Tekla Structures

Modeling Manual

Product version 11.0 November 2004
Copyright © 2004 Tekla Corporation

Copyright© 1992-2003 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: 2D DCM © 1989-2004 D-Cubed Limited. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit © 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser © 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Analysis Engine included in Tekla Structures uses a program copyrighted by and is the property of Research Engineers International ©. All rights reserved. Elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries.

Contents

Preface......................................................................................................... 1

1

Introduction ................................................................................................. 7
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 General information ................................................................................. 7 Screen layout ........................................................................................ 12 Toolbars ............................................................................................... 15 Inputting information .............................................................................. 21 Specifying points ................................................................................... 26 Selecting model objects ......................................................................... 30 Using commands................................................................................... 34

2

Getting Started .......................................................................................... 37
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Basics .................................................................................................. 37 Grids .................................................................................................... 43 Views ................................................................................................... 45 Points................................................................................................... 53 Construction lines and circles ................................................................. 55

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Contents

v

3

Parts ............................................................................................................ 57
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Part properties....................................................................................... 58 Cast units and assemblies ...................................................................... 67 Numbering parts .................................................................................... 68 Part location .......................................................................................... 71 Surface treatment .................................................................................. 78 Steel part commands ............................................................................. 84 Concrete part commands ....................................................................... 85

4

Detailing...................................................................................................... 87
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Bolts ..................................................................................................... 87 Welds ................................................................................................... 94 Fine-tuning part shape ......................................................................... 101 Detailing commands............................................................................. 106

5

Settings and Tools.................................................................................. 109
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Examining the model............................................................................ 109 Querying objects.................................................................................. 116 Copying and moving objects ................................................................. 119 Filter ................................................................................................... 122 Settings .............................................................................................. 126 Numbering .......................................................................................... 135 Tools .................................................................................................. 140 Settings and tools reference ................................................................. 153

6

Advanced Modeling ................................................................................ 155
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Sketching and using cross sections ....................................................... 155 Sketching tools .................................................................................... 166 Parametric modeling ............................................................................ 166 Warping, cambering, and shortening parts ............................................. 168 Modeling tips ...................................................................................... 173

vi

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Contents

.......................................................... 177 Glossary .................MODELING MANUAL Contents vii ..................................................................Appendix A : Parametric Profiles ............................................................................................................. 201 TEKLA STRUCTURES ....... 185 Index .

viii TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Contents .

you should start with Chapter 1. If you are already familiar with Tekla Xsteel. and tell you how to report any problems you have with the software or guides. Additional help resources The following resources also provide information about Tekla Structures: Web site http://www. describe the other guides provided in the package. a comprehensive guide to Tekla Structures modeling. The following paragraphs explain how this guide is organized. analyze. How to use this guide If you are new to Tekla Structures. you could start with Chapter 3. Introduction.Preface Introduction This is the Tekla Structures Modeling Manual.com TEKLA STRUCTURES . We assume that you are familiar with the processes of structural engineering. Audience This guide is aimed at structural engineers. suggest different paths for different types of user.tekla. Parts. and design concrete and steel structures.MODELING MANUAL Preface 1 . and read about materials other than steel. analysis. detailers and designers who model. and design software.

such as functions. All the text you enter yourself appears in "quotation marks".Support.com TeklaStructures.com.US@Tekla. field and button names.MODELING MANUAL Preface .ME@Tekla. Please send any comments or suggestions about Tekla Structures documentation to BetC_Documentation@tekla.SWE@Tekla...com TeklaStructures.Email Contact your local helpdesk via email: Area office China Finland France Germany Japan Malaysia Middle East Sweden UK US Email address TeklaStructures. combo box options. you can check it here.MY@Tekla.Support. and parameters. appears in monospaced Courier font. or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor.Support. please report it to your Tekla Structures Reseller using the maintenance request form provided at Help > Tekla on the Web > Maintenance request.com TeklaStructures. variables.com TeklaStructures. appear in Courier bold.Support.Support.FI@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.FR@Tekla..JPN@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.com TeklaStructures.Support. We use italics for emphasis.com TeklaStructures.Support.Support. If you are not sure what a certain typeface represents.Support.CHI@Tekla. Extracts of Tekla Structures’s program code. • Any text that you see in the user interface appears in bold. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time.com If you believe you have discovered a problem with this software.GER@Tekla. Conventions used in this guide Typefaces We use different typefaces for different items in this guide. Program names.Support. Items such as window and dialog box titles. • • • • • 2 TEKLA STRUCTURES .com TeklaStructures. In most cases the meaning is obvious from the context. and list box items are displayed in this typeface.UK@Tekla. HTML.

like this one. or wasting your time. You should always read very important notes and warnings. This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technicallyoriented readers. Their functions are shown below: A tip might introduce a shortcut. A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes. A tip never contains information that is absolutely necessary. marked by different icons. We use several types of noteboxes. or suggest alternative ways of doing things.• Noteboxes Filenames and folder paths appear in Arial. You are never required to understand this kind of information. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.MODELING MANUAL Preface 3 . TEKLA STRUCTURES .

4 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Detailing Manual How to create reinforcement. Drawing Manual How to create and edit drawings. TplEd User’s Guide How to create and edit report and drawing templates. you should read Chapter 1 before this chapter. If you are new to Tekla Structures. and points in Tekla Structures. Installation Guide Printed booklet explaining how to install Tekla Structures.MODELING MANUAL Preface . • • • Organization This guide is divided into the following chapters and appendices: Chapter 1: Introduction Introduces you to Tekla Structures and its user interface. You should read Chapters 1 and 2. views. Analysis Manual How to create loads and run structural analysis. and details. You will also receive a printed installation guide with your setup CD. connections. System Manual Covers advanced features and how to maintain the Tekla Structures environment. and have already created grids and views to use this chapter. This is the best chapter to start with to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures. Chapter 3: Parts Explains how to create and modify parts using different materials and profiles. • • • • • Modeling Manual How to create a physical model.Related guides Tekla Structures includes a comprehensive help system in a series of online books. SymEd User’s Guide How to use the SymEd graphical interface to manipulate symbols. grids. Chapter 2: Getting Started Explains the basic skills you need to create a new model.

Chapter 4: Detailing Explains how to create bolts. and fittings. Chapter 6: Advanced Modeling Introduces several advanced modeling techniques available in Tekla Structures. It also includes modeling tips. Appendix A: Parametric Profiles Describes the parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures. Chapter 5: Settings and Tools Explains how to manipulate a model and change program settings. It also describes how to use many of the tools in Tekla Structures. design and use your own profile cross sections. cuts.MODELING MANUAL Preface 5 . including how to make models parametric. welds. chamfers. warp and camber parts. Glossary Provides concise definitions of the central terms and concepts we use in these guides. TEKLA STRUCTURES . and add surface treatment to parts.

MODELING MANUAL Preface .6 TEKLA STRUCTURES .

7) Screen layout (p. This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • • • • • • General information (p. Tekla Structures features interactive modeling. Parts. and fabricators.1 General information Tekla Structures is a tool for structural engineers. TEKLA STRUCTURES .). 34) Contents 1. 12) Toolbars (p. and its basic features. This chapter has been written for beginners. timber. etc. structural analysis and design.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 7 . 26) Selecting model objects (p. This is the best chapter to start with to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures. 30) Using commands (p. detailers. to read about materials other than steel. 21) Specifying points (p. and automatic drawing creation.1 Introduction In this chapter Audience This chapter provides an overview of the Tekla Structures user interface. It is an integrated model-based 3D solution for managing multi-material databases (steel. 15) Inputting information (p. If you are already familiar with Tekla Xsteel. It also explains how to use common commands. you can move on to Chapter 3. concrete.

Integrated analysis and design with STAAD. and all the information about profiles and cross sections. etc. Up-to-date drawings You can automatically produce drawings and reports from the 3D model. such as 3D grids.Pro. Catalogs of available material grades. because you always use the most up-to-date information. Main features 8 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Introduction . Drawings and reports react to modifications in the model. at any time. to automatically connect main members. such as end plates and clip angles. A custom component editor that you can use to create your own parametric connections. The 3D product model includes the structure’s geometry and dimensions. profiles. Sharing models Tekla Structures supports multiple users working on the same project. connection types. you can create a real-life model of any structure. and are always up to date. and clash checking. This increases accuracy and quality. even in different locations. Macros to create complex structures. including information necessary for manufacture and construction. and parts. such as staircases and trusses. Tekla Structures includes a wide range of standard drawing and report templates. materials. Intelligent connections. at the same time. structural analysis. and bolts. You can also create your own templates using the Template Editor. Tekla Structures includes: • • • • • • Useful modeling tools. adjustable work area. You and your partners can work together on the same model.3D model Using Tekla Structures. details.

so you can test solutions. wizards. Drawing wizards to create several drawings with one click.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 9 . material names. Language Tekla Structures 11.0 software and manuals are available in the following languages: • • • • • • • • Chinese – simplified (chs) Dutch (nld) English (enu) French (fra) German (deu) Japanese (jpn) Portuguese – Brazilian (ptb) Spanish (esp) Some language-dependent file and folder names include the abbreviations listed above. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Environment The environment means region-specific settings and information. connections. with full-text search and easy navigation. It defines which profiles. If you need assistance when working with Tekla Structures. and MicroStation. default values. and adapted to local requirements. such as AutoCAD. if needed. you can choose the language(s) and the environment(s) you want to use. and templates you use. and revert to the original. The online help is a comprehensive source of information. Global but localized Tekla Structures is used worldwide. STAAD. variables. Tekla Structures also supports undo and redo. use the F1 key to quickly access the context-sensitive online help. Data output for CNC machines. Languages and environments When you install Tekla Structures. reports. It is available in a wide range of languages.• • • Easy to use Links to transfer data between Tekla Structures and other software.

Custom Component. see Multiuser mode in the online help.0 are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Australasia Brazil China Europe France Germany India Japan Korea Netherlands Portugal South Africa South-East Asia Spain Switzerland (French) Switzerland (German) Switzerland (Italian) Taiwan United Kingdom United States (Imperial) United States (Metric) Single-user mode vs multiuser mode Tekla Structures can be used in either single-user or multiuser mode. If several users will work with a model simultaneously. Single-user mode When one user at a time is to work with a model. Template. Multiuser mode Tekla Structures editors Tekla Structures includes the following editors: Model. 10 TEKLA STRUCTURES . you can choose to run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode. During the installation you are asked whether you want to install the multiuser facility. one machine in the network has to be set up as a server running the Tekla Structures server program.The environments available in Tekla Structures 11.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . Tekla Structures should be run in single-user mode. In single-user mode. For more information. Symbol. To run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode. only one user can work with each model at any time. We recommend that you only run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode if the users will make use of the additional features of multiuser mode. Drawing.

you can create your own connections. In the Symbol Editor (SymEd).MODELING MANUAL Introduction 11 .. Drawing Symbol Template Custom Component TEKLA STRUCTURES .. In the Custom Component Editor. To open the Custom Component Editor. you can create and modify symbols for use in drawings. in the Model or Drawing Editor. reports. select a component and click Detailing > Edit custom component. To open the Symbol Editor. in the Model or Drawing Editor. and define their properties. click Tools > Templates. Tekla Structures opens the Drawing Editor when you open any drawing. In the Drawing Editor. Use the Template Editor (TplEd) to create and modify templates used in drawings and reports. you work with drawings.Model The Model Editor is the main and starting mode of Tekla Structures. To open the Template Editor. You can build in dependencies between objects to make custom components parametric and have them adapt to changes in the model.. and initiate drawing and report creation using the Model Editor. details. You create and analyze models. and templates.. and parts. click Tools > Symbols.

most of the menu options and all the icons are gray indicating that they are inactive. click a menu title and then select the command. To select a command. Toolbars can either be docked or floating. Snap settings Commands for control which creating views. Screen components This section briefly describes several important screen components.1.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . Pull-down menus contain all commands. Initially. The following illustration identifies the various areas of the Tekla Structures Model Editor window: Select switches determine selectable objects. Concrete footings. Menu bar The menu bar located under the blue title bar has pull-down menus containing all the Tekla Structures commands. see the Glossary (p. For additional definitions of terms. columns. beams. the icons and available menu options will become active. points you can snap to and pick. 185). columns. When you open or create a model. plates. a new window appears on the screen. Steel beams.2 Screen layout When you start Tekla Structures. 12 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Status bar displays the prompt and the status of some settings.

g. With them you can limit selection. To execute a command.Toolbars The toolbars are located under the menu bar. They contain icons which give easy access to the most frequently-used commands. and you can change the properties before applying the command. For more information. line ends and intersections. You need to activate snap switches to pick different positions and points.. double-click the object. even if you select the entire model area. 26). Use the icon as an alternative to selecting commands from a pull-down menu. To display the current properties of an object type. see Inputting information (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Select. The two circled switches control whether you can select model objects and/or objects created by components. see Toolbars (p. Dialog boxes Switches Select switches and Snap settings are special toolbars containing switches which control the selection of objects. e. Tekla Structures displays a dialog box if you select a command whose name has three dots after it. When you move the mouse pointer over an icon. To display the properties dialog box of an individual object.g. 21).. For more information. a tooltip displays the name of the icon. e. Tekla Structures only selects welds. For more information. and snapping to points. 15). Use select switches to define which object types can be selected. Either or both of these switches must be active for the other switches to work. see Selecting model objects (p.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 13 . You can also double-click an object or icon. For more information. 30). For example. Tekla Structures displays a properties dialog box. double-click the corresponding icon. click the appropriate icon.. see Specifying points (p. if only the Select welds switch is active.

Using windows A typical Windows workspace can contain many windows.g. Closes all the windows on the screen. Windows may partially or completely hide other windows. Recalculates and redraws the contents of all windows. Either or both of these switches must be active for the other switches to work. and Drag and drop (D) The middle mouse button mode (Pan or Scroll) The current phase The number of the selected objects For more information. Only one window is active at a time. see Settings (p.The two circled switches define whether you can pick reference points or any other points on objects. SmartSelect (S). Status bar Tekla Structures displays prompts and messages on the status bar located at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window. part corners. just like sheets of paper on a desk. Shows all open windows tiled horizontally. Tile horizontally Tile vertically Update all Redraw all Close all 14 TEKLA STRUCTURES . You can stack windows on the workspace.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . Updates and displays the contents of all windows. Command Cascade window Icon Description Shows all open windows in a cascaded arrangement. Shows all open windows tiled vertically. but Tekla Structures may also produce information in the inactive windows. 126). e. Use the commands on the Window menu to control the windows. The status bar also displays the following information: • • • • The status of Xsnap (T).

MODELING MANUAL Introduction 15 .You cannot use the Cascade window. and XS_MDIBASICVIEWPARENT in the online help. Visible toolbars have a check mark against their name. hold down the Ctrl key while dragging. see XS_MDIVIEWPARENT. To display or hide a toolbar.e. You can control the representation of a model in the windows using the commands on the View menu. A double-click displays the properties dialog box of the object type. The toolbars remain floating. and executes the command. click the handle on the left or upper edge of a docked toolbar (or the title bar of a floating toolbar). and Tile vertically commands for windows that you can move outside the Tekla Structures window. located at the edge of the program window. Using icons Most of the Tekla Structures icons work as follows: • • A single-click executes the command. To move toolbars. For more information on menus and toolbars. i. and how to customize them. 45). TEKLA STRUCTURES . You can resize floating toolbars by grabbing any edge with the mouse pointer. XS_MDIZOOMPARENT. 1. To drag toolbars beyond the program window.3 Toolbars The toolbars contain icons which give easy access to some of the most frequently-used commands. see Customizing the user interface in the online help. Managing toolbars Toolbars can either be floating or docked. click Window > Toolbars and click the toolbar name. 47) and Views (p. See Representation (p. For more information on moving part and component basic views and zoom windows across the entire Windows desktop. and drag the toolbar to a new location. Tile horizontally.

It contains basic commands for creating. printing. creating reports. Standard The Standard toolbar is visible by default.Basic toolbars This section describes the most important toolbars and their icons in the Tekla Structures Model Editor. etc. opening. The commands on the Standard toolbar are: • • • • • • • • Edit Create a new model Open an existing model Save the current model Plot Create a report Open the drawing list Wizard Publish as Web page The Edit toolbar contains commands for copying and moving. • • • • • • Copy and translate Copy and rotate Copy and mirror Move and translate Move and rotate Move and mirror 16 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Introduction . and saving a model.

MODELING MANUAL Introduction 17 .View The View toolbar contains commands for creating views and setting the work area and work plane. The following commands can be initiated from the View toolbar: • • • • • • • • • • • Create a new basic view Create a view with three points Create a view with two point Open the list of named views Pick work area Fit work area by parts in selected views Fit work area in selected views Set work plane Set work plane by three points Set work plane to view plane Set work plane to part top TEKLA STRUCTURES .

Points The Points toolbar contains commands for creating points. distance variables. and construction objects you can use to place structural objects in a model.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . user-defined planes. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Create a grid Create a point array Create an extension point Create a line-line intersection point Create a projection point Create parallel points Divide a line Create arc points Create an arc by three points Create a tangent point Create a plane-line intersection point Create part-line intersection points Create circle-line intersection points Create an axis intersection point Create a point to any position Create a distance Create a reference distance Create a user-defined plane Create a construction line Create a construction circle Create a construction circle by three points 18 TEKLA STRUCTURES .

Steel parts The Steel toolbar contains commands for creating steel beams. columns. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Create a pad footing Create a strip footing Create a concrete column Create a concrete beam Create a concrete slab Create a concrete panel Create a reinforcing bar Create a reinforcing bar group Create a curved reinforcing bar group Create a circular reinforcing bar group Create a reinforcement strand pattern Create a reinforcement mesh Create polygon surface treatment Create face surface treatment TEKLA STRUCTURES . and plates.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 19 . • • • • • • • • • • Concrete parts and reinforcement Create a beam Create a column Create a curved beam Create a polybeam Create an orthogonal beam Create a twin profile Create a contour plate Create bolts Create a weld Create a reference object The Concrete toolbar contains commands for creating concrete parts and reinforcements.

and viewing and editing load groups.Detailing The Detailing toolbar contains commands for trimming parts. • • • • • • • • • Create an x measure Create a y measure Create a free measure Create an angle measure Create a bolt measure Open the Variables dialog box Open the model browser Open the model folder Inquire an object Measure. 20 TEKLA STRUCTURES . • • • • Loads Create a fitting Create a line cut Create a part cut Create a polygon cut The Loads toolbar contains commands for creating loads. • • • • • • • • Tools Create a point load Create a line load Create an area load Create an uniform load Create wind load Create temperature load Show existing load groups Open the Load groups dialog box The commands on the Tools toolbar help you model.MODELING MANUAL Introduction .

1. details.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 21 .. all the Tekla Structures connections. Use the arrow icons to move from toolbar to toolbar. If you click any command or button that has three dots in its name. see Basics.4 Inputting information You can use dialog boxes to enter and view information in Tekla Structures.g.. • • • • • • Create the current connection Display the AutoConnection dialog box Open the component catalog Previous Next Toolbar number For more information on components.Components In addition to the component catalog. e. Tekla Structures displays the appropriate dialog box. Select. TEKLA STRUCTURES .. and macros are presented by icons on the Components toolbars.

Modifies the selected object(s) without Retains the proper. the dialog box. without retaining the Fills the dialog box properties or with the properties of modifying the selected object.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . 22 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Toggles all the Closes the modify filter check. objects.dialog box boxes on and off.retaining the ties without closing properties.This section describes the components of dialog boxes. The following illustration also identifies the most common components: Tabs List box for saved properties Fields Modify filter checkboxes Buttons Retains the properties and closes the dialog box.

Components in dialog boxes
Dialog boxes may have following components for described purposes: Component Is used to Display, enter, and modify information. To select the field, point to it and click. An Ishaped blinking cursor appears at the beginning of the field and marks your typing position. Group related settings that allow only one selection at a time. To select an option, click the appropriate button. Radio buttons Group settings that can be set in any combination, and are usually displayed as small square buttons.

Field

Checkboxes Present a collection of options in a list. To select an option, point to the list you want to display, click, drag the pointer to highlight the desired option, and then single-click. Run a command immediately.

List box

Button Select options from a list. A list can have both horizontal and vertical scrollbars for scrolling the visible portion of the list items. When you select a list item, it is highlighted. There are two ways to select an item on the list: • Multiple selection list • Point to the item you want to select and click. Use the Down and Up arrow keys to move the highlight to the item you want to select, and press Enter.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

23

Tabs
Information in some Tekla Structures dialog boxes has been divided up on several tabs. This makes the dialog boxes easier to use. Moving from tab to tab does not affect the information they contain. The common buttons located at the top and bottom of a dialog box affect all the tabs in the dialog box. For example, when you click Save before closing the dialog box, Tekla Structures saves all information on all tabs. See also Common buttons (p. 24) and Save, Load, Save as, Help (p. 25). Press Ctrl+Tab to switch between tabs.

Common buttons
Most of the Tekla Structures dialog boxes contain common buttons. These buttons mean the same thing in all dialog boxes. The common buttons are: Button Description Retains the properties in the dialog box and closes the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Retains the properties in the dialog box without closing the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Closes the dialog box without retaining the properties in the dialog box or modifying objects. Modifies the selected object(s) using the properties in the dialog box, but does not retain the properties in the dialog box. See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. 25). Fills the dialog box with the properties of the selected object. When you select several objects, Tekla Structures takes the properties at random from one of the selected objects. Creates a new object using the properties in the dialog box. Toggles all the modify filter checkboxes in the dialog box on and off. See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. 25).

24

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

Save, Load, Save as, Help
Many Tekla Structures dialog boxes have the Save, Load, Save as, and Help... buttons. You can use these buttons to save the information from the dialog box to a file, and reload it later from the file.

Button
Save as

Description Stores the dialog box properties with the name given in the field. Tekla Structures stores the properties files in the model folder. The files also include the properties in subdialog boxes. The file extensions are different for different dialog boxes. See Appendix D, File extensions, in the online help. Loads all previously stored properties to the dialog box. Tekla Structures also loads the properties of subdialog boxes, even if they are not open. You can select the name of the file you want to use from the list box. Stores the modifications of properties. Tekla Structures saves the properties in the file shown in the list box. Displays the help topics for the dialog box.

