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Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics:
For Solid State Electronics and Optics
C.L. Tang
Cornell University
Ithaca, N. Y.
Cambridge University Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without explicit permission in writing from the author and the publisher.
2  1
Chapter 2
21.
(a)
x
ψ(x) [in units of A]
0 2 −2 4 −4 6
2
4
(b)
.
10
3
5
1
 
3
250
] ) 6 ( ) 4 ( [    ) (  1
2 2
6
1
2
1
4
2 2
· ∴
· −
∫
+ +
∫
·
∫
Ψ ·
−
+∞
∞ −
A
A dx x dx x A dx x
(c) 1 · > < x , by inspection.
Next, find σ
2
first:
2
5
] ) 6 ( ) 1 ( ) 4 ( ) 1 ( [  
2
6
1
2 2
1
4
2 2 2
· −
∫
− + +
∫
− · σ
−
dx x x dx x x A ;
therefore,
2
7
2 2 2
· > < + σ · > < x x .
2  2
(d) The answer to this question is tricky due to the discontinuous change in the slope of the
wave function at x = 4, 1, and 6. Taking this into account ,
< K. E. > =
−
h
2
2m
3
250
(0⋅1−5⋅ 2+ 0⋅ 1) ·
3h
2
50m
.
22. Given
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ ≤
< < π
· Ψ
. 0 for , 0
0 for ,
) (
a x and x
a x
x
x/a) sin(3
a
2
(a)
< H > · −
h
2
2m
2
a
sin( 3πx / a)
∂
2
∂x
2
0
a
∫
sin( 3πx / a) dx ·
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
.
(b)
) / 3 sin( ) / 3 sin(
2
) / 3 sin(
ˆ
2
2 2
a x E a x
x m
a x H π · π
1
]
1
¸
∂
∂
− · π
h
∴ E ·
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
.
(c)
t
e a x
a
t x
ma
i
2
2
2
9
) / 3 sin(
2
) , (
h π
−
π · Ψ .
(d)
[ ]
2 2
> < − > < · ∆ H H H
2  3
=
−
h
2
2m
2
a
sin( 3πx / a)
∂
4
∂x
4
0
a
∫
sin( 3πx / a) dx 
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
¸
¸
_
,
2
= 0 .
Yes, it is as expected. Since the given state is an eigen state of the Hamiltonian as
shown in (b), the uncertainty in the total energy must be zero as shown in (2.5d).
23. Prove the following commutation relationships:
(a)
[
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B ,
ˆ
C ] · (
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B )
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C (
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B ) · (
ˆ
A
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C
ˆ
A ) + (
ˆ
B
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C
ˆ
B )
· [
ˆ
A ,
ˆ
C ] + [
ˆ
B ,
ˆ
C ]
, Q.E.D.
(b)
]
ˆ
,
ˆ
[
ˆ ˆ
]
ˆ
,
ˆ
[ )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(
ˆ ˆ ˆ
)
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
]
ˆ ˆ
,
ˆ
[
C A B C B A A C B C A B C A B C B A
A C B C A B C A B C B A A C B C B A C B A
+ · − + − ·
− − − · − ·
. Q.E.D.
24. Prove the following commutation relations:
(a)
1
ˆ ] ˆ , ˆ [
−
− ·
n n
x
x n i x p h .
Applying the left side to an arbitrary state function
Ψ( x) gives:
. ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ] ˆ , ˆ [
1
x x n i
x
x
x x
x
i x x p
n
n n n
x
Ψ − ·
Ψ
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− · Ψ
−
h
h
Q.E.D.
(b)
x x
p i p x ˆ 2 ] ˆ , ˆ [
2
h · .
Similar to (a) above:
Q.E.D. . ) ( ˆ 2
] ) ( 2 [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ] , ˆ , ˆ [
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
x p i
x
x
x x
x x
x x p x
x
x
Ψ ·
Ψ
∂
∂
· Ψ
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− · Ψ
h
h h
(c) Not possible .
2  4
25. Consider the twodimensional matrices ˆ
σ
x
·
0 1
1 0
¸
¸
_
,
, ˆ
σ
y
·
0 −i
i 0
¸
¸
_
,
, and ˆ
σ
z
·
1 0
0 −1
¸
¸
_
,
, whose
physical significance will be discussed later in Chapter VI.
(a) The eigen values σ
z
of
,
_
¸
¸
−
· σ
1 0
0 1
ˆ
z
are clearly +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
z
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
z
1
1 0
0 1
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
0
1
b
a
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
z
= 1 :
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
z
1
1 0
0 1
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
0
b
a
.
The eigen values σ
x
of
,
_
¸
¸
· σ
0 1
1 0
ˆ
x
are clearly also +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
x
1
0 1
1 0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
1
2
1
b
a
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= 1 :
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
x
1
0 1
1 0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
1
2
1
b
a
.
The eigen values σ
y
of
,
_
¸
¸ −
· σ
0
0
ˆ
i
i
y
are clearly also +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸ −
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
i
i
b
a
y
1
0
0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
i b
a 1
2
1
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= 1 :
2  5
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸ −
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
i
i
b
a
y
1
0
0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
i b
a 1
2
1
.
(b) These eigen states in the Dirac notation in the representation in which
z
σˆ is diagonal are
as follows:
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
z
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
0
1
, 1 
, 1 
z
z
, and
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
1
0
, 1 
, 1 
z
z
.
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
x
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
1
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
x
x
, and
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
1
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
x
x
.
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
y
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
i
y
y
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
, and
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
i
y
y
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
.
Note: The + and – signs in the Dirac notation for the eigen states of the Pauli spin
matrices refer to the spin up and spindown states, respectively, in the
representation in which
z
σˆ is diagonal.
26. Consider the Hamiltonian operator
ˆ
H with discrete eigen values. Suppose the Hamiltonian is a
Hermitian operator which by definition satisfies the condition:
2  6
Ψ
*
( x)
ˆ
H Φ( x)dx ·
∫
Φ
*
(x)
ˆ
H Ψ(x)dx
∫ ( )
*
.
(a) The eigen values of the Hamiltonian are all real:
Let ) ( x Ψ and ) (x Φ in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the
Hamiltonian
ˆ
H corresponding to the eigen value E
i
.
i E E
E dx x H x dx x H x
i i
·
∫
Ψ Ψ
∫
· Φ Ψ ) (
ˆ
) ( ) (
ˆ
) (
* *
.
Similarly,
* * * * *
) ) (
ˆ
) ( ( ) ) (
ˆ
) ( (
i E E
E dx x H x dx x H x
i i
·
∫
Ψ Ψ
∫
· Ψ Φ .
The condition of Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian leads to: E
i
· E
i
*
.
(b) Let ) ( x Ψ and ) (x Φ in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the
Hamiltonian
ˆ
H corresponding to the eigen value E
i
and E
j
, respectively. The
Hermiticity condition gives:
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
*
·
∫
Ψ Ψ − dx x x E E
j i
E E j i
.
Therefore, if 0 ) ( ≠ −
j i
E E , then 0 ) ( ) (
*
·
∫
Ψ Ψ dx x x
j i
E E
, or the eigen functions
corresponding to different eigen values are necessarily orthogonal to each other.
27. Consider a particle of mass m in a potential field V(x).
(a) On the basis of Heisenberg’s equation of motion, (2.49) , and the commutation relation
(2.11a):
> < · > + < >· <
m
p
x x V
m
p i
x
dt
d
x x
ˆ
] ˆ , ) ˆ (
ˆ
2
ˆ
[ ˆ
2
h
.
2  7
(b) On the same basis, the time variation of the expectation value of the momentum is given
by :
x x
x
x
F
x d
x dV
p x V
m
p i
p
t d
d
· > < − · > + < · > <
) (
] ˆ , ) ˆ (
ˆ
2
ˆ
[ ˆ
2
h
,
which is known as Ehrenfest’s theorem.
Chapter 3
31.
(a) λ
deBroglie
(electron)
=
h
2mE
=
12.3
E(ineV)
A
o
.
λ
deBroglie
( proton)
=
0.3
E(ineV)
A
o
.
(b) λ
deBroglie
(neutron)
≅ λ
deBroglie
( proton)
=
0.3
E(ineV)
A
o
λ
deBroglie
( photon)
=
1.24
E(eV)
μ
2 4 6 8 10
2
4
6
8
0
λ
De Broglie
(electron)
λ
De Broglie
(proton)
E(eV)
A
o
2 4 6 8 10
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
λ
De Broglie
(neutron)
λ
photon
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
μ
E(eV)
A
o
32. Suppose we know that there is a free particle initially located in the range −a < x < a with a
spatially uniform probability.
(a) The normalized state function ) t , x ( 0 = Ψ of the particle in the Schroedinger
representation is, assuming the phase of the wave function is arbitrarily chosen to be
zero:
ψ(x)
x
(2a)
1/2
a +a
(b) The corresponding momentum representation is:
Ψ( p) =
h
π a
1
p
x
sin(
p
x
h
a) .
(c) The corresponding state function at an arbitrary later time ) t , x ( 0 > Ψ in the integral
form is :
Ψ(x, t ) =
1
π
1
2a
sin(
p
x
h
a)
p
x
e
i(
p
x
x
h
−
p
x
2
2mh
t )
−∞
+∞
∫
dp
x
.
33. Consider a free particle with the initial state function in the form of:
ikx ax
Ae ) t , x (
+ −
= = Ψ
2
0 .
(a) To normalize this state function:
1=  A 
2
e
−2ax
2
−∞
+∞
∫
dx =  A 
2
π
2a
; ∴ A =
2a
π
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
(b) After a considerable amount of algebra by first completing the square of the exponential
in Fouriertransform integral, it can be shown that the corresponding momentum
representation of this state function is:
Ψ( p) =
1
2πh
2a
π
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
−∞
+∞
∫
1/ 4
e
−ax
2
+ ikx−i p
x
x / h
dx =
1
2π(Δp
x
2
)
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1/ 4
e
−
( p
x
−< p
x
>)
2
4 Δp
x
2
,
where
Δp
x
=
h
2Δx
= h a ,
< p
x
>
h
= k , Δ x =
1
4a
.
(c) The corresponding state function ) t , x ( 0 > Ψ is:
Ψ(x, t) =
1
2πh
1
2π Δp
x
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
e
−
( p
x
−< p
x
>)
2
4 Δp
x
2
e
−i
p
x
2
2mh
t + i
p
x
h
x
dp
x
−∞
+∞
∫
=
1
2πh
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
1
4Δp
x
2
+
i
h
t
2m
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1/ 4
e
−
(x−
<p
x
>
m
t )
2
4h
2
(
1
4 Δ p
x
2
+
i
h
t
2m
)
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
+
i<p
x
>
h
(x−
<p
x
>
2m
t )+iθ
,
where θ is a timedependent phaseshift of no physical consequence that goes to zero at t
= 0.
(d) From c above, the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the position
for t > 0 are, respectively:
<x > =
hk
m
t and
Δx =
1
2 a
1+
2ha
m
t
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
.
Similarly, the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the linear
momentum for t > 0 are, respectively:
< p
x
>
t
= hk and
Δp
x
(t) = Δ p
x
(0) = h a .
(e) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum for this state is:
(Δx) (Δp
x
) =
h
2
1+
2ha
m
t
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
≥
h
2
,
which satisfies Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for all time t ≥ 0.
 1 
Chapter 4
41. From Eq. (419):
F
A
=
e
−ik
3
d
cosk
2
d −i
k
1
2
+ k
2
2
2k
1
k
2
sink
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
.
The corresponding transmission coefficient is :
T =
F
A
2
= cos
2
k
2
d +
k
1
2
+ k
2
2
2k
1
k
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
−1
= 1+
(2E −V
0
)
2
4E(E −V
0
)
−1
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
sin
2
k
2
d
⎧
⎨
⎩
⎫
⎬
⎭
−1
= 1+
V
0
2
4E(E −V
0
)
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
= 1+
ΔV
2
4(E −V
I
)(E −V
II
)
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
,
which is Eq. (4.20a).
In the limit of (E −V
0
) →0,
sin
2
k
2
d →
2m(E −V
0
)
h
2
d
2
; therefore,
E→V
0
lim
T = 1+
2mV
0
d
2
4 h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
= 1+
β
2
4
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
.
 2 
Plots of T for β = 4:
and β = 10 :
4 2. A particle with energy E in a region of zero potential is incident on a potential well of depth V
o
and width "d". From the expression for the probability of transmission T of the particle past the
well given in (4.20a), the approximate values of E (in terms of
2
h /2md
2
)
corresponding to the
maxima and minima in T:
(a) for β = 10 are:
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[n
2
π
2
+10
2
] and
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[
(n +1)
2
π
2
4
+10
2
] , respectively ;
 3 
(b) for β = 250 are:
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[n
2
π
2
+ 250
2
] and
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[
(n +1)
2
π
2
4
+ 250
2
] , respectively.
4 –3. Consider a onedimensional rectangular potential well structure such as that shown in Figure 4.9
below.
V = V
1
for x < a
V = 0 for a < x < 0
V = V
1
/ 2 for 0 < x < a
V = V
1
for x > a
I II
III
E
V = 0
a
0
V
1
IV
a
V
1
/2
The wave functions in regions I through IV and the equations describing the boundary conditions
on these wave functions for
(a) E > V
1
are:
Ψ
1
= e
ik
1
x
+ Ae
−ik
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
ik
3
x
+ Fe
−ik
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
ik
4
x
 4 
where
k
1
=
2m(E −V
1
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
3
=
2m (E −
V
1
2
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, k
4
= k
1
.
The boundary conditions (b. c.) at x = a are:
e
−ik
1
a
+ Ae
ik
1
a
= Be
−ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and k
1
[e
−ik
1
a
− Ae
−ik
1
a
] = k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and k
2
(B − C) = k
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
ik
3
a
+ Fe
− ik
3
a
= Ge
ik
4
x
and k
3
(De
ik
3
a
− F e
−ik
3
a
) = k
4
Ge
ik
4
x
.
(b) For V
1
> E > V
1
/ 2 , the wave functions in the various regions are:
Ψ
1
= Ae
α
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
ik
3
x
+ Fe
−ik
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
−α
4
x
,
where
 5 
α
1
=
2m(V
1
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
3
=
2m (E −
V
1
2
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, α
4
= α
1
.
The b. c. at at x = a are:
Ae
−α
1
a
= Be
− ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and α
1
Ae
−αa
= i k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and k
2
(B − C) = k
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
ik
3
a
+ Fe
− ik
3
a
= Ge
−α
4
a
and i k
3
(De
ik
3
a
− F e
−ik
3
a
) = −α
4
Ge
−α
4
x
(c) For E < V
1
/ 2 , the wave functions in the various regions are:
Ψ
1
= Ae
α
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
α
3
x
+ Fe
−α
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
−α
4
x
,
where
α
1
=
2m(V
1
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
α
3
=
2m (
V
1
2
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, α
4
= α
1
.
 6 
The b. c. at at x = a are:
Ae
−α
1
a
= Be
− ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and α
1
Ae
−αa
= i k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and i k
2
(B − C) = α
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
α
3
a
+ F e
− α
3
a
= Ge
−α
4
a
and α
3
(De
α
3
a
− Fe
−α
3
a
) = −α
4
Ge
−α
4
x
4 –4. Suppose the following wave function describe the state of an electron in an infinite square
potential well, 0 < x < a, with V(x) = 0 inside the well:
( ) ( )
⎪
⎩
⎪
⎨
⎧ ≤ ≤
= Ψ
π π
elsewhere 0
a x 0 for cos sin A
(x)
,
2a
x
2a
x 3
.
(a) One way to normalize the wave function is to expand the given wave function in terms of
the normalized energy eigen functions from x = 0 to x = a:
Ψ(x) = A
a
8
2
a
sin(
2πx
a
) +
2
a
sin(
πx
a
) ]
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
.
1=  A 
2
[
a
8
+
a
8
] ; ∴A =
2
a
.
(b) Timedependence of the normalized wave function is:
t
ma
i
t
ma
i
e
a
x
a
e
a
x
a
t x
2
2
2
2
2
2
) sin(
1
)
2
sin(
1
) , (
h
h
π
−
π
−
π
+
π
= Ψ
 7 
(c) If measurements of the energy of the electron are made, the values of the energy that will
be measured and the corresponding absolute probabilities are:
Energy Probability
2
2 2
2
ma
h π
1
2
π
2
h
2
2ma
2
1
2
4 5. Consider the onedimensional potential of Figure 4.10:
Region
V = ∞ x < 0 I
V = 0 0 < x < a II
V = V
o
a > x III
I II III
E
V = 0
V = V
0
0 a
V
∞
(a) The equations whose solution give the eigen energies of the bound states (E < V
o
) of the
above potential well are the same as those for the antisymmetric solutions of a full
potential well of depth V
o
from x = a to x = a, namely:
− ξ
n
cot ξ
n
= η
n
, ξ
n
2
+ η
n
2
=β
2
,
 8 
where
ξ
n
= k
n
a =
2mE
n
h
a ,
η
n
=
2m(V
0
− E
n
)
h
a ,
β =
2mV
0
h
a .
(b) The eigenfunctions of the three lowest energies assuming V
0
is sufficiently large so that
there are at least three bound states are qualitatively as shown in the following figure:
I II
III
0
ψ
n
x
n=1
2
3
4 6. Consider the case of an electron ( g x . m
e
27
10 91 0
−
= ) in a finite potential well of depth 1.25 V
and width 145 Å.
(a)
2a = d 2a = d =145 A
o
, V
o
=125 eV = 2 ×10
−12
erg.
β
a
=
2mV
0
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
= 5.75 ×10
7
cm
1
, β = 41.7 ,
(N−1)(π 2) < 41.7 < N (π 2) ;
therefore, the estimated number of bound states N = 27.
 9 
(b) To calculate the energies of the lowest two bound states, we must find the numerical
solutions of the secular equations:
2 / 1 2 2
] [ tan ξ − β = ξ ξ for the symmetric modes ,
and
2 / 1 2 2
] [ cot ξ − β = ξ ξ − for the antisymmetric modes .
Solving these equations using, for example, Mathematica gives:
ξ
1
=1.534 and ξ
2
= 3.07 .
The corresponding boundstate energies are, respectively:
E
1
=V
0
ξ
1
β
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
=1.69 meV and E
2
=V
0
ξ
2
β
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
= 6.79 meV .
(c) The wave functions for the lowest two bound states are sketched qualitatively below:
x
a +a
ψ
n
1
n=2
47. A particle of mass m is confined to move in a quantumwell in the (x,y) plane which consists of a
pair of impenetrable walls at x = ± a but is unbounded for motion in the ydirection.
 10 
(a) Let the total energy of the particle be E and the energy associated with the motion in the
x and ydirections be E
x
and E
y
, respectively. The allowed values of E
x
, E
y
, and E
are, respectively:
E
x
=
n
2
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
, E
y
= 0 →∞ is unlimited, and E = E
x
+ E
y
.
(b) E versus k
y
for various allowed values of E
x
. are sketched below:
k
y
E
x3
1
E
2
0
(c)
E
y
= E− E
x
= E −
h
2
π
2
2ma
2
.
(d) A possible, unnormalized, space and timedependent wave function to describe the
particle in Part c above is:
Ψ(x, t) = sin(πx / a)e
i
2mE
y
h
y−
i
h
Et
(e) If the particle's total energy is E = π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, n
x
can only be 1 and
E
y
=
h
2
k
2
2m
=
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
. The corresponding wave function of the particle must be of the
 11 
form:
Ψ(x, y,t ) = cos(πx /2a)[ Ae
i
π
2a
y
+ Be
−i
π
2a
y
] e
−i
π
2
h
4ma
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
t
.
(f) Suppose now an infinite potential barrier at y = ± a is imposed. The particle's energy
cannot be measured to be 3π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, because
E
x
+ E
y
=
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
( n
x
2
+ n
y
2
) .
For the total energy to be equal to 3π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, ( n
x
2
+ n
y
2
) must equal to 6, which is not
possible for any integer values of n
x
and n
y
.
5 – 1
Chapter 5
51. For an eigen state of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator, the following results are true:
(a) The expectation values of the position and momentum are zero:
0  ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2
 ˆ 
0
· > − <
ω
· > <
− +
n a a n
m
i n x n
h
, and
0  ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2
 ˆ 
0
· > + <
ω
· > <
− +
n a a n
m
n p n
x
h
.
(b) The expectation values of the potential energy and the kinetic energy (T
ˆ
) are
equal:
) 1 2 (
4
 ) ˆ ˆ ( ) ˆ ˆ ( 
4

