Infrared sensors find numerous applications in electronic systems.

Commonly used as obstacle detector, their output is used in digital form (high & low logic) by employing a comparator. This topic explains a way to use the sensor’s output in its original analog form. Thus, along with detecting an obstacle, its exact distance can also be obtained. This is achieved by processing the output of IR sensor through an ADC0804 (analog to digital converter). The ADC is calibrated to get almost accurate distance measurement.

The measured distance is also displayed on an LCD screen. The ADC0804 and LCD are interfaced with 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51) to perform these operations. The major drawback of IR based sensors is their capability of detecting short distances.

Description his project mainly consists of three units: a sensor unit, an ADC component and the LCD module. The IR receiver detects the IR radiations transmitted by an IR LED. The output voltage level of this IR sensor depends upon the intensity of IR rays received by the receiver. The intensity, in turn, depends on the distance between the sensor module and the obstacle. When the distance between IR pair and obstacle is lesser, more IR radiations fall on the receiver, and vice versa. The receiver along with a resistor forms a voltage divider whose

also known as IR transmitter. Such LEDs are usually made of .output is supplied as the input for ADC0804. is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength. components IR led An IR LED.

gallium arsenide or aluminium gallium arsenide. along with IR receivers. To overcome this problem. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit. the camera on a cellphone can be used. The variable resistance is obtained across the single terminal at front and one of the two other terminals. The adjustment can be done by using a small screw driver or a similar tool. The two legs at back offer fixed resistance which is divided by the front leg. The resistance is varied by adjusting the rotary control over it. The appearance is same as a common LED. it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not. So whenever only the back terminals are used. A preset is a three legged electronic component which can be made to offer varying resistance in a circuit. a preset acts as a fixed resistor. are commonly used as sensors. Pin Diagram: . The resistance does not vary linearly but rather varies in exponential or logarithmic manner. unlike a common LED. They. Such variable resistors are commonly used for adjusting sensitivity along with a sensor. Presets are specified by their fixed value resistance. Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations.

A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. easily programmable. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. namely. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. This LCD has two registers. . have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments). Command and Data. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. animations and so on.Lcd LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. The reasons being: LCDs are economical. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.

. respectively. rest of the ports have internal pullups. Port P0 and P2 are also used to provide low byte and high byte addresses. P2. ATMEL 89C51 has 4KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes of RAM.clearing its screen. AT89C51 has an inbuilt UART for serial communication. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. hardware interrupts. Including two timers & hardware interrupts. It can be erased and program to a maximum of 1000 times. they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. timer inputs and read/write operation from external memory. In 40 pin AT89C51. Except P0 which needs external pull-ups.e. All these ports are 8-bit bi-directional ports. Port 3 has multiplexed pins for special functions like serial communication. i. they can be used as both input and output ports. . It can be programmed to operate at different baud rates. when connected to an external memory. When 1s are written to these port pins. AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel's 8051 family. controlling display etc. P3 and P0. there are four ports designated as P1. setting the cursor position. it has a total of six interrupts. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. These ports are also bit addressable and so their bits can also be accessed individually.

Pin Diagram: Analog to digital converters find huge application as an intermediate device to convert the signals from analog to digital form. These digital signals are used for .

The step size can be adjusted by setting the reference voltage at pin9. convert the physical characteristics into electrical signals that are analog in nature. The time taken to convert the analog value to digital value is dependent on this clock source. Pin Diagram: . to set a reference of 4V (Vref). For example. A suitable RC circuit is connected between the Clock IN and Clock R pins to use the internal clock. this pin is connected to half the voltage.53mV (5V/255). the output varies by 1 unit. The step size at 5V is 19.62mV (4V/255). i. An external clock can be given at the Clock IN pin.further processing by the digital processors. thereby reducing the step size to 15.e. pressure. To set a particular voltage level as the reference value.. the default reference voltage is the operating voltage.. When this pin is not connected. i.e. It is a single channel IC.53mV rise in the analog input. ADC0804 is a very commonly used 8-bit analog to digital convertor. for every 19. Various sensors like temperature. i. Vcc.e. force etc. The digital outputs vary from 0 to a maximum of 255. ADC 0804 also has an inbuilt clock which can be used in absence of external clock. it can take only one analog signal as input.. ADC0804 needs a clock to operate. pin9 is connected to 2V (Vref/2).

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