Load

Save Help...

Modify filter checkboxes
The checkboxes located in front of the dialog box fields are modify filter checkboxes. They indicate the properties Tekla Structures modifies when you click the Modify button. When a checkbox is selected, Tekla Structures changes only the corresponding value.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

25

This means you can modify a single property common to several objects. For example, to change the material of all parts in the model: • • • • Select all the parts. Open a part properties dialog box, e.g. Beam properties. Check only the Material field. Click Modify.

Special keys
You can use the keyboard to enter and modify text in dialog boxes, and to move the pointer in dialog boxes. Key Arrow keys Tab Del, Backspace Description Move the pointer within fields. Moves the pointer to the next field or button in the dialog box. You can also scroll through lists using Tab. Delete characters.

See also Appendix E, Reserved shortcuts, in the online help.

1.5 Specifying points
Most Tekla Structures commands ask you to pick points to position objects in a model. Snap priority, snap switches, and snap settings all affect picking.
Snap zone

Each object has a snap zone. It defines how close you need to pick to hit a position. When you pick within the snap zone of an object, Tekla Structures automatically snaps to the closest pickable point on that object. You can set the snap zone using the variable XS_PIXEL_TOLERANCE. Enter the snap zone dimension in pixels.

Snap priority

If you pick and hit several positions simultaneously, Tekla Structures snaps to the position with the highest snap priority. To control which positions you can pick, use snap switches. They also define the snap priority of positions. See Snap switches (p. 27).

26

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

for example.. and intersections.MODELING MANUAL Introduction Symbol End points Centers 27 . and yellow for model objects. i. Small Other snap switches The following table lists the remaining snap switches. Main snap switches The two main snap switches illustrated in the following table define whether you can pick reference points or any other points on objects. you cannot pick any positions.Snap switches Snap switches specify exact locations on objects. Icon Positions to pick Points Description Snaps to points and grid line intersections. midpoints. end points. Symbol Large Geometric points You can pick any points on objects. even if all the other switches are on. 29).The snap symbol is green for objects inside components.e. TEKLA STRUCTURES .g. These switches have the highest priority. e. 71). You can use snap switches any time Tekla Structures prompts you to specify a point. the points that have handles. Snap switches help you to pick points to position objects precisely without having to know the coordinates or create additional lines or points. polyline segments. if you are creating a beam. Icon Positions to pick Reference points Description You can pick the object reference points. If both these switches are off. You can have Tekla Structures display the snap symbols in the model when you move the mouse pointer over objects. part corners. Snaps to end points of lines. See Snap settings (p. Snaps to centers of circles and arcs. for example. and arcs. See Part location (p.

Click an icon on the Snap override toolbar. do one of the following: • • Right-click and select the appropriate snap option from the pop-up menu. This will only override the snap settings for the next point you pick. Overriding snap switches To temporarily override current snap switch settings. Click the left mouse button to select the appropriate point. polyline segments.MODELING MANUAL Introduction .Icon Positions to pick Midpoints Description Snaps to midpoints of lines. e. any point on part edges or lines. Snaps to points on objects that form a perpendicular alignment with another object. Snaps to the nearest points on objects. and Shift+Tab to cycle backwards through them.g. see Snapping (p. For more information. polyline segments. Numeric snap locations You can also key in position coordinates to snap to using the Enter a numeric location toolbar. and circles. 28 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 140). Symbol Intersections Perpendicular Nearest point Free If there is more than one point available to snap to. and arcs. use the Tab key to cycle forward through the snap points. Snaps to any position. arcs. Snaps to intersections of lines.

Snap settings
The first list box on the Snap settings toolbar defines the depth of each position you pick. The following options are available: • • •
3D

Tekla Structures picks positions in 3D space.
View plane

Tekla Structures projects picked positions onto the view plane.
Auto

In perspective views, this option works like the 3D option. In non-perspective views, it works like the View plane option.

Snap switch settings
Click Setup > Snap settings... to open the Snap dialog box. Use it to: • • Set Tekla Structures to display snap symbols and tooltips for the available snap points when you move the mouse pointer over objects. Define a snap grid and switch it on.

Xsnap
To make it easier to snap to points and position, you can use Xsnap and have Tekla Structures display visual cues when you pick. On the Setup menu, click Xsnap, or use the shortcut T. The cursor turns into a magenta crosshair. As you move the cursor over objects, you can see it snap to positions.
Binding objects to planes

When you create distances to bind model objects together, use the second list box on the Snap settings toolbar to select the plane to bind the object to. The options are boundary and outline planes of parts and grid planes. Grid planes are available only in the Model Editor.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

29

Grid plane

For more information on other plane types, see Plane types in the online help.

1.6 Selecting model objects
To use Tekla Structures effectively, you need to know how to select objects and use select switches. Select filter settings also affect which objects you can select. See Select filter (p. 124).

How to select objects
You need to select objects to carry out many Tekla Structures commands. You can select objects as a sequence of single selections and/or area selections. Tekla Structures highlights the selected objects.

30

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

You can use the following techniques to modify the current selection: Technique Single objects Description When you select objects using the mouse button, without pressing any other keys, every pick or drag selects objects. All previously selected objects are deselected. Drag the mouse from left to right to select all objects totally within that rectangular area. 1

Enclosing window selection

2 Crossing window selection Drag the mouse from right to left to select all objects totally or partly within that rectangular area. 2

1 Assembly or cast unit Handles Press the Alt key while clicking a part to select the entire cast unit or assembly containing that part. When you want to select only the handles of a part, select the part, press the Alt key and select the part again with enclosing window selection.

See also Handles (p. 72).

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

31

Technique Adding Modifying

Description Press the Shift key and select objects, to add to the current selection. To toggle the current selection on and off, press the Ctrl key during selection. Tekla Structures deselects the objects, which are already selected and selects those, which are not previously selected.

Controlling the selection
Main select switches

The main select switches shown in the following table set whether you can pick model objects and/or objects created by components. These switches have the highest priority. If all these switches are off, you cannot select any objects, even if all the other switches are on. Icon Selectable objects Model objects Component objects Components Description Objects created by the user can be selected. Objects created automatically by a component can be selected. When you click any object belonging to a component, Tekla Structures selects the component symbol and highlights (does not select) all component objects.

Other select switches

The following table lists the remaining select switches. Use these switches to set which object types you want to select. For example, you can decide to select only welds and bolts, but no parts. Icon Selectable objects Any objects Components Parts Points Description Turns all switches on. You can select all object types, except for single bolts. You can select component symbols. You can select parts, i.e. columns, beams, plates, etc. You can select points.

32

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

lifting hooks.Icon Selectable objects Welds Cuts and fitting Views Bolt group Single bolts User components Reinforcing bars Loads Planes Distances Description You can select welds. You can select model views. You can select single bolts. line.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 33 . and fittings. You can select line. fitting plates. You can select reinforcing bars and bar groups. You can select planes. You can select point. You can select entire bolt groups by selecting one bolt in the group. e. TEKLA STRUCTURES . and polygon cuts. and uniform loads. area. part. You can select distances.g. You can select cast-in fittings. etc.

do one of the following: • • 34 Click Edit > Repeat last command. There are also predefined filters available in the list box on the Select switches toolbar. The commands on the Points. Pull-down menu You can execute commands using pull-down menus.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . see Select filter (p. you will find that there are several ways to do some operations. we refer to this section or present only the way(s) most useful for a first-time user. the commands on the pop-up menu relate to that object.Select filter In addition to the select switches. Double-click an icon to display the properties of the object type. Press Enter. 124). Tekla Structures contains two types of menus for basic objects: • • The commands on the Properties menu set the properties of different object types. click the Display select filter dialog box icon on the Select switches toolbar. you may choose a different way. For more information. and to execute the command. Pop-up menu A pop-up menu appears when you click the right mouse button.7 Using commands As you become familiar with Tekla Structures. Icon You can use icons: • • Single-click an icon just to execute the command. After some practice. If you have an object selected. Executing commands There are several ways to execute commands in Tekla Structures. To set the select filter. This section introduces most of the ways. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Repeating commands To repeat the last command. 1. select filter settings control which objects can be selected. and Create menus. Parts. create objects using the properties of each object type. for example. Later in this manual.

Place the object(s) in the model. To position objects without defining their properties: 1. To create an object. Modifying objects To modify the properties of an object. Single-click an icon. Pick points to place the object(s). 2. For example To modify objects: 1. Select the remaining object(s) to modify. Double-click one of the objects you want to modify to open the object properties dialog box. Open the properties dialog box and modify the object properties. or multiple objects: • • Select the object(s) to modify. or a menu command. 25). 2. For example To create objects: 1. You can carry out these steps in any order. 24). Modify the properties. 35). See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. Tekla Structures creates the object using the current properties of the object type.Creating objects Most of the commands you run in Tekla Structures create objects. 2. or multiple objects: • • Open the object type’s properties dialog box and set the object properties. 36). You can carry out these steps in any order.MODELING MANUAL Introduction 35 . TEKLA STRUCTURES . 3. Double-click the icon of the object type you want to create. See also Common buttons (p. See also Modifying objects (p. 3. To create several objects with the same properties. Enter or modify the object properties. Click Apply or OK. See also Ending commands (p. Pick points to place the object(s). pick multiple points. See also How to select objects (p. 4. The object commands in Tekla Structures run until you end them or use another command. 30). Tekla Structures displays the properties dialog box.

See also Click Modify. Press the Esc key. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu. Window.MODELING MANUAL Introduction . see Handles (p.4. This means that you can execute these commands while another command is still running. the commands on the Points. For information on how to resize and move objects. and Setup menus are transparent. Using commands simultaneously Transparency You can use some Tekla Structures commands transparently. 72) and Copying and moving objects (p. 119). do one of the following: • • • • Click the Interrupt icon (next to the Undo and Redo icons). For example. On the Edit menu. click Interrupt. 36 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Ending commands To cancel or end commands.

the first objects you create are grids. 45) or Grids (p.2 Getting Started Introduction When you start a new Tekla Structures model. For additional definitions of terms. 2. 53) Construction lines and circles (p. This chapter explains the basic skills you need to create a new model. see the Glossary (p. views. 185). view. views. Finally we will show you how to create and manage these modeling aids in practice. followed by general descriptions of the grid. 43). 43) Views (p. grids. we recommend that you first read Chapter 1. to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures. and points in Tekla Structures. Assumed background Contents If you are new to Tekla Structures. 37) Grids (p. The illustration below shows the modeling guides you use in Tekla Structures windows. Introduction. and point properties. This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • • • • Basics (p.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 37 . TEKLA STRUCTURES . 55) How to use this chapter You can start by creating either Views (p. We will begin with the basic concepts. and points. 45) Points (p.1 Basics In this section This section presents basic Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts so that you can start modeling.

creating points. Green cube is in the global origin. and z) perpendicular to each other. both the global and local coordinate systems are cartesian. The red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane. Points are red outside the view plane. you can move and rotate the model. Tekla Structures indicates the work area of a view using green. The z direction follows the right-hand rule.Green dashed lines outline the work area. So you can confine to a substructure. Most of the commands.g. Points are yellow on the view plane. use work plane coordinates. The green cube in a model view represents the global coordinate system and lies at the global point of origin. y. The arrow symbol shows the xy plane. and the views to the model are simpler and quickly updated. but they are not visible. Arrow symbol indicates the work plane. 109). Coordinate system Work plane Work area 38 TEKLA STRUCTURES . dashed lines. View To see your Tekla Structures model from virtually any angle. The work plane is the same in all views. Objects outside the work area still exist. You can reset the work plane so as to ease modeling and placing objects. Cyan grid is on the view plane. A view is a representation of a model from a specific location. e. Each view is displayed in its own window inside the Tekla Structures window. part positioning. which are dependent on the coordinate system.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . In Tekla Structures. Defining the work area makes it faster and easier to work with the model. See Examining the model (p. You can also create views. and copying always comply with the work plane coordinate system. with three axes (x. which is the current local coordinate system of the model. for example.

Click File > New. only the New model and Open icons are active. Points located in the view plane are yellow. The New model dialog box appears. Then type \ and the model name in the field. To move up. Creating a new model When you first open Tekla Structures. 2. You can only have one model open at a time.. for example C:\Tekla Structures_Models. The appearance of points also shows which view plane you are using. Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 39 .Grid and view plane Cyan dash-and-dot lines show the projections of the grids which are visible on the view plane... Select the Create default view and grid checkbox if you want Tekla Structures to automatically create a grid and a view using the standard properties. Select the model from the Model directories list on the right of the Open model dialog box. Points outside the view plane are red. 3. If you already have a model open.. or . 44). in the field at the bottom of the dialog box. 3. Enter directory paths in the Filter field and click the Filter button. See Working with grids (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 2. Click OK to open the model. To move down. or . double-click an entry followed by two dots. Opening a model To open an Tekla Structures model: 1. In the New model dialog box. You can only have one model open at a time. double-click the desired entry. Click File > Open. If you already have a model open. click after the path. To create a new Tekla Structures model: 1. Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model. Use the Directories list on the left of the Open model dialog box and the following techniques to browse files and folders above and below the current folder: • • • • One dot at the end of an entry indicates the current folder.

Do not use special characters ( / \ . The names in the image below refer to template fields. Click OK to create the new model. click Properties > Project.. : | ) in model names. Tekla Structures displays this information in different reports and drawing titles. The Project dialog box appears. To update the project information. Tekla Structures does not allow duplicate model names.. 40 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 39).. which you can use when designing your own reports and templates. See Opening a model (p.4.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . The remaining icons become active and the model name appears in the title bar of the Tekla Structures window. The Directories list and the Filter field and button in the New model dialog box work in a similar way to those in the Open model dialog box. Every model must have a unique name. Project setup Update the project information at the beginning of a project to make reports and drawings to display the correct information automatically.

read also Using Tekla Structures effectively in the online help.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 41 . You can shrink and expand the work area by picking the corner points of the new work area. Work plane TEKLA STRUCTURES .PROJECT_NUMBER PROJECT_NAME BUILDER PROJECT_OBJECT ADDRESS DESIGNER START_DATE END_DATE INFO1 INFO2 Before starting a new project. Defining the work area and shifting the work plane Work area You can define the work area to suit particular situations. You can define the work area in a selected view. The current work plane defines the local coordinate system of a Tekla Structures model. or on a part or view plane. When modeling sloped parts. or all model objects. or size the work area to include selected parts. parallel to one of the global basic planes. so it relates to all views. shifting the work plane helps you to place parts accurately. or in all visible views. The current work plane is model-specific. You can set the work plane to any position by picking points. for example. to concentrate on a particular area of the model.

. see Autosave in the online help. The icon is for the top plane.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started .. or yz plane. or select a command from the View menu. Saving models differs in multiuser mode. With one point With two points With three points To view plane To part plane Saving a model and exiting Tekla Structures To save a model. close the Tekla Structures window. Sets the work plane to be equivalent to the view plane of a picked view. Tekla Structures automatically saves the model at set intervals.. Sets the work plane according to three picked points. click File > Save or Save as Autosave . or click File > Exit. To set the interval and define the location of autosave files. Click File > Save as.To shift the work plane. top. 42 TEKLA STRUCTURES . or to give a new model a specific name. or bottom plane of a picked part.. Exit To exit Tekla Structures. and gives a short description of each one: Command Work plane. Icon Description Sets the work plane parallel to xy. back. use the icons on the View toolbar. Sets the work plane on the front. xz. Sets the work plane according to one picked point. to save a model with a new name. A confirmation dialog box appears and you can choose whether or not to save the model. Sets the work plane according to two picked points. The following table lists the commands for setting the work plane. See Multiuser mode in the online help.

. The names in the X field are associated with the grid lines parallel to the y axis and vice versa. You can have more than one grid in a model. 55).. we strongly advise that you create a modular grid.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 43 . You may want to create a largescale grid for the entire structure. Grid properties To access the Grid properties dialog box.g.. 46). See Construction lines and circles (p. Grids are always rectangular. or several grid lines with equal spacing. There are two ways to enter the x or y coordinates of grid lines: • • individually. e. use construction circles. e.0 coordinate and spaces as separators for coordinates. Use a zero at the start to represent a grid on the 0. you can leave the label fields empty. You can have a maximum of 1024 grid characters in the co-ordinates field. 26). See also Specifying points (p. The Tekla Structures grid is shown on the view plane by cyan dash-and-dot lines. TEKLA STRUCTURES . "0 2*4000". The z coordinates are absolute meaning that entries for z are absolute distances from the work plane origin.2 Grids Introduction So that you can easily locate objects in your model. • • Grid coordinates On the Points toolbar. The Z field is for the names of levels parallel to the work plane. The x and y coordinates of a grid are relative. See also View plane (p. Labels Labels are the names of the grid lines shown in views. This means that the entries for x and y are always relative to the previous entry.g. To position objects in a circular pattern.2. and smaller grids for some detailed sections. You can create rotated grids by changing the work plane. Both create three lines with the spacing of 4000. double-click or click Points > Grid. "0 4000 4000". If you wish. You can pick grid lines and grid line intersections.

45). Creating grids To manually create a grid: 1. you can select the Create default view and grid checkbox to have Tekla Structures automatically create a grid and a view according to the saved standard properties. 45). If you have already created views as described in Views (p. To create the grid. and the coordinates of the picked point appear in the Grid dialog box as X0. Pick a point in a view. If you do not pick. 43). or . Fill in the properties described in Grid properties (p. Tekla Structures positions the origin according to the values you entered for X0.. Y0. and Z0. As you do not have any views yet.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . 2. you cannot see the grid. Y0.. 44 TEKLA STRUCTURES . See Views (p. 3. Tekla Structures prompts you to pick the origin after you create the grid. This is all you need to do so far if you have started your model by creating the grid manually. Grid labels Line extensions Work plane origin Working with grids Automatic grid When you create a new model. Click Points > Grid.Line extensions You can also define the Line extensions over the given grid coordinates and the Origin of the grid. and Z0. click the Create or OK button.

click in the view to activate it. Tekla Structures only deletes the objects. not the grid. The Grid dialog box appears. you can create views: • • • of the entire structure of selected part(s) and component(s) along the grid lines Each view has properties which define its appearance. press Ctrl+Tab. You can have up to nine views on the screen at the same time.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 45 .Initially. See Naming views (p.3 Views Introduction There are several ways to create views in Tekla Structures. You can open the view properties dialog box for each view. Unnamed views disappear when you close them. Deleting grids To delete a grid. and you can modify the properties. click any grid line. If the view does not appear. click View > Fit work area. For example. Modifying grids To modify a grid. To switch between views. a small grid appears in the bottom left corner of the view. double-click any of the grid lines. To enlarge the grid. TEKLA STRUCTURES . See also Grids (p. 43) 2. 46). This section describes the view-specific properties. right-click and select Delete from the popup menu. Click the Modify button to save the changes. When you delete a grid. do not have any other object(s) selected. Then. You can change the appearance of a view after you create it so choose the creation method that suits you. to view or modify the properties. check how many views you have open.

from the popup menu. e. right-click and select Move > Translate.g.e. With three points. The third axis is perpendicular to the view plane. e. It does not appear in the plane name. In basic views two axes always define the view plane and they appear in the plane name. Click anywhere on the plain background.g. The view plane options for basic views are: XY XZ ZY View plane coordinate Other views For basic views.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . Tekla Structures does not save unnamed views when you close them. 46 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 121).View plane Each view has a view plane on which the grids are visible and points are represented as yellow crosses. Tekla Structures only saves named views. To work plane. xz. closing. you define the view plane and coordinate by picking points.. When you exit the model. xy. and zy. or they are defined automatically according to the chosen creation method/command. Moving the view plane View properties Naming views Tekla Structures numbers views in order of creation. See Opening.. 119) and Move (p. For view types other than basic views. In the basic plane view. Moving a view plane may result in a situation such that view depth and work area do not intersect and thus nothing can be seen in the window. The view plane coordinate equals this distance. you also define at which distance from the global origin the view plane is in direction of the third axis. and deleting named views (p. Basic view plane Basic views are those parallel to the global basic planes. 51). You can change the view plane by moving it like any other object. the model is shown from the direction of that third axis. so you do not have to give each view a specific name. See Copying and moving objects (p. You should give a view a unique name if you need to open it in later sessions. i.

) TEKLA STRUCTURES . you can define how Tekla Structures displays parts and component objects separately. component objects are displayed as Rendered. Representation In rendered views. It also affects what methods you can use to rotate the model. redrawing views is quick. If several users have different views with the same name. i.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 47 . you can also choose the Wire frame or Shaded wire frame option in the rendered views. However. surfaces are not. (In this example.) • Shaded wire frame Part outlines are displayed. View type The view type defines the appearance of the view. it is very important to give views unique names. Rotating the model in the rendered views is very convinient with the mouse. component objects are displayed as Rendered. The view type options are: • Wire frame Objects are transparent and their outlines are displayed. Parts are transparent. and their surfaces are shaded.In multiuser mode. parts are transparent. • Rendered Objects look more realistic because they are non-transparent and their surfaces are displayed as shown in the illustrations below. The following options are available: • Wire frame Part outlines are displayed. (In this example. the view settings of one user may randomly override the settings of another user.e. As the wire frame views use line graphics technique.

e. • Rendered (light colors) Parts are not transparent. 48 TEKLA STRUCTURES .e... use the shortcuts Ctrl+1. Part surfaces are displayed more in lighter colors than in the Rendered option.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started .5 and Shift+1. • Rendered Part surfaces are displayed.5 to set the desired representation for parts in the model and components. i. parts are not transparent.• Hidden lines Parts are not transparent. Part surfaces are not displayed. In rendered views. i. underlying parts are not visible...