2
 
ˆ

0 0
2
+
ω
· > + + <
ω
· > < · > <
− + − +
n n a a a a n n
m
p
n n T n
x
h h
,
> ·< +
ω
· > − − <
ω
− · > <
− + − +
n T n n n a a a a n
m
k
n x V n   ) 1 2 (
4
 ) ˆ ˆ ( ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2 2
 ) (
ˆ

0
0
h h
.
(c) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum ∆x∆ p
x
is equal to
(n +
1
2
)h:
∆ p
x
2
· < p
x
2
> − < p
x
>
2
·
hmω
0
2
(2n +1) ,
∆x
2
· < x
2
> − < x >
2
·
h
2mω
0
(2n +1) ;
5 – 2
∴ ∆p
x
∆x · (n +
1
2
) h .
52. For a onedimensional harmonic oscillator, in the basis in which the Hamiltonian is
diagonal, the matrix representations of :
(a) the position and momentum operators
ˆ
x and
ˆ
p
x
are, respectively :
ˆ
x · −i
h
2mω
0
0 − 1 0 0 • •
1 0 − 2 0 • •
0 2 0 − 3 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
,
ˆ
p
x
·
hmω
0
2
0 1 0 0 • •
1 0 2 0 • •
0 2 0 3 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
;
(b) the operator products
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
and
ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
, respectively:
5 – 3
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
·
0 0 0 0 • •
0 1 0 0 • •
0 0 2 0 • •
0 0 0 3 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
, and ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
·
1 0 0 0 • •
0 2 0 0 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
0 0 0 4 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
.
(c) Using the above matrices, it can be shown immediately that the commutator of
ˆ
a
−
and
ˆ
a
+
is :
ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
−
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
·
1 0 0 0 • •
0 1 0 0 • •
0 0 1 0 • •
0 0 0 1 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
·1 .
53. Substituting the wave function of the form :
Ψ
E
n
( x) · C
n
H
n
(
mω
0
h
x)e
−
mω
0
2h
x
2
into the Schroedingerequation gives :
[ −
h
2
2m
d
2
H
n
( x)
dx
2
+ hω
0
x
dH
n
(x)
dx
+
hω
0
2
H
n
(u) ] e
−
h ω
0
2 h
x
2
· E
n
Ψ
n
(x)
.
Change the variable from x to
u≡
mω
0
h
x gives indeed Eq.(5.33), which defines the Hermit
polynomials:
5 – 4
d
2
H
n
(u)
du
2
−2u
dH
n
(u)
du
+ 2(
E
n
hω
0
−
1
2
)H
n
(u) · 0 .
54. Suppose the harmonic oscillator is initially in a superposition state  Ψ(t · 0) > ·
1
2
[  0 > + 1>],
the expectation value of the position of the oscillator < x >
t
≡< Ψ(t)  x  Ψ(t) > as a function of
time is:
. sin
2
] 1  0  [ ] ) ˆ ˆ ( [ ]  1  0 [
2
1
) (   ) (
0
0
0
0 0
t
m
e a a
m
i e
t x t x
t i t i
t
ω
ω
·
> + > −
ω
− < + < ·
> Ψ Ψ < ≡ > <
ω − + ω −
h
h
h
55. From Maxwell equations, (5.65 ad), and the condition for transverse waves 0 · ⋅ ∇ E
r
that
∇
2
r
E −
1
c
2
∂
2
r
E
∂x
2
· 0 .
It is clear that
r
E (
r
r , t) ≡ E
x
(z,t) e
x
· i
2πhω
k
L
a
k
−
e
−iω
k
t +i kz
− a
k
+
e
iω
k
t−ik z
( )
e
x
(5.68a)
satisfies the above wave equation as long as k
2
·
ω
k
2
c
2
. Under the same condition, it can be
shown that (5.68a) and
r
B (
r
r , t) ≡ B
y
(z,t) e
y
· i
2πhω
k
L
a
k
−
e
−iω
k
t +ik z
− a
k
+
e
iω
k
t−ik z
( )
e
y
(5.68b)
satisfy (5.65c).
5 – 5
Substituting (5.68a) and (5.68b) into
1
8π
E
x
2
(z,t ) + B
y
2
(z, t)
[ ]
0
L
∫
dz
and making use of the commutation relationship (5.69) after changing the
t
a ’s into operators
gives (5.70):
ˆ
H ·[ ˆ a
k
+
ˆ a
k
−
+
1
2
] hω
k
and
E
k n
· < n 
ˆ
H  n > · ( n +
1
2
) hω
0
.
56. The RaylieghJeans law and Planck’s law for blackbody radiation as functions of wavelength
and in units of energy per volume per wavelength interval:
Since ν·
c
λ
, Planck’s radiation law as a function of the wavelength is:
ρ
b
(λ) dλ · ρ
b
(ν ·
c
λ
)
∂ν
∂λ
dλ ·
8πhc
λ
5
⋅
1
e
hc/ λk
B
T
−1
dλ .
In the limit of
h
λ
<<k
B
T , it reduces to the classical RayleighJeans law:
lim
λ→0
ρ
b
(λ) ·
8πk
B
T
λ
4
with its λ
−4
dependence on wavelength and, therefore, diverges in the ultraviolet limit λ →0.
6  1
Chapter 6
61. The matrix representations of the angular momentum operators
ˆ
L
x
,
ˆ
L
y
,
ˆ
L
z
,
ˆ
L
+
,
ˆ
L
−
, and
ˆ
L
2
,
for
l = 0 ,1, and 2, in the basis in which
ˆ
L
z
and
ˆ
L
2
are diagonal can be found from (6.29)
– (6.31) and (6.8):
For the trivial case of
l=0 , all these operators are equal to zero.
For
l=1, the matrices are:
ˆ
L
2
=
2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
z
=
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h ,
ˆ
L
x
=
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
y
=
0 −1 0
1 0 −1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
,
ˆ
L
+
=
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
2 h ,
ˆ
L
−
=
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
2 h .
For
l=2, the matrices are:
ˆ
L
2
=
6 0 0 0 0
0 6 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 6
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
z
=
2 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 0 −2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h, h
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
=
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
ˆ
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
x
L
h i L
y
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
−
−
= −
−
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
ˆ
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
,
ˆ
L
+
=
0 2 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h ,
6  2
h
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
=
−
0 2 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0
ˆ
L .
62. From the above matrix representations of the angular momentum operators, it can be shown that
all the cyclic commutation relationships among all such operators are indeed satisfied. For
example, for
l=1:
ˆ
L
x
ˆ
L
y
=
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
0 −1 0
1 0 −1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
2
=
1 0 −1
0 0 0
1 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
2
,
2
1 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
ˆ ˆ
2
h i
L L
x y
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ − −
= ;
∴
ˆ
L
x
ˆ
L
y
−
ˆ
L
y
ˆ
L
x
=
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
= i h
ˆ
L
z
.
Similarly, one can show all the other cyclic commutation relationships.
63. No. All three components of the angular momentum operators can be specified precisely at the
same time if the expectation values of all the commutators of the angular momentum operators
are precisely zero in a particular state. This is the case when the hydrogen atom is in the ground
state, or the slevel (
l=0).
64. Show that the n=2, 1 = l , and 1 =
l
m wave function indeed satisfies the time
independent Schroedinger’s equation given in the text for the hydrogen atom:
Ψ
211
(r,θ, φ) = R
21
(r)Y
11
(θ,φ) =[(2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
e
−r / 2a
0
] [−
3
8π
e
iφ
sinθ] ,
6  3
∂
∂r
(r
2
∂
∂r
)[(2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
e
−r / 2a
0
] = (2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
[2 −2
r
a
0
+
r
2
(2a
0
)
2
] e
−r / 2a
0
,
1
sinθ
∂
∂θ
sinθ
∂
∂θ
+
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
e
iφ
sinθ = −2e
iφ
sinθ .
Therefore,
, ) , , (
) , , ( ]
) 2 (
1
2
[ ) , , ( 2
) 2 (
2 2
1
2
) , , (
sin
1
sin
sin
1 1
2
211 21
211
2
0
2
211
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
211
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
φ θ Ψ =
φ θ Ψ − = φ θ Ψ
⎪
⎭
⎪
⎬
⎫
⎪
⎩
⎪
⎨
⎧
−
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
− + − − =
φ θ Ψ
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
−
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
∂φ
∂
θ
+
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛
∂θ
∂
θ
∂θ
∂
θ
+
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
r E
r
a m
r
r
e
a
r
a
r
r m
r
r
e
r r r
r
r r m
h h
h
and
E
211
= −
h
2
2m a
0
2
2
2
= −
me
4
2h
2
2
2
. Q.E.D.
Also, the wave function is indeed normalized:
Ψ
211
0
∞
∫
0
2π
∫
0
π
∫
2
r
2
sinθdr dθdφ = (2a
0
)
−3
r
4
3a
0
2
e
−r / a
0
dr
0
∞
∫
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
3
4
sin
3
θ dθ
0
π
∫
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
=1. Q.E.D.
65. A particle is known to be in a state such that
ˆ
L
2
= 2h
2
. It is also known that
measurement of
ˆ
L
z
will yield the value +h with the probability 1/3 and the value  h with
the probability 2/3.
(a) The normalized wave function, ) , ( φ θ Ψ , of this particle in terms of the spherical
harmonics is:
6  4
) , (
3
2
) , (
3
1
) , , (
1 1 11
φ θ + φ θ = φ θ Ψ
−
Y Y r .
(b) The expectation value, > <
z
L
ˆ
, of the zcomponent of the angular momentum of
this particle is:
<
ˆ
L
z
> =
1
3
h −
2
3
h = −
1
3
h .
66. The wave function of a particle of mass m moving in a potential well is, at a particular
time t :
2 2 2
z y x
e ) z y x ( ) z , y , x (
+ + α −
+ + = Ψ
(a) Ψ in the spherical coordinate system is:
.
3
4
3
8
2
1
3
8
2
1
] cos sin sin cos sin [ ) ( ) , , (
10 1 1 11
2 2 2
r
r z y x
e r Y Y
i
Y
i
e r r r e z y x z y x
α −
−
α − + + α −
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
π
+
π
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛ +
+
π
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛ + −
=
θ + φ θ + φ θ = + + = Ψ
To normalize:
.
4
1
;
3
4
3
8
)
4
2
4
2
( sin  ) , (  1
2 2
π
= ∴
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡ π
+
π
+
∫
= φ θ θ φ θ Ψ = N N d d
.
The corresponding normalized wave function is:
.
3
1
6
1
6
1
) , (
10 1 1 11
Y Y
i
Y
i
+
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ +
+
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ + −
= φ θ Ψ
−
(b) The probability measurement of
2
L
ö
and
ˆ
L
z
gives the values 2h
2
and 0,
respectively, is:
6  5
Pr obability =
1/ 3
1/ 3 +1/ 3 +1/ 3
=
1
3
.
67. Consider a mixed state of hydrogen:
Ψ= R
21
(r)Y
11
(θ,φ) + 2R
32
(r)Y
21
(θ,φ)
(a) The normalized Ψ is:
) , ( ) (
5
2
) , ( ) (
5
1
21 32 11 21
φ θ + φ θ = Ψ Y r R Y r R .
(b) Ψ is not an eigen function of
2
L
ö
, but is an eigen function of
z
L
ö
corresponding
to the eigen value h .
(c) The expectation value > Ψ Ψ <  L
ö

2
is :
2 2 2 2
5
26
6
5
4
5
2

ˆ
 h h h = + = > Ψ Ψ < L .
(d) The > Ψ Ψ <  L
ö

z
is h .
(e) eV H 6 . 13 )
9
1
5
4
4
1
5
1
( 
ö
 ⋅ + ⋅ − = > Ψ Ψ < .
68. Consider a hydrogen atom in the following mixed state at t=0:
) , ( Y ) r ( R ) , ( Y ) r ( R ) t , , , r ( φ θ + φ θ = = φ θ Ψ
11 21 20 32
3 0
(a) The normalized the wave function is:
6  6
) , ( ) (
10
1
) , ( ) (
10
3
) 0 , , , (
11 21 20 32
φ θ + φ θ = = φ θ Ψ Y r R Y r R t r .
(b) The atom is not in a stationary state, because it is in a mixed state of n=2 and n
=3.
(c) The expectation value of the energy for t > 0 is:
eV H 6 . 13 )
4
1
10
1
9
1
10
9
( 
ö
 ⋅ + ⋅ − = > Ψ Ψ < .
(d) The expectation values are :
2 2 2
5
28
) 2
10
1
6
10
9
( 
ö
 h h = ⋅ + ⋅ = > Ψ Ψ < L
h h
10
1
)
10
1
0
10
9
( 
ö
 = + ⋅ = > Ψ Ψ <
z
L
(e) The uncertainty of
z
L
ö
in this state is:
h h
10
3
]
100
1
10
1
[ ] 
ˆ
 
