Conventional Building Construction

Conventional Building Construction refers to the traditional method of construction where the construction knowledge is passed from one generation to the other Associated to the wet construction (in-situ) using reinforced concrete. Not utilizing new technologies – particularly true.. Labour intensive method In Malaysia – still the preferable method among the contractors as labour is abundance and the cost is still cheap Contrary to IBS – New SPP stated that every government projects must use up to 70% of IBS components

In-situ / Cast-in-place concrete
• Concrete structural members have traditionally been built in-place by placing the wet concrete into forms and allowing it to harden. The forms are then removed after the concrete has develop sufficient strength to support its own weight and the weight of any construction loads. • 3 discrete components : formwork and falsework, reinforcement and concrete

Advantages of in-situ concrete
1. Amenable to almost any shape – does not limit creativity 2. Connections are homogenous with the rest of the structure – by providing adequate anchorage, bond and lapping, hardy require complicated detailing, easy to do renovation 3. Alteration can be made at the last minute – as long as the formwork and rebar are not ready , easy to modify technically 4. Design can proceed as the structure is built – suitable for fast track projects 5. Whole production activities are on site – easy to monitor and coordinate 6. Many players in the industry – competitive 7. Easy to adopt structural resistant concept to overcome disaster such as earthquake, explosion, collision etc

Disadvantages of in-situ concrete
1. Quality of the finished work – not easy to control, as a result honeycombing, bulging, cracks occur. 2. Labour intensive – not practical for countries (European) where labour cost is high 3. Foreign labours – always associated to social problems 4. Foreign labours – majority only work as to accumulate the money and send it back to their native land and not spending it locally. 5. Site condition – dirty, dangerous, difficult (3D) 6. Site wastages – concrete and formwork & falsework 7. Speed of construction – relatively slow

Construction sequence
For a typical construction of a duoble storey building (without lift core), the construction sequence for a in-situ concrete frame would be :1. Setting out – building lines and establishing piling point 2. Piling work – skin + end bearing OR end bearing 3. Pile cut off, lean concrete to pilecap, pilecap formwork + bar , pilecap concreting, stump concreting 4. Ground beam concreting (partly is use suspended slab/full if use nonsuspended slab), starter bar for column is placed 5. Ground floor slab concreting, starter bar for staircase is placed 6. Column from ground floor to first floor concreting, starter bar for column extension is placed 7. 1st floor beam + slab concreting 8. Column from first floor to roof level concreting , terminate column bar (staircase from ground to first floor concreting) 9. Roof beam concreting 10. Roof truss construction 11. (Architectural work)

one way. depth to suit engineering requirements such as piping and M&E services. main beam transfer load to column. machineries • Staircase – simple. helical. slanting. • Column – many shapes. secondary beam transmit slab load to main beam. simply supported. cantilever. spiral. stringer.Main RC Components • Foundation : piling (deep) or pad/strip/raft (shallow) • Stump : short column between a foundation and ground floor level. live load. finishes. curves. shallow beam and deep beam • Slab – many shapes. either horizontal. continuous. normally vertical. mainly supporting selfweight. jack knife . vertical load bearing member of a structural frame that transmits the beam loads down to the foundation • Beam – normally rectangular sections. two way and others .

Staircase Pre-cast Helical Spiral Free standing/jack knife Simple .

FORMWORK .

Definition • Formwork: Formwork may be described as a mould or box into which wet concrete can be poured and compacted so that it will finally set to the inner profile of the mould or box. usually for a large structure such as bridge. . • Falsework: The part of the formwork which support the forms.

has to support the initial load of the wet concrete and finally the set concrete until gaining sufficient strength to be self supporting . The formwork soffit.Beam Formwork Basically a 3 sided box supported and propped in the correct position and to the desired level. The sides have to retain the wet concrete in the correct position and be able to withstand the initial hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete. apart from retaining the concrete.

horizontal clamps are used Head of formwork – 2 types .Column Formwork Consists of a vertical mould of the desired shape which has to retain the wet concrete and resist initial hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete. To minimize the formwork material. kicker has dual function – to establish the column location and preventing grout loss from the bottom of the column formwork . used to support incoming beam or cast to the underside of the beam and at later stage a collar or formwork can be clamp around the cast column Column forms are located at the bottom around 75 mm high concrete kicker .