Every view has depth. which is the thickness of the displayed slice of model. The objects within the displayed depth and the work area are visible in the model. When you zoom. Number of views There are four options for the number of views: • • • • None Tekla Structures does not create any views. You can specify rotation angles around the z axis and around the x axis. or fly through it. You can zoom. rotate the model. • Perspective Distant objects appear smaller than close ones. However. the zoom remains on part surfaces. One (First) Tekla Structures only creates the view closest to the grid origin. objects created after the view are visible also outside the view depth.Projection If you choose the rendered view type. One (Last) Tekla Structures only creates the view furthest from the grid origin. text and point size remains the same. View angle Views can be: • • Plane 3D Use the shortcut Ctrl+P or click Window > 3D / Plane to switch between 3D and plane view. how it will name the views. Before creating grid views. All Tekla Structures creates all views in grid planes in the relevant direction. and which view properties it will use. you can define how many views Tekla Structures will create. TEKLA STRUCTURES . the projection can be: • Orthogonal All objects are of equal size (no perspective). In addition. or by defining the rotation angle in the View properties dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 49 . View depth Defining grid view properties Grid views are views along the grid lines. 114)). You can define the depth separately upwards and downwards from the view plane. as do text and points. You can rotate the model in 3D views using the mouse and keyboard (see Rotating the model (p. 51). See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. Rotation Rotation is view-specific.

View name prefix View names consist of a prefix and a grid label.. Tekla Structures adds a dash and a running number to the view name if view names are otherwise identical. Command Basic view. e. Icon Description Displays the Create basic view dialog box and creates a basic view. Displays the Creation of plane views along grid lines dialog box and creates views along the grid lines of a selected grid. Creates a view of the current work plane. 50 TEKLA STRUCTURES . no prefix is used. See View properties (p. Each view plane has its own view properties... The Show… button displays the view properties.. use the icons on the View toolbar.g. you can select the Create default view and grid checkbox to have Tekla Structures automatically create a grid and a view according to the saved standard properties.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . View with two points View with three points View to work plane Grid views. You can load the properties from the current view properties with the option <applied values> or from saved view properties. 46).. Creating To create views. or click View > Create view. The following table lists the commands for creating views and gives a short description of each one... View properties Creating and modifying views When you create a new model. PLAN +3000. If the View name prefix field is left empty. Creates a view using two picked points. Part basic view(s) Create view(s) of a selected part. Creates a view using three picked points.

do one of the following: • • Click .Command View to part plane Icon Description Creates a front view of a selected part. Click View > Named views.. See also Naming views (p. select the view(s) and use the arrows between the lists. Objects which have their center line partially or totally inside both boxes are visible. Component basic view(s) Modifying To modify a view. see also Refreshing the screen display (p. Create views of a selected component. Tekla Structures lists all invisible named views on the left. 52)). Newly created objects are visible also outside the view depth but never outside the work area. Redrawing a view only shows the objects inside the view depth (for redrawing.. double-click anywhere on the plain background. to display the Views dialog box. 46). To delete a named view. select the view and click Delete. TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 51 . You can move selected views between both lists using the middle arrow. To display or hide views. and deleting named views To view and open the existing named views. Opening. The View properties dialog box appears and you can modify the properties. closing. and all visible views on the right. Displaying and hiding objects in views The visibility of objects in views depends on the following settings: • • • • work area view depth view setup view filter Work area and view depth are like two virtual boxes.

Use the View filter dialog box. then select Update window. see View setup in the online help. 125) and Filter (p.. See also View filter (p. For information on advanced view settings and different display options. click Display. See also View type (p.. In the View properties dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . Right-click. 122). Double-click the view. 3. 52 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Filtering objects To more precisely define which objects are displayed in a view. 2. Click Close all to close all the windows on the screen at the same time.. 2. Refreshing the screen display Active window To update and display the contents of an active window.. You can also use Window > Redraw all to recalculate and redraw the contents of all the windows. See also Using windows (p. to define the visible objects in the view according to their properties.. 47).Object representation To define which objects are visible and how they are displayed in a view: 1. do one one the following: • • • Press Ctrl+U. Double-click the view. 3. click Filter. The View setup dialog box appears Set the visibility and representation for different objects and for components. 1. use the view filter. Click Window > Active window > Update. All windows To update the contents of all windows.. 14). In the View properties dialog box. click Window > Update all.

each point has an ID number which is used in log files. See Select filter (p. Phase and ID Just like any other object. and select the point. You can filter objects by their phase and ID numbers. y. To place an object where no lines or objects intersect. There are many ways to create points in Tekla Structures. See Construction lines and circles (p. Which method is the most convenient at each time. Tekla Structures always places them according to the work plane coordinate system. When you create points. and z coordinates of a point. Points located in the view plane are yellow and points outside the view plane are red. and grid line and part intersections. 55). Create points. Checking them convinces you of the correct location of the point or some other object related to it. See Snapping (p. Use construction lines and circles. Coordinates TEKLA STRUCTURES . 140). depends on what you have already created in the model and which locations you can easily pick. Point properties To view the properties of a point. The point infomation you are most probably interested in is the local (work plane) and global x. Points and parts have phase numbers..2..MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 53 .4 Points Introduction To place an object in a model you may need to pick points. Tekla Structures automatically creates points at part ends. double-click the point or click Inquire > Object. 124). you have the following options to place objects: • • • Use snapping commands. See also Inquire (p. 116).

Projection Intersection Extension Parallel Divide line Arc Arc by three point Tangent Plane-line intersection Part-line intersection Circle-line intersection 54 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Projects a picked point onto a picked line.. Creates a point where a line intersects with a plane. Creates points which divide a line. Creates points where a circle and a line intersect.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started . The following table lists the commands for creating points and gives a short desription of each one: Command xy(z) array. or select a command from the Points menu. This command also creates construction lines showing offset distances. Creates two offset points. Creates a point at the intersection of two lines.. use the icons on the Points toolbar. Creates points as an extension of a line between two picked points. between two picked points. Creates a point where a circle and a line meet tangentially.Creating points To create points. Creates points where a line intersects with a part surface. Creates points as an extension of an arc defined by three picked points. Icon Description Displays the Point array dialog box and creates a point array relative to the current work plane. parallel to a line. Creates points along an arc.

Construction circle Construction circle by three points TEKLA STRUCTURES . Creates a construction circle defined by three picked 3D points.5 Construction lines and circles Construction lines and circles help you place other objects. Creates a construction circle in the view plane of the first view picked. Creates points at the bolt center points of the picked bolt groups. To create construction objects. Creates a point to any position you pick. They do not appear in drawings. you can easily pick the points at intersections of construction lines and circles. Construction lines and circles remain in the model when you update or redraw views and windows. Any position Bolt points Grid points 2.MODELING MANUAL Getting Started 55 . The snap priority of construction objects is the same as with the other lines. For example. use the icons on the Points toolbar or select a command on the Points menu.Command Axis intersection Icon Description Creates a point where the axes of two parts intersect. and projects the point onto the view plane. Creates points at the intersections of grid lines on the view plane. The following table lists the commands for creating construction objects and gives a short description of each one: Command Construction line Icon Description Creates a construction line between any two picked 3D points.

56 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Getting Started .

Before you start to create parts. You can find step-by-step instructions for all these commands in the online help. The main concrete parts are: • • • • • • beam column pad footing strip footing panel slab The main steel parts are: • • • • • • • In this chapter beam curved beam orthogonal beam polybeam column twin profile contour plate This chapter explains how to create and modify parts using different materials and profiles. as explained in Chapter 2. Assumed background TEKLA STRUCTURES . and points. you need to create grids. It also includes a general description of part properties and an overview of part commands. Introduction. or have comparable knowledge of Tekla Structures. We assume that you have read Chapter 1. views.3 Parts Introduction In Tekla Structures. we use the term parts to refer to the basic components of a model. These are the building blocks of the physical model. we use the term members to mean load-bearing parts. For structural analysis purposes.MODELING MANUAL Parts 57 . Getting Started.

See Filter (p.Contents This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • • • • • • Part properties (p. You can use part properties in filters. 122). This section describes the basic part-specific properties. 71) Surface treatment (p. You can include part properties and user-defined attributes in drawing and report templates.MODELING MANUAL Parts . modify. 58) Cast units and assemblies (p. or hide parts based on their properties.g. etc. material.1 Part properties Introduction Every part has properties which define it (e. Use the part properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a part. 68) Part location (p. location. profile. 85) 3. For example.). 84) Concrete part commands (p. Filtering by properties In reports and drawings 58 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 67) Numbering parts (p. 78) Steel part commands (p. you can select.

e.g. Finish Class Profile Tekla Structures contains standard. hot galvanized. etc. e. Tekla Structures uses part names in reports and drawing lists. See also Colors (p. click Setup > Colors. and to identify parts of the same type. It describes how the part surface has been treated. To display parts of different classes in different colors. and select By class in the Colors list box. beams or columns. 134). fire retardant coating. parametric.MODELING MANUAL Parts 59 . and user-defined profiles. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Use Class to group parts. with anti-corrosive paint.Name The name of the part is user-definable. Finish is user-definable..g..

Standard profiles

When you first start Tekla Structures, the profile catalog contains standard, environment-specific profiles. The properties of these library profiles conform to industry standards, so you should not edit them. You can add profiles to the profile catalog. See The profile catalog in the online help. Parametric profiles are partly user-definable, they have a predefined shape, but you determine their size by giving one or more parameters. You can use parametric profiles to closely “model” profiles that are standard in specific environments, but do not exist in the Tekla Structures profile catalog. Parametric profile names have specific prefixes and include dimension values. These are described in Appendix A, Parametric Profiles (p. 177). If you want to define alternative prefixes for parametric profiles, see Customizing parametric profiles in the online help. You can also create your own profiles and save them in the profile catalog. For example, you could create a user-defined profile pitched, with different cross sections at the beginning and end of the profile. You can also define cross sections. To create user-defined cross sections, you pick the points which define the cross section corners. When you save user-defined profiles in the profile catalog they become library profiles. To create your own profiles, see Adding a standard (fixed) user-defined profile in the online help.

Parametric profiles

User-defined profiles

60

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Parts

Selecting a profile
To select the profile of a part, click Select... next to the Profile field in the part properties dialog box. The Select profile dialog box appears.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Parts

61

Library profile

If you select Library profile in the Profile category list box, you can select a profile from the tree. The tree lists all the profiles contained in the profile catalog. Library profiles are grouped in the tree according to rules (such as profile type) which you can define and modify. For more on how to modify the profile catalog and rules, see The profile catalog in the online help. If you select the Show empty rules checkbox, Tekla Structures includes the rules which do not contain any profiles or subrules in the tree. To see all the properties of profiles, select the Show details checkbox. Tekla Structures only displays cross section information for user-defined profiles.

Rules and details

62

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Parts

Parametric profile

Use Parametric profile in the Profile category list box to review profile shapes according to profile type, subtype, and prefix, and enter profile dimensions in the Value column. Select a profile, then click Apply or OK.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Parts

63

. next to the Material field in the part properties dialog box. 177). The Select material dialog box appears. You can select the material and grade from the tree.You can also enter a profile name in the Profile field in the part properties dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Parts . Parametric profile names must be in the format shown in Appendix A.. Parametric Profiles (p. environment-specific materials. Defining the material of a part Select.. You can add. click Select. Material The material catalog contains standard. To select the material of a part. which displays all the materials in the material catalog. modify. and delete materials and grades. 64 TEKLA STRUCTURES ..

When you have selected the material for a part. Use the User attributes tab to view or modify the user-defined properties of materials. and thermal dilatation coefficient. Aliases are alternative names. select the Show aliases checkbox.MODELING MANUAL Parts 65 . click Apply or OK. Poisson’s ratio. Tekla Structures automatically translates aliases into the standard name when you select a material grade. or country-specific properties. see The material catalog in the online help. Design User attributes To modify the material catalog. You can also enter a material name in the Material field in the part properties dialog box. they can be former names. To see all the properties of materials. partial safety factors. The Design tab contains information on design-specific properties. or surface quality class of a concrete material type. TEKLA STRUCTURES . For example. etc. including the modulus of elasticity. For example. or names used in different countries or standards. this tab could contain the maximum grain size. such as strengths.Aliases and details To include aliases for material grades in the tree. in the Select material dialog box. select the Show details checkbox. porosity. Analysis The Analysis tab contains information on the properties used in structural analysis.

inp file. Camber Prelim mark Shear. To assign part position numbers to preliminary marks. Tension. User-defined fields. To save reaction forces for AutoDefaults. See Adding properties in the online help. You can then use the connection codes as rules in AutoConnection and AutoDefaults. 66 TEKLA STRUCTURES . or in projects. You can enter forces separately for each end of a part. and Moment Locked User field 1. click Tools > Numbering > Preliminary marks when you number parts.... In part and weld marks in Tekla Structures drawings.. text. In part marks in Tekla Structures drawings.MODELING MANUAL Parts . Attributes can consist of numbers. The following table explains what you can use attributes for: Attribute Comment Shorten Can be used. When drawings of the parts are created. You can change the names of these fields and add new user-defined fields.User-defined attributes User-defined attributes provide extra information about a part. or lists. To check the preliminary mark of a selected object. click Inquire > Object. To obtain preliminary marks for parts in reports. When importing information on connection types into Tekla Structures.4 Connection code For more information on defining attributes using the objects. This is useful when creating assembly drawings of bracing bars which should always be under tension. See AutoDefaults settings and Reaction forces and UDL in the online help.. Each end of a part can have a different connection code.. See Locking objects in the online help. see Adding properties in the online help. To protect objects from being accidentally changed. Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by this value..

and steel assemblies. 116). There are no connecting welds or bolts in cast units. See Working with cast units (p. 30). See also Detailing (p. click Inquire > Assembly. The main part in a concrete cast unit is the one with the largest volume of concrete. Assemblies and their main parts are automatically defined when you: • • Create single workshop welds or bolts. For example. See also How to select objects (p. See also Inquire (p. Pick a part in the cast unit or assembly. as well as concrete parts.2 Cast units and assemblies Steel assemblies Tekla Structures creates assemblies of steel parts when you use a workshop weld or bolt to join parts. TEKLA STRUCTURES . By default. a single cast unit could consist of a column with corbels. 68). Checking contents Cast units can include reinforcement. Main parts The main part in a steel assembly has other parts welded or bolted to it. Tekla Structures uses different colors to highlight different objects: Object type Concrete Reinforcement User components Steel part – main part Steel part – secondary part Highlight color cyan blue magenta red yellow To select an entire cast unit or assembly. so you need to specify which parts form the cast unit. The main part is not welded or bolted to any other parts. Apply automatic connections which create workshop welds or bolts. Drawing and reports You can also produce drawings and reports for cast units and assemblies. To visually check the objects in a cast unit or an assembly. hold down the Alt key and select one of the parts in the cast unit or assembly. For construction purposes you may need to merge several concrete parts into one cast unit. 87). Concrete cast units The concrete structures in Tekla Structures are modeled as single parts. each part is considered a separate cast unit.MODELING MANUAL Parts 67 . Tekla Structures highlights the other parts that belong to the same cast unit or assembly.3. cast-in fittings.

3 Numbering parts Introduction This section discusses the principles you need to consider when planning numbering. and exporting models. Select an object in the cast unit. cast unit. cast units. and assemblies when producing drawings and reports. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Explode.Working with cast units Creating cast units To create a cast unit: 1. or some export files from a model. Reporting the properties of identical parts. Select the object to add. Adding objects To add objects to a cast unit: 1. for example: • • • Connecting a drawing with the right part. Identifying part information for export another program. 3. cast units. You must have Tekla Structures number the model parts before you can create single-part. 2. 135) for information on how to set up and carry out numbering. Select an object in the cast unit. and multdrawings. cast unit. 2. or assembly. Removing objects To remove objects from a cast unit: 1. See Numbering (p. Tekla Structures uses part numbers in many tasks.MODELING MANUAL Parts . and assemblies. Exploding cast units To explode a cast unit: 1. 3. Tekla Structures uses numbers to identify parts. Select the object to remove. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Create. 2. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Remove from. Click the middle mouse button to create the cast unit. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Add to. 68 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 2. assembly. Select the objects to form the cast unit. 3.

. you may want to omit the part prefix for minor parts). as long as only one part has that particular number. . All identical parts in the same numbering series are given the same part number. 135)). using the part properties dialog box. By default.Defining numbers to be used for parts Numbering series You use a numbering series to divide steel part. Tekla Structures numbers that series P1001. see Cast units and assemblies (p. Tekla Structures compares parts that belong to the same series with each other. The numbering series name consists of a prefix and a starting number. For more information on cast units and assemblies.. You can name the numbering series to which a part. A is the prefix for assembly marks. P1003. cast unit. Part numbering does not affect cast unit and assembly numbering. cast unit. a part retains its number. P1002. Tekla Structures might allocate the same number to different parts. 67). Assembly and cast unit numbering may affect part numbering.MODELING MANUAL Parts 69 . regardless of the settings in the Numbering setup dialog box. See Appendix C. When you run numbering (see Numbering (p. The default starting number is 1. the concrete part prefix is Concrete. Overlapping series When planning numbering. ensure that you reserve enough numbers for each series. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Example For example. By default. if you define a numbering series with the prefix P and starting number 1001. For example. See Log files in the online help. you can allocate separate numbering series to different phases or part types. and the starting number is 1. If one series overflows into another. By default. or assembly belongs. the steel part mark prefix is P. and assembly numbers into groups. Tekla Structures warns you about series overlaps. Variables in the online help. View the numbering history log to check which numbers overlap. if the variable XS_USE_ASSEMBLY_NUMBER_FOR is set. You do not have to specify a part prefix (for example. Use the variables XS_CONCRETE_PART_NUMBERING_PREFIX and XS_CONCRETE_PART_NUMBERING_START_NUMBER to define the prefix and starting number for concrete parts. Cast units and assemblies Tekla Structures numbers concrete cast units and steel assemblies using the same principles as it follows when numbering parts.

and number of holes. 70 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Numbering series Name Profile Material Finish Class and phase do not affect numbering.MODELING MANUAL Parts . Tekla Structures gives the same number to identical parts that belong to different classes or phases. and so gives them the same number. If the geometry of parts differs within this degree of tolerance. You can set the degree of tolerance for part geometry in the Numbering setup dialog box. if the following basic part properties are the same: Part property Part geometry Condition Including the location. if you select the Holes checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box.What affects numbering Identical parts Tekla Structures treats parts as identical. size. Tekla Structures treats the parts as identical for numbering purposes. If you select the Part name checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box.

see Numbering (p. Tekla Structures gives the parts different numbers.g.4 Part location In this section Part reference point This section describes the part position properties that vary according to the part type. These are the part reference points.inp in the online help. If you select the Beam orientation checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. or one part has pop marks and the other one does not. When you create a part. 135). TEKLA STRUCTURES . and so numbers them differently. If you select the Components checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. see Adding properties and Interpreting objects. The orientation of assemblies also affects numbering if you select the Beam orientation and Column orientation checkboxes in the Numbering setup dialog box. For more information on numbering settings.Additional properties Tekla Structures treats parts as different. For more information on defining user-defined attributes. Tekla Structures takes this user-defined attribute into account when numbering. you position it by picking points. If you select the Column orientation checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. if the following properties differ: Property User-defined attributes Condition If a user-defined attribute has the variable special_flag set to yes. if two parts have different pop marks. See Reinforcement and Numbering reinforcement. Tekla Structures gives the parts different numbers. See Pop marks in the online help. The position of a part is always relative to its reference point(s). If otherwise identical concrete parts have different reinforcement and if you select the Reinforcing bars checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. Beam orientation Column orientation Reinforcement Cast-in fittings Cast units and assemblies Tekla Structures numbers cast units and assemblies in the same way as it does parts.MODELING MANUAL Parts 71 . See also 3. Pop marks E.

the handles of contour plates and concrete slabs are not visible. see How to select objects (p. To show them. See Part reference point (p. just drag the handle to a new position. 72 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Tekla Structures highlights the handle. By default. Handles Tekla Structures indicates the direction of a part with handles. Position on work plane You can define the position of a part on the work plane as: • • • Middle Right Left You can also define the distance of a part from its original reference line. You can use handles to move the part end: 1.Part reference line If you pick two points to position a part. 71). Select the part to display the handles. Click the handle you want to move. 128). See Drag and drop (p. these points form the part reference line. This ensures that Tekla Structures places and dimensions the parts in the same way in drawings. See also For more information on selecting handles. it is worth being consistent and always picking points from left to right. When you select a part. 3. set the variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to HANDLES. the handle at the first end is yellow. See Move (p. When creating horizontal parts. 2. and the handle at the second end is magenta. and that part marks automatically appear at the same part end. Move the handle(s) like any other object.MODELING MANUAL Parts . If you have Drag and drop on. 30). and from bottom to top. and handles appear at the line ends. 121).

as: • • • Beam Middle Front Behind An example showing the options for beams: Middle Front Behind Work plane Middle 100 Front 100 Behind 100 Work plane TEKLA STRUCTURES . perpendicular to the work plane.MODELING MANUAL Parts 73 .Beam An example of the options for beams: Middle Left Right Middle 200 Left 200 Right 200 Position depth You can define the position of a part in terms of its depth.

Tekla Structures measures positive values clockwise around the local x axis.Contour plate An example showing the options for contour plates: Middle Front Behind Work plane Rotation You can define the rotation of a part around its axis on the work plane as: • • • • Front Top Back Below You can also define the angle of rotation.MODELING MANUAL Parts . 74 TEKLA STRUCTURES .

as: • • • Middle Down Up TEKLA STRUCTURES . relative to its reference point.MODELING MANUAL Parts 75 .Beam An example of the options for beams: Front Top Back Below Positive (10 degrees) rotation around local x axis Column An example of the options for columns: Front Top Back Below Vertical position You can define the vertical position of a part.

Column An example of the options for columns: Middle Down Up Middle 100 Down 100 Up 100 Horizontal position You can define the horizontal position of a part. as: • • • Column Middle Left Right An example of the options for columns: Middle Left Right Middle 100 Left 100 Right 100 76 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parts . relative to its reference point.