ˆ
 [
2 / 1
2
1
2 2
= − = > Ψ Ψ < − > Ψ Ψ < = Δ
z z z
L L L .
.
69. This problem is somewhat like the finite squarewell potential problem considered in the
text, Sect. 4.4. The Hamiltonian of a particle of mass m in a finite spherical potential
well:
⎩
⎨
⎧
≥
≤
=
a r if , V
a r if ,
) r ( V
0
0
6  7
is:
) (
2
ˆ
2
r V
m
H + ∇ − =
h
.
For 0 = l , it is:
) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
ˆ
2
2
2
r V
r
r
r r m
H +
∂
∂
∂
∂
− =
h
.
The corresponding Schroedinger’s equation is
) ( ) ( ) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
2
2
2
r R E r R r V
r
r
r r m
no n no
=
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
+
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
h
, for a r ≤ ,
and
) ( ) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
2
2
2
r R E r R
r
r
r r m
no n no
=
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
h
, for a r ≥ .
The equation for a r ≤ can be converted to:
) (
2
) (
2 2
2
r U
mE
r U
r d
d
h
− = ,
where U(r) = r R(r) . The general solution of this equation is:
kr B kr A r U sin cos ) ( + =
where
h
mE
k
2
= . To satisfy the boundary condition that R
n0
(r) must be finite at r =0,
A must be equal to 0, or
6  8
kr B r U sin ) ( = , for a r ≤ .
Similarly, for a r ≥ ,
r r
e D e C r U
α − α
+ = ) ( ,
where
h
) ( 2
0
E V m −
= α . For U(r) or R
n0
(r) to be finite at ∞ → r , C must be equal
to zero and:
r
e D r U
α −
= ) ( , for a r ≥ .
Continuity of the wave function R
n0
(r) and its derivative at a r = leads to the
secular equation:
α = − ka k cot .
Defining ka = ξ , the above equation is of exactly the same form as that corresponding
to the antisymmetric solution of the finite square potentialwell problem:
2 2
cot ξ − β = ξ ξ − , where
2
2
0 2
2
h
a mV
= β .
Just like in that problem, there is no solution, if
2
π
< β or
m
a V
8
2 2
2
0
h π
< . Q.E.D.
6  9
7  1
Chapter 7
71. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in the form given in (7.11) is:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
·
1
2
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
) Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
) Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
.
It is indeed normalized:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
2
∫ ∫
d
r
r
1
d
r
r
2
·
1
2
[ Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
)
2
d
r
r
1
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
2
d
r
r
2 ∫
+ Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
2
d
r
r
2 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
)
2
d
r
r
1 ∫ ∫
− Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
)
*
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
) d
r
r
1 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
*
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
) d
r
r
2 ∫
− Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
*
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
) d
r
r
2 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
)
*
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
) d
r
r
1 ∫
]
·
1
2
[ 1⋅1+1⋅1− 0⋅ 0 − 0⋅0 ] ·1 . Q.E.D.
71. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in terms of the radial wave functions and the
spherical harmonics in the Schroedingerrepresentation and the spin state functions (α
and β) in the Heisenbergrepresentation of a hydrogenic atom is:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
·
1
2
R
n
1
l
1
(r
1
)Y
l
1
m
1
(θ
1
φ
1
)α
1
R
n
1
l
1
(r
2
)Y
l
1
m
1
(θ
2
φ
2
)α
2
R
n
2
l
2
(r
1
)Y
l
2
m
2
(θ
1
φ
1
)β
1
R
n
2
l
2
(r
2
)Y
l
2
m
2
(θ
2
φ
2
)β
2
73. The total orbital and spin angular momentum quantum numbers of the groundstate of
helium atom:
2 Electrons :
l · 0 , m
l
· 0 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
and −
1
2
.
Atom:
L · 0 , M
L
· 0 , S · 0 , M
S
· 0 .
7  2
For lithium atom:
3 Electrons :
l · 0 , m
l
· 0 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
and −
1
2
.
l ·1 , m
l
· 0 or t1 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
or −
1
2
Atom: L ·1 , M
L
· 0 or t1 , S·
1
2
, M
S
·
1
2
or −
1
2
.
74. Ground state configuration Degeneracy
Carbon: (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
2
( 6⋅ 5 ÷2 ·15 ) .
Silicon: (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
2
( 6⋅ 5 ÷2 ·15 ) .
75. The ground state configuration of 
Ga : (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
6
(3d)
10
(4s)
2
(4p)
1
As : (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
6
(3d)
10
(4s)
2
(4p)
3
.
Chapter 8
81. Substituting (8.17) into the left side of (8.5) gives:
) ( 0 ) (
) (
) 1 ( ~
) ( ) , (
2 ) (
) (
ε + ∑ Ψ
1
1
]
1
¸
+
ω − ω
−
+ Ψ ≅ Ψ
∂
∂
≠
−
ω − ω
ω − ω
−
i j
t E
i
E
t i
i j
t i
j z ij
t E
i
E i
j
j
i j
i j
i
i
e r e
e
E E ez e r E t r
t
i
h h
r
h
r r
h .
Substituting (8.17) into the right side of (8.5) gives in the limit of ε→1:
∑ Ψ
1
1
]
1
¸
+
ω − ω
−
+ Ψ · Ψ ε +
≠
−
ω − ω
ω − ω
−
i j
t E
i
E
t i
i j
t i
j z ij
t E
i
E i
j
j
i j
i j
i
i
e r e
e
E E ez e r E V H
h h
r
h
r
) (
) (
) 1 ( ~
) ( ]
ˆ ˆ
[
) (
) (
1 0
,
which is the same as the left side.
[ Note: To derive the right side equation above, use is made of the fact that
ˆ
V
1
in the
representation in which
ˆ
H
0
is diagonal is:
ˆ
V
1
·
ˆ
1 ⋅
ˆ
V
1
⋅
ˆ
1 ·  E
j
>< E
j
 ez
˜
E
z
j≠ j'
∑
 E
j'
>< E
j'
 e
− iωt
and
< E
j'
 E
i
> ·δ
j' i
. ]
82. For circularly polarized waves:
r
E (
r
r ,t) ·
˜
E
t
2
( ˆ e
x
m i ˆ e
y
) e
iωt
and
ˆ
V
t
·
e
˜
E
t
2
( xm i y) e
iωt
.
Therefore,
W
i j
·
πe
2
h
2
x
i j

2
+ y
i j

2
[ ]
 E
t

2
δ(ω
i j
− ω) .
For spherically symmetric systems, such as atoms:
W
i j
·
2πe
2
3h
2
 r 
2
E
t

2
δ(ω
i j
− ω) ,
where  r 
2
·  x 
2
+  y 
2
+  z 
2
· 3  x 
2
· 3  y 
2
· 3 z 
2
.
83. For the selection rules on the orbital angular momentum,
< lm
l
 Y
10
 l' m
l'
> · Y
l m
l
*
0
π
∫
o
2π
∫
Y
10
Y
l' m
l
' sin θdθdφ ∝δ
m
l
m
l '
,
< lm
l
 Y
1t1
 l' m
l'
> · Y
lm
l
*
0
π
∫
o
2π
∫
Y
10
Y
l' m
l
' sin θdθdφ ∝δ
m
l
,(m
l'
t1)
,
and from the known properties of the integrals of three spherical harmonics,
 ∆l  ≡  l − l'  ≤1. On the basis of parity considerations,
l and
l ' must be of
opposite parity; therefore,
∆l ≡ l − l' · t1.
84. Accoring to the Rydberg formula (8.24):
1
λ
1s,2p
· R
H
(1−
1
n
2
) ,
λ
1s,2p
· 91.127 x
n
2
n
2
−1
nm .
For Lyman series:
n 2 3 4 5 6
Experiment 121.6 102.6 97.3 95.0 93.8 nm
Rydberg Formula 121.5 102.5 97.2 94.9 93.7 nm
85. Give the expectation value of the zcomponent of the electric dipole
moment of the hydrogen atom in the mixed state:
< Ψ (−ez)  Ψ> ·
−e
1+ C
12
2
<100  z  210 >C
12
+ complex conjugate
·
−C
21
e
1+ C
12
2
R
10
r R
21
r
2
dr Y
00
cosθY
10
sinθ dθ + C. C.
0
π
∫
0
∞
∫
≅
−C
21
e
1+ C
12
2
1.5a
0
+ C.C. .
8.6 An electron in the n = 3, l = 0, m = 0 state of hydrogen decays by a sequence of (electric
dipole) transitions to the ground state.
(a) The decay routes open to it are:
¦300>
→

210 > →
¦100 >
→ ¦21t1> →
¦100 > .
(b) The allowed transitions from the 5d states of hydrogen to the lower states are:
s p
d
f
g
1
2
3
4
5
8.7. Assume a Lorentzian fluorescence linewidth of 10 Ghz. The stimulated emission crosssection
(in cm
2
) defined in connection with (8.31) for a hypothetical hydrogen laser with linearly
polarized emission at 121.56 nm (Lymanα line)is:
σ
st
·
4π
2
e
2
ν
hc
x
12
g
f
(ν) ≅ 7.1x10
4
x
12
2
.
Using the value of the dipole moment found in Problem 85, x
12
2
≈ 0.62x10
−16
cm
2
,
∴ σ
st
≈ 4.4x10
−12
cm
2
.
Assuming all the degenerate states in the 2p level are equally populated, the
corresponding spatial gain coefficient (in cm
1
) is:
g · ( N
2
− N
1
) σ
st
≈ 4.4x10
−2
cm
−1
,
if the total population inversion between the 1s and 2p levels of hydrogen in the gaseous medium
is 10
10
cm
3
.
9 1
Chapter 9
91. The spinorbit interaction in hydrogen is of the form, (6.62) :
S
ˆ
L
ˆ
) r ( S
ˆ
L
ˆ
r c m
Ze
H
ˆ
o s
r r r r
⋅ ζ ≡ ⋅
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
3 2 2
2
2
The corresponding matrix for 1 · l in the representation in which
2
L
ˆ
,
z
L
ˆ
,
ˆ
S
2
,
ˆ
S
z
are diagonal is
a 6x6 matrix. To diagonalize this matrix within the manifold of degenerate states
n,l ·1, m
l
, s ·1/2, m
s
>, the columns and rows corresponding to the pairs of
(m
l
, m
s
) values
are arranged in a particular order:
) , (
s
m m
l
)
2
1
, 1 ( − − )
2
1
, 1 ( + − )
2
1
, 0 ( − ( 0, +
1
2
) )
2
1
, 1 ( − + )
2
1
, 1 ( + +
(−1,−1/ 2)
(−1, +1/ 2)
( 0,−1/ 2)
( 0, +1/ 2)
(+1,−1/ 2)
(+1, +1/ 2)
1/2 0 0 0 0 0
0 −1/2 1/ 2 0 0 0
0 1/ 2 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1/ 2 0
0 0 0 1/ 2 −1/2 0
0 0 0 0 0 1/2
¸
¸
_
,
⋅ ζ
nl
h
2
.
This matrix breaks down into two 2x2 and two 1x1 matrices which can be easily diagonalized .
Doing so according to the degenerate perturbation theory yields two new eigen values:
ζ
nl
h
2
/ 2
and
−ζ
nl
h
2
. These correspond to the two new sets of 4fold ( j ·
3
2
, m
j
· t
1
2
, t
3
2
) and 2 fold
( j ·
1
2
, m
j
· t
1
2
) degenerate levels split from the original 6fold degenerate level in the absence
of spinorbit interaction as given in Sect. 6.5. The two sets of new eigen states correspond to the
spinorbit coupled
j ·3/ 2 , m
j
· t 3/ 2, t1/ 2 and j ·1/ 2 , m
j
· t1/ 2 hydrogenic states.
The diagonization procedure gives also the relevant vectorcoupling coefficients
9 2
< lm
l
sm
s
 jm
j
ls > defined in (6.59) for the eigen functions for this particular case. For
example, the vectorcoupling coefficients:
< j m
j
l s l m
l
s m
s
> ·< 3/ 2,t3/2,1,1/21,t1,1/2,t1/ 2> ·1 ,
< j m
j
lslm
l
sm
s
> ·< 3/ 2,−1/ 2,1,1/ 21,−1,1/2,1/2> ·
1
3
,
< j m
j
lslm
l
sm
s
> ·< 3/ 2,−1/ 2,1,1/21,0,1/ 2,−1/2> ·
2
3
,
etc.
This is the procedure for calculating vectorcoupling coefficients in general.
92. The perturbation theory for the covalent bonded homonuclear diatomic molecule can be extend
to the case of heteronuclear diatomic molecules:
E
A
ˆ
H
AB
ˆ
H
BA
E
B
¸
¸
_
,
C
Aγ
C
Bγ
¸
¸
_
,
· E
γ
C
Aγ
C
Bγ
¸
¸
_
,
where
E
A
≡ < A 
ˆ
H  A > ≠ E
B
≡ < B 
ˆ
H  B >, H
AB
≡ < A 
ˆ
H  B > · H
BA
*
≡ < B 
ˆ
H  A >
*
.
Setting the corresponding secular determinant to zero gives:
E
γ
2
− (E
A
+ E
B
) E
γ
− H
AB
2
+ E
A
E
B
· 0 ,
which gives the bonding and antibonding levels of the heteronuclear molecule:
9 3
E
a
b
·
( E
A
+ E
B
)
2
t
1
2
( E
A
− E
B
)
2
+4 H
AB
2
[ ]
1/ 2
≈ E
A
B
t
H
AB
2
( E
A
−E
B
)
,
for ( E
A
− E
B
) >> H
AB
2
and E
A
> E
B
. The corresponding wave functions of the bonding and
antibonding orbitals of the molecule are:
 b > · C
A
( b )
 A > + C
B
( b )
 B > and  a > · C
A
(a )
 A > + C
B
( a )
 B > ,
where ( E
A
− E
a,b
)C
A
(a,b)
+ H
AB
C
A
(a,b)
· 0.
More specifically, they are:
C
A
(a,b)
·
H
AB
H
AB
2
+(E
A
−E
a,b
)
2
[ ]
and C
A
(a,b)
·
E
A
− E
a,b
H
AB
2
+(E
A
−E
a,b
)
2
[ ]
.
[ Note: H
AB
· − H
AB
.]
93. Suppose the unnormalized molecular orbital of a diatomic homonuclear diatomic molecule is:
Ψ
mo
· C
A
 A > +C
B
 B >
where  A > and  B > are the normalized atomic orbitals.
(a) The normalized molecular orbital is:
Ψ
m.o.
·
1
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
C
A
 A > + C
B
 B >
[ ]
,
9 4
where S ≡< A  B > is the overlap integral between the atomic orbitals and C
A
and C
B
are
assumed to be real.
(b) The corresponding molecular energy is:
E
m
≡ < Ψ
m

ˆ
H  Ψ
m
> ·
 C
A

2
E
A
+  C
B

2
E
B
+2C
A
C
B
H
AB
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
,
and
E
m
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
[ ]
·  C
A