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Most permanent structures simply could not be built without formwork.Necessity of Formwork • Necessity – Formwork form a very important part of concrete construction. . • Safety – Failure of formwork could cause injuries or death at construction site.

Materials for Formwork • Among the materials that can be used for construction of formwork: – Sawn timber – the most widely use – Plywood – when fair face is necessary – Steel form – the use of steel is largely confined to proprietary formwork system – Plastic form – plastic sheets are normally used as liners to produce an almost endless variety of patterns. – Rubber – Rubber materials are generally used as form liners when complex shapes are required to be cast into the concrete. reinforced with glass fiber. . – Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) – GFRP material is strong light weight material manufactured from polyester or epoxy resin. – Aluminium – Aluminium has many of the properties of steel but with substantial weight savings.

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or sometimes wind without collapse or excessive deflection. impact of various kinds. • Forms must be designed to support loads of the fresh concrete. Design of a good forming system could both expedite a project as well as reduce costs. . equipment. workers.Concrete Formwork • Forms are a type of temporary structure that provide containment for the fresh concrete and support it until it can support itself. • The cost of FW is between 30% to 60% of the cost of concrete structure.

durable materials). .Formwork Requirements . together with construction traffic and equipment). – Sound (made of good quality.1 • Safety – FW must be: – Strong ( to carry the full load and side pressure from freshly placed concrete.

or sagging during construction).2 • Quality – FW must be: – Accurate (within specified tolerances for form dimension) – Rigid (adequately braced and tied to prevent movement. – Tight Jointed (to prevent cement paste leakage which disfigures the surface of concrete). bulging. – Properly Finished (to provide a concrete surface of good appearance).Formwork Requirements . .

Formwork Requirements .3 • Economy – FW must be: – Simple (simple to erect and dismantle) – Easily handled (the sizes of units should not be too heavy to handle) – Standardized (ease of assembly and possibility of reuse) .

to ensure sufficiently strong and rigid enough to support the dead load of concrete as well as to allow for temporary live load of workmen wheeling barrows and the tamping vibrating of concrete. braces and bulge.Formwork for cast in-situ • Inspection is very important in all stage of formwork and should consist of checking the various forms. . The checking should include all wedges. as it is practically impossible to rectify when pouring has commenced.

• Striking must be carried out with care to avoid damages to arises and projections. the concrete surface should be exposed carefully to ascertain that the concrete has hardened sufficiently. and obviously soffit forms to beams and slabs must be left in place longer than is necessary for side form. • Beam sides – 9 to 12 hours • Beam soffit – 8 to 14 days (props left under) • Beam props – 15 to 21 days • Columns – 9 to 12 hours . and it may be necessary to protect some of the work from damage immediately after removing the form. Formwork must not be removed until the concrete is strong enough to be selfsupporting and able to carry imposed load. Before the soffit forms and props are removed. Time of striking is normally related to the strength of the concrete.Striking of formwork • The period which should elapse before the formwork is struck will vary from job to job and will depend on the concrete used.

Striking formwork Striking formwork at for Ground Beam (Note the use of suspended slab) .

Permanent Formwork • It’s a part of the permanent structure of the building. • Permanent formwork is a structural element that is used to contain the placed concrete. mould it to the required dimensions and remain in place for the life of the structure. • Normally being placed at location where it would be impractical or difficult to recover (underside of raised slab – TNB trenches) .

Permitting off-site fabrication in factory conditions followed by scheduled and appropriate deliveries. Reduces construction waste generation during construction. . particularly in building works. Potential reduction in construction and maintenance costs Potential to shorten construction time Improve safety by reducing hazards during construction. Eliminating the programme limitations of reuse of formwork.Potential Advantages of Permanent Formwork • • • • • • • • • • • Reducing the skill level needed on site. Speeding up erection times. Increasing the potential for standardisation and repetition. Eliminating the need to strike formwork and falsework. Allowing early access for following or concurrent operations.