TEKLA STRUCTURES . in the global z direction. Use Bottom to define the position of the first end. You can also enter a specific value for the radius in the part properties dialog box. you create curved parts by defining a radius and the plane of curvature. Bending In Tekla Structures. Tekla Structures does not show curved surfaces exactly in views. you pick three points to define the radius. The sector angle must be less than 180 degrees. Radius When you create a curved part.End offsets Use end offsets to move the ends of a part.g. If you specify a large number of segments it affects how quickly Tekla Structures draws the model. The options are: • • xz plane xy plane Number of segments To have Tekla Structures draw a curved part. the less angular the part appears. you need to specify a number of segments. you can enter the positions of the part ends. The options are: Field Dx Dy Dz Result Changes the length of the part by moving the part end point along the reference line Moves the part end perpendicular to the reference line Moves the part end in the z direction of the work plane Levels For parts that you create by picking only one point (e. See also How Tekla Structures handles solids in the online help. columns). relative to its reference line. You can enter positive and negative values. instead the number of segments determines how realistic the curved part looks: the more segments. Plane The plane of curvature is relative to the current work plane. Use Top to define the position of the second end.MODELING MANUAL Parts 77 . relative to the picked point.

80) Creating and editing surface treatments (p. and tiles for concrete parts. such flat finishes. 82) Adding surface treatment information to report templates (p. surface mixes. 79) Tiling concrete parts (p. and fire-proofing and unpainted areas for steel parts.5 Surface treatment This section explains how to create various surface treatments and finishes for steel and concrete parts. It contains the following topics: • • • • • Adding surface treatment to parts (p. 78) Defining surface treatment properties (p. Tekla Structures includes the following surface treatment tools in Detailing > Surfacing or on the Concrete toolbar: Command Detailing > Surfacing > Face surfacing Detailing > Surfacing > Polygon surfacing Icon Description Adds a surface treatment to an entire face of a part Adds a surface treatment to a selected area on the face of a part 78 TEKLA STRUCTURES .3. 84) Adding surface treatment to parts Use the surface treatment tools to add surface treatment to parts.MODELING MANUAL Parts .

5. TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parts 79 . Double-click the Create face surfacing or Create polygon surfacing icon to open the Surfacing properties dialog box: 2.If you add surface treatment to a part face that has openings. Go to the Surfacing name field and select the specific surface treatment. Click the Select.. Set the Color to use to display the surface treatment in rendered views. Tekla Structures automatically uses cut parts and cut planes to cut the entire surface treatment. 79) Defining surface treatment properties To define the properties of a surface treatment: 1. Enter the Thickness of the surface treatment. See also Defining surface treatment properties (p. 6.. button against Material to select a material from the catalog. 4. Go to Type and select the type of surface treatment to use. 3.

To define the tile and mortar properties. Adding properties in the online help explains how to add user-defined properties.. Select Tile surface in the Type list box. See also Adding surface treatment to parts (p.To change the properties of existing surface treatments. button. 82) Defining custom properties To define your own surface treatment properties to use in reports and drawings. Tekla Structures opens the Surfacing dialog box.. Go to the Tile pattern tab: 80 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Double-click the Create face surfacing or Create polygon surfacing icon on the Concrete toolbar to open the Surfacing properties dialog box. see Creating and editing surface treatments (p. click the User-defined attributes. click the User-defined attributes button and go to the Parameters tab. Select a specific tile in the Tile list box. 4. or define new ones.MODELING MANUAL Parts . 2. 3. 78) Tiling concrete parts To tile the surface of a concrete part: 1.

8.5. use the Create face surfacing and Create polygon surfacing icons on the Concrete toolbar. Code 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 10 10 10 000 Color Red Green Blue White Black 7. and blue. select an option in the Bonding list box. The options are: Bonding Option 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 6. Green = 0 10 0 To define Tile color and Mortar color. TEKLA STRUCTURES . To define the tile pattern. Click Modify and Apply to save the tile pattern properties. green. on a scale of 0 to 10. For example:. enter a value for red.MODELING MANUAL Parts 81 . To add the tiled surface treatment to a part.

To create tiling that runs continuously from one part to the next. edit the file product_finishes. The first section of the file defines the available types of surface treatment. 11).MODELING MANUAL Parts . select the same origin and direction for all parts when you apply the surface treatment.. Tekla Structures only displays tile patterns in rendered views.environments\*your_environment*\system folder.To run tiling seamlessly over several parts. or to edit existing names. pick the same origin for the surface treatment for all the parts: See also Displaying tile surfacing in drawings (p. Creating and editing surface treatments To create new options in the Surfacing name list box in the Surfacing properties dialog box. located in . Do not edit this section: // Product finishes // ------------------------// // Type : Type of surfacing // 1 = concrete finish // 2 = special mix // 3 = tile surface // 4 = steel finishes 82 TEKLA STRUCTURES .dat.

TEKLA STRUCTURES . or add rows to define new options: // // // // // 1 1 1 ========================================= *** Concrete Finish ========================================= WET FINISH ---------MF "Magnesium Float" SMF "Smooth Magnesium Float" WT "Wet Trowel" In this example: • • • 1 is the surface treatment type (concrete finish) MF is the code for the surface treatment option "Magnesium Float" is the full name of the surface treatment option (remember to enclose the name in double quotes "") Here is how this option appears in the dialog box: Code Full name See also Adding surface treatment information to report templates (p. This is where you can edit existing options.The remaining sections define the options for each type of surface treatment. 84).MODELING MANUAL Parts 83 .

or select a command from the Parts menu. Orthogonal beam 84 TEKLA STRUCTURES .Adding surface treatment information to report templates You can include the following surface treatment fields in report templates: Name NAME SURFACING_CODE Explanation Text in the Name field in the Surfacing properties dialog box.dat file. Command Beam Icon Description Creates a steel beam between two picked points. TS1. SURFACING_NAME SURFACING_TYPE SURFACING_TYPE_NUMBER SURFACING_AREA SURFACING_VOLUME SURFACING_WEIGHT Surface treatment type number defined in the product_finishes. Code for the surface treatment defined in the product_finishes. Surface treatment type in the Surfacing properties dialog box.dat file. To find out more about the product_finishes. Surface treatment name defined in the product_finishes.6 Steel part commands To create steel parts. 82) 3.MODELING MANUAL Parts . For example. use the icons on the Steel toolbar. For detailed instructions.dat file.dat file. Creates a steel beam orthogonal to the work plane in a picked position. The following table lists the commands used to create steel parts and gives a short description of each one. see the online help. see Creating and editing surface treatments (p.

MODELING MANUAL Parts 85 .Command Curved beam Icon Description Creates a steel beam with its radius defined by three picked points. Creates a twin profile between two picked points. Strip footing Concrete column Concrete beam Concrete slab Concrete panel TEKLA STRUCTURES . Creates a contour plate based on picked positions forming a contour.7 Concrete part commands To create concrete parts. Creates a concrete slab based on picked positions forming a contour. Creates a concrete column at a picked position. Command Pad footing Icon Description Creates a pad footing at a picked position. The following table lists the commands you can use to create concrete parts and gives a short description of each one. Creates a steel column at a picked position. Creates a strip footing that traverses the picked points. or select a command from the Parts menu. Creates a concrete beam that traverses the picked points. Creates a steel beam consisting of straight and curved segments. use the icons on the Concrete toolbar. A twin profile consists of two beams. Creates a concrete panel that traverses the picked points. Polybeam Column Twin profile Contour plate 3.

86 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parts .

You can find step-by-step instructions for all these commands in the online help. 101) Detailing commands (p.) using Tekla Structures. It also gives you some techniques for “fine-tuning” part shape and an overview of detailing commands. 106) 4. etc. you will need to complete the model by connecting these parts and adding minor parts and details. For more information on using components to automatically create bolt groups. You can create different part marks for holes and bolts in drawings. Contents This section includes the following topics: • • • • Bolts (p.4 Detailing Introduction After you have created a frame of parts in your Tekla Structures model. welds. This section explains how to create details (bolts.1 Bolts Introduction There are two ways to create bolts: • • Create a single bolt group Apply a component that automatically creates bolt groups. 87) Welds (p. 94) Fine-tuning part shape (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES . see the Defining bolts and welds section in the Detailing Manual.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 87 . This section concentrates on creating single bolt groups.

etc. Array xy list Bolt group origin • • Bolt dist X: 150 Bolt dist Y: 100 • • Bolt dist X: 75 175 Bolt dist Y: 100 100 See also Creating by modifying (p. The first part you pick usually becomes the main part in the assembly. The dashed line indicates the x direction. see Bolt and bolt assembly catalogs in the online help.You cannot use bolt elements (such as screws. Creating a bolt group See the online help for detailed instructions on how to create a bolt group. etc. washers. Work plane Bolted parts The work plane only affects the rotation of the bolt group.). nuts.) are contained in the bolt catalog. washers. Tekla Structures stores bolt assemblies in the bolt assembly catalog. The individual elements (bolts of different size and length. These points are shown as crosses in the illustration below. Type determines assembly Tekla Structures only creates assemblies from parts with the fastener type Workshop (bolts assembled in a workshop). The cut length property of a bolt group defines how far along the bolt axis the parts must be in order to hit the bolt group. and nuts) while you are creating holes. which is the first point you pick when creating a bolt group. washers. Dimensions are relative to the bolt group origin. For more information on catalogs. The order in which you select parts when creating the connection determines the main and secondary part(s) of the assembly. Bolt catalog Tekla Structures treats bolts as pre-defined assemblies made up of individual elements (bolts. 89) 88 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Detailing . It is important that the points you pick to create the bolt group are close enough to the parts you want to connect. as Tekla Structures uses the same command to create bolts and holes. Tekla Structures sets the x direction of a bolt group using the second point picked. The points you pick determine the position of the bolt group. nuts.

2. Tekla Structures automatically updates bolt length to suit these changes. Explode the component. using the following method: 1. This command prompts you to reselect the main and secondary parts. 3. You can create the following types of holes: • • • Round Oversized Slotted Creating round holes To create a round hole. see Bolt length calculation in the online help.Creating by modifying You can also create a new bolt group by modifying an existing one. follow the steps in Creating a bolt group (p. For more information.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 89 . In most cases it is easier to create bolt groups by applying a component including bolt groups. but you do need to change some of the properties in the Bolt properties dialog box. Tekla Structures calculates the diameter of a round hole as the sum of: • • Bolt size Tolerance (hole) TEKLA STRUCTURES . Modify the bolt group. Changing bolt parts You can change which parts a bolt group connects using the command Edit > Bolt parts. 88). Creating holes Tekla Structures creates holes in the same way as bolts. Apply a component.

clear all bolt element checkboxes in the Bolt properties dialog box. 4. 3. To only create a slotted hole. Creating slotted holes You also use the Bolt properties dialog box to create slotted holes. clear all the Include in bolt assembly checkboxes. Tekla Structures slots the second piece of steel from the head of the bolt. 2. as shown below: Clear these checkboxes to create a mere hole.To only create a hole. Tekla Structures counts the pieces of steel from the head of the bolt down. Select Slotted in the Hole type list box.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . 1. Tolerance Slotted hole X or Y Bolt size 90 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Select the checkboxes against Parts with slotted holes to indicate which parts should be slotted. For example. Enter the allowance for the slotted hole in the x and y directions of the bolt group using the Slotted hole X or Slotted hole Y fields. if you select the second checkbox from the head of the bolt.

5. select Even or Odd in the Rotate slots list box. set Bolt group Shape to Array and enter "0" for both bolt distances. 4. 88)).You indicate the x direction of the bolt group when you create the bolt group (see Creating a bolt group (p. as shown in the table below: Shape Array xy list Bolt dist X Spacing between bolts. 1. Diameter of the bolt group. in the x direction of the bolt group. TEKLA STRUCTURES . clear all the Include in bolt assembly checkboxes. Select Oversized in the Hole type list box. y coordinate of each bolt. Select the checkboxes against Parts with slotted holes to indicate which plies of connection get oversized holes. If the bolt connects several parts. from the bolt group point of origin. Circle Single bolt To create a single bolt. from the bolt group point of origin. Bolt group shape You have the following options for bolt group shape: • • • Array for rectangular xy list for any shape Circle for circular Tekla Structures uses the values in Bolt dist X and Bolt dist Y to determine how many bolts the bolt group contains. you may want to rotate alternate holes by 90 degrees. To only create a hole. Creating oversized holes Use the Bolt properties dialog box to create oversized holes. x coordinate of each bolt. This allows the bolt to move in different directions.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 91 . in the y direction of the bolt group. Number of bolts. Enter the allowance for the oversized hole in the Oversize field. 3. 2. To do this. Bolt dist Y Spacing between bolts.

and other factors. which is defined in the bolt catalog. Using cut length you can determine whether the bolt will go through one flange or two. Bolt length Tekla Structures calculates bolt length automatically. using the material thicknesses of the connected parts. Cut length indicates the area Tekla Structures should search for parts that belong to the bolt group. A is the cut length and B is the bolt origin. Tekla Structures does not use this value when calculating the length of fullthreaded bolts.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . The following settings in the Bolt group properties dialog box affect bolt length calculation: • • • Thread in material Cut length Extra length Thread in material indicates if the thread of the bolt can extend beyond the bolted parts. Bolt assembly standard. 92 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Indicates if bolts are assembled on-site or in the shop.Bolt properties The bolt properties are: Field Bolt size Bolt standard Bolt type Description Bolt sizes available in the selected bolt standard. In the illustration below. Tekla Structures calculates the search area as A/2 in both directions from point B.

Position at depth Rotation Position at depth moves the bolt group perpendicular to the current work plane.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 93 . Using Extra length to increase the material thickness Tekla Structures uses when calculating bolt length. Offsets move the bolt group by moving the x axis of the bolt group. you might need extra bolt length to allow for painting.g. Rotation defines how far the bolt group is rotated around the x axis. relative to the current work plane. If you want to force a bolt to be a certain length. Front Top Offsets You can also use offsets to change the position of the bolt group. You can also build additional lengths into bolt assemblies .e. the gap is added to the length of the bolt. For example.Tekla Structures warns you if the cut length is too small (i. the bolt group contains no parts) and makes the bolt length 100 mm. you can use this field to indicate on which side of the connected parts you want the bolt head to be. Bolt group location Tekla Structures determines the location of the bolt group using the following values: • • Bolt group x axis Work plane The two points you pick to create the bolt group determine the bolt group point of origin and its x direction. If there are large gaps between connected parts. For example. Position on plane Position on plane moves the bolt group perpendicular to the bolt group x axis. enter a negative value for length (e. TEKLA STRUCTURES . -150). Tekla Structures calculates bolt length using the the total distance between the first and last surfaces.

you can: • • Create single welds Apply components that automatically create welds Creating assemblies Tekla Structures forms assemblies based on where the weld should be made. Dy and Dz move the first end of the bolt group. You can create: • • Workshop welds Site welds Tekla Structures only forms assemblies from parts connected using workshop welds. An example showing the parameters of a bolt group. Bolt dist Y = 200 Slotted hole X = 28. Dx = 100.The starting point values Dx. Bolts created using the bolt properties: • • • Bolt group Shape = Array.0 4. Dy moves the end point perpendicular to the bolt group x axis on the current work plane. Bolt dist X = 100 100. Tolerance = 2 (overall dimension = 50) Starting point. The end point values move the second end of the bolt group. relative to the bolt group x axis.2 Welds Introduction To create welds in Tekla Structures. Bolt size = 20.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . 94 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Dz moves the end point perpendicular to the current work plane. • • • Example A positive Dx value moves the starting point towards the end point.

Visibility in views To have welds visible in views. The length of the weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts. See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. Polygon welds. Tekla Structures dimensions secondary part(s) relative to the primary part in assembly drawings. The largest primary part in the weld becomes the main part of the assembly. Creating welds You can create the following types of welds: • Regular welds. 51). Finish Contour Angle Length Weld no Reference text Size Type Weld around TEKLA STRUCTURES . 97). polygon welds do not move with them. as shown below. open the View setup dialog box and set weld visibility to Exact. See also Weld properties (p.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 95 . Tekla Structures welds the two parts together using the weld position in the Weld properties dialog box. The first part you select becomes the primary part of the assembly. You define the exact position of the weld by picking the points you want the weld to traverse. Weld symbols in drawings Weld properties Tekla Structures shows the properties of the weld in the weld symbol in drawings. • For detailed instructions on how to create welds. Tekla Structures displays all weld types in a similar way. This affects drawings. If you move welded parts.Tekla Structures uses the order in which you select the parts when creating the weld to determine the primary and secondary parts of the assembly. see the online help.

The properties of an other-side weld appear below the reference line in the weld symbol. use the variable XS_AISC_WELD_MARK. The arrow connects the reference line to the arrow side of a connection.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . you can place welds on: • • • The arrow sides only The other sides only Both the arrow and other sides The welds on the arrow and other sides of a part can have different weld properties. 96 TEKLA STRUCTURES .Length Pitch (c-to-c spacing) Site weld Stitch weld Effective throat Root opening Reference line and arrow Arrow and other side The weld symbol also contains a reference line and an arrow. By default. When parts are welded together. the properties you define for a weld on the arrow side appear above the reference line in drawings. To show the arrow-side weld properties below the reference line in a weld symbol and the other-side properties above.

Weld properties This section describes weld properties. 50–100. For more information on weld preparation. Tekla Structures uses the character . Size See the image below. Pitch TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Detailing 97 . set the variable: XS_WELD_LENGTH_CC_SEPARATOR_CHAR=@. see Weld preparation (p.g. define the center-to-center spacing and the pitch of the welds. The options are: • • • G (Grind) M (Machine) C (Chip) Length The length of a regular weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts. their edges can be beveled to produce a groove for the weld. 101). for example.to separate weld length and pitch. but does not display it drawings. By default. Type Weld preparation groove angle See Weld types (p. defining the start and end points of the weld. Tekla Structures creates the weld. You can set the exact length of a polygon weld by. 98) When parts are prepared for welding. To create a non-continuous weld. Tekla Structures calculates the distance between the welds as the pitch minus the length of the weld. This type of weld preparation is commonly used for V-type welds. e. The fill type contour of a weld can be: • • • • None Flush Convex Concave Contour Finish Tekla Structures displays the finish symbol above the weld type symbol in drawings. for example. You can define the angle of bevels and grooves. Size Root face thickness (RFT) If you enter a zero or negative weld size. To change the separator to @. Tekla Structures displays the angle between the weld type symbol and the fill type contour symbol.

For example. Stitch welds are staggered on both sides of the part being welded. A circle in the weld symbol in drawings indicates the Around option has been used.Root face and RFT Root face is the height of the narrowest part inside the root opening. Weld type Name None Fillet weld Bevel-groove (single-V butt weld) Bevel-groove (single-bevel butt weld) Number 0 10 3 4 Preparation No No Both parts Secondary part 98 TEKLA STRUCTURES . To create stitch welds. select Yes in the Stitch weld list box. Tekla Structures indicates site welds in the weld symbol using a flag. Neither root face nor RFT values appear in drawings. Where weld is to be made (workshop or site). information on the weld specification or process. To enter additional text for the weld symbol. For more information on weld preparation. 101). See Adding properties in the online help. see Weld preparation (p. Create additional properties for welds with user-defined attributes. Workshop/Site Position Stitch See Weld position (p. Root opening is the space between the welded parts. 99). Tekla Structures only forms assemblies when you use workshop welds. User-defined attributes Reference text and Wtext Weld types The table below shows the available weld types. affects assemblies and drawings. Effective throat Root opening Edge/Around Effective throat is the weld size used in weld strength calculation. Tekla Structures shows the weld type symbols as staggered in weld symbols. but you can use the WELD_ROOT_FACE_THICKNESS field in reports to show the root face dimension in the weld list. Either one edge (Edge) or the entire perimeter of a face (Around) can be welded. etc. The RFT fields in the connection dialog boxes also refer to the root face (thickness). Some weld types also automatically prepare the parts to be welded.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . use the Reference text and Wtext fields.

MODELING MANUAL Detailing 99 .Weld type Name Square-groove (square butt weld) Single-V butt weld with broad root face Single-bevel butt weld with broad root face U-groove weld (single Ubutt weld) J-groove weld (single J-butt weld) Flare V-groove weld Flare-bevel-groove weld Edge-flange weld Corner-flange weld Plug weld Bevel backing weld Spot weld Seam weld Slot weld Partial penetration weld (single-bevel butt + fillet) Partial penetration weld (square groove + fillet) Number 2 5 6 7 8 16 15 1 17 11 9 12 13 14 18 19 Preparation No Both edges Secondary part Both parts Secondary part Both parts Secondary part No No No No No No No Secondary part No Weld position You define the position of a weld relative to the work plane. The options for weld position are: • • • x y z TEKLA STRUCTURES . The type and position of the parts to be welded affect the position of the weld.

Assembly main part Assembly main part secondary Welding order primary 100 TEKLA STRUCTURES . See the illustrations below: Secondary part Main part Secondary part Main part If there are no faces that touch in the specified direction. Tekla Structures places the weld relative to the center point of the secondary part.These can all be in a positive or negative direction.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . y. or z). Tekla Structures creates the weld on the face or side of the part that faces in the selected direction (x.

concrete beam. See Weld types (p.Weld preparation When preparing welds. You can use the Chamfer command to shape the following parts: polybeam.3 Fine-tuning part shape Introduction This section describes the various tools you can use to fine-tune the shape of a part. strip footing. Tekla Structures displays weld preparations using cyan dash-and-dot lines. Chamfer Some part corners can be chamfered. Some weld types and connections also automatically prepare the parts to be welded.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 101 . Tekla Structures subsequently deletes this cutting part. concrete panel. TEKLA STRUCTURES . set the variable XS_DISABLE_WELD_PREP_SOLID=TRUE. 98). Tekla Structures bevels the parts to be welded using an antimatter cutting part. 4. concrete slab. contour plate. To prevent automatic weld preparation.