2
E
A
+  C
B

2
E
B
+2C
A
C
B
H
AB
.
Following the basic concept of Coulson’s molecularorbital theory, differentiate the
above equation against variations in C
A
gives:
∂E
m
∂C
A
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B [ ]
+2E
m
C
A
+S C
B
[ ]
· 2 C
A
E
A
+ C
B
H
AB
[ ]
Minimizing the molecular energy against variations in C
A
, or setting ∂E
m
/∂C
A
· 0, yields one
condition that E
m
, C
A
, and C
B
must satisfy:
(E
A
− E
m
) C
A
+ ( H
AB
− E
m
S ) C
B
· 0 .
Similarly, by minimizing the molecular energy against variations in C
B
, or setting
∂E
m
/∂C
B
· 0, yields another condition E
m
, C
A
, and C
B
must satisfy:
(H
BA
− E
m
S) C
A
+ ( E
B
− E
m
) C
B
· 0 .
The secular determinant of these two homogeneous equations must be zero:
9 5
E
A
−E
m
H
AB
H
BA
E
B
− E
m
≅ 0 ,
assuming the overlap integral is negligible or S ≈ 0. This result is the same as that obtained in
Problem 92 above according to degenerate perturbation theory.
94. The number of atoms per cubic cell of volume a
3
in such a lattice:
N
a
3
· 2⋅[( 8⋅
1
8
) + 6⋅
1
2
] ·
8
a
3
.
The number of valence electrons per conventional unit cell of diamond lattice = 4⋅
8
a
3
.
95. The primitive translational vectors for;
SCC:
r
a · a e
x
,
r
b · a e
y
,
r
c · a e
z
;
FCC:
r
a ·
a
2
(e
x
+ e
y
) ,
r
b ·
a
2
(e
y
+ e
z
) ,
r
a ·
a
2
(e
x
+ e
z
)
96. Diamond lattice = FCC with 2 atoms per basis at ( 0, 0, 0) and
1
4
,
1
4
,
1
4
¸
¸
_
,
. It is, therefore,
equivalent to two inter laced FCC lattice displaced one quarter the distance along the body
diagonal of the FCC.
97. The CC bond length in the diamond structure =
3
4
a .
9 6
10  1
Chapter 10
101. For a twodimensional electron gas, the densityofstate is independent of the energy;
therefore, the Fermi energy is directly proportional to the electron density:
N
e
· D
(2)
(E) d ·
m
π h
2
0
E
F
∫
E
F
.
102.
(a) The chemical potential of a freeelectron gas in two dimensions is given can be
found from Eq.(10.29):
N
e
·
mk
B
T
π h
2
0
∞
∫
1
e
(E−µ)/ k
B
T
+1
d E
k
B
T
·
mk
B
T
π h
2
ln e
µ / k
B
T
+1
[ ]
;
∴
µ(T) · k
B
Tln[e
πh
2
N
e
mk
B
T
−1] ,
for N
e
electrons per unit area.
(b) Plot µ(T) / E
F
as a function of kT / E
F
as in Figure 10.6(b):
µ
E
F
k
B
T
E
F 0 0.1 0.2
1.00
0.95
.
10  2
103. For a typical 1D energy band, sketch graphs of the relationships between the
wave vector, k, of an electron and its:
(a) energy,
E
k
0
(b) group velocity,
Vg
k
0
(c) and effective mass.
m*
k
0
10  3
d. The approximate densityofstates
D
(1)
(E) ) for the energy band of part a aboveis
D (E)
k
0
(1)
104. The E(k
x
) vs. k
x
dependence for an electron in the conduction band of a onedimensional
semiconductor crystal with lattice constant a = 4 Å is given by:
E(k
x
) ·E
2
−( E
2
− E
1
)cos
2
[k
x
a/2] ; E
2
> E
1
.
(a) The E(k
x
) for this band in the reduced and periodic zone schemes.
periodic zone
reduced zone
2π π − 2π − π
0
E
1
E
2
E
k
x
a
(b) The group velocity of an electron in this band is:
10  4
v
g
·
1
h
∂E
∂k
¸
1
]
1
·
( E
2
− E
1
) a
2h
sin k
x
a
and is sketched below as a function of k
x
:
π
− π
0
V
g
k
x
a
(c) The effective mass of an electron in this band as a function of k
x
is:
m*· h
2
∂
2
E
∂
2
k
¸
1
]
1
−1
· h
2
( E
2
− E
1
) a
2
2
cosk
x
a
¸
1
]
1
−1
and is sketched below it in the reduced zone scheme:
π − π
0
m*
k
x
a
e
A uniform electric field E
x
is applied in the xdirection, the motion of the electron
is as follows:
10  5
k
x
a v
g
m
e
*
Acceleration
0.2 π > 0 > 0 x direction
0.5 π > 0 →∞ = 0
0.9 π > 0 < 0 +x direction .
105. Suppose now the corresponding electron energy E(k
x
) vs. k
x
curve in the valence band is:
E(k
x
) · −E
3
+ E
3
cos
2
[k
x
a/2]
(a) The E(k
x
) sketch for this band in the reduced and periodiczone schemes:
periodic zone
reduced zone
2π
π − 2π − π 0
E
3
E
k
x
a
(b) The group velocity of a hole in this band is:
v
g
· −
1
h
∂E
h
∂k
¸
1
]
1
·
E
3
a
2h
sin k
x
a
and is sketched below as a function k
x
:
10  6
π
− π
0
V
g
k
x
a
(c) The effective mass of the hole in this band as a function of k
x
in the reduced zone
scheme is:
1
2
3 2
1
2
2
2
cos
2
*
− −
1
]
1
¸
·
1
]
1
¸
∂
∂
− · a k
a E
k
E
m
x
e
h h .
The corresponding effective mass of an electron in the valence band is
π − π
0
m*
k
x
a
h
(d) A uniform electric field E
x
is applied in the xdirection, the motion of the holeis
as follows:
10  7
k
x
a v
g
m
h
*
Acceleration
0.2 π > 0 > 0 +x direction
0.5 π > 0 →∞ = 0
0.9 π > 0 < 0 x direction .
106. From (10.46) and (10.47), N∝(m*)
3 / 2
; therefore,
E
F
≅
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
kT
2
ln
N
V
N
c
¸
¸
_
,
·
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
3kT
4
ln
m
h
*
m
e
*
¸
¸
_
,
.
107. A semiconductor has N
c
=4x10
17
cm
3
and N
v
=6x10
18
cm
3
at room temperature and has a
band gap of 1.4 eV. A pn junction is made in this material with N
a
=10
17
cm
3
on one
side, and N
d
=2x10
15
cm
3
and N
a
=10
15
cm
3
on the other side. Assume complete
ionization of donors and acceptors.
(a) If the semiconductor is not doped and choosing E ·0 to be at the top of the
valence band or
E
v
·0 :
E
F
≅
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
kT
2
ln
N
V
N
c
¸
¸
_
,
· 0.7+
1
80
ln
60
4
¸
¸
_
,
≅ 0.73 eV ,
n
i
· N
c
N
v
e
−
E
g
kT
¸
¸
_
,
1/ 2
≅ 12x10
−13
( )
1/ 2
<<< N
d
+
≈ N
d
or N
a
−
≈ N
a
.
One, therefore, assume that on the pside:
p · N
v
e
−( E
F
− E
V
) / kT
≈ N
a
−
≈ N
a
and
E
F
− E
V
≈ kT ln
N
v
N
a
¸
¸
_
,
≈ 0.102 eV .
10  8
(b) Similarly, on the nside,
N
D
+
≈ N
D
· N
d
− N
a
·10
15
cm
−3
:
E
C
− E
F
≈ kT ln
N
C
N
D
¸
¸
_
,
≈ 0.15 eV .
(c) The built in voltage across the junction at room temperature is then:
V
B
≅1.4 − 0.15 −0.102 ·1.148Volt .
(d) The equilibrium minority carrier (electron) density on the pside of the junction at
room temperature is then:
n
p
· n
n
e
−V
B
/ kT
≈ N
D
e
−V
B
/ kT
≈ 47 m
−3
,
which is extremely small!
(e) When a forward bias of 0.1 eV is applied across the junction , the minority carrier
density on the pside increased by the factor: 6 . 54
/ 1 . 0
≅
kT
e .
0.102 eV
0.15 eV
0.1 eV
1.4 eV
E
c
E
v
p
n
V
app
11  1
Chapter 11
111. For a statistical ensemble of N spin1/2 particles per volume, the matrices representing
the Cartesian components of the spin angular momentum of such particles in the
representation in which
ˆ
S
z
and
ˆ
S
2
are diagonal are given in (6.50). The averaged
expectation values per volume of the three components of the spin angular momentum in
terms of the appropriate density matrix elements for the statistical ensemble of particles
are:
<
ˆ
S
z
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
1 0
0 −1
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
Nh
2
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) ,
<
ˆ
S
y
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
0 −i
i 0
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
i Nh
2
( ρ
12
− ρ
21
) ,
<
ˆ
S
x
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
0 1
1 0
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
Nh
2
( ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) ,
112. An electrical charged particle with a spin angular momentum will have a magnetization
proportional to the spin angular momentum. Suppose the averaged expectation value of
the magnetization of the medium considered in Problem 111 above is
r
M · N Trace[
ˆ
ρ (γ
ˆ
r
S ) ].
(a) The three Cartesian components of the magnetization in terms of the appropriate
density matrix elements as in Problem 111 above are:
M
z
·
Nγh
2
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) ,
M
y
·
i Nγh
2
(ρ
12
−ρ
21
) ,
11  2
M
x
·
Nγh
2
(ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) .
(b) The Hamiltonian of the spin1/2 particles in the presence of a static magnetic field
r
H · H
x
r
x + H
y
r
y + H
z
r
z , but in the absence of any relaxation processes is:
ˆ
H · −
γh
2
H
z
H
x
 iγH
y
H
x
+ iγH
y
 H
z
¸
¸
_
,
From the results of Part a above, on the basis of the density matrix equation
(11.16), the dynamic equations describing the precession of the magnetization
r
M around such a magnetic field are:
d
dt
(ρ
11
−ρ
22
) · −
i
h
2 H
12
ρ
21
−ρ
12
H
21
[ ]
· γ i H
x
(−ρ
12
+ ρ
21
)+ H
y
( ρ
12
+ ρ
21
)
[ ]
,
which can be shown to be
d
dt
M
z
· γ −H
x
M
y
+ H
y
M
x [ ]
· γ
r
M ×
r
H
[ ]
z
,
making use of the results in (a) above. Similarly for the x and ycomponents of
r
M ,
∴
d
r
M
dt
· γ
r
M ×
r
H , just like in classical mechanics.
(c) Suppose a magnetic field consisting of a static component in the
r
z direction and a
weak oscillating component in the plane perpendicular to the
r
z axis is applied to
the medium:
r
H · H
0
r
z + H
x
r
x ≡ H
0
r
z + H
1
cosω
0
t
r
x . The corresponding
Hamiltonian is:
11  3
ˆ
H · −
γh
2
H
0
H
1
cosω
0
t
H
1
cosω
0
t H
0
¸
¸
_
,
.
From (11.19),
d
dt
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) · −
( ρ
11
−ρ
22
) −( ρ
11
(th)
−ρ
22
(th)
)
T
1
+ iγ H
x
(−ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) .
Also, M
t
·M
x
t iM
y
. Therefore,
d
dt
M
z
· −
M
z
− M
z
(th)
T
1
+ i
γ H
1
2
( M
+
− M
−
) cosω
0
t .
Similarly, for the other components:
d
dt
M
t
· −
M
t
T
2
t iγ H
0
M
m
m iγ H
1
M
z
cosω
o
t .
These are the wellknown Bloch equations in the literature on magnetic
resonance phenomena.
113.
(a) From the dispersion relation for light waves, k
2
· εω
2
/c
2
, and the definitions
k ≡β+ iα and ε≡ ε' +iε" · ε
0
+iε",
β ≅ ε
0
ω
0
/c and α ≅ ε"ω
0
2
/ βc
2
.
Therefore, on the basis of (11.44) and near the resonance, ω
0
≈ω
21
and :
11  4
α ≅
ε"ω
0
2
β c
2
·
ε"ω
0
ε
0
c
·
4π
2
( N
1
− N
2
)ν
0
e
2
z
12
2
ε
0
hc
g
f
(ν
0
) ·
ω
p
2
f
4 ε
0
c
g
f
(ν
0
) ,
where ω
p
≡
4πNe
2
m
≈
4π(N
1
− N
2
)e
2
m
, if most of atoms are in the ground
state, is known as the “plasma frequency” and
f
z
≡
2mω
21
h
z
21
2
is known as the
“oscillator strength”.
(b) To compare the result obtained in Part a above with the classical result based on a
damped harmonic oscillator model instead of the twolevel atom model: Suppose
the equation of motion of the harmonic oscillator is of the form:
d
2
d t
2
z(t ) + Γ
d
d t
z(t ) +ω
21
2
z(t ) · −
f
1/ 2
e
m
(
˜
E
z
e
−iω
0
t
+
˜
E
z
*
e
iω
0
t
)
which describes the oscillating motion of a particle of mass m and negative charge
of the magnitude f
1/ 2
e bound to a fixed point in space similar to the oscillator
shown in Figure 5.1. The spring constant of the harmonic oscillator is equal to
mω
21
2
; the damping constant is Γ ; and the deviation of the particle from its
equilibrium position in the absence of any electric field E
z
is z(t).
For the classical result, assumeω
0
≈ ω
21
>>Γ
−1
so that
ω
0
2
−ω
21
2
≅ 2ω
0
(ω
0
−ω
21
). Solving the above equation for a damped harmonic
oscillator:
) (
4
1
~
0
ν
ω
− ·
f
g
m
E e f
z ;
and
Q ε · ε' + i ε" · 4π [ χ' + i χ"] · 4π χ' −i 4 π
N f e z
˜
E
¸
¸
_
,
,
11  5
therefore, the classical model gives also :
ε"ω
0
ε
0
c
·
ω
p
2
f
4 ε
0
c
g
f
(ν
0
) ·α ,
which is the same as the result obtained in (a) above on the basis of the quantum
mechanic densitymatrix equation.
(c) Since the complex dielectric constant based on the oscillator strength f using
either the quantum mechanical model or the classical harmonic oscillator model
gives the same result for ε” , it is obvious that the same should be true for ε’.
The classical harmonic oscillator model, therefore, can be used to characterize
the dispersion and absorption characteristics of linear optical media with only
three phenomenological parameters: the oscillator strength f, that characterizes
the strength of the charge e
2
, the resonance frequency ω
21
, and the damping
constant Γ associated with the bound particle in the harmonic oscillator model.
114. Differentiating (11.51)
' )] ' ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ) ' ( [ ) (
) ' )( / 1 (
' '
'
' '
) (
dt e t t V t V t
i
T
t
t t T i
t
n m mm
m
n m mm
mn
th
mn
mn
mn mn
− + ω
∞ −
∫
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
ρ − ∑ ρ +
ρ
· ρ
h
gives:
d
d t
ρ
mn
·
ρ
mn
(th)
T
mn
+
i
h
[ρ
mm'
V(t)
m' n
m'
∑
−V(t)
mm'
ρ
m'n
] −( iω
mn
+
1
T
mn
) ρ
mn
,
which is Eq.(11.27). (11.51), therefore, satisfies and is a solution of (11.27).
11  6
11.5 The secondorder nonlinear optical susceptibility ˜
˜
χ
(2 )
(ω
1
+ω
2
· ω
3
) relates the induced
macroscopic polarization component P
i
(ω
3
) to the applied electric field components
E
j
(ω
1
) and E
k
(ω
2
) in the medium:
P
i
( ω
3
) · ˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) E
j
(ω
1
) E
k
(ω
2
)
j ,k
∑
.
For any such medium with inversion symmetry, inverting the coordinate axes leaves
˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) invariant but changes the signs of all the vector components:
−P
i
( ω
3
) · ˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) −E
j
(ω
1
)
[ ]
−E
k
(ω
2
) [ ]
j,k
∑
· P
i
(ω
3
) .
Therefore, ˜
˜
χ
(2 )
(ω
1
+ω
2
· ω
3
) must vanish.
116. Consider a laser with the following parameters: T
1
~ 10
9
sec, T
2
~ 10
12
sec, T
ph
~ 5x10
12
sec , R
pump
~ 10
27
/cm
3
 sec,
Bhν
0
g
f
(v
0
) ~6x10
−7
cm
3
/sec. The corresponding laser rate
equations are:
d
d t
( N
2
− N
1
) · −10
9
( N
2
− N
1
) −1.2⋅10
−6
( N
2
− N
1
) N
ph
+10
27
d
d t
N
ph
·− 2⋅10
11
N
ph
+ 6⋅ 10
−7
( N
2
− N
1
) N
ph
+ 0(N
ph
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
Changing the scales: t →10τ, ( N
2
− N
1
) →10
15
n, N
ph
→10
14