Lack of attention to FW details When FW is not at fault .Potential Causes of Formwork Failures • • • • • • • Improper stripping and shore removal Inadequate bracing Vibration Unstable soil Inadequate control of concrete placement.

and construction delays Formwork failures are the cause of many accidents and failures that occur during concrete construction which usually happen when fresh concrete is being placed. . property damage.Improper stripping and shore removal Formwork collapse causes injuries. then others become overloaded or misaligned and the entire formwork structure collapses. loss of life. Generally some unexpected event causes one member to fail.

where rapid delivery of concrete introduced lateral forces at the top of high shoring. .Inadequate bracing New York Coliseum Formwork collapse.

•Diagonal bracing can help prevent failure due to vibration. .Vibration •Forms sometimes collapse when their supporting shores or jacks are displaced by vibration caused by: •passing traffic •movement of workers and equipment on the formwork •the effect of vibrating concrete to consolidate it.

Unstable Soil •Formwork should be safe if it is adequately braced and constructed so all loads are carried to solid ground through vertical members. . •Shores must be set plumb and the ground must be able to carry the load without settling.

.Unstable Soil •Formwork should be safe if it is adequately braced and constructed so all loads are carried to solid ground through vertical members. •Shores must be set plumb and the ground must be able to carry the load without settling.

. rate of concreting often has to be slowed down to prevent a build up of lateral pressure overloading the forms. formwork failure may result. •If temperature drops during construction operations. If this is not done.Inadequate Control of Concrete Placement •The temperature and rate of vertical placement of concrete are factors influencing the development of lateral pressures that act on the forms. •Failure to regulate properly the rate and order of placing concrete on horizontal surfaces or curved roofs may produce unbalanced loadings and consequent failures of formwork.

. or failure to tighten the locking devices on metal shoring. •Inadequate anchorage against uplift for sloping form faces. •Lack of bracing or tying of corners. bulkheads. small differences in assembly details may cause local weakness or overstress loading to form failure. or other places where unequal pressure is found.Lack of Attention to Formwork Details •Even when the basic formwork design is soundly conceived. •This may be as simple as insufficient nailing. •Other details that may cause failure are: •Inadequate provisions to prevent rotation of beam forms where slabs frame into them on the side.

Control the pouring rate so that design loads are not exceeded. Free fall distance should be limited to 2m or less 4. Use drop chutes (also to avoid segregation) when placing concrete into high vertical forms. Place ‘mudsill’ under all shoring that rests on ground. Avoid inserting large vibrator deep into previously placed. Concrete vibrators may cause connection to loosen. Provide adequate foundations for all formwork. partially set concrete .Formwork Safety • The frequency and serious consequences of formwork failure that special attention be paid to this aspect of construction safety. Provide adequate bracing of forms being particularly careful of shores and vertical supports. Always check surrounding excavations to ensure that formwork does not fail due to embankment failure 2. Some of the safety precautions that should be observed in constructing formwork :1. A skilled carpenter is required to be present at site during any concreting work 3. especially nailed connection. Ensure that all connections are properly secured.

Mudsill .

form lumber must be promptly removed to a safe location and nails pulled. Protruding nails are a major source of injury on concrete construction sites. ‘Reshoring’ exercise must be done exactly as specified by the designer. Only a limited area should be stripped and reshored at one time 6. Monitor any nearby movement especially cranes (transporting materials) 8. Ensure that forms and support are not removed before the concrete has developed the required strength. .Formwork Safety 5. No construction load should be allowed on a partially hardened concrete while reshoring is under way 7. As forms are stripped.

Timber & Steel Props .

shop-built and ready-made forms.Planning for Formwork • The contractor should plan FW at the time of making bid considering the following factors: – – – – – – – Placing schedule and stripping time requirements Capacity of equipment available to handle form sections and materials Capacity of mixing and placing equipment Construction joints Reuse of forms as affected by stripping time Relative merits of job-built. . Weather (protection requirements and stripping time) • Compare alternative methods to determine the most efficient plan.

