R. 2006. Going green: A study of consumers' willingness to pay for green products in Kota Kinabalu. International Journal of Business and Society, 7(2), 40-54. 14. DSouza, C., Taghian, M. and Khosla, R. 2007. Examination of environmental beliefs and its impact on the influence of price, quality and demographic characteristics with respect to green purchase intention. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 15(2), 69-78. 15. D'Souza, C., Taghian, M. Lamb, P. and Peretiatko. R. 2007. Green decisions: Demographics and consumer understanding of environmental labels. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 371376. 16. Elkington, H. and Makower. 1988. The green consumers. New York: Penguin Books. 17. Krause, D. (1993). Environmental consciousness: An empirical study. Journal of Environment and Behavior, 25(1), 126-42. 18. Mainieri, T., Barnett, E., Valdero, T., Unipan, J., and Oskamp, S. 1997. Green buying: The influence of environmental concern on consumer behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 189-204. 19. Ottman, J. 1992. Sometimes consumers will pay more to go green. Marketing News (July 6), 16. 20. Schwepker, C.H. and Cornwell, T.B. 1991. An examination of ecologically concerned consumers and their intention to purchase ecologically packaged products. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 10, 77-101. 21. Shamdasani, P., Chon-Lin, G. and Richmond, D. 1993. Exploring green consumers in an oriental culture: Role of personal and marketing mix. Advances in consumer research, 20, 488-493. 22. Soonthonsmai, V. 2007. Environmental or green marketing as global competitive edge: Concept, synthesis, and implication. EABR (Business) and ETLC (Teaching) Conference Proceeding, Venice, Italy 23. Straughan, R.D. and Robberts, J.A. 1999. Environmental segmentation alternatives: A look at green consumer behavior in the new millennium. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 16(6), 558-75. 24. Anderson, W. T., & Cunningham, W. H. 1972. The socially conscious consumer. Journal of Marketing, 36(3), 23-31. 25. Chitra, K. 2007. In search of the green consumers: A perceptual study. Journal of Service Research, 7(1), 173-191. 26. Follows, S. B., & Jobber, D. 2000. Environmentally responsible purchase behavior: A test of a consumer model. European Journal of Marketing, 34(5/6), 723-746. 27. Kinnear, T. C., Taylor, J. B., & Ahmed, S. A. 1974. Ecologically concerned consumers: Who are they? Journal of Marketing, 38(2), 20-24. 28. Laroche, M., Bergeron, J., & Barbaro-Forleo, G. 2001. Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(6), 503-520. 29. Mainieri, T, Barnett, E.. G. Valdero, T. R. Unipan, J. B., & Oskamp, S. 1997. Green buying: The influence of environmental concern on consumer behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(2), 189-204. 30. Brown, Joseph D., and Russell G. Wahlers 1998, The Environmentally Concerned Consumer: An Explanatory Study, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 6 (2), 39-48. 31. Ellen P, Weiner JL, Cobb-Walgren C. 1991. The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in motivating environmentally-conscious behavior. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 10: 102117. 32. Arbuthnot, J. 1977. "The roles of attitudinal and personality variables in the prediction of environmental behavior and knowledge", Environment and Behavior, Vol. 9, pp. 217-32.

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1st International Conference on Business & Information Management By NIT, Durgapur, Emporia State University & TCRG, 9th 11th January, 2012,
ISBN No. 978-81-8424-744-2, Vol. I, Page 1-26 33. Anderson, W.T. Jr, Henion, K.E. II, and Cox, E.P. 1974. Socially vs. ecologically concerned consumers, American Marketing Association Combined Conference Proceedings, Vol. 36 (Spring and Fall), pp. 304-11. 34. Coddington, W. 1993. Environmental Marketing: Positive Strategies for Reaching the Green Consumer, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. 35. Dr. H.C.Purohit 2011. Consumer Buying Behaviour of Green Products, International Journal of Research In Commerce, Economics & Management.

REFERED WEBSITES
www.Forrester.com www.Wikipedia.com www.Scribd.com www.IndianMBA.com www.Google.com www.Siliconindian.com www.About.com www.Jasondmello.com www.CoolAvenues.com www.Emerald.com www.MarketingSherpa.com www.123Eng.com www.Scholarship.org www.SustainableMarketing.com www.interbrand.com

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