2. 3. Set the chamfer properties. To change the shape of a part corner: 1. or double-click an existing chamfer. 72) to make the part longer. Default chamfer Modified chamfers When Tekla Structures creates a part. for example. which does not change the geometry of the part. Click Properties > Chamfer. 102 TEKLA STRUCTURES . to open the dialog box. You can use fitting to make part shorter.MODELING MANUAL Detailing .Tekla Structures creates chamfers using the current properties in the Chamfer properties dialog box. by default it has a rectangular chamfer at each corner... Click Detailing > Chamfer. Fitting Use the Fitting command to fit the part end to a picked plane. We recommend to move part Handles (p. See online help for more information on using this command. Pick the corner(s) of the part to be chamfered.

102) command instead. Either move part Handles (p.Fitting symbol This command adjusts the end of a beam on a plane. Exact representation (without symbol) Fast representation Cut symbol TEKLA STRUCTURES . Cut is not meant for cutting the entire part end. perpendicular to the view plane. 72) or use the Fitting (p. You can create the following types of cuts for a part: • • • Line cut Line cut Polygon cut Part cut A line cut shapes end of the beam or column. which passes through the cutting line you pick. This command has no effect on contour plates. Tekla Structures displays the fitting in the model using a blue fitting symbol. which passes through the cutting line you pick. Tekla Structures displays the cut in the model using a a blue cut symbol. Cuts Use cut to shape parts.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 103 . Line cut cuts the end of a beam on a plane. perpendicular to the view plane.

104 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Polygon cut This command cuts a part using a polygon. you can cut antimatter parts to create more sophisticated cut shapes. See online help for more detailed information on using this command. An antimatter part only cuts the selected main part. see online help. it can be unclear whether the edge should be cut away.MODELING MANUAL Detailing . You can cut parts that already have cuts. If the edge of a cutting polygon is in exactly the same position as the edge of the part to be cut. Tekla Structures does not delete the original cutting part. Tekla Structures displays the cut as an antimatter part indicated by dot-dash lines. For example. line cuts do not affect beam length in NC files. To change this. Part cut This command creates an antimatter cutting part. See online help for more detailed information on using this command. You must create cuts in a plane view.By default. Tekla Structures displays the antimatter part using dot-dash lines. Exact representation (without symbol) Fast representation Antimatter part You should always define the polygon so that there is some tolerance between the edges.

e.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 105 .g. See online help for more detailed information on using this command. Part add Click Detailing > Part add to model complex parts (e. folded plates) that are otherwise difficult to model. Cuts and fittings can also be applied to part adds. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Part adds can also be nested. Tekla Structures deletes the part you use to create the attached part when it creates the part add. The attached part is shown in magenta.Hidden lines Cut symbol Hidden lines (cutting part deleted) Do not create cuts with the same planes or vertices. The Part add only gets one mark in drawings. This makes it unclear what should be cut away. The Part add command creates a part to be attached to the selected main part. a part add can be added to an part add. See online help for more detailed information on using this command. i. You can also use Part add to model prefabricated parts that are delivered to the workshop already attached to profiles..

MODELING MANUAL Detailing . use the icons on the Detailing and Steel toolbars.4 Detailing commands To “fine-tune” or detail your model. The following table lists the commands for detailing and gives a short description of each one. 4. click Edit > Polygon shape. Detailing command Bolt Icon Description Creates a bolt group in a part/parts. See online help for more detailed information on using this command. Weld preparation Chamfer Fitting 106 TEKLA STRUCTURES .Polygon shape To modify the shape of a part. 3. End the command by picking any existing corner. 2. Chamfers part corners. Creates a weld between two parts. Pick a new location for the corner. Pick one of the corners of the part. Creates a fitting to a part. You can use this command on the following parts: • • • • • • polybeam contour plate strip footing concrete beam concrete slab concrete panel Tekla Structures prompts you to Pick polygon corner: 1. Weld Polygon weld Welds parts together using a polygon. or select commands from the Detailing menu. Prepares the parts to be welded.

perpendicular to the work plane. Cuts a part using a polygon.MODELING MANUAL Detailing 107 . Combines two parts into one. which passes through the picked line.Detailing command Line cut Icon Description Cuts the end of a beam on a plane. Polygon cut Part cut Part add TEKLA STRUCTURES . Creates an antimatter cutting part.

108 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Detailing .

5 Settings and Tools In this chapter This chapter explains the ways in which you can manipulate models and change program settings. It also describes how to use many of the tools in Tekla Structures. 153) Contents 5. It also covers flying through the model. It is divided into the following sections: • • • • • • • • Examining the model (p.1 Examining the model Introduction This section describes a variety of tools you can use to view your model by changing its position and orientation within the view window.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 109 . 126) Numbering (p. 122) Settings (p. 140) Settings and tools reference (p. 116) Copying and moving objects (p. 135) Tools (p. 119) Filter (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 109) Querying objects (p.

Magnifier and Pan. See Pan (p. See Magnifier (p. So you do not need an extra click to complete the command. However. 114). Works within the existing view. 112). Creates a new zoom window from an existing view. Restores the previous zoom. You can only create zoom windows from wire frame views. Only available in a zoom window.Zoom commands The zoom tools allow you to focus in on a particular area. Works within the existing view. Restores the original level of zoom. Only available in a zoom window.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Works within the existing view. The commands below Active window automatically zoom the active window. a zoom window must be open to use the Magnifier and Pan tools. Use this to switch between the last two zooms. Zoom out Zoom original Zoom previous Create zoom window Active window Magnifier Pan 110 TEKLA STRUCTURES . or a combination of both. You use the majority of these tools within an existing view. The zoom window contains two additional commands. The Zoom commands are: Zoom command Zoom in Icon Description Works within the existing view. You can use a mouse. or keystrokes. or pull out for a wider view.

press Page Up to zoom in. Wheel mouse Tekla Structures has two zoom modes you can use with a wheel mouse: • • In mouse-wheel mode. With the mouse cursor over the model. Zoom ratio The following variables control how much you zoom in or out with each click. 2. 3. Click the zoom in or zoom out icon on the Window toolbar. To use zoom with a wheel mouse: 1. Zoom settings Centered zooms To keep the center point of the view in the middle of the view window. Click the zoom in or zoom out icon on the Window toolbar. Both work within an existing view window. Open the model. Page Down to zoom out. If Centered zooms is not checked. 2. the pointer does not move. Open the model.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 111 . scroll backward to zoom out. 3-button mouse To use zoom with a 3-button mouse: 1. 2.Zooming with mouse Use the Zoom in tool to focus in on a specific area of the model. check Centered zooms on the Setup menu. In scroll mode. 4. regardless of the position of the pointer. Scroll forward to zoom in. Continue to click to zoom further in or out. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 4. or a wheel mouse. scroll the wheel to zoom in and out. The Zoom out tool pulls out for a wider view. Click the area of the model that you want to examine. Click the area of the model that you want to examine. How you use the zoom tools depends on the pointing device you are using: a 3-button mouse. Using keystrokes To zoom using keystrokes: 1. you can also hold down the wheel when scrolling. 3. Open the model.

Click a starting corner for the zoom window. These appear on the toolbar within the zoom window. Click the Create zoom window icon on the Window toolbar. Magnifier The Magnifier is useful when you need to keep a general view of the model open. Release the mouse button to create the window. 4. 112) and Pan (p. use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATION_IN_SCROLL_MODE. The default value is 0. To use the Magnifier. See Creating a zoom window (p. You can only create zoom windows from wire frame views. 3. 2. See also Wheel mouse (p. Move the zoom window to a convenient location on the screen. at the same time. the Magnifier (p. and examine particular areas in detail.25. then drag the pointer to size the window. Wheel mouse Creating a zoom window Opening a zoom window gives you access to two additional tools. 112 TEKLA STRUCTURES .3-button mouse Use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO to control the zoom ratio when using a 3-button mouse. To set the zoom ratio when scrolling and holding down the wheel. 114). To create a zoom window: 1. you must have both a general view window containing the model and a zoom window open.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Increase this value to zoom in or out more with each click. 111). To set the zoom ratio when scrolling (not holding down) the wheel. use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO_IN_MOUSEWHEEL_MODE. Resize the zoom window by dragging the window boundaries. 112).

MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 113 . Moving the model in the view window In Tekla Structures you can move. down. Change the level of magnification by zooming in and out in the zoom window. Move The Move commands move the viewpoint (or camera) rather than the model itself. then click anywhere in the view to center the view on that point.Click the Magnifier icon in the zoom window. Use the up. As you move the pointer in the general view. the zoom window displays the area around the pointer in detail. in the view window. click Window > Move > Center by cursor. TEKLA STRUCTURES . as shown in the example below. rotate or fly through a model. pan. You can also click Window > Move to use the move commands. left and right arrows on the keyboard to move the viewpoint. Center by cursor To center the model on a particular point.

Click and drag with the left mouse button to rotate the model. 114 TEKLA STRUCTURES . the mouse. Activate dynamic panning using the P key on your keyboard.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Or: 1. you can only use the keyboard technique to rotate a model. Rendered view In rendered views. or click Window > Move > Pan.Pan The Pan command moves the model itself. Rotating the model You can use keystrokes. Use the Esc key or Interrupt to end rotation. Click to pick the new center of rotation. The center of rotation is fixed in the center of the work area. menu commands. you can rotate the model around the existing center of rotation. 2. To relocate the center of rotation: 1. Use the keystrokes Ctrl+R. Click and drag the mouse to move the model anywhere within the view window. Press the V key. The pointer will change to a hand. 4. Keyboard technique You also have the following keyboard options to rotate the model around the existing center of rotation: Wire frame In wire frame view. 2. Use the Interrupt command to deactivate Pan. or a combination of these techniques to rotate the model. Click to pick the new center of rotation. 3. Hold down the Ctrl key and click and drag with the middle mouse button.

scroll forward to accelerate and backward to decelerate. TEKLA STRUCTURES . If Free is inactive. Tekla Structures displays an arrow symbol to indicate the flying direction. 36). you need to pick an intersection point. or use F8.Automatic rotation Click Window > Rotate > Auto. See Ending commands (p. 46) for more on how to change view properties. 26). Click Esc to stop rotation. and Page Down to decelerate. or click Window > Fly. click Window > Rotate > Disable view rotation. Change direction Move the mouse to change direction. See View properties (p. with Free active. See also Specifying points (p.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 115 . For example. you can travel through a model. Flying through the model In Tekla Structures. Start flying To fly through a model. you can click anywhere to define the center of rotation. 128)). changing direction and varying speed as you go. You have the following options: • • Ctrl+A to rotate once. or the end of a part. Ctrl+D to rotate continuously. hold down the middle mouse button and drag to change the flying center point. Disable view rotation To disable or enable view rotation. Stop flying Use Interrupt to stop flying. you must have a rendered view open. Snap switches affect model rotation. Release the middle button to continue flying. Use the keystrokes Shift+F to start flying though the model. Adjust speed Keystrokes Wheel mouse To adjust your flying speed. To adjust your flying speed using a wheel mouse. With the middle button scroll active (see Mouse and pointer settings (p. with Projection set to Perspective. use the Page Up key to accelerate.

2 Querying objects Introduction This section describes the various tools in Tekla Structures that you can use to query the properties of your model. Displays the object properties of the different phases in the model. Measure Use the Measure tool to measure angles. All measurements are temporary. or group of objects. Tekla Structures creates a point at the center of gravity of the picked part(s) and displays information on the center of gravity in a separate window. the distance between two points and between bolts.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Click Inquire.. Highlights all the parts in the same assembly or cast unit as the selected part. Highlights the selected part and all the parts that are welded to it. in a separate window. Model size. until you update or redraw the window. Highlights the primary part when you select a secondary part. and then pick an object in the model to access the following options: Option Object Assembly Welded parts > To Welded parts > All Center of gravity Action Displays the properties of the object.. within the model. Highlights the objects that form part of the selected component. Displays the quantity of all object quantities of the current model. 116 TEKLA STRUCTURES .. Measurements appear in the rendered view window. in a separate window.. Component content Phases.5. Inquire The Inquire tool displays the properties of a particular object.

Pick a bolt group. Pick the end point. Click Tools > Measure > Bolt measure. 2. y and user-defined distances: 1. Pick the starting point. 2.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 117 . Measures bolt spacing and edge distances in the selected part. 1. Click Tools > Measure > option. The steps for each option are listed below the table. Pick the starting point.Click Tools > Measure to access the following options. Pick a part.) Bolts Use this option to measure the distances between bolts in a bolt group. y Free Angle measure Bolt measure x. Angles. (Counterclockwise from the starting point. y and userdefined To use Measure to measure x. You can use this option to measure inclined or aligned distances in the current view plane. 2. 4. Angles To measure angles: 1. Pick the center point. Pick the end point. Tekla Structures also gives you the edge distances between the bolts and a selected part. 3. Measures a user-defined distance between any two points. 4. Click Tools > Measure > Angle measure. Measures the y distance between two points on the view plane. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 3. Option x Icon Action Measures the x distance between two points on the view plane. 3. Click to indicate on which side of the dimension line you want the number to appear. Remember to follow the prompts on the status bar.

Tekla Structures highlights them in yellow and displays the clash check log in the List dialog box. Tekla Structures displays the message No collisions detected on the status bar. d is the larger value of the bolt head or nut diameters. Set bolt clearance To define bolt clearance for clash checking.Clash check When you have completed your model. run the Clash check to find parts or bolts that collide. Click Tools > Clash check. select a line containing the ID numbers of colliding parts from the list. click Setup > Bolt clash check.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 2. 4. To quickly locate and view colliding parts in the model. Hold down the F key while you do this to have Tekla Structures fit the work area. If no there are no colliding parts. Steps 1. Enter the values in the Bolt clash check settings dialog box. Select the objects you want to check. Tekla Structures highlights the parts in the model. Clash check clearance 118 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 3. If parts or bolts collide.

for example. If you need more detailed information on assemblies or parts. To compare assemblies. 116). 5. To compare parts. Tekla Structures displays the results on the status bar. or mirror objects. rotate. When you move a view. leaving the original object in its original position. Click Setup > Save defaults. Tekla Structures uses the default value of 1. the clearance will be zero. If you clear the checkboxes. so Mirror does fully mirror objects if they include connections that contain. If Tekla Structures cannot find the bolt head or nut diameter in the bolt catalog.The clearance in front of the bolt head is equal to the bolt length. You can also move the view plane of a selected view. Copy creates a new object. Compare Use this tool to compare two assemblies or parts. it uses the shank diameter. Limitations Tekla Structures does not mirror connection properties. Select the checkbox in front of the field if you want to use the clearance value.3 Copying and moving objects Use the Copy and Move tools to translate. asymmetricallypositioned parts. Click Tools > Compare > Parts. Tekla Structures only uses the vector perpendicular to the view plane. select two parts in the model.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 119 .The clash checking clearance area is shaded grey. click on a part in each assembly. You need to save the clearance values to use them in future sessions. use Inquire (p. Move relocates the original object. Click Tools > Compare > Assemblies.00. If you do not enter values for clearances. TEKLA STRUCTURES .

. or click Edit > Copy..MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Mirror. With three points From model. Creates a copy of model objects in phases you specify. Creates copies of selected object(s). Rotate. Right-click. Connections must be surrounded by similar parts to be copied successfully. which you specify by picking three points. Icon Description Creates copies of selected object(s) at a specified distance from the original. You have the following options: Command Translate.. Creates a copy of selected object(s) on another plane. or around the work plane z axis. Creates a mirrored copy of selected object(s) around a mirror line you specify. then click Copy from the pop-up menu. Tekla Structures also tries to copy connections....Copy Select the objects you want to copy.. 120 TEKLA STRUCTURES .. either rotated around a line you specify on a work plane. Tekla Structures also copies all objects connected to the objects you copy.

Click Setup > Drag and Drop to activate it. 3. if you move points. hold down the Ctrl key and drag it to the new position. 2.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 121 . Icon Description Moves selected object(s) to a new position at a distance you specify..Move Select the objects you want to move.. or around the work plane z axis... Rotates selected object(s) either around a line you specify on a work plane. For example. 1.. To copy the part. Mirrors selected object(s) using a line you specify. Right-click. Tekla Structures also moves the parts or assemblies that use those points. Select the object to move or copy. You have the following options: Command Translate. TEKLA STRUCTURES .from the original. Moves selected object(s) to another plane. click the handle and drag it to the new position.. With three points Tekla Structures also moves the objects connected to the objects you move. which you specify by picking three points. Rotate. or click Edit > Move. then click Move from the popup menu. Mirror. Drag and drop You can move and copy objects using drag-and-drop. You have the following options: To move the part end. To move the part. drag it to the new position.

Use the Select filter to avoid making errors when selecting objects. Filtering techniques Filter by multiple properties Set filtering on Example You can define filters containing several properties. set the select filter as follows: 122 TEKLA STRUCTURES . To set filtering on for a particular property. If you use multiple criteria. This is particularly useful for complicated models containing a large number of objects.g. You can also have multiple filtering criteria for each property.5. select the checkbox next to the property name. This section describes the Select and View filters and explains how to use filters in dialog boxes. Use the View filter to define which objects appear in each view. To select all parts in phases 1 and 2.4 Filter Introduction The Filter option is useful when you want to perform an operation on several objects or properties at the same time. 12 5).MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . separate the strings with blank spaces (e. You can use the select filter to create a report of parts in particular phases.

and HEC400 L[78]X4X1/2 matches parts with the profile names L7X4X1/2 and L8X4X1/2 123 [ ] (square brackets) Matches whatever is enclosed in the brackets TEKLA STRUCTURES . check Not next to the property name and enter the filter criteria. Tekla Structures uses the following wildcards: Wildcard * (asterisk) Description Matches any number or characters Example HE* matches all parts with a profile name that begins with the characters "HE". use complement filter to filter out the remaining parts. ? (question mark) Matches a single character HE?400 matches parts with profile names such as HEA400. A wildcard is a symbol that stands for one or more characters. See Controlling the selection (p.e. 32).MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Select switches also affect the selection of objects.defining which parts not to select). If you only want to create connections between certain parts. For example. the filter below selects all parts except for bracing (which have the name "BRACE"). You can also this symbol at the beginning of a word: *BRAC*.Complement filtering Example To use complement filtering (i. Using wildcards You can use wildcards to shorten filter strings. HEB400.

The characters * and ? can also be used in object names. Select filter Use the Select filter to define which objects can be selected.g. Standard filters always appears first on the list 124 TEKLA STRUCTURES . to find the profile P100*10. enter P100[*]10 in the filter field. If the object name you want to filter contains * or ?. The select filter list box on the Select switches toolbar lists both standard and user-defined filters. See View filter (p. Standard select filters Tekla Structures contains several standard select filters. enclose * or ? in square brackets.. E. 125) for more information. the object must be visible in the relevant view. To apply a filter.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Tekla Structures also contains several switches that control whether you can select an object (see Controlling the selection (p. Displays the Select filter dialog box. select one from the list. To use the Select filter on an object. 32)).

then enter a new name in the Save as field. Use the Display select filter dialog box icon. See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. or Use object properties to define whether or not an object can be selected. To display the View filter dialog box: 1. View filter Use the View filter to define which objects are displayed in a view. use capital letters in the filter name. Select filter dialog box To display the Select filter dialog box: • • Use the Display select filter dialog box icon click Setup > Select filter. For example. if you only want to produce drawings of the beams in the model. use the Select filter to select them. Use the Select filter to select the parts you want to carry loads. 51). 4. and display depth also affect whether an object is visible.Defining your own filters To define your own filters: 1. then OK to exit. 2. Examples The Select filter is very useful when using the drawing wizard to automatically create drawings.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 125 . You can now choose the new filter from the dropdown list. . or click Properties > View. To have the filters you define appear at the top of the list. or Setup > Select filter to open the Select filter dialog box. 3. View setup. Modify the settings. according to object properties. Find a filter which has close to the same settings as you need. 2. work area. right after the standard filter. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Save as. Click Filter. Double-click the view to open the View properties dialog box.

and then click the Filter button to find the matching names. 5.Filter in dialog boxes The Filter also appears in many dialog boxes. 123).MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools .5 Settings In this section 126 This section explains how to modify various settings in Tekla Structures. In a Filter field you can enter characters from the name of the object you are looking for. See also Using wildcards (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES .

TEKLA STRUCTURES . output. move. Output data appears on the Results tab (output data only relates to structural analysis). The number of decimals affects input and storage accuracy. such as copy. create point.). create grid. Settings on the Sections and materials tab affect the data stored in the profile and material catalogs. Always use a sufficient number of decimals. It cannot be changed. or the Inquire and Measure tools. Tekla Structures updates the format of units and decimals in all open dialog boxes. Settings in the Units and Decimals dialog box have no effect on drawings. reports. click Setup > Units and decimals. Update Input and output data When you click OK in the Units and decimals dialog box. The decimal point symbol is always a period (. and dimensions. stored and displayed. Different types of data are separated onto three tabs in the Units and decimals dialog box. Input data appears on the Model data and Sections and materials tabs.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 127 . Modeling functions Catalogs No effect The settings on the Model data tab affect the data you use when using modeling commands.Units and decimals To configure how units and decimals are input. part location.

129) Xmouse (p. Activate To toggle Drag and drop on and off.g. You cannot drag and drop components. 128 TEKLA STRUCTURES . component parts. all input is shown in feet (') and inches ("). 128) SmartSelect (p. 62.Exponent notation You can use positive exponent notation. Tekla Structures remembers this setting between sessions by user name. To avoid accidentally dragging and dropping parts. de-activate drag and drop when you are not using it. You can also modify polygon shape using drag and drop. If you are using imperial units and want to use fractions. or Setup > Drag and drop. or welds.5") Feet in decimals (e. or Ctrl+M.g. drag closer to slow down.7') Fractional notation (e. You can use Scroll and Pan when other commands are active. 300.g. To switch between scrolling and panning. bolts. you must use fractional notation. but not negative exponent notation. Hold down the middle button and drag the pointer away from the origin of the object. Drag and drop With Drag and drop active. 129) Xsnap (p.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . It remains active until you turn it off. use the keystroke D. 129) Pan Pan toggles the function of the middle mouse button between panning and scrolling. drag the pointer farther from the origin mark. you can use drag and drop to move or copy parts. 60'-6") In fractional notation. Mouse and pointer settings You can configure your mouse and pointer settings to suit the way you work using: • • • • • Pan (p. To scroll faster. and panning moves the model. 128) Drag and drop (p. click Setup > Middle button pan. Scrolling moves the “viewer”. Imperial units You can input length in imperial units in the following ways: • • • Fractional notation Inches in decimals (e.