N so that the
numbers are more manageable in the numerical computation:
11  7
d
d τ
n · −10n −1.2n N +10
4
d
d τ
N ·−2⋅ 10
3
N + 6 n N + 0(N
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
.
The steadystate solutions of these equations are: n
ss
· 333.3 and N
ss
≈16.6.
Changing to normalized parameters:
n
333.3
≡ y and
N
16.6
≡ z , the above rate
equations become:
d
d τ
y · −10 y (1+ 2z) + 30
d
d τ
z ·2⋅10
3
z( y−1) + 0( z
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
.
The turnon dynamics of such a laser can be calculated numerically on the basis of these
normalized laser rate equations using, for example, the Mathematica program:
NDSolve[{y'[x] == 20 y[x] Abs[z[x]]  10 y[x] + 30,
z'[x] == 2000 z[x] + 2000 y[x] z[x] + 0.001, y[0] == 0,
z[0] == 0}, {y, z}, {x, 0, 2}]
g = 0/0
Plot[Evaluate[ y[x] /. g],{x, 0, 0.5},PlotRange> {0, 2},
AxesOrigin>{0, 0},
AxesLabel>{"t", "n(t)/n(s.s)"}]
Plot[Evaluate[ z[x] /. g], {x, 0, 0.5}, PlotRange>{0, 10},
AxesLabel>{"t", "N(t)/N(s.s.)"}]
The resulting calculated dynamics for the normalized population inversion and
intracavity intensity are shown in the figures ( t in 10
7
sec) below. These results show a
pattern of laser relaxation oscillations with the frequency in the range of a few tenths of a
Ghz and a damping time on the order of tens of nsec, numbers characteristic of a
semiconductor laser.
11  8
Figure 11.1  Examples of the transient dynamics of a semiconductor laser.
Chapter 2
21. (a)
ψ(x) [in units of A]
4
2
−4
−2
0
2
4
6
x
(b)
+∞ −∞
1 = ∫  Ψ ( x )  2 dx =  A  2 [ ∫ ( 4 + x) 2 dx + ∫ ( 6 − x ) 2 dx ] =
−4 1
1
6
250  A 2 3
∴ A=
1 5
3 10
.
(c)
<x> = 1
, by inspection.
Next, find σ2 first:
σ 2 =  A 2 [ ∫ ( x − 1) 2 ( 4 + x) 2 dx + ∫ ( x − 1) 2 ( 6 − x) 2 dx ] =
−4 1
1
6
5 2
;
therefore,
< x 2 > = σ2 + < x >2 =
7 2
.
2  1
(d)
The answer to this question is tricky due to the discontinuous change in the slope of the wave function at x = 4, 1, and 6. Taking this into account ,
< K. E. > = −
h 3 3h (0 ⋅1−5 ⋅ 2+ 0 ⋅ 1) = 2m 250 50m
2
2
.
22.
Given
2 sin(3 πx/a),for 0 < x < a Ψ (x ) = a 0, for x ≤ 0 and x ≥ a.
(a)
< H >=− h 2 2m a
2
∫ sin( 3πx /a) ∂x
0
a
∂
2
sin( 3πx /a) dx = 2
9π h 2ma 2
2
2
.
(b)
2 2 ˆ sin( 3πx / a ) = − h ∂ sin( 3πx / a) = E sin( 3πx / a) H 2m ∂x 2
∴ E =
9π h 2ma 2
2
2
.
(c)
−i t 2 2 Ψ ( x , t )= sin( 3πx / a)e 2ma a 9 π 2h
.
(d) ∆H = < H 2 > − < H > 2
[
]
2  2
Q.D. (c) Not possible . C ] (b) ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ [ A.E. ] Ψ (x ) = − h 2 ( x ˆ = i 2 h p x Ψ( x) . it is as expected. Similar to (a) above: ˆ ˆx [x .D. 2 . C ] + [ B.E.D. p x2 ] = i 2h p x .E. Applying the left side to an arbitrary state function Ψ( x) gives: [ p x . p 2 .B ]C + B[ A. Q.h 2 =− 2m a 2 4 9π 2h 2 ∂ = 0 . C ] = ( A + B) C − C ( A + B) = ( A C − C A) + ( B C − C B) . BC ] = ABC − BCA = ABC − ( BAC − BAC ) − BCA ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = ( ABC − BAC ) + ( BAC − BCA ) = [ A. sin( 3πx /a) 4 sin( 3πx /a) dx . ∫ 2 ∂x 2ma 0 a 2 Yes. the uncertainty in the total energy must be zero as shown in (2.D. 23.3 . ∂2 ∂2 ∂ − x ) Ψ( x) = h 2 [ 2 Ψ ( x ) ] 2 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x Q. Since the given state is an eigen state of the Hamiltonian as shown in (b). C ] . Prove the following commutation relationships: (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [ A+ B. Q. 24.5d).x n ] = − i hnx n−1 . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = [ A. (b) ˆ ˆ ˆ [ x. x n ] Ψ( x) = − i h ( ˆ ˆ = − ih n x n −1 Ψ( x) ∂ n ∂ x − x n ) Ψ( x) ∂x ∂x .E. Prove the following commutation relations: (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ [ p x .
∴ b a = b 1 .25. − 1 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = 1 : 1 2 0 − i ˆ The eigen values σy of σ y = i 0 are clearly also +1 and 1. (a) 1 0 ˆ The eigen values σz of σ z = 0 − 1 are clearly +1 and 1. i 1 2 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = 1 : 2 .4 . ∴ b a = b a = b 1 2 1 . 0 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σz = 1 : a 1 0 a ˆ σz = = −1 b 0 − 1 b a . For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = +1 : a 0 1 a ˆ σx = = +1 b 1 0 b a 0 1 a ˆ σx = = −1 b 1 0 b a . ∴ b a = b 0 . For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σz = +1 : a 1 0 a ˆ σz = = +1 b 0 − 1 b a . ∴ b a = b 1 . whose 1 0 i 0 0 −1 physical significance will be discussed later in Chapter VI. 1 1 . 1 0 1 ˆ The eigen values σx of σ x = 1 0 are clearly also +1 and 1. and σ z = . ∴ b a . σy = . 0 1 0 − i 1 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ Consider the twodimensional matrices σ x = . For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = +1 : a 0 − i a ˆ σy = = +1 b i 0 b a .
respectively  σ x = 1 .5 . Suppose the Hamiltonian is a Hermitian operator which by definition satisfies the condition: 2 . and  σ = − 1 . a 0 − i a ˆ σy = = −1 b i 0 b a . and  σ = − 1 .up and spindown states. − > = 1 . − > = 2 − 1 . respectively  σ z = 1 . x x The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σy = +1 and 1 are. − > = 2 i . ˆ Consider the Hamiltonian operator H with discrete eigen values. respectively  σ y = 1 . + > 1 1  σ = 1 . + > 1  σ z = − 1 . + > 0  σ = 1 . ∴ b a = b 1 2 1 . − > = 2 − i . − > = 2 1 . − > = 0 . + > 1 1  σ y = − 1 . z z The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σx = +1 and 1 are. ˆ respectively. and  σ y = − 1 . representation in which σ z is diagonal. + > 1 1  σ x = − 1 . in the 26. − i (b) These eigen states in the Dirac notation in the representation in which σ z is diagonal are ˆ as follows: The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σz = +1 and 1 are. Note: The + and – signs in the Dirac notation for the eigen states of the Pauli spinmatrices refer to the spin. + > 1 1  σ y = 1 .
The condition of Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian leads to: E i = E * .ˆ ˆ ∫ Ψ ( x) H Φ( x)dx = ( ∫ Φ (x) H Ψ(x)dx ) * * * . * then ∫ ΨEi ( x ) ΨE j ( x) dx = 0 . * ˆ ˆ ( ∫ Φ * ( x ) H Ψ ( x ) dx ) * = ( ∫ ΨEi ( x ) H ΨEi ( x ) dx ) * = E i* .49) . 27. * * ˆ ˆ ∫ Ψ ( x) H Φ ( x ) dx = ∫ ΨEi ( x) H ΨEi ( x) dx = Ei . The . respectively.6 . if ( Ei − E j ) ≠ 0 . (2. or the eigen functions corresponding to different eigen values are necessarily orthogonal to each other. x] > = < x > . and the commutation relation (2. Therefore. (a) The eigen values of the Hamiltonian are all real: Let Ψ ( x) and Φ (x ) in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the ˆ Hamiltonian H corresponding to the eigen value Ei .11a): p2 ˆ ˆ p ˆ d i ˆ ˆ ˆ < x >= < [ x + V ( x ) . Similarly. (a) On the basis of Heisenberg’s equation of motion. i Let Ψ ( x) and Φ (x ) in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the (b) ˆ Hamiltonian H corresponding to the eigen value Ei and Ej Hermiticity condition gives: * ( Ei − E j ) ∫ ΨEi ( x) ΨE j ( x) dx = 0 . Consider a particle of mass m in a potential field V(x). dt h 2m m 2 .
(b) On the same basis.7 . p x ] > = − < > = Fx dt h 2m dx . 2 . which is known as Ehrenfest’s theorem. the time variation of the expectation value of the momentum is given by : p2 ˆ ˆ d i dV ( x ) ˆ ˆ ˆ < p x >= < [ x + V ( x ) .
8 0. Suppose we know that there is a free particle initially located in the range −a < x < a spatially uniform probability.3 E(in eV ) o A .8 0.6 o 0.3 E(in eV ) .6 A A 4 2 μ 0.2 λ (proton) De Broglie 0 2 4 0 2 4 6 E(eV) 8 10 32.4 0.2 8 6 E(eV) 10 λDe Broglie (neutron) λphoton 0. (a) with a The normalized state function Ψ( x .24 E (eV ) μ 8 6 o λDe Broglie (electron) 0. (a) λ(electron ) = deBroglie h = 2mE o 12. 0.3 E(in eV ) A (b) proton ) λ(neutron ) ≅ λ(deBroglie = deBroglie o A photon) λ(deBroglie = 1.t = 0 ) of the particle in the Schroedinger representation is. assuming the phase of the wave function is arbitrarily chosen to be zero: .4 0. proton ) λ(deBroglie = 0.Chapter 3 31.
33.ψ(x) (2a)1/2 x a +a (b) The corresponding momentum representation is: Ψ( p) = h 1 p sin( x a) π a px h . Consider a free particle with the initial state function in the form of: Ψ( x . (c) The corresponding state function at an arbitrary later time Ψ( x .t > 0 ) in the integral form is : 1 1 2a +∞ −∞ Ψ(x. (a) To normalize this state function: +∞ −∞ 1=  A  2 ∫e −2ax 2 dx =  A  2 π 2a .t ) = π ∫ sin( px a) i( p x x − p 2 t ) x h e h 2mh dp x px . ⎛ 2a ⎞1/ 4 ∴ A =⎜ ⎟ ⎝π⎠ .t = 0 ) = Ae − ax 2 + ikx .
t) = ⎜ 2⎟ 2πh ⎝ 2π Δpx ⎠ +∞ − ( p x −< p x >) 2 4 Δp x −∞ 2 ∫e e −i 2 px p t+i x x 2mh h dpx ⎛ 1 ⎞1/ 4 ⎡ 1 i t ⎤ + =⎜ ⎥ ⎢ 2 2⎟ ⎝ 2πh ⎠ ⎣ 4 Δ px h 2m ⎦ −1/ 4 e ⎡ ⎤ <p > ⎢ ⎥ (x− x t )2 m ⎥ + i< p x > (x− < p x > t )+ iθ −⎢ 1 i t ⎥ ⎢ 2 h 2m 4h ( + )⎥ ⎢ 2 4 Δ p x h 2m ⎦ ⎣ . < px > =k h . Δx= 1 4a . where Δ px = h =h a 2Δ x . respectively: 1 <x >= hk t m and 2 1 ⎡ ⎛ 2ha ⎞ ⎤ 2 Δx = 1+ ⎜ t⎟ ⎥ . the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the position for t > 0 are. ⎢ 2 a⎣ ⎝ m ⎠⎦ . where θ is a timedependent phaseshift of no physical consequence that goes to zero at t = 0. (c) The corresponding state function Ψ( x .t > 0 ) is: 1/ 4 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Ψ(x. (d) From c above.(b) After a considerable amount of algebra by first completing the square of the exponential in Fouriertransform integral. it can be shown that the corresponding momentum representation of this state function is: ( p x −< p x >)2 2 4 Δp x 1 Ψ( p) = 2πh +∞ −∞ ∫ ⎛ 2a ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝π⎠ 1/ 4 e −ax 2 + ikx −i p x x / h − ⎡ 1 ⎤ dx = ⎢ e 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2π(Δpx ) ⎦ 1/ 4 .
which satisfies Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for all time t ≥ 0 . (e) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum for this state is: 1 2 h ⎡ ⎛ 2ha ⎞ ⎤ 2 h t⎟ ⎥ ≥ (Δ x) (Δpx ) = ⎢1+ ⎜ 2⎣ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎦ 2 . respectively: < px > t = hk and Δ px (t) = Δ px (0) = h a .Similarly. the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the linear momentum for t > 0 are. .
(419): e−ik3 d F = 2 ⎤ A ⎡ k 2 + k2 cos k2 d − i 1 sin k 2 d⎥ ⎢ 2k1k 2 ⎦ ⎣ . sin 2 k 2 d → 2m(E − V0 ) 2 d . h2 lim E →V0 −1 ⎡ ⎡ β2⎤ 2mV0 d 2 ⎤ T = ⎢1 + ⎥ = ⎢1 + ⎥ 4 h2 ⎦ 4⎦ ⎣ ⎣ −1 . 1 . The corresponding transmission coefficient is : 2 ⎡ ⎤ 2 ⎛ 2 + k2 ⎞2 2 F ⎢cos2 k2 d + ⎜ k1 T= = ⎟ sin k 2 d⎥ A ⎝ 2 k1k2 ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎧ ⎡ (2 E − V ) 2 ⎫−1 ⎤ 2 0 = ⎨1 + ⎢ − 1⎥ sin k 2 d ⎬ ⎩ ⎣ 4 E ( E − V0 ) ⎦ ⎭ ⎡ ⎤ V = ⎢1 + sin 2 k 2 d⎥ ⎣ 4 E ( E − V0 ) ⎦ 2 0 −1 . In the limit of (E − V0 ) → 0 .20a). therefore. (4. ⎡ ⎤ −1 ΔV 2 2 = ⎢1 + sin k2 d⎥ ⎣ 4( E − VI )( E − VII ) ⎦ which is Eq.Chapter 4 41. From Eq.
A particle with energy E in a region of zero potential is incident on a potential well of depth Vo and width "d". 2md 2 4 (a) 2 . respectively . From the expression for the probability of transmission T of the particle past the well given in (4.Plots of T for β = 4: and β = 10 : 4 2.20a). the approximate values of E (in terms of h 2 /2md2) corresponding to the maxima and minima in T: for β = 10 are: En ≅ h2 [n 2 π 2 + 10 2 ] 2md 2 and En ≅ h 2 (n + 1) 2 π 2 [ + 10 2 ] .
respectively. Consider a onedimensional rectangular potential well structure such as that shown in Figure 4. V = V1 V = 0 V = V1/ 2 V = V1 x < a 0 < x< a x> a for for a < x < 0 for for I V1 E II III IV V1/2 a V=0 a 0 The wave functions in regions I through IV and the equations describing the boundary conditions on these wave functions for E > V1 (a) are: Ψ1 = e ik1 x + Ae−ik1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De ik3 x + F e−ik3 x Ψ4 = G e ik4 x 3 .9 below.(b) for β = 250 are: En ≅ h2 [n 2 π 2 + 250 2 ] 2md 2 and En ≅ h 2 (n + 1) 2 π 2 [ + 250 2 ] . 2md 2 4 4 –3.
at x = 0 are: k1 [e−ik1 a − Ae−ik1 a ] = k 2 [Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ] .where ⎡ 2m ( E − V1) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 k1 = ⎢ . k3 = ⎢ ⎥ .c. k2 = ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ h ⎦ h2 1 1 ⎡ V1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 2m (E − 2 ) ⎥ . De ik3 a + F e − ik3 a = G e ik4 x and k3 ( De ik3 a − F e − ik3 a ) = k 4 G e ik4 x .c. the wave functions in the various regions are: Ψ1 = Ae α1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De ik3 x + F e−ik3 x Ψ4 = G e−α 4 x where . k4 = k1 . B+C =D+ F The corresponding b. h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 The boundary conditions (b. c. 4 . (b) For V1 > E > V1 / 2 .) at x = a are: e−ik1 a + Ae ik1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b. at x = a are: and k2 (B − C) = k 3 (D − F) .
at x = a are: and k2 (B − C) = k 3 (D − F) . k2 = ⎢ h 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h 1 1 ⎡ V1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 2m (E − 2 ) ⎥ . at at x = a are: Ae −α1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b. the wave functions in the various regions are: Ψ1 = Ae α1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De α 3 x + F e−α 3 x Ψ4 = G e−α 4 x where ⎡2 m (V1 − E ) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 α1 = ⎢ ⎥ . α 4 = α1 . De ik3 a + F e − ik3 a = G e−α 4 a and i k3 ( De ik3 a − F e − ik3 a ) = − α 4 G e−α 4 x (c) For E < V1 / 2 .c. at x = 0 are: α1 Ae−α a = i k2 [ Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ] . α3 = ⎢ ⎥ . k3 = ⎢ ⎥ .⎡2 m (V1 − E ) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 α1 = ⎢ ⎥ . c. h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 The b. h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 5 . ⎡ ⎤2 V1 ⎢2m ( 2 − E) ⎥ . B+C =D+ F The corresponding b. α 4 = α1 .c. k2 = ⎢ h 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h 1 1 .