Construction & Expansion Joints .

or where forms must be fitted to terrain) .Key area of Cost Reduction . • Economical form construction – Shop-built (greatest efficiency in working conditions and in the purchase and use of materials and tools) – Shop area on the site (form sections too large or transportation cost too high) – Job-built (for small jobs. but it can save on the total form cost.1 • Planning for maximum reuse – A form designed for max reuse is stronger and more expensive.

erection. lifting eyes) . yet easy to assemble and dismantle – Add extra features that make handling.2 – Buying prefabricated forms(large number of reuses) – Renting prefab forms(better flexibility in regulating volume of work) • Setting and stripping – Repetition of the same functions to increase the crew efficiency as the job progresses – Use of metal clamp or special wedge pin connections that are secure. and stripping easier (handles.Key areas of Cost Reduction .

– Leave one bay open to permit mobile crane and concrete truck movement. • Bar Setting – Form design can permit the rebar to be pre assembled before installation (more favorable condition) .1 • Cranes and Hoists – Size of form sections should be limited to the capacity of the largest crane planned for the job. – Stair towers may be completed early in the schedule to be used for moving men and materials.Other costs affected by FW .

Other Costs affected by FW . • Other Trades – The plan should permit other trades to perform their work efficiently and minimize interruptions in placing.2 • Concrete Placement – High lifts in wall construction make placing and vibration difficult. . – Placing rate is limited by form design.

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The formwork must be inspected before the concrete is poured.Material used for the construction of formwork must fulfill the specification. . . .Warning sign must be put up at the area where the formwork is fixed to prevent entrance of people that may damage the formwork.Formwork is fixed firmly & properly . .Among the precautions that can be taken to ensure formwork function as it suppose to be are as follow: .Construction area must be protected to prevent vandalism of formwork.

Introduction of pre-cast elements where possible (especially in horizontal locations) 4.1. Use slipform techniques where possible especially when lift core is present (in high rise). Cores control the vertical rise speed 2. Use of straight bar reinforcement 7. Prefabrication of slab reinforcement (especially when using mesh reinforcement) 6. continuous operation 3. Simplification of floor details – less varieties in bar size and spacing 5. Arrange for a large area pouring of floors (avoid cold joints). Repetition as much as possible in formwork and falsework allows less labour intensive method How to increase the speed of conventional construction? .

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143.7 kPa . 95. 28.Concrete Form Design 1.6 kPa for columns.1 m/h or less p = 7. Wall and column forms For vertical forms.2 + [785R/(T + 18)] where p = lateral pressure (kPa) R = rate of vertical placement T = temperature (0C) Maximum pressure .8 kPa for walls OR 150h (h = height of form) whichever lesser Minimum pressure. design load consists of the lateral pressure of the concrete against the form. ACI recommendation: a. Vertical rate of placement 2.

0 m/h p = 7.6h Minimum pressure.2 + [1154/(T + 18)] + [244R/(T + 18)] Maximum pressure .8 kPa OR 150h (h = height of form) whichever lesser Minimum pressure. 95. Vertical rate of placement 2. 28.0m/h p = 23. 28. Vertical rate of placement more than 3.1 m/h – 3.7 kPa c.7 kPa .Concrete Form Design b.

equation c.Concrete Form Design Conditions . pozzolan or superplasticiser has been added equation c. When forms are vibrated externally. should be used together with a minimum additional pressure of 25% to allow for pump surge pressure . to be used When a retarder. should be used When concrete is pumped from the bottom. it is recommended that twice the design load of equation a. & b.

02 x dl x ws where H = lateral force applied along the edge of the slab (kN/m) dl = design dead load (concrete + formwork) (kPa) ws = width of slab perpendicular to the form edge (m) Min pressure = 1. Lateral load for slab forms H = 0.46 kN/m .Concrete Form Design 2.

46 OR (h x wf/2) whichever greater 6.7 and over 0.4 m to 6.7 m Design Lateral Force Applied at top of form (kN/m) (h x wf/2) 1. Lateral load for wall Wall Height.4 2.Concrete Form Design 2.358 h OR (h x wf/2) whichever greater wf = wind force prescribed by local codes but minimum of 0. h (m) Less than 2.65 kPa (in Malaysia under MS 1553) .

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