Page Down and arrow keys in overlapping views. It remains active until you turn it off.SmartSelect With SmartSelect active. Without Xmouse you have to click on a view to activate it. You can create reports and views. Activate To toggle Xsnap on and off. click Setup > Xmouse. moving the pointer over a view activates the view. See Specifying points (p. Activate To toggle SmartSelect on and off. As you move the pointer over an object. It will stay active until you turn it off. With Xmouse active.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 129 . and copy objects from other models. • Xsnap Xsnap helps you to snap to the correct points by giving you visual cues. use keystroke T or Setup > Xsnap. hide objects. without having to click a view to activate it first. you can drag and drop parts or assemblies without selecting them first. Tekla Structures remembers this setting by session and user name. or Setup > SmartSelect. Snap switches Use snap switches to control the kind of items to which the cursor reacts. Phases In Tekla Structures. Using Xmouse Xmouse is useful when you are using two views that partly overlap. you can also use the Page Up. use the keystroke S. To toggle Xmouse on or off. See Moving the model in the view window (p. according to their phase number. with Xmouse active you simply move the pointer over the view to activate it. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Phases are often used to indicate erection sequences. Tekla Structures automatically highlights the points it suggests you snap to. See the following examples: • If you want to pick beam positions from two overlapping views. Tekla Structures remembers this setting by session and user name. Xmouse With Xmouse active. you can use phases to break up a model into different sections. 113). A checkmark appears next to the menu option if Xmouse is already active. 26).

you can copy it back to the basic model as a separate phase (phase 2... Tekla Structures assigns all objects you create after setting a phase to current to the current phase. for example. Use this button to identify the phase of an object.. Each user then works on a separate part of the building. 126). Button Filter Set current Description Lists the phases by the number and/or name criteria you enter. The Phase manager dialog box appears. Select by objects 130 TEKLA STRUCTURES . you have a large project on which several users will work simultaneously in single-user mode. The @ character in front of the phase number indicates the current phase. etc.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . or Properties > Phase number. First create a basic model which includes. click Setup > Phase manager..Example For example. the columns.).. Working with phases To work with phases. Makes the selected phase the current phase. See Filter in dialog boxes (p. Highlights the phases associated with the objects currently selected in the model. As each part of the model is completed. You then copy this basic model to all users. 3. The following table explains how to use the buttons in the Phases dialog box. This is phase 1.

See Adding properties.inp file. To use phase properties in reports and templates. so you can define the names of phase properties in the objects. Deletes the phases you select from the list. Changes the phases of the selected objects to the phase selected on the list. Tekla Structures considers phase properties to be user-defined attributes.ATTRIBUTE_NAME in the phase property field name. TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 131 . use the syntax PHASE. Modify phase Additional properties You can add more phase properties. which will appear as extra columns on the list. Selects and highlights the corresponding objects in the model if you have selected associated phases on the list.Button Add Delete Select by phase Description Creates a new phase.

To open the Options dialog box. See also Preferences in the online help Orientation marking settings in the online help 132 TEKLA STRUCTURES .Options Use Options to set various default values for numbering. coefficients.. profile names and connections..MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools .. click Setup > Options.

26). y Origin dx. for example XS_CLASH_CHECK_COLOR. to open the Snap dialog box. For more on them. dy Description Check to make the snap grid active. General settings Tekla Structures also includes the following general settings: Snap grid Use the Snap grid when picking a point with Free snap active. To define a snap grid.Colors You can specify the color of some model objects by defining their class with a number. Enter the following information: Field Active Spacing x. 134)..MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 133 . See Specifying points (p.. Snap grid spacing Offsets for grid origin TEKLA STRUCTURES . click Setup > Snap settings. You have the following color options: Color black white red bright green blue cyan yellow magenta gray pink lime aqua lilac orange light blue Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 You may also need to use the numbers of colors with some variables. see the online help. See also Colors (p.

The Color settings are: Options White Class Phase Lot Attribute Description All parts are white. 148).. Tekla Structures shows objects having that value in green and other in white. Analysis utility check Beep With this switch active. All parts of the model are colored according to their Class property. click Setup > Colors.. Parts belonging to different phases get different colors. See also Member analysis type in the Analysis Manual. See also Lotting (p. Displays parts in different colors according to the values of a user-defined attribute. Click Setup > Beep to toggle this switch on and off. Displays parts according to the utilization ratio in analysis. but leave the Value field empty. Parts belonging to different lots get different colors. See also Phases (p. 134 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Select the attribute from a list. to open the Colors dialog box. Analysis type Displays parts according to the member analysis type.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 129). If you enter a value for the user-defined attribute. Tekla Structures warns you with a beep when an error occurs.Colors To set which property Tekla Structures uses to determine part color. See also Viewing analysis results in the Analysis Manual.

Tekla Structures assigns it the number of the part in the standard model. Tekla Structures reuses numbers assigned to parts that have subsequently been deleted. click Setup > Numbering: You can use various numbering options: Option Renumber all Reuse old numbers Action if checked Tekla Structures renumbers all parts.5. If the part to be numbered is identical to a part in the standard model. Numbering settings To open the Numbering setup dialog box. These numbers may be used to number new or modified parts. Tekla Structures compares the parts in the current model to those in the standard part model. Check for standard parts TEKLA STRUCTURES . All information on previous numbers is lost.6 Numbering This section explains how to change numbering settings and apply numbering in Tekla Structures. If a separate standard part model has been set up.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 135 .

4. Number the model.New parts Options when numbering new parts: Option Compare to old Take new number Action A new part gets the same number as a previously numbered similar part. Create three identical beams with the numbering series prefix P and start number 1. Numbering example This example explains how different numbering settings result in different part numbers when you modify a part. according to which numbering settings you used.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . even if a similar numbered part already exists. You should now have two beams P1 and one P2. 6. Tekla Structures assigns different part position numbers to this part. 5. Modify one of the beams. A new part gets a number not used in previous numbering. All the beams have the part position number P1. See the online help. Number the model. Change beam P2 to be identical to the others. 1. 2. Number the model. Modified parts Options when numbering modified parts: Option Compare to old Take new number Keep number if possible Action Same as for new parts (above) Same as for new parts (above) Modified part maintains its previous number if possible. as follows: • • • 136 Compare to old: P1 Keep number if possible: P2 Take new number: P3 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Always carry out full numbering on the model after you have changed numbering settings. 3.

Pop-marking Pop-marking for NC files also affects numbering. Tekla Structures will assign different numbers to identical parts if they have different pop marks. 135)). When pop-marking is active. Two main parts in different assemblies are identical. If you interrupt numbering. see Log files in the online help. In this case. Click Tools > Display log file > Numbering history log for a report showing the numbering history.Applying numbering When you apply numbering.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 137 . parts and assemblies retain their original numbers. Example Interrupt numbering Log file TEKLA STRUCTURES . Numbering is carried out according to the settings in the Numbering setup dialog box (see Numbering settings (p. Tekla Structures assigns them different numbers. apart from a difference in the position of the plates welded to them. Tekla Structures assigns marks to parts and assemblies. You can safely interrupt numbering before it is complete by clicking Cancel in the dialog box Tekla Structures displays while it is running. For information on how to interpret the log file.

to selected parts.. You have the following options: Option Modified Full Assign number Clear selected Clear selected (part only) Clear selected (assembly only) Clear selected (reinforcing bar only) Preliminary marks Create control numbers. Each part gets a unique control number. Lock/Unlock control numbers Result Assigns marks to all modified and new parts and assemblies. Assigning control numbers to parts Control numbers are properties that identify the location of parts in a model. Deletes current reinforcing bar position number. Assigns marks to all parts and assemblies. Assigns control numbers to parts. Deletes current part and assembly position number. 139). Saves current part position number as preliminary marks for selected parts. click Tools > Numbering. Deletes current assembly position number.Applying numbering To apply numbering. Use the Create control numbers (S9) macro to assign control numbers to parts. or only to parts in a specific numbering series.. Changes final position number. Deletes current part position number.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . Locks or unlocks control numbers. You can have Tekla Structures assign consecutive control numbers to all parts in the model. 138 TEKLA STRUCTURES . See Locking and unlocking control numbers (p.

To display control numbers in drawings. ACN. To lock or unlock control numbers: 1. use the Lock/Unlock control numbers tool. see User-defined attributes in marks in the Drawing manual. For more information on how to use this tool.. select the property. do not select any parts in the model 139 . see the online helpSee also To find out how to display control numbers in drawings. or of specific parts. reports.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools To lock or unlock the control numbers of all parts. 139) Locking and unlocking control numbers To prevent Tekla Structures from renumbering the control numbers of all parts in the model. Click Tools > Numbering > Lock/Unlock control numbers: 2. command.. or when you use the Inquire > Object. To define which parts’ control numbers to lock or unlock: • OR TEKLA STRUCTURES . Locking and unlocking control numbers (p.

142) Temporary reference points (p. 5. 141) Tracking (p. 4. Click Setup > Enter a numeric location and select an option.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 142). These tools are: • • • • • Snap switches (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES . To display the toolbar. select the parts in the model. as well as tools that you can use to check a model and prepare it for fabrication. 27) Numeric snapping (p. Snapping Tekla Structures includes many tools you can use alone or together with other tools to snap to specific locations. Select Lock or Unlock in the Status list box. To lock or unlock the control numbers of specific parts. see Assigning control numbers to parts (p. initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. Click Apply. Numeric snapping Use the Enter a numeric location toolbar to key in position coordinates you want to snap to.• 3.7 Tools Introduction This section describes various tools in Tekla Structures that help you to model more effectively. 142) See also Snapping examples (p. 140) Orthogonal snapping (p. then Create. and then do one of the following: • • 140 Start entering the coordinates using the keyboard. The user-defined attribute ACN_STATUS tells you if a part’s control number is locked or unlocked. For more information on control numbers. 138) in the online help.

Variables. 180 degrees.-200. The coordinates relative to the last position picked. e.g. If you omit the last coordinate (z) or angle. 135. in the System Manual. and z coordinates of a position separated by commas. and an angle from the xy plane separated by angle brackets.500 or @500<30. press Enter or click OK to snap to the position. Snapping mode See also Special character . A distance. relative and absolute. Use the variable XS_KEYIN_DEFAULT_MODE to indicate the default snapping mode.The following table explains the types of information you can enter. 45. You can enter Cartesian coordinates Description/Example The x.g. Angles increase in the counterclockwise direction. Tekla Structures ignores the third coordinate.-50. see Appendix C. @1000. (comma) Polar coordinates < Set with the variable XS_KEYIN_ABSO LUTE_PREFIX Set with the variable XS_KEYIN_RELA TIVE_PREFIX Relative coordinates One value Two coordinates Three coordinates Tekla Structures has two snapping modes. 100. y. 1000<90<45. 90. etc. e. To control orthogonal snapping. After you enter the coordinates. For more information.). XS_KEYIN_ABSOLUTE_PREFIX XS_KEYIN_RELATIVE_PREFIX Orthogonal snapping Use the shortcut O (Setup > Ortho) to snap to positions in orthogonal directions on the work plane (0. TEKLA STRUCTURES .g. an angle on the xy plane. A distance to an indicated direction. In drawings.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 141 . Tekla Structures assumes that the value is 0. Absolute coordinates The coordinates based on the origin of the work plane. e. use the variables XS_SEMI_ORTHO_ANGLE and XS_USE_SEMI_ORTHO.

A green cross indicates that this position is now a temporary reference point. 1. Snapping examples When you have snap switches on and you use a command that requires you to pick positions. See also Snapping examples (p. 142 TEKLA STRUCTURES . See also Snapping examples (p. such as snap switches. the mouse pointer locks onto a snap point. See Orthogonal snapping (p. You can also track along an orthogonal direction. You can track along the line towards a snap point. or orthogonal and numeric snapping. and use the Enter a numeric location toolbar to specify the distance from the last point picked.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . You usually use tracking in combination with other snapping tools. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. Tekla Structures displays a magenta line between the last point picked and the snap point. Use this temporary reference point with snap tools to define directions and distances. 3. Hold down the Ctrl key and pick a position. 2. 142). 141). Temporary reference points You can create a temporary reference point to use as a local origin when snapping in models or drawings.Tracking Tracking means that you follow a line and pick a point at a specified distance along the line. 142).

for example. 1000 You can also track beyond the snap point. 4000 TEKLA STRUCTURES .In the illustration below. 4000 units from the last point picked.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 143 . we snapped to a grid line midpoint and tracked along the tentative line for 1000 units.

This is useful when you need to determine a point to pick and the needed point does not exist on the line.Track in the opposite direction by entering a negative value. -1000 Reference points In this example. press x again. we create a beam using a grid line midpoint as a temporary reference point and tracking along an orthogonal direction (shown as green dashed line) for 500 units. Click OK. for example. 500 Locking coordinates You can lock the x. y.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . for example. To lock the x coordinate. -1000. 144 TEKLA STRUCTURES . To unlock the coordinate. and x coordinates on a line. and Tekla Structures creates the beam along the magenta line. press x on the keyboard.

Hide lines Use this command to display hidden lines in selected parts in wire frame views. 3. Select the parts. You can also right-click on the selected parts and choose Exact lines. Click Tools > Exact lines..MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 145 . See View setup in the online help for more on drawing techniques. 1. 2.. to clear the exact lines effect. use Tools > Exact lines to display selected parts with exact lines. Click Window > Redraw all to clear the hidden lines effect.Exact lines With fast representation of parts. determine the way Tekla Structures displays hidden lines: TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Window > Redraw all. The options in Setup > Hidden lines. Click the window in which you want to display exact lines.

For example. you could use this feature in complex connections. 146 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Tools > Hide lines. 2.Option No dotted Example Other parts dotted All parts dotted Solid bolts No solid bolts To display hidden lines. Using this option there is no need to click the window to make it active. 3. Click the window in which you want to display the hidden lines You can also right-click a part.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 1. then click Hide lines. Select the parts. Hide parts You can quickly hide selected parts from a view. to temporarily hide parts in order to see the parts behind them.

If Visibility in components is not checked for the parts within the components.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 147 . 46) Draw solid You mainly use Draw solid for checking. etc. Select the parts. 2. they are no longer visible. Click Tools > Show component. Show component Use Show component to display the contents of selected components (parts. 3. hide changes parts to sticks To completely hide parts. Select the parts to hide. Tekla Structures uses different color lines to display: Selected part Ends Cut faces Undressed areas Color Green Red White Use Window > Redraw all to remove the draw solid effect. Click the view window where you want Draw solid to take effect. See also To make parts visible. 3. To use Show component: 1. When you redraw the view window. To use Draw solid: 1. bolts. use the Shift key with the hide command. Right-click and select Hide.). Click a component symbol or select an area. they are visible when you create them. even if Visibility in components is not checked in the View properties dialog box. Click Tools > Draw solid. use the command Window > Redraw all or right-click the parts and select Exact lines. 2. TEKLA STRUCTURES . • • By default.1. 2. View properties (p.

148 TEKLA STRUCTURES . fittings.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . welds. and other details belonging to the assembly. Select Show assembly from the pop-up menu. You can use lot names and numbers in reports. Lotting Lots are consignments of assemblies for transporting to site. Tekla Structures displays all parts. 2. even if some objects are hidden in a view: 1. 3. This displays the properties of existing lots.Show assembly Use Show assembly to display the actual contents of a selected assembly. Click a part. Lots can be changed. cuts. bolts. even if they were hidden in the view properties. To use lotting: Click Tools > Lotting to open Lotting dialog box. Right-click a part.

Click Add. You now have an empty lot. 5. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Enter a the maximum weight of the lot in Max weight.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 149 . Tekla Structures lists the existing lots. 2. 2. Number and ensure Number is checked. The total weight of the lot and the number of assemblies it contains in are displayed under Applied values. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. To add parts to the lot see Adding parts to an existing lot (p. Click Properties to display the Lot properties dialog box. Click an existing lot on the list. 4.Creating a lot To create a lot: 1. Enter new lot number here 3. Enter new lot number. 149). and then enter a number in Current lot. Adding parts to an existing lot To add parts to a lot: 1. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot.

You cannot select parts contained in other lots. Click Apply to remove the parts from the lot. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot. You can define several sequences for different purposes. 2. Click the Delete key. Click an existing lot on the list.3. There are many uses for the Sequencer. 150 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click an existing lot on the list. Tekla Structures displays the weight and number of the parts you add under Current values. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. 4. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. 5. Click Apply selected. You can still add parts to the lot. Click OK to close the dialog box. When you re-open the lotting dialog box. Deleting an existing lot To delete an existing lot: 1. 4. Always use the Shift key when adding parts to an existing lot. If you simply select parts you will overwrite the contents of the lot. Sequencer Use Sequencer to name sequences and assign incremental numbers to parts. including defining erection sequences. You can include the same parts in several sequences at the same time. 4. Tekla Structures displays a warning message when the weight limit of the lot is exceeded.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 3. 2. use the Shift key and select the part(s). the Applied values include the weight and number of the parts you added. To add parts to an existing lot. Click Properties. 3. Deleting parts from an existing lot To delete parts from a lot: 1. 5. Click OK to exit the Lotting dialog box. Hold down the Ctrl key and select each part to remove.

If you click Yes. Max number Delete TEKLA STRUCTURES . the name of the empty sequence remains. If there is only one sequence in the list. So you can use the Sequencer to create user-defined attributes when you only need to use numeric values. Objects are numbered from 1 up.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools 151 . enter the sequence name in the text field. Tekla Structures prompts if you want to override the existing number. enter exactly the same name as in the objects. Deletes the sequence. To create a list showing all the parts belonging to a sequence. Creating a report To include the sequence number in reports. You can also use the sequence number in a report by entering the sequence name in the table part row.inp file. The highest number to use in the sequence. With Sequencer you can also assign numeric values to existing user-defined attributes. For example. PRELIM_MARK for preliminary marks. Using Sequencer Click Tools > Sequencer to open a dialog box displaying existing sequences. see Adding properties in the System Manual. Tekla Structures gives the next available number to the object.inp file. To do this.The Sequencer works by assigning user-defined attributes to parts. use the following rule in a row or intermediate row in the Template Editor: if(curr("SEQUENCENAME") != 0) then do() Checking the sequence value You can check the name and number of a sequence using the Inquire object command. If you select an object that has already been included in a sequence. the sequence name must appear as a user-defined attribute in the objects. For more information. You can enter the following information: Option Sequence name Description If you want to assign values for existing user-defined attributes with the sequencer.

Click OK or Apply. The Sequencer properties dialog box closes. 4. Tekla Structures saves the snapshot as a bitmap in the current model folder.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . 152 TEKLA STRUCTURES .Creating a new sequence To create a new sequence: 1. Select the parts you want to include in the sequence. 3. Finish adding parts to the sequence with the Interrupt or Esc key. Click the Sequence name. Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer properties dialog box. views. The first part gets the sequence number 1. or the entire Tekla Structures window. Adding parts to a sequence To add parts to an existing sequence: 1. Function keys Use the following function keys to create snapshots: Key F9 F10 F11 F12 Action Captures entire Tekla Structures windows Captures the last dialog box displayed Captures the active view Captures the active view. without borders Print snapshot Check the Window > Snapshot > Print snapshot switch to have Tekla Structures automatically print out the snapshot. The Sequencer properties dialog box closes. 4. Tekla Structures technical support staff may ask you for a snapshot if you contact them with a question. You can use snapshots in posters. Finish adding parts to the sequence with the Interrupt or Esc key. Enter the Sequence name. This can be a useful tool. etc. Snapshot Use Snapshot to capture dialog boxes. brochures. 2. number 2. Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer properties dialog box. or other material to show projects carried out using Tekla Structures. 3. Select the parts you want to add to the sequence. 5. 2. the second.

Tekla Structures opens a dialog box where you can define the properties of a snapshot. Changes final part position numbers.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools Split Combine Properties... background color. Redoes actions previously undone.. Combines two parts into one. Command Delete Icon Description Deletes selected object(s). Undoes the previous command(s). Divides one part into two parts. Assigns part position numbers to the parts and assemblies modified after previous numbering. use the command Window > Snapshot > Snapshot.. Has different commands for parts. Displays the properties of the selected object. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Defines the numbering settings. Undo Redo Numbering setup Modified numbering Full numbering Assign number 153 . size.8 Settings and tools reference This section consists of the reference pages explaining how to use tools and change settings in Tekla Structures. assemblies. line properties (only for rendered views) 5. as follows: • • • • From which view to take the snapshot Filename Include or omit view borders DPI. and multinumbers.High resolution If you need high resolution snapshots.. Assigns part position numbers to all parts and assemblies.

.Command Clear numbers Icon Description Deletes assigned part position numbers. Displays the Snapshot. dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Settings and Tools . which you can use to set snapshot properties and take a snapshot from a selected view. Assigns control numbers to parts. Preliminary marks Create control numbers Snapshot to make sure that 154 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Saves part position numbers as preliminary marks for selected parts..

and use them in models. 173) 6. so you can change their dimensions each time you use them in a model. 155) Parametric modeling (p. 168) Modeling tips (p. Sketched cross sections are parametric. cambering. The Sketching toolbar is embedded in the Cross section sketch editor. TEKLA STRUCTURES . which you can use to create your own profile cross sections. and shortening parts (p.1 Sketching and using cross sections Tekla Structures includes a cross section sketch editor. It also includes some modeling tips. This section includes the following topics: Sketching and using cross sections (p.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 155 . It contains the tools you need to define and save cross sections: This section explains how to create and edit your own cross sections.6 Advanced Modeling Introduction Contents This chapter introduces the advanced modeling techniques available in Tekla Structures. 166) Warping.