c. Suppose the following wave function describe the state of an electron in an infinite square potential well. ⎢ a a ⎦ 8⎣ a a Ψ( x ) = A a a 2 1 =  A 2 [ + ] . t )= 1 2πx −i ma 2 t 1 πx −i 2 t sin( )e sin( )e 2 ma + a a a a 2 π2h π2h 6 . with V(x) = 0 inside the well: π ⎧ Asin 32ax cos π x . at x = 0 are: B+C =D+ F The corresponding b. for0≤ x≤ a ⎪ 2a Ψ(x)= ⎨ ⎪0 elsewhere ⎩ ( ) ( ) . (a) One way to normalize the wave function is to expand the given wave function in terms of the normalized energy eigen functions from x = 0 to x = a: a⎡ 2 2 πx ⎤ 2πx sin( )+ sin( ) ] ⎥ .c. at at x = a are: Ae −α1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b. ∴ A = 8 8 a . and . 0 < x < a.The b.c. and 4 –4. at x = a are: De α 3 a + F e − α 3 a = G e−α 4 a α 3 (De α 3 a − F e − α 3 a ) = − α 4 G e−α 4 x i k2 (B − C) = α 3 (D − F) α1 Ae−α a = i k2 [Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ]. (b) Timedependence of the normalized wave function is: Ψ ( x.
10: Region V= ∞ V= 0 V = Vo x<0 0<x<a a>x I II III V ∞ I II III V = V0 E V=0 0 a (a) The equations whose solution give the eigen energies of the bound states (E < Vo) of the above potential well are the same as those for the antisymmetric solutions of a full potential well of depth Vo from x = a to x = a. . Probability 1 2 1 2 Consider the onedimensional potential of Figure 4. namely: − ξ n cot ξ n = ηn . the values of the energy that will be measured and the corresponding absolute probabilities are: Energy 2 π2h 2 ma 2 π 2h2 2ma 2 4 5.(c) If measurements of the energy of the electron are made. ξ 2 + η2 = β 2 n n 7 .
1 o β ⎡2mV0 ⎤ 2 = = 5. 8 . ηn = 2m (V 0 − E n ) a . β = 41. (b) The eigenfunctions of the three lowest energies assuming V0 is sufficiently large so that there are at least three bound states are qualitatively as shown in the following figure: ψn I II III n=1 0 x 3 2 4 6.7 .91x10 −27 g ) in a finite potential well of depth 1. therefore. ⎣ ⎦ a ⎢ h2 ⎥ (N −1)(π 2) < 41.25 V and width 145 Å. h β= 2mV 0 a h .where ξ n = kn a = 2mE n a h . (a) 2a = d 2 a = d = 145 A . Vo = 125 eV = 2 × 10−12 erg . the estimated number of bound states N = 27.7 < N (π 2) . Consider the case of an electron ( me = 0.75 ×10 7 cm1 .
⎝β⎠ ⎝β⎠ (c) The wave functions for the lowest two bound states are sketched qualitatively below: ψn n=2 1 a 47.69 meV and E 2 = V0 ⎜ ⎟ = 6. and −ξcotξ= [β 2 − ξ 2 ] 1 / 2 for the antisymmetric modes .(b) To calculate the energies of the lowest two bound states. Mathematica gives: ξ1 = 1.y) plane which consists of a pair of impenetrable walls at x = ± a but is unbounded for motion in the ydirection. for example.534 ξ 2 = 3. respectively: ⎛ ξ1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ξ2 ⎞ 2 E1 = V0 ⎜ ⎟ = 1. we must find the numerical solutions of the secular equations: ξtanξ= [β 2 − ξ 2 ] 1 / 2 for the symmetric modes . +a x A particle of mass m is confined to move in a quantumwell in the (x. 9 . The corresponding boundstate energies are.79 meV .07 and . Solving these equations using.
E y = 0 → ∞ is unlimited. nx can only be 1 and E y = . respectively: n 2π 2 h 2 8ma 2 Ex = . unnormalized.10  .t) = sin(πx /a)e i 2mE y h y− i Et h (e) If the particle's total energy is E = π2 h 2 /4ma2.(a) Let the total energy of the particle be E and the energy associated with the motion in the x. (b) E versus ky for various allowed values of Ex. and E are.and timedependent wave function to describe the particle in Part c above is: Ψ(x. and E = E x + E y . respectively.and ydirections be Ex and Ey. space. Ey . The allowed values of Ex. are sketched below: E Ex3 2 1 0 ky (c) Ey = E − Ex = E − h 2π 2 2ma 2 . (d) A possible. The corresponding wave function of the particle must be of the h2k 2 π 2h2 = 2m 8ma 2 .
form: Ψ(x. . ( n x + n y ) must equal to 6. The particle's energy cannot be measured to be 3π2 h 2 /4ma2 . which is not possible for any integer values of nx and ny. 2 2 For the total energy to be equal to 3π2 h 2 /4ma2 .t) = cos(πx /2a)[ Ae i π 2a y + Be −i π 2a y ]e ⎛ π2h ⎞ −i ⎜ ⎟t ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝ 4 ma ⎠ .11  . (f) Suppose now an infinite potential barrier at y = ± a is imposed. because π 2h2 2 2 ( nx + ny ) 8ma 2 Ex + Ey = . y.
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ < nT 2m 4 4 hω k h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ < n  V ( x )  n >=− < n ( a + − a − )( a + − a − )  n >= 0 (2n + 1)=< n  T  n > . 2 2mω0 4 the position and momentum ∆x ∆ px is equal to (c) The uncertainty product of 1 (n + )h : 2 hmω 0 (2n + 1) 2 ∆ p2 = < p2 > − < px > 2 = x x . 2mω0 and ˆ < n  p x  n >= hmω0 ˆ ˆ < n ( a + + a − )  n >= 0 .Chapter 5 51. the following results are true: (a) The expectation values of the position and momentum are zero: ˆ < n  x  n >=i h ˆ ˆ < n ( a + − a − )  n >= 0 . 2 (b) ˆ The expectation values of the potential energy and the kinetic energy (T ) are equal: 2 ˆ  n >=< n  p x  n >= hω0 < n ( a + + a − )( a + + a − )  n >= hω 0 (2n + 1) . 5–1 . For an eigen state of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator. ∆ x 2 = < x 2 > − < x >2 = h (2n + 1) 2mω 0 .
in the basis in which the Hamiltonian is diagonal. respectively: 5–2 . For a onedimensional harmonic oscillator.1 ∴ ∆ px ∆x = (n + ) h 2 . ˆ px = 0 1 0 0 • • 1 0 2 0 • • 0 2 0 3 • • 0 0 3 0 • • • • • • • • . respectively : h ˆ x = −i 2mω 0 hmω 0 2 0 − 1 0 0 1 0 − 2 0 0 2 0 − 3 0 0 3 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . the matrix representations of : (a) ˆ ˆ the position and momentum operators x and px are. (b) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ the operator products a+ a− and a− a+ . 52.
0 0 0 ˆ + ˆ− aa = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 1 0 0 • • 0 2 0 • • . (c) Using the above matrices.(5. Change the variable from x to u≡ polynomials: mω 0 x gives indeed Eq. it can be shown immediately that the commutator of ˆ ˆ a− and a + is : 1 0 0 ˆ− ˆ + ˆ + ˆ− a a −a a = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 1 0 0 • • 0 1 0 • • =1 0 0 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • . which defines the Hermit h 5–3 . Substituting the wave function of the form : mω 0 2 − x mω 0 ΨEn ( x) = Cn H n ( x)e 2h h into the Schroedingerequation gives : h ω0 2h [− − h2 d 2H n ( x) dH n (x) hω 0 + hω 0 x + H n (u) ] e 2 2m dx dx 2 x2 = E n Ψ n (x) .33). 53. and 0 0 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 0 0 ˆ−ˆ+ aa = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 2 0 0 • • 0 3 0 • • 0 0 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • .
and the condition for transverse waves ∇⋅E = 0 that r r 1 ∂2 E ∇ E − 2 2 =0 c ∂x 2 . Suppose the harmonic oscillator is initially in a superposition state  Ψ(t = 0) > = 1 [  0 > + 1 >]. t) ≡ By (z.68a) and r r 2πhω k − −iω k t +ik z B( r. 5–4 . 2 the expectation value of the position of the oscillator < x >t ≡< Ψ(t)  x  Ψ(t) > as a function of time is: < x > t ≡< Ψ(t )  x  Ψ (t ) > 1 h ˆ ˆ = [< 0 +< 1  e − iω 0 t ] [ −i (a + −a − )] [ 0 >+e i ω0 t  1 >] 2 hmω 0 = h sin ω 0t . 2mω 0 55. It is clear that r r 2πhω k − −iω k t +i kz E ( r. t) ≡ E x (z.t) e y = i − a+ e iω k t−ik z )e y (ak e k L (5. it can be c 2 shown that (5. 54.68b) satisfy (5. (5.65 ad). Under the same condition.65c).68a) ωk satisfies the above wave equation as long as k = 2 . r From Maxwell equations.d H n (u) dH (u) E 1 − 2u n + 2( n − )H n (u) = 0 2 du du hω 0 2 2 .t) e x = i − ak+e iω k t−ik z )e x (ak e L 2 (5.
68a) and (5.68b) into 1 8π ∫ [E L 0 2 x (z.70): 1 ˆ ˆ ˆk H = [ ak+ a− + ] hω k 2 and 1 ˆ E k n = < n  H  n > = ( n + ) hω 0 2 56.69) after changing the a ± ’s into operators gives (5. In the limit of h << kB T . 5–5 . it reduces to the classical RayleighJeans law: λ 8πkB T λ4 lim λ→0 ρb (λ) = with its λ− 4 dependence on wavelength and. diverges in the ultraviolet limit λ → 0 . t) ] dz and making use of the commutation rela tionship (5.Substituting (5. .t) + By2(z. The RaylieghJeans law and Planck’s law for blackbody radiation as functions of wavelength and in units of energy per volume per wavelength.interval: Since ν= c . therefore. Planck’s radiation law as a function of the wavelength is: λ c ∂ν 8π hc 1 ) dλ = 5 ⋅ hc / λkB T dλ λ ∂λ λ e −1 ρb (λ) d λ = ρ b (ν = .
8): For the trivial case of l =0 . Lz . L− . L x =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜0 0 −1 0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜0 0 0 −2⎠ ⎝ ⎛0 ⎜ ⎜0 ˆ = ⎜0 L+ ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜ ⎝0 1 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟h ⎟ 1⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ ⎛0 −1 ⎜ ⎜1 0 3 ˆ L y =⎜ 0 2 ⎜ ⎜0 0 ⎜ ⎜0 0 ⎝ 0 3 − 2 0 0 − 3 2 0 3 2 0 1 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟ih . L+ . ˆ ˆ for l = 0 . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝0 1 0⎠ ⎛0 −1 0 ⎞ ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎛0 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ih ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ ˆ ˆ Ly = ⎜1 0 −1⎟ . Ly . and L2 . 61 .31) and (6. For l =1. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 2⎠ ⎛1 0 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ Lz = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ h .29) – (6. the matrices are: ⎛2 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ L2 = ⎜0 2 0⎟ h 2 . the matrices are: ⎛6 ⎜ ⎜0 ˆ L2 = ⎜0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜ ⎝0 ⎛2 0 0⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 0⎟ ⎜0 1 ˆ 0⎟ h 2 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 −1⎠ ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ h ˆ Lx = ⎜1 0 1⎟ . in the basis in which Lz and L2 are diagonal can be found from (6. L+ = ⎜0 0 1⎟ 2 h . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The matrix representations of the angular momentum operators Lx . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 1 0 ⎠ ⎝0 0 0⎠ ⎝0 1 0⎠ For l =2. all these operators are equal to zero. L− = ⎜1 0 0⎟ 2 h . L z = ⎜ 0 0 ⎟ ⎜ 0⎟ ⎜0 0 ⎟ ⎜ 6⎠ ⎝0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 ⎛0 0 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 0 0 0⎟ ⎜1 ˆ 0 0 0 ⎟ h .1.Chapter 6 61. and 2 . ⎟ − 1⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ h ⎟ 2⎟ ⎟ 0⎠ .
for l =1: ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎛0 −1 0 ⎞ ⎛1 0 −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ i h2 ⎜ ⎟ i h2 ˆ L = 1 0 1 1 0 −1 ˆ Lx y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 = ⎜0 0 0 ⎟ 2 . l = 1 .φ) = [(2a0 )−3 / 2 1 r −r / 2a 0 3 iφ e ] [− e sinθ] . 63. For example. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 1 0⎠ ⎝0 1 0 ⎠ ⎝1 0 −1⎠ ⎛1 0 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lx L y − Ly L x = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ i h 2 = i h Lz ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 −1⎠ ⎛ − 1 0 − 1⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ih ˆ ˆ . 8π 3 a0 62 .θ.φ) = R21 (r)Y11 (θ. 62. No. From the above matrix representations of the angular momentum operators. one can show all the other cyclic commutation relationships. Similarly. 64. and ml = 1 wave function indeed satisfies the time independent Schroedinger’s equation given in the text for the hydrogen atom: Ψ211(r. All three components of the angular momentum operators can be specified precisely at the same time if the expectation values of all the commutators of the angular momentum operators are precisely zero in a particular state. Show that the n=2. This is the case when the hydrogen atom is in the ground state. or the slevel ( l = 0).⎛0 ⎜ ⎜2 ˆ L− =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜0 ⎝ 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟h ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ . L y Lx =⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ ⎜1 0 1⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ∴ . it can be shown that all the cyclic commutation relationships among all such operators are indeed satisfied.
Ψ( θ .E.r −r / 2a 0 r ∂ 2 ∂ r r2 −3 / 2 1 −3 / 2 1 (r )[(2a0 ) e ] = (2a0 ) [2 − 2 + ] e−r / 2a 0 . and E 211 = − h2 me 4 =− 2 2 . φ) . 2 2 m a0 2 2 2h 2 Q.D. ˆ A particle is known to be in a state such that L2 = 2 h 2 . of this particle in terms of the spherical harmonics is: 63 . the wave function is indeed normalized: π 2π ∞ ∫∫∫ 0 0 0 ⎡∞ ⎤⎡3 r4 Ψ211 r 2 sinθ dr dθ dφ = ⎢ ∫ (2a0 )−3 2 e−r / a 0 dr⎥ ⎢ 3a0 ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣4 2 ∫ sin θ dθ⎥ = 1. (a) The normalized wave function.D. It is also known that ˆ measurement of L z will yield the value + h with the probability 1/3 and the value . φ) ∂θ ⎠ r sin 2 θ ∂φ 2 ⎦ r ⎭ ⎩ 2m ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r sin θ ∂θ ⎝ ⎧ h2 1 ⎡ ⎤ e2 ⎫ 1 h2 r r2 ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨− − 2⎥ − ⎬Ψ211 (r . 2 ∂r ∂r a0 (2a0 ) 3 a0 3 a0 ⎛ 1 ∂ ∂ 1 ∂2 ⎞ iφ e sinθ = −2e iφ sinθ . Also.h with the probability 2/3. θ. φ ) .θ.θ.φ)=[− 2−2 + ]Ψ211 (r .E. sinθ + 2 ⎜ 2⎟ ∂θ sin θ ∂φ ⎠ ⎝ sinθ ∂θ Therefore. θ.φ) 2 ⎢ 2 2m ( 2a 0 ) 2 a 0 ( 2a 0 ) r ⎪ ⎪ 2m r ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ = E 21 Ψ211 (r . 65. ⎦ 3 0 π ⎤ Q. ⎧ h2 ⎡ 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂ ⎞ 1 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ e2 ⎫ ∂ ⎞ − ⎜r ⎟+ 2 ⎜ sin θ ⎟ + 2 ⎨ ⎢ 2 ⎥ − ⎬Ψ211 (r .
z ) = ( x + y + z ) e − α x2 + y2 + z 2 (a) Ψ in the spherical coordinate system is: Ψ ( x.Ψ (r . The wave function of a particle of mass m moving in a potential well is. φ)  2 sin θ dθ dφ = N 2 ⎢( + ) + ⎥ . 66. < L z > . φ) = ⎜ ⎟Y11 + ⎜ ⎟Y1−1 + Y10 .φ)+ 2 Y1−1 (θ. of the zcomponent of the angular momentum of this particle is: 1 2 1 ˆ < Lz > = h − h = − h 3 3 3 . ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎦ To normalize: ⎡ 2 2 8π 4π ⎤ 1 = ∫  Ψ (θ. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ∴N = 1 4π .φ) 3 . (b) ˆ ö The probability measurement of L2 and Lz gives the values respectively. ˆ The expectation value. y. is: 2 h 2 and 0.θ. The corresponding normalized wave function is: ⎛ −1+ i ⎞ ⎛1+ i ⎞ 1 Ψ (θ. at a particular time t : Ψ( x .φ)= (b) 1 3 Y11 (θ. y . 64 . 3⎦ ⎣ 4 4 3 . z ) = ( x + y + z )e −α x2 + y2 + z2 =[r sin θcos φ+ rsin θsin φ+ r cos θ]e −α r ⎡⎛ − 1 + i ⎞ 8π 4π ⎤ − α r ⎛ 1 + i ⎞ 8π = ⎢⎜ Y11 + ⎜ Y1−1 + Y10 ⎥ r e .
67. φ ) (a) The normalized the wave function is: 65 . φ) .t = 0 ) = 3R32 ( r )Y20 ( θ. φ ) + R21 ( r )Y11 ( θ.6 eV 5 4 5 9 . θ . φ ) + 2R32 (r)Y21(θ. φ ) (a) The normalized Ψ is: Ψ= 1 5 R21 (r )Y11 (θ. (b) ö ö Ψ is not an eigen function of L2 . 68.Pr obability = 1 1/3 = 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 3 . but is an eigen function of L z corresponding to the eigen value h . (d) (e) 1 1 4 1 ö < Ψ  H  Ψ > = − ( ⋅ + ⋅ ) 13. φ. φ) + 2 5 R32 (r )Y21 (θ. Consider a hydrogen atom in the following mixed state at t=0: Ψ( r . (c) ö The expectation value < Ψ  L2  Ψ > is : 2 4 26 2 ˆ < Ψ  L2  Ψ > = h 2 + 6 h 2 = h . 5 5 5 ö The < Ψ  L z  Ψ > is h . Consider a mixed state of hydrogen: Ψ = R21(r)Y11(θ.
The Hamiltonian of a particle of mass m in a finite spherical potential well: ⎧ 0. (c) The expectation value of the energy for t > 0 is: 9 1 1 1 ö < Ψ  H  Ψ > = − ( ⋅ + ⋅ ) 13. 4. if r ≤ a if r ≥ a 66 . 10 100 10 . V( r ) = ⎨ ⎩V0 .6 eV 10 9 10 4 . 69. t = 0) = 3 10 R32 (r )Y20 (θ. Sect. φ. because it is in a mixed state of n=2 and n =3. (d) The expectation values are : 9 1 28 2 ö < Ψ  L2  Ψ > = ( ⋅ 6 + ⋅ 2 ) h 2 = h 10 10 5 9 1 1 ö < Ψ  Lz  Ψ > = ( ⋅ 0 + )h= h 10 10 10 ö (e) The uncertainty of L z in this state is: 1 ˆ ˆ ΔL z = [< Ψ  L2  Ψ > − < Ψ  L z  Ψ > 2 ] 2 = [ z 1 1 1/ 2 3 − ] h= h . φ) .Ψ (r . φ) + 1 10 R21 (r )Y11 (θ. θ. This problem is somewhat like the finite squarewell potential problem considered in the text.4. (b) The atom is not in a stationary state.
For l = 0 . The general solution of this equation is: U (r ) = A cos kr + B sin kr where k = 2mE .is: h2 ˆ H =− ∇ + V (r ) 2m . The corresponding Schroedinger’s equation is ⎫ ⎧ h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ [ 2 (r ) ] + V (r )⎬ Rno (r ) = E n Rno (r ) . To satisfy the boundary condition that Rn0(r) must be finite at r =0. and ⎧ h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ ⎫ [ 2 (r ) ]⎬ Rno (r ) = E n Rno (r ) ⎨− ∂r ⎭ ⎩ 2m r ∂ r . or 67 . The equation for r ≤ a can be converted to: 2mE d2 U (r ) = − 2 U (r ) 2 h dr . ⎨− ∂r ⎭ ⎩ 2m r ∂ r for r≤a . where U(r) = r R(r) . it is: h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ ˆ H =− [ (r ) ] + V (r ) 2m r 2 ∂ r ∂r . for r≥a . h A must be equal to 0.
D. h2 Just like in that problem.U (r ) = B sin kr for r ≥ a . there is no solution. Continuity of the wave function Rn0(r) and its derivative at r = a leads to the secular equation: − k cot ka = α . Similarly. . Q. where β 2 = 2mV0 a 2 . for r ≤ a. 68 . C must be equal r≥a . the above equation is of exactly the same form as that corresponding to the antisymmetric solution of the finite square potentialwell problem: − ξ cot ξ = β 2 − ξ 2 . U (r ) = C e α r + D e − α r where α = to zero and: U (r ) = D e − α r . .E. For U(r) or Rn0(r) to be finite at r → ∞ . Defining ξ = ka . if β < π or 2 V0 a 2 < π2 h 2 8m . for 2 m ( V0 − E ) h .
69 .
ml = 0 . 71. .E.Chapter 7 71. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in the form given in (7. MS = 0 71 . S = 0 . ML = 0 . The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in terms of the radial wave func tions and the spherical harmonics in the Schroedingerrepresentation and the spin state functions (α and β) in the Heisenbergrepresentation of a hydrogenic atom is: Ψa1 a2 = 1 Rn1 l 1 (r1 )Yl 1 m1 (θ1 φ1)α1 Rn1 l 1 (r2 )Yl 1 m1 (θ 2 φ 2 )α 2 2 Rn 2 l 2 (r1)Yl 2 m2 (θ1 φ1)β1 Rn2 l 2 (r 2 )Yl 2 m2 (θ 2 φ 2 )β 2 73.D. The total orbital and spin angular momentum quantum numbers of the groundstate of helium atom: 2 Electrons : l = 0 .11) is: r r 1 Ψa1 ( r1 ) Ψa1 ( r2 ) = r r 2 Ψa2 ( r1) Ψa2 ( r 2 ) Ψa1 a2 . It is indeed normalized: 2 r r 1 r 2 r r 2 r r 2 r r 2 r Ψa1 a2 d r1 d r 2 = [ ∫ Ψa1 ( r1) d r1 ⋅ ∫ Ψa 2 (r 2 ) d r 2 + ∫ Ψa1 ( r2 ) d r2 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r1) d r1 2 r * r r r r r r r r r r r − ∫ Ψa1 ( r1) Ψa2 ( r1) d r1 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r2 ) * Ψa1 (r 2 ) d r2 − ∫ Ψa1 ( r 2 )* Ψa 2 ( r2 ) d r 2 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r1 )* Ψa1 ( r1) d r1 ] ∫∫ 1 = [ 1⋅1 + 1⋅1 − 0⋅ 0 − 0⋅0 ] = 1 2 . ms = and − 2 2 2 . Q. s = 1 1 1 . Atom: L = 0 .
For lithium atom: 3 Electrons : l = 0 . M S = or − 2 2 2 Degeneracy . M L = 0 or ±1 . s = 1 1 1 . s = Atom: L = 1 . ms = or − 2 2 2 . l =1 . 74. ml = 0 or ± 1 . ms = and − 2 2 2 1 1 1 . Ground state configuration (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)2 (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)2 Carbon: ( 6 ⋅ 5 ÷ 2 =15 ) . ml = 0 . ( 6 ⋅ 5 ÷ 2 =15 ) . Silicon: 75. S = 1 1 1 . The ground state configuration of (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)6 (3d)10 (4s)2 (4p)1 (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)6 (3d)10 (4s)2 (4p)3 Ga : As : . 72 .
] 82. t ) ≅Ei ΨEi ( r ) e + ∑ ez ij E z E j +e + 0(ε ) . For spherically symmetric systems.t) = ± ( e x m i e y ) e iω t 2 ˜ ˆ e E ± ( x m i y ) e iω t . Substituting (8.5) gives in the limit of ε→1: i i ( ω − ω )t i r − E it ) i ( ω j i −ω ) t r − E jt ~ (1 − e j i ˆ ˆ [ H 0 + εV1 ]Ψ = E i Ψ E i ( r ) e h + ∑ ez ij E z E j +e Ψ E j ( r )e h j ≠i h (ω j i − ω) . which is the same as the left side. ΨE j ( r )e j≠ i ∂t h(ω j i − ω) Substituting (8.17) into the left side of (8.17) into the right side of (8.5) gives: i i ( ω −ω )t i r r − h E it r − h E jt ∂ ~ (1 − e ji ) i (ω ji −ω )t 2 ih Ψ( r . V± = 2 and Therefore.Chapter 8 81. Wi j = πe h2 2 [x ij 2 + y i j 2 ]  E ± 2 δ(ω i j − ω) . such as atoms: . For circularly polarized waves: r r ˜ E ˆ ˆ E ( r . ˆ [ Note: To derive the right side equation above. use is made of the fact that V1 in the ˆ representation in which H 0 is diagonal is: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˜ V1 = 1 ⋅ V1 ⋅ 1 = ∑  E j >< E j  ezEz  E j' >< E j'  e − iω t and < E j'  Ei > = δ j' i j≠ j' .
2 πe 2 2 Wi j =  r  E ±  δ(ω i j − ω) 2 3h 2 .7 nm .(m l' ±1) . For the selection rules on the orbital angular momentum.6 97. 2π π < lm l  Y10  l'm l ' > = ∫ ∫Y o 0 2π π * l m l 10 Y Yl' m ' sin θ dθ d φ ∝ δ ml m l ' l . therefore. For Lyman series: n 2 3 4 5 6 Experiment 121.127 x n 2 n 2 −1 nm .0 93. l and l ' must be of opposite parity. 83.8 nm Rydberg Formula 121.5 102. < lm l  Y1±1  l' m l ' > = ∫ ∫Y o 0 * l m l 10 Y Yl ' m' sin θ dθ dφ ∝ δm l . ∆l ≡ l − l' = ±1. where  r 2 =  x 2 +  y 2 +  z 2 = 3  x 2 = 3  y 2 = 3  z 2 . 84.5 97.2 p = RH (1 − 1 ) n2 .2 p = 91.3 95.  ∆l  ≡  l − l' ≤ 1. l and from the known properties of the integrals of three spherical harmonics.9 93. Accoring to the Rydberg formula (8. On the basis of parity c onsiderations.2 94.24): 1 λ1s. λ1s.6 102.
−C 21 e 1.C. C.85.5 a0 + C. l = 0. (a) The decay routes open to it are: 300> → 210 > → 100 > 100 > . → 21 ± 1> → (b) The allowed transitions from the 5d states of hydrogen to the lower states are: s 5 4 p d f g 3 2 1 .6 An electron in the n = 3. Give the expectation value of the zcomponent of the electric dipole moment of the hydrogen atom in the mixed state: < Ψ  (−ez)  Ψ > = −e < 100  z  210 >C12 + complex conjugate 2 1 + C12 π −C 21 e = 2 1+ C12 ≅ ∞ ∫R 0 10 r R21 r d r 2 ∫Y 0 00 cosθ Y10 sin θ d θ + C. 8. 2 1+ C12 . m = 0 state of hydrogen decays by a sequence of (electric dipole) transitions to the ground state.
62x10−16 cm 2. Using the value of the dipole moment found in Problem 85.1x10 x12 hc 2 2 . Assume a Lorentzian fluorescence linewidth of 10 Ghz.7. x12 ≈ 0. .56 nm (Lymanα line)is: 4π e ν 2 4 σ st = x12 g f (ν) ≅ 7.4 x10−2 cm −1 . the corresponding spatial gain coefficient (in cm1 ) is: g = ( N 2 − N 1 ) σ st ≈ 4. if the total population inversion between the 1s and 2p levels of hydrogen in the gaseous medium is 1010 cm3 . Assuming all the degenerate states in the 2p level are equally populated. The stimulated emission crosssection (in cm2 ) defined in connection with (8.8.4 x10−12 cm 2 . 2 ∴ σ st ≈ 4.31) for a hypothetical hydrogen laser with linearly polarized emission at 121.
+ 1 2 ) ( + 1. + 1 2 ) ( 0. ms > . ms ) values are arranged in a particular order: ( ml .fold 2 2 2 1 1 . Doing so according to the degenerate perturbation theory yields two new eigen values: ζ nl h2 / 2 and −ζ nl h2 . of spinorbit interaction as given in Sect. ( 0. +1 / 2 ) 0 0 0 0 1/ 2 0 ( +1. Sz are diagonal is a 6x6 matrix. − 1 2 ) ( + 1. To diagonalize this matrix within the manifold of degenerate states n. m j = ± 1/ 2 hydrogenic states. (6.−1/ 2) 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 (−1. The two sets of new eige n states correspond to the spinorbit coupled The diagonization procedure gives also the relevant vectorcoupling coefficients 9 1 . +1 / 2 ) 0 −1/2 1/ 2 0 0 0 ( 0. +1 / 2) 0 0 0 0 0 1/2 This matrix breaks down into two 2x2 and two 1x1 matrices which can be easily diagonalized . 6. − 1 2 ) ( − 1. L z . mj = ± ) degenerate levels split from the original 6fold degenerate level in the absence 2 2 j = 3 / 2 . the columns and rows corresponding to the pairs of (ml . m j = ± 3 / 2.l = 1. ± ) and 2. S 2.−1 / 2 ) 0 0 0 1/ 2 −1/2 0 (+1. ml . + 1 2 ) (−1. The spinorbit interaction in hydrogen is of the form. − 1 2 ) ( 0.5.−1/ 2) 0 1/ 2 0 0 0 0 2 ⋅ ζ nl h . mj = ± . ±1 / 2 and j =1/ 2 . s = 1/2. These correspond to the two new sets of 4fold ( j= ( j= 3 1 3 .62) : r r r r Ze 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L ⋅ S ≡ ζ( r ) L ⋅ S H s−o = 2m 2 c 2 r 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The corresponding matrix for l = 1 in the representation in which L2 .Chapter 9 91. ms ) ( − 1.
−1.−1/2 > = 2 .1/2. HAB ≡ < A  H  B > = H* ≡ < B  H  A >* BA Setting the corresponding secular determinant to zero gives: .1.1/2 > = 1 .59) for the eigen functions for this particula r case.1. 3 < j m j l s l ml s ms > =< 3/2. For example. The perturbation theory for the covalent bonded homonuclear diatomic molecule can be extend to the case of heteronuclear diatomic molecules: E A ˆ H BA ˆ H AB EB CAγ = Eγ CBγ CAγ CBγ where ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ E A ≡ < A  H  A > ≠ E B ≡ < B  H  B >.1/21.−1/2. 92.±3/2. This is the procedure for calculating vectorcoupling coefficients in general.−1/2. Eγ 2 − (E A + EB ) Eγ − H AB + E A EB = 0 2 .1.± 1/ 2> = 1 .1/21.1/2.1/2 1. which gives the bonding and antibonding levels of the heteronuclear molecule: 9 2 .± 1.1/2. 3 etc.< lm l sm s  jm jls > defined in (6. the vectorcoupling coefficients: < j m j l s l m l s m s > =< 3/ 2. < j m j l s l ml s ms > =< 3/2.0.
b) where ( E A − E a. 9 3 . The corresponding wave functions of the bonding and antibonding orbitals of the mole cule are:  b > = C (Ab )  A > + C (Bb )  B > (a. (a) The normalized molecular orbital is: Ψm. for ( E A − E B ) >> H AB 2 and EA > EB. Suppose the unnormalized molecular orbital of a diatomic homonuclear diatomic molecule is: Ψmo = CA  A > +CB  B > where  A > and  B > are the normalized atomic orbitals.] 93. and More specifically. = 1  CA  +  CB 2 + 2SCA CB 2 [ CA  A > + CB  B > ] .b H AB + (E A − E a. [ Note: H AB = − H AB .Ea = b ( EA + EB ) 1 2 ± ( E A − E B ) 2 + 4 H AB 2 2 2 [ ] 1/ 2 H AB ≈ EA ± ( EA − E B ) B .b (a.b ) 2 ] and C(a .o.b ) = A [ H AB 2 H AB + (E A − E a. (a  a > = C A )  A > + C (Ba )  B > .b ) 2 2 C(a .b )CA ) + HAB CA = 0 .b ) = A [ ] . they are: E A − E a.
by minimizing the molecular energy against variations in CB. and E m [ CA 2 +  CB 2 + 2S CA CB ] =  CA 2 EA +  CB 2 EB + 2CA CB H AB . Following the basic concept of Coulson’s molecularorbital theory. (b) The corresponding molecular energy is:  C  E A +  CB  E B + 2CA CB H AB ˆ E m ≡ < Ψm  H  Ψm > = A  CA 2 +  CB 2 +2SCA CB 2 2 . differentiate the above equation against variations in CA gives: ∂E m [ CA 2 +  CB 2 + 2SCA CB ]+ 2Em [CA + S C B ] = 2 [CA EA + CB H AB ] ∂CA Minimizing the molecular energy against variations in CA. . CA.where S ≡< A  B > is the overlap integral between the atomic orbitals and CA and CB are assumed to be real. yields another condition Em . The secular determinant of these two homogeneous equations must be zero: 9 4 . and CB must satisfy: (E A − Em ) CA + ( H AB − EmS ) CB = 0 Similarly. or setting ∂E m /∂C A = 0 . or setting ∂E m /∂C B = 0 . and CB must satisfy: (HBA − E m S ) CA + ( E B − E m ) CB = 0 . CA. yields one condition that Em .
The number of valence electrons per conventional unit cell of diamond lattice = 4 ⋅ 8 . It is. 1 1 1 Diamond lattice = FCC with 2 atoms per basis at ( 0. 0. c = a ez SCC: . assuming the overlap integral is negligible or S ≈ 0 . FCC: r a r a r a a = (e x + e y ) . r r r a = a ex . 4 9 5 . N 1 1 8 = 2⋅[( 8 ⋅ ) + 6 ⋅ ] = 3 3 a 8 2 a . . b = (e y + e z ) . a3 95. therefore. 0) and . 4 4 4 equivalent to two inter.EA − Em H BA H AB ≅ 0 EB − Em . The CC bond length in the diamond structure = 3 a. 97.laced FCC lattice displaced one quarter the distance along the body diagonal of the FCC. The number of atoms per cubic cell of volume a3 in such a lattice: 94. The primitive translational vectors for. a = (e x + e z ) 2 2 2 96. b = a ey . This result is the same as that obtained in Problem 92 above according to degenerate perturbation theory. .
9 6 .
Chapter 10
101. For a twodimensional electron gas, the densityofstate is independent of the energy; therefore, the Fermi energy is directly proportional to the electron density:
EF
Ne =
∫D
0
(2)
(E) d =
m EF π h2
.
102. (a) The chemical potential of a freeelectron gas in two dimensions is given can be found from Eq.(10.29):
∞
Ne =
∫
0
m k BT 1 d E m kB T µ/k T = ln [e B + 1 ] 2 (E −µ)/ k B T 2 πh e +1 k B T πh
πh 2 N e
B
;
∴
µ (T) = kB Tln[e mk T −1]
,
for Ne electrons per unit area. Plot µ(T ) / E F as a function of kT / E F as in Figure 10.6(b):
µ
E
F
(b)
1.00 0.95
k T
B
0
0.1
0.2
E
F
.
10  1
103. For a typical 1D energy band, sketch graphs of the relationships between the wave vector, k, of an electron and its: (a) energy,
E
k
0
(b)
group velocity,
Vg
k
0
(c)
and effective mass.
m*
k
0
10  2
d.
The approximate densityofstates D(1) (E) ) for the energy band of part a aboveis
D (E)
(1)
k
0
104. The E(k x) vs. k x dependence for an electron in the conduction band of a onedimensional semiconductor crystal with lattice constant a = 4 Å is given by:
E (kx ) = E 2 −( E 2 − E1 )cos 2[k x a /2] ; E 2 > E1
.
(a)
The E(k x) for this band in the reduced and periodic zone schemes.
E
E2
E1 − 2π −π reduced zone periodic zone
0
π
2π
k xa
(b)
The group velocity of an electron in this band is:
10  3
zone scheme: m* e −π 0 π k xa A uniform electric field Ex is applied in the xdirection. 1 ∂E ( E2 − E1 ) a vg = sin k x a = 2h h ∂k and is sketched below as a function of k x: Vg − π 0 π k xa (c) The effective mass of an electron in this band as a function of k x is: 2 ∂2 E −1 −1 2 ( E 2 − E1 ) a m*= h 2 = h cos kx a 2 ∂ k 2 and is sketched below it in the reduced. the motion of the electron is as follows: 10 .4 .
k x curve in the valence band is: E (kx ) = − E 3 + E 3 cos 2[k x a /2] (a) The E(k x) sketch for this band in the reduced.9 π >0 >0 x direction >0 →∞ =0 >0 <0 +x direction .5 . 105. Suppose now the corresponding electron energy E(k x) vs.and periodiczone schemes: E − 2π − π 0 π 2π kx a E3 reduced zone periodic zone (b) The group velocity of a hole in this band is: 1 ∂Eh E3 a v g = − sin k x a = h ∂k 2h and is sketched below as a function k x: 10 .kx a vg m* e Acceleration 0.2 π 0.5 π 0.
Vg − π 0 π kxa (c) The effective mass of the hole in this band as a function of k x in the reduced zone scheme is: −1 −1 ∂2 E E a2 m *=h − 2 e = h 2 3 cos k x a ∂ k 2 2 .6 . The corresponding effective mass of an electron in the valence band is m* h − π 0 π kxa (d) A uniform electric field Ex is applied in the xdirection. the motion of the holeis as follows: 10 .
A semiconductor has Nc=4x1017 cm3 and Nv =6x1018 cm3 at room temperature and has a band gap of 1.73 eV 2 2 Nc 80 4 EF ≅ .5 π 0. 1/ 2 Eg − 1/ 2 + ni = N c N v e kT ≅ ( x10−13 ) <<< N d ≈ N d 12 − or Na ≈ N a . * EC + EV kT NV EC + EV 3kT mh + ln = + ln * 2 2 Nc 2 4 me EF ≅ . Na p = N v e− ( EF − EV ) / kT ≈ N − ≈ N a a and 10 . ionization of donors and acceptors.102 eV .46) and (10. A pn junction is made in this material with Na =1017 cm3 on one Assume complete and Nd =2x1015 cm3 and Na =1015 cm3 on the other side.47).7 + ln ≅ 0. 107. assume that on the pside: N EF − EV ≈ k T ln v ≈ 0. side. therefore.2 π 0. N ∝(m*) 3 / 2.kx a vg m* h Acceleration 0. therefore. 106. One. (a) If the semiconductor is not doped and choosing E = 0 to be at the top of the valence band or Ev =0 : EC + EV kT NV 1 60 + ln = 0.7 .9 π >0 >0 +x direction >0 →∞ =0 >0 <0 x direction .4 eV. From (10.
Ec 0. on the nside. (c) The built.148 Volt (d) .15 eV 0.15 − 0.102 = 1.4 − 0. The equilibrium minority carrier (electron) density on the pside of the junction at room temperature is then: n p = nn e−VB / kT ≈ N D e−VB / kT ≈ 47 m−3 .(b) + Similarly.6 . N D ≈ N D = N d − N a = 1015 cm −3 : N EC − EF ≈ kT ln C ≈ 0. which is extremely small! (e) When a forward bias of 0.1 eV 0.102 eV 1.8 .1 eV is applied across the junction .15 eV ND .1/ kT ≅ 54.4 eV Ev n p V app 10 . the minority carrier density on the pside increased by the factor: e 0.in voltage across the junction at room temperature is then: VB ≅1.
the matrices representing the Cartesian components of the spin angular momentum of such particles in the ˆ ˆ representation in which Sz and S 2 are diagonal are given in (6.matrix elements as in Problem 111 above are: Mz = N γh ( ρ11 − ρ22 ) 2 i N γh (ρ12 − ρ 21 ) 2 .50).Chapter 11 111. 11 . (a) the medium considered in Problem 111 above is The three Cartesian components of the magnetization in terms of the appropriate density. 0 −i h i Nh ( ρ12 − ρ 21 ) . For a statistical ensemble of N spin1/2 particles per volume. The averaged expectation values per volume of the three components of the spin angular momentum in terms of the appropriate density matrix elements for the statistical ensemble of particles are: ρ ρ12 ˆ < S z > = N Trace 11 ρ 21 ρ22 ρ ˆ < S y > = N Trace 11 ρ21 ρ12 ρ22 1 0 h Nh ( ρ11 − ρ22 ) = 0 −1 2 2 . An electrical charged particle with a spin angular momentum will have a magnetization proportional to the spin angular momentum. 112.1 . My = . Suppose the averaged expectation value of the magnetization of r r ˆ ˆ M = N Trace [ ρ (γ S ) ] . = 2 i 0 2 0 1 h Nh ( ρ12 + ρ21 ) = 1 0 2 2 ρ ρ12 ˆ < Sx > = N Trace 11 ρ 21 ρ22 .
but in the absence of any relaxation processes is: H x . the dynamic equations describing the precession of the magnetization r M around such a magnetic field are: d i (ρ11 − ρ22 ) = − 2 [H12 ρ 21 − ρ12 H21] = γ [ H x (−ρ12 + ρ21)+ H y ( ρ12 + ρ 21)] i dt h . Similarly for the x. making use of the results in (a) above.2 .matrix equation (11.16). just like in classical mechanics. on the basis of the density. (b) The Hamiltonian of the spin1/2 particles in the presence of a static magnetic field r r r r H = H x x + H y y + H z z . The corresponding Hamiltonian is: 11 . ∴ = γ M × H .iγH y γh H z ˆ H =− H z 2 H x + iγH y From the results of Part a above. which can be shown to be r r d M z = γ [−H x M y + H y M x ] = γ M × H dt [ ] z . dt (c) r Suppose a magnetic field consisting of a static component in the z direction and a r weak oscillating component in the plane perpendicular to the z axis is applied to r r r r r the medium: H = H 0 z + H x x ≡ H 0 z + H 1cosω 0t x .and ycomponents of r r r r dM M.Mx = N γh (ρ12 + ρ 21 ) 2 .
Therefore. k 2 = εω 2 /c 2. d ( ρ − ρ ) − ( ρ11 − ρ 22 ) ( ρ11 − ρ22) = − 11 22 + iγ H x (−ρ12 + ρ21) dt T1 (th) (th) . These are the wellknown Bloch equations in the literature on magnetic resonance phenomena. for the other components: d M M ± = − ± ± iγ H 0 M m m iγ H 1 M z cosω ot dt T2 . 113. Similarly.H 1 cosω 0 t γh H 0 ˆ H =− H0 2 H 1 cosω 0t . 0 and Therefore. (a) From the dispersion relation for light waves.3 .44) and near the resonance. M ± =Mx ± iMy .19). on the basis of (11. M − Mz d Mz = − z dt T1 γ H1 ( M + − M − ) cosω 0 t 2 (th) +i . ω 0 ≈ ω 21 and : 11 . and the definitions k ≡ β+ iα and ε≡ ε'+iε" = ε 0 + iε" . β ≅ ε0 ω 0 /c α ≅ ε"ω 2 / β c 2 . From (11. Also.
Q N f e z ε = ε' + i ε" = 4 π [ χ'+ i χ"] = 4 π χ' − i 4 π .4 . assume ω 0 ≈ ω 21 >> Γ − 1 so that 2 2 ω 0 −ω 21 ≅ 2ω 0 (ω 0 − ω 21) . if most of atoms are in the ground m state. the damping constant is Γ .1. and the deviation of the particle from its equilibrium position in the absence of any electric field Ez is z(t). For the classical result. where ωp ≡ 4πNe2 ≈ m 4π(N1 − N2 )e 2 . is known as the “plasma frequency” and f z ≡ “oscillator strength”. 2mω 21 2 z 21 is known as the h (b) To compare the result obtained in Part a above with the classical result based on a damped harmonic oscillator model instead of the twolevel atom model: Suppose the equation of mo tion of the harmonic oscillator is of the form: d d f e ˜ −iω 0 t ˜ * iω 0 t 2 z(t) + Γ z(t) + ω 21 z(t) = − ( Ez e + Eze ) 2 dt dt m 2 1/ 2 which describes the oscillating motion of a particle of mass m and negative charge of the magnitude f 1/ 2e bound to a fixed point in space similar to the oscillator shown in Figure 5.2 2 2 ε"ω 0 ε"ω 0 4 π ( N1 − N 2 )ν 0 e z12 α≅ = = β c2 ε0 c ε0 hc 2 g f (ν 0 ) = ωp f 2 4 ε0 c g f (ν 0 ) . ˜ E 11 . The spring constant of the harmonic oscillator is equal to 2 mω 21. Solving the above equation for a damped harmonic oscillator: z= − and ~ f eE 1 g (ν) m 4ω0 f .
114.27). the classical model gives also : ε"ω 0 ε0 c ω2 f p 4 ε0 c = g f (ν 0 ) = α . therefore. 11 .5 . and the damping constant Γ associated with the bound particle in the harmonic oscillator model. can be used to characterize the dispersion and absorption characteristics of linear optical media with only three phenomenological parameters: the oscillator strength f. which is Eq.51).therefore.27). therefore. that characterizes the strength of the charge e2 . the resonance frequency ω21 . it is obvious that the same should be true for ε’. (11.51) th ρ (mn) i ρ mn (t ) = ∫ + ∑ [ρ mm' (t ' )V (t ' ) m'n − V ( t ' ) mm' ρ m 'n (t ' )]e ( iωmn +1/ Tmn )( t'− t ) dt ' h m' −∞ Tmn t gives: ρ(th ) i d 1 ρmn = mn + ∑[ρ mm'V (t) m' n − V (t) mm' ρm 'n ] − ( iω mn + ) ρmn dt Tmn h m' Tmn . (c) Since the complex dielectric constant based on the oscillator strength f using either the quantum mechanical model or the classical harmonic oscillator model gives the same result for ε” . The classical harmonic oscillator model.(11. satisfies and is a solution of (11. which is the same as the result obtained in (a) above on the basis of the quantum mechanic densitymatrix equation. Differentiating (11.
k ˜ Therefore. inverting the coordinate axes leaves ˜ ijk χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) invariant but changes the signs of all the vector components: ˜ ˜ ijk − Pi ( ω 3 ) = ∑ χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) [− E j (ω1 )][−E k (ω 2 )] = Pi (ω 3 ) . Rpump ~ 1027 /cm3 .6 .2 ⋅10−6 ( N2 − N1 ) N ph +10 27 dt 2 d N ph =− 2 ⋅1011 N ph + 6 ⋅ 10−7 ( N 2 − N1 ) N ph + 0(N (spont) ) ph dt Changing the scales: t → 10 τ. ( N 2 − N1) →1015 n. Tph ~ 5x1012 sec . 116.11. N ph →1014 N so that the numbers are more manageable in the numerical computation: 11 . j. The corresponding laser rate equations are: d ( N − N1 ) = −109 ( N 2 − N1 ) −1.k .sec . T2 ~ 1012 sec. For any such medium with inversion symmetry.5 ˜ The secondorder nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (2 ) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) relates the induced macroscopic polarization component Pi (ω 3 ) to the applied electric field components E j (ω1) and E k (ω 2 ) in the medium: ˜ ˜ ijk Pi ( ω3 ) = ∑ χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) E j (ω1) E k (ω 2 ) j . Consider a laser with the following parameters: T1 ~ 109 sec. Bhν 0 g f (v 0 ) ~ 6x10−7 cm3/sec . χ (2 ) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) must vanish.
0. 0. "n(t)/n(s. {x. {y. PlotRange>{0. y[0] == 0.6 d y = −10 y (1+ 2 z ) + 30 dτ d z =2 ⋅10 3 z ( y −1) + 0( z(spont) ) dτ . 0. g].2 n N + 10 4 dτ d N =− 2 ⋅ 103 N + 6 n N + 0(N (spont) ) dτ . AxesLabel>{"t". AxesOrigin>{0.)"}] The resulting calculated dynamics for the normalized population inversion and intracavity intensity are shown in the figures ( t in 107 sec) below. 2}.7 . "N(t)/N(s. z}. numbers characteristic of a semiconductor laser. 10}.s. z'[x] == 2000 z[x] + 2000 y[x] z[x] + 0. the above rate 16.{x. 0. The turnon dynamics of such a laser can be calculated numerically on the basis of these normalized laser rate equations using. n ≡ y and 333.001.10 y[x] + 30. z[0] == 0}. The steadystate solutions of these equations are: Changing to normalized parameters: equations become: nss = 333. 2}] g = 0/0 Plot[Evaluate[ y[x] /.s)"}] Plot[Evaluate[ z[x] /. d n = −10 n −1.6 .PlotRange> {0.5}. g].3 and Nss ≈16. for example. 11 . {x. These results show a pattern of laser relaxation oscillations with the frequency in the range of a few tenths of a Ghz and a damping time on the order of tens of nsec. 0.5}. AxesLabel>{"t".3 N ≡ z . the Mathematica program: NDSolve[{y'[x] == 20 y[x] Abs[z[x]] . 0}.
1 . 11 .Examples of the transient dynamics of a semiconductor laser.Figure 11.8 .
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