156 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 156) Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p. If necessary. Tekla Structures opens the: • • 2.It contains the following topics: • • • • • • • • • Sketching cross sections (p. 165) Sketching tools (p. 161) Modifying sketched cross sections (p. Command Sketch polyline Sketch arc Sketch circle Ensure that you create a closed shape: • • Try to start sketching at a point that is easy to pick. 162) Using sketched cross sections in models (p. Click File > Catalogs > Profiles > Sketch parametric cross section. 160) Testing your cross section (p.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . Sketch an arc. Cross section sketch editor view and Sketching toolbar Variables and Sketch browser dialog boxes Use the following tools on the Sketching toolbar to sketch the outline of a cross section. saving. use the Coincident constrainttool to close it. such as a gridline intersection. and closing cross sections (p. and holes in the cross section Icon Description Sketch lines. 157) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 162) Naming. 159) Using variables to define cross section properties (p. 166) Sketching cross sections To sketch a cross section: 1. Sketch a circle.

Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints: • • Where 2 lines meet Between line segments when you draw them with the Sketch polyline tool. force lines to meet. for example. Using constraints to lock cross section shape After you have sketched the outline of a cross section. Force two lines to meet (extends or shortens one or both lines.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 157 . saving. create 90°angles. The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create constraints: Command Sketch radial dimension Icon Description Creates a radial constraint for an arc or circle. to straighten lines. 161) Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions. Between the start of the first line segment and the end of the last line segment in a shape.) Useful when you need to close a shape. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 157) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p.Next you need to add constraints and dimensions. Parallel constraint Perpendicular constraint Coincident constraint • Fixed constraint Locks the position and angle of a line. so that other constraints do not affect it. if they are within a certain distance of each other. and save your sketch. See: • • • Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p. use the constraint tools to refine your sketch and lock the shape. Force a line to be parallel to another line. 159) Naming. and closing cross sections (p. and close the shape. Force a line to be perpendicular to another line.

See: • • • Defining chamfers (p. and save your sketch. See the online help for a step-by-step example on using these tools.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . 159) Naming. and closing cross sections (p. Then you need to add dimensions. Vertical constraint Force a line in the sketch to be parallel to the local y axis. Tekla Structures automatically creates horizontal constraints for horizontal lines.Command Horizontal constraint Icon Description Force a line in the sketch to be parallel to the local x axis. saving. 158 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Tekla Structures automatically creates vertical constraints for vertical lines. and lines that are almost vertical. Use with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. 158) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. See also Sketching cross sections (p. Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints between the line segments and displays a chamfer symbol where line segments meet . 156) You can choose to create chamfers in your cross section. Defining chamfers When you use the Create polyline tool to sketch a profile. Use with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. 161) Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions. and lines that are almost horizontal.

Tekla Structures also adds the dimensions you create to the list of variables that you can use in calculations. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Modify to modify the chamfer. 5.To change the shape or dimensions of a chamfer: 1. Change the shape and dimensions of the chamfer. Adding dimensions to cross sections After you have sketched a parametric cross section. Click OK to close the Chamfer properties dialog box. Click the Save sketch icon to save the changes. See Using variables to define cross section properties (p. You can use these dimensions to define the size of the profile cross section when you use it in a model. Select chamfer shape Enter chamfer dimensions 3. For each chamfer you want to change. Tekla Structures will not save a parametric cross section that does not have dimension constraints. 4. double-click the chamfer symbol in the sketch. Tekla Structures opens the Chamfer properties dialog box. use the dimension constraint tools on the Sketching tool bar to create dimensions for it. 160).MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 159 . 2.

Creates a horizontal dimension. including sketched cross sections.The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create dimensions. Command Sketch free distance Icon Description Creates a dimension between any two points. Works the same way as Display variables in the Custom component editor. or they can include formulas.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . Sketch horizontal distance Sketch vertical distance Using variables to define cross section properties You can define variables to define the properties of a sketched cross section. Creates a vertical dimension. so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the profile in a model. Variables can define fixed properties. 160 TEKLA STRUCTURES . you can create a variable that calculates a dimension: The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create and use variables: Command Display variables Icon More information View. add or change variables in parametric model objects. For example.

0\nt\bitmaps.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling Close sketch 161 . create an image that shows the shape and dimensions of the profile. with the extension bmp. using the cross section name as the filename. 3.g. 2. 4.. with the file extension .Creating a picture of a cross section Library profiles include pictures which illustrate the shape and dimensions of each profile. click in the sketch to ensure it is the active view. Press F12 on your keyboard to take a snapshot of the sketch.\TeklaStructures\11. Paint. saving. See Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 159).\TeklaStructures\11. Open the sketch in the cross section sketch editor view. Save the image in the folder . Prompts you to save the sketch. e. Copy the renamed snapshot file to the folder . 2. Using snapshots To use a Tekla Structures snapshot as a picture: 1. Microsoft Explorer. rename the snapshot file to have the same name as the sketch. and closing cross sections Tekla Structures saves sketched cross sections in the profile catalog in the current model folder. If necessary.bmp. Using any image editor. Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions. In any file manager. TEKLA STRUCTURES .bmp. 5. e. Option to close the sketch without saving. Naming. without the borders. Tekla Structures displays a picture of the sketch when you browse for profiles. The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to name and save sketched cross sections: Command Save sketch as Icon Description Saves the cross section.0\nt\bitmaps.g. For example. To add pictures of sketched parametric cross sections: 1. mysketch..

Click the Cancel button to close the dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . Double-click an element to edit its properties: 162 TEKLA STRUCTURES . The Component Catalog dialog box opens. Tekla Structures updates the cross section in the sketch editor. try this test: • • • Double-click a dimension line to open the Distance properties dialog box.Testing your cross section To check that the constraints and dimensions in a sketched cross section work correctly. For example. Check that the shape of the profile does not change and that the dimensions adjust correctly. Change the Value: field then click the Modify button. 2. 3. you can edit distances and chamfers. Double-click the name of the cross section to open it in the Cross section sketch editor view. Click File > Catalog > Profiles > Modify sketched parametric cross section. Modifying sketched cross sections To modify an existing sketched cross section: 1. The elements you can edit appear in yellow.

Double-click the chamfer symbol . 157).MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 163 . 2. Modifying chamfers To modify the shape or dimensions of a chamfer in a sketch: 1. Modify the properties in the Chamfer properties dialog box: TEKLA STRUCTURES .Double-click an element to edit its properties: • • You cannot change dimensions that have been calculated using formulas in the Variables dialog box. Constraints may also prevent you from changing dimensions. See Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p.

Copying and moving You can also copy and move the entire sketch or parts of it with the copy and move commands. 164 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 4.• • Select a chamfer shape from the Type dropdown list. read Copy (p. 120) and Move (p. Click the OK button to close the Chamfer properties dialog box.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . use the x and y fields to define its dimensions: Use the x field to define the radius of this convex chamfer 3. Click the Modify button to change the chamfer. According to the shape of the chamfer. For more information. 121).

If you have applied constraints correctly.. 8. The Select profile dialog box opens. button next to the Name field.. and then import the file into another model. parametric in the dropdown list. then click Apply. For concrete parts. Click OK to close the part properties dialog box. Use the component catalog for the export and import. 7. 9. 2. TEKLA STRUCTURES . In the part properties dialog box. click the Select. Click OK to close the Select profile dialog box. See Testing your cross section (p. click the .uel). For steel parts. To use a sketched cross section in other models. button next to the Profile field. Enter a new value. click Modify to change the part profile in the model.. 10. 6. To select a profile to use: • • 3. 162) for more information.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 165 . you have to export the cross section sketch to a file (. Click in the Profile category field and select User-defined. you are ready to use it in the model. double-click the Create beam icon to open the Beam properties dialog box.Using sketched cross sections in models Once you have created a cross section and saved it in the profile catalog.. For example. To change the dimensions of the profile. Click in the Profile subtype field and select the sketched parametric cross section to use. click a dimension in the Value column in the properties table in the lower part of the dialog box. To use the profile cross section in a model: 1. 5. Click in the Profile category field and select Parametric profile in the dropdown list. 4. the shape of the profile will not change if you change its dimensions. Double-click the part icon to open the part properties dialog box.

has parameters which define various properties. between model objects.6. This section describes the parametric modeling tools in Tekla Structures.3 Parametric modeling Tekla Structures models are parametric. location and relationship to other parts.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . 166) Creating variables (p. For example. 167) Creating dependencies Tekla Structures includes several tools that you can use to create dependencies. or relationships. you might create a dependency that offsets a column a fixed distance from a plane on a wall. For the detailed instructions. the column follows.2 Sketching tools The following table lists the sketching tools and gives a short description of each one. To create dependencies. including its geometry. use the following tools on the Points toolbar: 166 TEKLA STRUCTURES . or relationships between model objects. see the online help. It contains the following topics: Creating dependencies (p. Create variables that define the properties of the model object. You can use these parameters to: • • Create dependencies. such as a beam or column. We call this technique parametric modeling. so the properties of one model object adjust if you change the related model object. 6. which means that each model object. so that when you move the wall.

Variables can define fixed properties. see Defining variables and Creating distance variables in the Detailing manual. see Defining variables and Creating reference distances in the Detailing manual. Create distance Binds a handle on a model object to up to 3 planes on other model objects. so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the model object. Illustrates the distance in the model view.Command Create reference distance Icon Description Creates a reference distance between model objects. TEKLA STRUCTURES . such as a beam or column. the name of a column. which you can include in formulas in the Variables dialog box. Or they include formulas. for example. Works the same way as Create distance in the Custom component editor. For more information. Creating variables Use variables to define the properties of a model object. Works the same way as Create reference distance in the Custom component editor.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 167 . at a fixed distance. For more information.

Works the same way as Display variables in the Custom component editor. Use to copy absolute values or references and use them as variables in parametric calculations. See also Using variables to define cross section properties (p. 171) Shortening parts (p. or shorten concrete parts.The Tools toolbar includes the following parametric modeling tools for defining and editing variables: U Command Display variables Icon Description View. 170) Cambering parts (p.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . You can use these variables to calculate the properties of related model objects. Works the same way as Display custom component browser in the Custom component editor. 6. It contains the following topics: • • • • Warping concrete parts (p. 172) 168 TEKLA STRUCTURES . cambering.4 Warping. add or change variables in model objects. 160). 169) Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs (p. camber. which shows the elements in a model object. Display model browser Opens the model browser. and shortening parts This section explains how to using various deforming tools to warp.

For example. 5. In the End field. enter 0 in the Start angle field and 45 in the End angle field.Warping concrete parts There are several ways to warp concrete parts: Part type Concrete beams Warping method Use the Deforming options in the part properties dialog box • • Use end offsets Use the Move tool More information Warping concrete beams using the Deforming options (p. enter the angle of the beam at its start point. Double-click the beam to open the Beam properties dialog box and go to the Deforming tab. In the Start field. Click Modify to warp the beam. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 3. 4. Click OK to close the dialog box. relative to the part reference line. relative to the part reference line. to warp the beam 45 degrees at the end point.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 169 . 2. 169) Warping concrete slabs using end offsets (S62) (p. 171) Concrete slabs created using the Slab generation with points (62) component Concrete slabs created using the Concrete slab component Warping concrete beams using the Deforming options To warp a concrete beam: 1. 170) Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs (p. 170) Move slab chamfers Warping concrete slabs using chamfers (p. enter the angle of the beam at its end point.

Click the Select objects in components on the Select switches toolbar Double-click the slab to open the Beam properties dialog box and go to the Position tab. Click OK to close the dialog box. 2. Right-click and select Move > Translate from the pop-up menu. 170 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Click Modify to warp the slab. Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs Use the Move command to warp slabs created using the Slab generation with points (S62) component. by picking a single point on the slab. For example. enter the Start and End offsets of the slab. 4. 4. relative to the part reference line. In the End offsets section. select the corner point of a slab component to warp that end of the slab. enter a value in the appropriate direction field. 5.Warping concrete slabs using end offsets (S62) To warp a concrete slab created using the Slab generation with points (62) component: 1. In the Move . Click the following icons on the Select switches toolbar: • • Select objects in components Select points 2. For example. To warp a slab using the Move tool: 1. y or z direction. Use a Crossing window to select the point you want to move. in the x.translate dialog box. enter 100 in the dZ field to lift that corner up 100mm. 3.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . 3.

Click OK to close the Chamfer properties dialog box. Tekla Structures moves the point in the direction you selected. Click Modify to warp the concrete slab. 3. 6.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 171 . Right-click and select Interrupt from the popup to finish. • • The Start field shows the warping angle at the start point of the part. The End field shows the warping angle at the end point of the part. Enter values in the following fields: • • dz1 to move the upper corner of the chamfer dz2 to move the lower corner of the chamfer 2. If the chamfers on a concrete slab are invisible. Cambering parts Use the cambering option to: • • Pre-camber parts Curve long heavy sections that will settle on site and become flat. Warping concrete slabs using chamfers To warp concrete parts created using the Concrete slab component on the Concrete toolbar: 1. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page. Click Move. 7. set the environment variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES=CHAMFERS. which warps the slabs. To see the warping angle of a slab. double-click a slab to open the Beam properties dialog box.5. Double-click a chamfer on the part to open the Chamfer properties dialog box. TEKLA STRUCTURES .

3. 4. Click OK to close the dialog box. Click Apply to modify the part. This is useful when creating assembly drawings of bracing bars which should always be under tension. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. enter the degree of shortening. Shortening parts When drawings of the parts are created. Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by this value. You can also use the warping and cambering tools together to model parts. 2. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page. 2. To shorten a part: 1.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . 172 TEKLA STRUCTURES . 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. In the Cambering field. 5. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page.Tekla Structures cambers parts in the local z direction. Click Apply to modify the part. 3. In the Shortening field. To camber a part: 1. 4. enter the degree of camber. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box.

then right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu. Do not use fitting to lengthen parts. Tekla Structures moves or copies the object you selected. Detailing These detailing tips will help you to detail models more quickly and accurately. start the command. then click an object in the model. Always model beams in the same direction. and exports. because cuts do not always affect part length when you export information to NC files. use the Hide command to hide adjacent parts. Each time you want to use the command: 1.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 173 . Click in the appropriate dialog box to activate it. TEKLA STRUCTURES . 173) Working with custom components (p. This places the part in the center of the view.5 Modeling tips This section includes the following topics: • • • General tips (p.6. Enter the values you want to use. To further improve the view. This can cause shop errors. Move the part handles. It can cause problems with connections and details. 174) General tips Keep ’Move’ or ’Copy’ dialogs open if you are going to use them often. when you creating the grids and levels in a new model. 3. To keep a dialog box open. then click the Move or Copy button in the dialog box. Move the part handles instead. Create a basic part view when you need to see a specific part clearly. 173) Detailing (p. drawing. Do not cut the end of a part to shorten it. and avoid potential problems with templates. for example. or use Detailing > Fitting instead. Leaving dialog boxes open uses up system memory and may slow down processes on your computer. 2.

when you set the variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to CHAMFERS or HANDLES. use a rectangular plate. Creating nonparametric components Use the simplest part you can. simply re-model the part more accurately. Rectangular plates only have 2 handles. So you do not have to copy user-defined profiles when you copy the component to other locations. Consider creating a component model. If. so you only need to create a few bindings or magnetic planes to manipulate them. Store custom components together. Use the description field to describe the component and explain what it does. not a contour plate. If the only part information required is a part mark on the GA drawing and a quantity on the materials list. and share parametric and nonparametric custom components: General Use library profiles when possible. Use this model to create and test custom components. If you distribute your component to other users. Rectangular plate Contour plate Only model parts as accurately as you need. Provide essential information. Use short. create a simple bar or plate. remember to list the profiles it works with. 174 TEKLA STRUCTURES . later. Contour plates require more because they have 4 chamfers and handles.Working with custom components These tips will help you to efficiently create. if all you need is a rectangular shape. It makes them easy to find and export. you need to include it in a detailed view. logical names.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling . For example. Remember to copy user-defined profile cross sections with your custom component. save.

TEKLA STRUCTURES . Create simple components for specific situations.Creating intelligent (parametric) components Plan to use magnetic planes to bind objects together. Using 3 magnetic planes: Pick 3 points to bind the parts together (pick 1 point on each magnetic plane). and then use offsets to position them accurately. Model as many parts on the same plane as you can. Not using magnetic planes: Pick all 10 handles to bind the parts together. Model embeds as custom parts and include them in components. This makes intelligent components simpler. It is faster and easier to model simple components.MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling 175 . They are also much easier to use. Avoid creating a ’super’ component to use in every possible situation. and easier to use. because it reduces the number of dimensions and parameters the user must enter.

176 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Advanced Modeling .

A Parametric Profiles These are the parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures: HIh-s-t*b (symmetric) HIh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2 PHIh1-h2-s-t*b (symmetric) PHIh1-h2-s-t1*b1-t2*b2 BLLh*b*t BLZh*b*t TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles 177 .

BLUh*b*t PLh*b h=height b=thickness (smaller=b) Dd ELDd1*r1*d2*r2 PDd*t EPDd1*r1*d2*r2*t 178 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles .

MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles 179 .Ph*t Ph*b*t Ph1*b-h2*b*t HKh-s-t*b-c (symmetric) HKh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2 (centered) HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c ZZh-t-e-b (symmetric) ZZh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2 CCh-t-e-b (symmetric) CCh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2 TEKLA STRUCTURES .

CWh-t-e-b-h1-b1 CUh-t-h1-b-e (symmetric) CUh-t-h1-b1-h2-b2/e EBh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) EBh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2-a Reference points: 1=right 2=left 3=top BFh-s-b-h1 SPDd*t SPDd1-d2*t ECh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) ECh-t-e1-b1-e1-b1-a 180 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles .

EDh-t-b-e-h1-h2-f1-f2-a EEh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a EFh-t-e-b1-b2-f1-f2/h1-a EZh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles 181 .

EWh-t-e-b-b-f1-f2-h2-h1-a RCDLs*h-d*t (symmetric) RCDLs*h-d*t1*t2 RCXXs*h-b*t*h1-h2-ex RCLs*h-b*t RCDXs*h-b*h2*h1 (symmetric) RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1 RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1-ex 182 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles .

MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles 183 .RCXs*h-b*h2*h1 TEKLA STRUCTURES .

184 TEKLA STRUCTURES .MODELING MANUAL Parametric Profiles .

elements. and other related information. All the parts connected by workshop welds and workshop bolts form an assembly. AutoDefaults A tool that compares selected connections with a predefined set of default values and applies the correct ones to them. AutoPick A command that automatically snaps to locked points when you use numeric snap in the Drawing Editor.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 185 . The analysis model contains nodes. Automatic cloning A numbering setting that automatically copies an existing drawing to a modified part.Glossary A Alias An alternative name. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Assembly An entity fabricated in the workshop. Attribute See User-defined attribute (p. searches for the appropriate connections. members. It also includes load combinations. for example. 199). and gives them the correct default connection properties. AutoConnection A tool that automatically selects all the connected parts in the model. Analysis model Tekla Structures generates an analysis model of the physical and load models when you run structural analysis. of a material. loads.

Batch file The startup file that launches Tekla Structures. The number of batch files it creates depends on how many languages and country-specific environments you choose to install. You create a cast unit by indicating the parts that belong to the same cast unit. Autoscale A drawing setting that automatically sets the drawing scale. Defines the direction of the assembly drawing. Bounding box The area or volume around the load that Tekla Structures searches for load-bearing parts. Autosize A drawing setting that automatically sets the drawing size. See also Main part (p. C Cast unit An entity of concrete parts cast in one continuous process. and z directions. 192). y. Bulge The curved portion of a polyline. AutoStick A view setting you use when zooming in a model. Tekla Structures automatically creates the necessary batch files during installation.Autosave A command that automatically saves your work. Contains many variables that you can use to configure Tekla Structures for different standards and your own style of working. B Base part The longest main part in an assembly. For each load you can define the dimensions of the bounding box in the x. 186 TEKLA STRUCTURES . at set intervals. It defines at which distance Tekla Structures displays objects as sticks instead of exact objects.MODELING MANUAL Glossary .

Catalog Catalogs contain predefined information on all available profile. Components can be: • • • • connections details macros user-defined (custom components) Drawing Classifier for customizing the appearance of parts. 197). Clone Use to copy drawings. to copy an edited drawing for a similar part. and plotter settings.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 187 . Command An instruction you give to the computer to do something. bolt. Classifier Tekla Structures contains two classifier features: • • Click See Single-click (p. NC file classifier for sorting NC files of different parts to machinespecific folders. and bolt assembly properties. and dimensions in different drawing types. then clone it for other similar trusses. Sometimes called center of mass. create a drawing for one truss. Center of gravity The location of the resultant of gravity forces on an object or objects. marks. material. Components adapt to changes in the model. TEKLA STRUCTURES . edit the drawing. For example. so that Tekla Structures automatically modifies a connection if you modify the parts it connects. Now you only need to modify the cloned drawings where the trusses differ. Check dimension A minor dimension that controls model accuracy. for example. Component A tool that automate tasks and group objects so that Tekla Structures treats them as a single unit. You usually select a command from the menu bar.

db2 file is the numbering database. In connections. details. default values have a specific meaning. y.Connection Connection is a subtype of component. Constraint Tools that you use in the Cross section sketch editor view to refine and lock custom cross sections. See also Global coordinate system (p. Examples of connections: end plate. and parts. bolted gusset plate.db1 files) contains all the information about the physical model. AutoDefaults can only replace fields that have default values with new values from the Autodefaults settings. fittings. Default Any predefined setting or value. you can build dependences between objects to make custom elements parametric and adaptive to changes in the model. 190) and Local coordinate system (p. It connects two or more parts and automatically creates the necessary plates. In some cases we also use the term connection for connections and details together. It assigns the profile of the governing part to all parts in the design group. D Database The model database (the *. Contour plate A plate that you create by picking its corners. welds. 192). Cursor A graphic symbol displayed on the screen to show the location of the mouse. Tekla Structures uses design groups when it searches for the optimal profiles for parts. etc. In the Custom Component Editor. Design group A group of parts that have the same name and profile. 188 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Custom Component Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create your own connections. and define their properties. Coordinate system The origin and three axes (x. and z) perpendicular to each other.MODELING MANUAL Glossary . bolts. The *.

Detail Detail is a subtype of component. It connects to a part and automatically creates the necessary plates, fittings, bolts, welds, etc. Examples of details: base plates, stiffeners, lifting hooks. See also Component (p. 187) and Connection (p. 188). Dialog box Tekla Structures displays a dialog box if you select a command whose name has three dots after it, e.g. Select.... You can also double-click an object or icon to display its properties dialog box. Double-click To click the left mouse button twice in rapid succession. Double-click an object or an icon to display its properties dialog box. Also use double-click to overwrite the contents of a field in a dialog box. Note that this only highlights one word at a time. Drag To move an item on the screen by selecting the item, then pressing and holding down the mouse button, while moving the mouse. For example, you can move a window to another location on the screen by dragging its title bar. Drawing Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to edit drawings. DSTV2DXF A separate program that converts NC files in DSTV format to DXF format. DWG The standard file format for AutoCAD drawings. DXF The Data Exchange Format you use to transfer CAD data to and from Tekla Structures and other programs.

E
Elevation dimension A level mark. Environment variable The command line variables in the Tekla Structures startup batch file. You can use these to define various settings, default folders, default values, etc.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

189

Extrema Rectanglular boundaries. For example, these might specify the content displayed in drawing views.

F
Flag A code that shows the status of a drawing (issued, frozen, modified, etc.). Tekla Structures displays these flags in the drawing list. Folded plate An object type and command for plates whose folding form is determined by picking points on the folding line. In the United States, folded plates are also referred to as bent plates. This object type is no longer in use. Instead you should use the Polybeam command to create folded plates. Freeze Freezing a drawing prevents it from being accidently modified. Freeze the drawing when you want to keep modifications in the drawing, such as additional marks and dimensions, even if the model changes. See also Lock (p. 192).

G
Global coordinate system Global origin and coordinate axes of a model. Shown by a green cube located at the origin. GOL A specific dimension showing the gage of an outstanding leg. Grid A three-dimensional complex of planes. Tekla Structures shows its projection onto the view plane using cyan dash-and-dot grid lines. GUID A globally unique identifier. Each Tekla Structures member has GUID, which is unique across Tekla Structures models and across any software model. It assures data integrity so that members are identified across projects.

190

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

H
Handle A rectangular point that you can move to modify the size and shape of an object. Tekla Structures displays these handles when you click an object. Hatch A pattern you fill closed drawing objects with.

K
Key plan A small model view in a drawing that indicates the location of an assembly, a cast unit, or part in the model. The key plan includes the grid and the assembly, cast unit, or part shown in the drawing. Knock-off dimension A dimension line from a part end to the original creation point of the part.

L
Layout Drawing style containing sheets and tables (drawing titles etc.). Library profile A section that is available in standard sizes, such as W21x45, HEA200. See also Parametric profile (p. 194). Load combination coefficient See Partial safety factor (p. 194). Load combination Load combination is a process in which some simultaneously acting load groups are multiplied by their partial safety factors and combined with each other according to specific rules. Load combination rules are specific to a design process and are defined in building codes.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

191

The result of the load combination process is a load combination. Load group A set of loads that have common partial safety factors in load combination. These loads are caused by the same action. They always occur at the same time and all together. Load group direction The direction of the action that causes the loads in a load group. Load group type The type of the action that causes the loads in a load group. Local coordinate system The coordinate axes (x, y, and z) of a part. For example, the x axis is parallel to the long direction of a part. See also Global coordinate system (p. 190). Lock Locking a drawing prevents it from being opened, updated, cloned, deleted, or modified if you change a model. See also Freeze (p. 190). We also use lock to refer to the hardware lock delivered with the software. Log A report that Tekla Structures writes when you use the program. Log files can contain error messages, save history, numbering history, etc. Lot A consignment of assemblies to transport to site.

M
Macro Macro is a subtype of component. Macro creates the parts to build a structure, such as stairs, but does not connect the structure to existing parts. Macros can include connections and details. See also Component (p. 187). Main part An assembly part to which other parts are welded or bolted, but which is not welded or bolted to any parts. Assemblies can have one or many main parts. The welding and bolting order determines which part is the main part. The chords of a truss are typical main parts. See also Assembly (p. 185).

192

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Tekla Structures only changes that value. Accept commands. Tekla Structures uses the multi-drawing number in part and/or assembly numbers. For example. Part marks are sometimes called piece marks. Modify filter checkbox A checkbox located in front of a dialog box field. 195). Model Editor The main working environment where you edit the model. located under the blue title bar. Zoom in and out. See also Pan (p. and connections in drawings. See also Plan (p. The Model Editor starts when you start Tekla Structures. Tekla Structures merges changes in individual user models (plans) with the master model. Menu bar An area in the Tekla Structures window. Member A major. and reverse objects around a mirroring line. Middle mouse button This can be a wheel or standard button. Multi-numbering A numbering system for parts and assemblies included in multi-drawings. that contains the pull-down menus containing all the Tekla Structures commands. such as assembly and single-part drawings. Master model The shared model you use in multiuser mode. welds. See also Drawing Editor (p. move. You use the middle mouse button to: • • • Mirror Use to copy. load-bearing part. Multi-drawing A large drawing that contains other drawings.Mark A text or symbol used to identify parts. bolts. you finish picking by clicking the middle button. The modify filter checkboxes indicate which properties Tekla Structures modifies when you click the Modify button. if the middle button is a wheel.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 193 . TEKLA STRUCTURES . When a checkbox is selected. when Tekla Structures prompts you to pick a sequence of objects. Scroll or pan views. 189). 114).

such as beams and columns. Parametric profile Profiles that have a predefined. O Orientation mark A symbol showing the position of an assembly (a triangle inside a circle). Partial safety factor A factor by which a characteristic value is multiplied to produce a design value. P Pan To shift the view of a model or drawing without changing the magnification. 185). In some context. also referred to as load combination coefficient. Cast unit (p. Parts are large members.N Neighbor part A part that does not belong to an assembly or a cast unit but that is connected to it. 191) Part The basic component of a model. such as plates. 194 TEKLA STRUCTURES . See also Assembly (p. Overall dimension A dimension between the outermost positions of a part. hard-coded shape. 186). See also Library profile (p. as well as smaller pieces. A factor that takes into consideration the occurrence probability of loadings in load combination. or an assembly. with one or more parameters that define the size of the profile. Physical model The portion of the product model database that has direct or indirect counterpart in the structure to be build.MODELING MANUAL Glossary . An example of physical model object is the beam. Origin The point where coordinate axes intersect.

Segments are straight. Polyline A continuous sequence of lines. a beam that follows a zig-zag line is a polybeam. Pop-up menu Tekla Structures displays a pop-up menu when you right-click. but segment intersections can be curved. 185). The welding and bolting order determines the primary part.Pick To use the left mouse button to specify points. or select objects in the model. Pull-down menu A menu located under the blue title bar in the Tekla Structures window.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 195 . See also Master model (p. Prompt A message on the status bar that provides information or asks you to do something. See also Reinforcement pull-outs. For example. Property A single value or characteristic associated with an object. TEKLA STRUCTURES . Position dimension A dimension that presents the location in which the connected part is attached. Primary part An assembly part that has something welded or bolted to it. and that is also welded or bolted to another part. See also Right-click (p. The pop-up menu contains the commands that you can perform on the selected object(s). A primary part can simultaneously be the main part of one assembly and a secondary part of another assembly. Pop mark Small mark (hole) that the shop uses to weld or bolt secondary parts to the right location on a main part. Pull-out A small drawing in the reinforcement mark that shows the dimensions of a reinforcing bar. 193). Polybeam A continuous beam that you create by picking points to indicate the segments. Plan A user-specific view of the master model. 196). See also Assembly (p. These pull-down menus contain all the Tekla Structures commands. See also User-defined attribute (p. 199).

Right-click To click the right mouse button once to display a pop-up menu. and that does not have parts welded or bolted to. rather than only object outlines. the index finger the y axis. 195). See also Wire frame view (p. When you hold the thumb. Reference line The line between the points you pick when you create a part. and middle finger of your right hand so that they form three right angles. The pop-up menu contains the commands that you can perform on the selected object(s). index finger. See also Pop-up menu (p. then the thumb symbolizes the x axis. 196 TEKLA STRUCTURES .R Reduction factor Reduction factors exclude the impractical effects of the simultaneous loads. 199). Right-hand rule A rule that indicates the direction of coordinate axes. Rendered view A type of view in which Tekla Structures also displays object surfaces. S Secondary part An assembly part that is welded or bolted to another part.MODELING MANUAL Glossary . and the middle finger the z axis.

The status bar also displays the following information: • • • • String A series of characters. Status bar An area at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window where Tekla Structures displays prompts and messages. The status of Xsnap (T). Ctrl+Z for undo. Sequencer A tool for assigning incremental numbers to parts.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 197 . For example. Tekla Structures uses solids to represent parts in rendered views. Snapshot A picture of the screen.Select switches Select switches control the selection of objects. They define which object types you can select. and Drag and drop (D) The middle mouse button mode (Pan or Scroll) The current phase The number of the selected objects TEKLA STRUCTURES . Serviceability limit state A state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements or service criteria. Solid Three-dimensional continuous part that has surfaces. In wire frame views parts are just lines. for example of the 3D model view. SmartSelect A feature that helps dragging and dropping parts without selecting them first. Also called screen capture. Shortcut A key combination that performs a command. Can be used to assign erection sequences. SmartSelect (S). for example. Snap switches Settings that control snapping to different positions and points when creating objects in the model or editing a drawing. Single-click To click the left mouse button once.

etc. 198). This includes margins. TplEd See Template Editor (p. spaces between drawing views. or connected to another member. U Ultimate limit state A state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements and which is associated with collapse. The Symbol Editor is also referred to as SymEd. 198 TEKLA STRUCTURES . The Template Editor is also referred to as TplEd. drawings. SymEd See Symbol Editor (p. and the location of tables. material list. Toolbar A toolbar contains icons which give easy access to the most frequently-used commands. deform. revision table. Template Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create and modify templates used in drawings and reports.MODELING MANUAL Glossary . 198).Support condition Conditions are used in analysis and design. deflect. Tooltip A small pop-up window that displays the name of an icon. Symbol Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create and modify symbols used in templates. Toolbars are located under the menu bar. etc. T Table layout Settings that define the appearance of drawing sheets.. These conditions determine how members move. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. such as title block. and reports. in relation to each other. warp. They specify how member end is supported.

Wire frame view A type of view in which Tekla Structures only displays object outlines. and you can create views of it. User-defined attributes add on to the basic properties of objects. TEKLA STRUCTURES . User-defined profile A profile whose cross sections are defined by a user. View depth The thickness of the displayed slice of model.UCS User coordinate system in Tekla Structures drawings. User-defined attribute A single value or characteristic associated with an object. 196). W Web Viewer A tool for viewing Tekla Structures models in Internet. To see your Tekla Structures model from virtually any angle. Points located in the view plane are yellow. Before viewing you need to export the model from Tekla Structures to the Web Viewer format.MODELING MANUAL Glossary 199 . The objects within the view depth and the work area are visible in the model. V View A representation of a model from a specific location. and objects are transparent. Object surfaces are not displayed. you can move and rotate the model. See also Rendered view (p. View plane The view-specific plane onto which the grids are projected and in which the grid lines are visible. The system has origin and x and y axes.

The points at the intersection of a secondary and main part reference line are work points.g.MODELING MANUAL Glossary . X Xmouse A feature that activates the view window when you move the pointer over the view. The arrow symbol defines the xy plane and the z direction is in accordance with the right-hand rule. As you move the pointer over an object. you can use wizards to create drawings. Tekla Structures automatically highlights the points it suggests you snap to.Wizard A wizard is a series of activities which you could carry out manually but which Tekla Structures can perform automatically to help your work. Work point A creation point of a part. Objects outside the work area exist but are not visible so you can e. Without Xmouse you should click the view to activate it. Tekla Structures indicates the work area using green. local or kind of a user coordinate system of the model. confine to a substructure and the views to your model are simpler and quickly updated. too. Work plane A red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane which is the current. dashed lines. Xsnap A feature that helps you to snap to the correct points by giving you visual cues. Wrap-around template The way how round tube profiles are represented in single-part drawings. In Tekla Structures. 200 TEKLA STRUCTURES . Work area A limited area that makes it is faster and easier to work on a certain portion of the model.

.................................................88..34 repeating ............36 executing ........................................................................................................................... 89 length ......... 92 location .........................................133......................... 67 numbering.................................34 using simultaneously ....................... 69 B beep ............................................. 91 bolts about ........................39 objects ............ 89 cast units .............133 color by class .....89 models ... 25 clash check ......................................................................................................................................35 points ...84 views ..............................................................Index A assemblies............... 88.....85 grids ...............55 construction lines ..................68 concrete parts ......................................... 25 radio button ..........................................................................................................50 welds .............................................. 118 bolt group shape ............. 118 bolt clearance .... 93 button ........................................................................................................................ 67 numbering......... 24............................................... 134 commands ....................120 creating bolts ...... 23 common buttons ...... 69 working with ...157 construction circles .............................................. 23 C cast units ............................. 23 modify filter checkboxes .......................................................MODELING MANUAL Index 201 ..................34 ending ..........................................................................54 steel parts ................................36 compare ................ 134 clearance bolt ..................................... 51 closing models ................ 68 chamfer .................................................................................. 87 creating ................................................ 134 bolt clearance ... 118 class color ...... 101 checkbox ...........................................................95 Cross section sketch editor modifying sketches ...................................119 concrete parts creating ...........................................................................................................55 coordinate system in model.. 118 closing views .............. 42 color of model objects ....................................162 using sketched cross sections in models165 TEKLA STRUCTURES ..........................................44 holes .....................85 constraints in sketched cross sections ........38 copying .

126 techniques ......43 line extensions ....................44 default grid .............155 Custom Component Editor ............................122 types ..................................51 dependencies in parametric modeling .....128 inputting information .........43 coordinates .................15 imperial units .......................21 inquire ......................................44 named views ................123 fitting ............ 128 Drawing Editor ......116 interrupting commands ..................................................................................................................................121..158 locking shape using constraints .......115 changing direction ..................................................................128 202 TEKLA STRUCTURES ..........................23 filtering complement ............162 using variables ..................................115 stop flying ............122 wildcards.......24.................166 dialog box common buttons ............................................................................102 flying through model ....................................................115 adjusting speed .........174 cuts .........................23 inputting information ............103 F field ...........................................21 tabs ..............................................................44 default view .160 cross sections sketching user-defined .............................43 creating ..................24 using dialog boxes .................................157 name cross section .........155 adding dimensions .................................................21 distances in parametric modeling ..10 environment .....MODELING MANUAL Index ......89 I icons ...........50 deleting grids .......44 modifying ................................................................161 defining chamfers ...........................................................68 exponent notation .................................115 D decimals .......................43 H handles ..................................166 drag and drop ..........................................................................................................127 default grid ........................................................9 exiting models ......................................................115 start flying ............................ 25 components..................................................................................42 exploding cast units .................................................44 deleting............155 editors in Tekla Structures ...................36 E editor cross section sketch editor .....................................................................................................44 properties ....11 custom components tips on working with ......44 labels ............................................................................127 point symbol ......................................................161 testing sketches ....................................34 using .....................11 G grid views ....................156 user-defined ...........123 in dialog box ............................................................................................................cross section sketch editor ..........................................72 holes creating ....159 close cross section ...49 grids ...........161 save cross section ................................................................................

........................167 parametric profiles ............................... 103 list box ......................132 P pan .......................................... 26 L language .......137 locking and unlocking control numbers139 log file ...........136 parts ..............60 part add .................... 9 library profiles .................. 60 line cut ...............................137 interrupting ....105 part cut ............................................................................137 applying ..........................113 multiple selection list ..............................128 moving ....... 34 model browser in parametric modeling ...15 moving the model in the view window ....................................39 views .........................................................51 options ............................................135 and pop-marking ................................ 34 pull-down ....................... 174 modify filter checkboxes ................... 23 location of parts................10 N numbering .....137............................... 149 deleting a lot ................................................ 44 objects .................. 173 keep move or copy dialog boxes open173 working with custom components .............................................................. 149 creating a lot......................................... 150 deleting parts from a lot ..167 model browser .................................................................................................... 25 modifying cast units .......... 12 select switches ....................................... 162 views ......................................... 35 sketched cross sections ............................................................114......................................137 modified parts ....................136 new parts ....................................................................... 12 pop-up ....... 121 toolbars ...................... 167 Model Editor ......... 11 basic toolbars ............................................................................... 37 introduction ...................70 numbering series ..............................138 cast units .. 128 parametric modeling ...... 166 tips ............. 116 menus menu bar ..................................................................69 example .....69 assigning control numbers ........................................................136 history log .......................................................................................69 M magnifier ..........................................................35 opening models .................................. 138 assemblies ......... 64 measure .............................................68 settings..166 creating dependencies ........ 12....................... 32 modeling basics .......................................................... 173 modeling tips detailing .....104 TEKLA STRUCTURES ............................................................23 multiuser vs single-user ................K keyboard special keys ........ 50 O objects creating ........... 148 adding parts to a lot..................................... 71 lotting ............113.... 150 mouse settings .......MODELING MANUAL Index 203 .................................. 112 material ...................................................................... 16 screen layout ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 parametric modeling ....................135 what affects ...................................166 creating variables ........................................... 68 grids ..............................35 modifying ..............................

..30 in model ........58 shortening .32 how to select ...68 position ...................27...........................................................30 select switches........................12 screen layout in Model Editor ........172 steel parts ............................................................................................................. 34 R radio button ....................................................152 creating new sequence...59 sketching user-defined .........................................................................................129 Xmouse ........................26 snap switches .......54 phase..........................................................26 specifying ...............................60 part profile ............................84 user-defined attributes .53 picking ......................131 example ......... cambering..129 snap grid ........126 show assembly ......................................115 in rendered view ....................................116 204 TEKLA STRUCTURES ........................23 reference distance in parametric modeling ....................................129 points.....................124 select switches in Model Editor ................... in Model Editor .............................171 concrete parts ............................71 properties ...............................................................129 adding properties ............128 drag and drop ..34 rotating model ......114 automatically .........106 pop-up menu ...................................115 S saving models ............................................................................32 sequencer ..47 repeating commands .....71 reference points in snapping ..................................................................114 rotating view ........125 dialog box ...............................................................................................53 coordinates .........133 snap settings ..130 working with .................................142 rendered view .................................155 profiles library profiles ..................53 creating ...................................................................................................................................12......................168 phases ............................................60 parametric profiles ........26 polygon cut .........................................29 pointer settings ........................................................................................................124 using ...125 standard ............................................................................27 Xsnap .....................................27 overriding temporarily...............71 profile cross sections user-defined .148 single-user vs multiuser ........128 SmartSelect.....................12 select filter defining....... 29 snap switches ................129 Xsnap ..................................................32 selecting objects controlling the selection .........71 numbering .........................................................................................104 polygon shape .10 SmartSelect ....................................42 screen components ...........................................................................................85 location .............parts ..........................114 in wire frame view ................................................................66 warping concrete parts ..........34 position of parts ............................169 warping..................156 user-defined profiles ..............151 settings .................57 cambering ...........................MODELING MANUAL Index ... and shortening .....72 reference point ......................................151 using ..........130 picking points ......................................................................................................................166 reference line .........................................................................................28 Q querying objects ...............150 adding parts ............................40 pull-down menu ..................152 how it works ........................60 using sketched cross sections in models165 project properties ...................................................................

.........................49 properties ......................... 16 moving ............................................................................................................. 80 user-defined .......50 naming ................................. 13 tracking ........47 representation ................... 152 special keys ..............49 hiding objects ................97 symbols ......50 deleting named views ....................... 36 W warping concrete parts ...................................... 129 toolbars ..................................47 types .... 26 specifying points.............................................................60 using in models ..............................................................101 welds creating ........................................................ 15 in Model Editor ................................... 78 defining properties .................................................99 properties ... 147 exact lines...........51 displaying objects .................................................................................... 142 using tracking ...................125 view plane .................................................................................... 26 status bar ....................47 wire frame ......46 opening ............. 80 tips modeling ....................................................................169 weld preparation .................................... 173 tolerate cursor................................................................................................................. 141 using temporary reference points .........................47 T Template Editor................................. 14 steel parts creating ...128 no effect ................................ 46 basic view plane ....................................................... 152 function keys ...........................51 projection ..............................12 user-defined part attributes ............................................. 82 in reports and templates ............... 11 temporary reference points ..... 78 adding to parts .................95 types ...39.. 79 editing existing .......................................... 142 transparent commands ............................................................................ 142 testing sketched cross sections ...................................................127 user interface in Model Editor .................... 84 tiling ...................... 140 to orthogonal directions ........MODELING MANUAL Index 205 ................................................................... see Xsnap ................ 15 tools draw solid ...............................................................................49 closing..165 V view .................................................. 142 snapshot ....................111 TEKLA STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................... 82 Symbol Editor ................ 145 hide lines ........................................................ 140 to numeric coordinates ....................51 modifying ........50 default view ...........................46 rendered .......................................98 wheel mouse ...........................95 position......................................................38 view filter .................................................................. 11 U units and decimals ........... 152 print .........51 creating ..........................................................................snapping ...... 145 show component ..................................................... 162 tiling applying to concrete parts .......45 angle...............127 fractions .......66 user-defined profiles ....................................51 grid views .... 84 surface treatment about ..128 imperial ...................................... 147 tooltip .....46 views .........................

.............................111 centered zooms ...................................................................................................................38...................111 206 TEKLA STRUCTURES ......111 zoom in .....47 work area.........111 zoom ratio .............38........................MODELING MANUAL Index ........111 wheel mouse .........................................................14 wire frame .....111 magnifier ............... 41 X Xmouse ....................................... 41 work plane .................129 Xsnap ..................................................................................... using ..................111 zoom out .....112 settings ............29.......111 commands .................................................wildcards .......................................110 creating zoom window ............112 keystrokes .....................123 windows................... 129 Z zooming 3-button mouse ..............

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful