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Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics:
For Solid State Electronics and Optics
C.L. Tang
Cornell University
Ithaca, N. Y.
Cambridge University Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without explicit permission in writing from the author and the publisher.
2  1
Chapter 2
21.
(a)
x
ψ(x) [in units of A]
0 2 −2 4 −4 6
2
4
(b)
.
10
3
5
1
 
3
250
] ) 6 ( ) 4 ( [    ) (  1
2 2
6
1
2
1
4
2 2
· ∴
· −
∫
+ +
∫
·
∫
Ψ ·
−
+∞
∞ −
A
A dx x dx x A dx x
(c) 1 · > < x , by inspection.
Next, find σ
2
first:
2
5
] ) 6 ( ) 1 ( ) 4 ( ) 1 ( [  
2
6
1
2 2
1
4
2 2 2
· −
∫
− + +
∫
− · σ
−
dx x x dx x x A ;
therefore,
2
7
2 2 2
· > < + σ · > < x x .
2  2
(d) The answer to this question is tricky due to the discontinuous change in the slope of the
wave function at x = 4, 1, and 6. Taking this into account ,
< K. E. > =
−
h
2
2m
3
250
(0⋅1−5⋅ 2+ 0⋅ 1) ·
3h
2
50m
.
22. Given
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ ≤
< < π
· Ψ
. 0 for , 0
0 for ,
) (
a x and x
a x
x
x/a) sin(3
a
2
(a)
< H > · −
h
2
2m
2
a
sin( 3πx / a)
∂
2
∂x
2
0
a
∫
sin( 3πx / a) dx ·
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
.
(b)
) / 3 sin( ) / 3 sin(
2
) / 3 sin(
ˆ
2
2 2
a x E a x
x m
a x H π · π
1
]
1
¸
∂
∂
− · π
h
∴ E ·
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
.
(c)
t
e a x
a
t x
ma
i
2
2
2
9
) / 3 sin(
2
) , (
h π
−
π · Ψ .
(d)
[ ]
2 2
> < − > < · ∆ H H H
2  3
=
−
h
2
2m
2
a
sin( 3πx / a)
∂
4
∂x
4
0
a
∫
sin( 3πx / a) dx 
9π
2
h
2
2ma
2
¸
¸
_
,
2
= 0 .
Yes, it is as expected. Since the given state is an eigen state of the Hamiltonian as
shown in (b), the uncertainty in the total energy must be zero as shown in (2.5d).
23. Prove the following commutation relationships:
(a)
[
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B ,
ˆ
C ] · (
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B )
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C (
ˆ
A +
ˆ
B ) · (
ˆ
A
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C
ˆ
A ) + (
ˆ
B
ˆ
C −
ˆ
C
ˆ
B )
· [
ˆ
A ,
ˆ
C ] + [
ˆ
B ,
ˆ
C ]
, Q.E.D.
(b)
]
ˆ
,
ˆ
[
ˆ ˆ
]
ˆ
,
ˆ
[ )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(
ˆ ˆ ˆ
)
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
]
ˆ ˆ
,
ˆ
[
C A B C B A A C B C A B C A B C B A
A C B C A B C A B C B A A C B C B A C B A
+ · − + − ·
− − − · − ·
. Q.E.D.
24. Prove the following commutation relations:
(a)
1
ˆ ] ˆ , ˆ [
−
− ·
n n
x
x n i x p h .
Applying the left side to an arbitrary state function
Ψ( x) gives:
. ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ] ˆ , ˆ [
1
x x n i
x
x
x x
x
i x x p
n
n n n
x
Ψ − ·
Ψ
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− · Ψ
−
h
h
Q.E.D.
(b)
x x
p i p x ˆ 2 ] ˆ , ˆ [
2
h · .
Similar to (a) above:
Q.E.D. . ) ( ˆ 2
] ) ( 2 [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ] , ˆ , ˆ [
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
x p i
x
x
x x
x x
x x p x
x
x
Ψ ·
Ψ
∂
∂
· Ψ
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− · Ψ
h
h h
(c) Not possible .
2  4
25. Consider the twodimensional matrices ˆ
σ
x
·
0 1
1 0
¸
¸
_
,
, ˆ
σ
y
·
0 −i
i 0
¸
¸
_
,
, and ˆ
σ
z
·
1 0
0 −1
¸
¸
_
,
, whose
physical significance will be discussed later in Chapter VI.
(a) The eigen values σ
z
of
,
_
¸
¸
−
· σ
1 0
0 1
ˆ
z
are clearly +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
z
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
z
1
1 0
0 1
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
0
1
b
a
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
z
= 1 :
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
z
1
1 0
0 1
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
0
b
a
.
The eigen values σ
x
of
,
_
¸
¸
· σ
0 1
1 0
ˆ
x
are clearly also +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
x
1
0 1
1 0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
1
2
1
b
a
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= 1 :
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
b
a
x
1
0 1
1 0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
1
1
2
1
b
a
.
The eigen values σ
y
of
,
_
¸
¸ −
· σ
0
0
ˆ
i
i
y
are clearly also +1 and 1.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= +1 :
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸ −
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
i
i
b
a
y
1
0
0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
i b
a 1
2
1
.
For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σ
x
= 1 :
2  5
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸ −
·
,
_
¸
¸
σ
b
a
b
a
i
i
b
a
y
1
0
0
ˆ ;
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
∴
i b
a 1
2
1
.
(b) These eigen states in the Dirac notation in the representation in which
z
σˆ is diagonal are
as follows:
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
z
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
0
1
, 1 
, 1 
z
z
, and
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
1
0
, 1 
, 1 
z
z
.
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
x
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
1
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
x
x
, and
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
1
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
x
x
.
The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σ
y
= +1 and 1 are, respectively
,
_
¸
¸
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − · σ
> + · σ
i
y
y
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
, and
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
> − − · σ
> + − · σ
i
y
y
1
2
1
, 1 
, 1 
.
Note: The + and – signs in the Dirac notation for the eigen states of the Pauli spin
matrices refer to the spin up and spindown states, respectively, in the
representation in which
z
σˆ is diagonal.
26. Consider the Hamiltonian operator
ˆ
H with discrete eigen values. Suppose the Hamiltonian is a
Hermitian operator which by definition satisfies the condition:
2  6
Ψ
*
( x)
ˆ
H Φ( x)dx ·
∫
Φ
*
(x)
ˆ
H Ψ(x)dx
∫ ( )
*
.
(a) The eigen values of the Hamiltonian are all real:
Let ) ( x Ψ and ) (x Φ in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the
Hamiltonian
ˆ
H corresponding to the eigen value E
i
.
i E E
E dx x H x dx x H x
i i
·
∫
Ψ Ψ
∫
· Φ Ψ ) (
ˆ
) ( ) (
ˆ
) (
* *
.
Similarly,
* * * * *
) ) (
ˆ
) ( ( ) ) (
ˆ
) ( (
i E E
E dx x H x dx x H x
i i
·
∫
Ψ Ψ
∫
· Ψ Φ .
The condition of Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian leads to: E
i
· E
i
*
.
(b) Let ) ( x Ψ and ) (x Φ in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the
Hamiltonian
ˆ
H corresponding to the eigen value E
i
and E
j
, respectively. The
Hermiticity condition gives:
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
*
·
∫
Ψ Ψ − dx x x E E
j i
E E j i
.
Therefore, if 0 ) ( ≠ −
j i
E E , then 0 ) ( ) (
*
·
∫
Ψ Ψ dx x x
j i
E E
, or the eigen functions
corresponding to different eigen values are necessarily orthogonal to each other.
27. Consider a particle of mass m in a potential field V(x).
(a) On the basis of Heisenberg’s equation of motion, (2.49) , and the commutation relation
(2.11a):
> < · > + < >· <
m
p
x x V
m
p i
x
dt
d
x x
ˆ
] ˆ , ) ˆ (
ˆ
2
ˆ
[ ˆ
2
h
.
2  7
(b) On the same basis, the time variation of the expectation value of the momentum is given
by :
x x
x
x
F
x d
x dV
p x V
m
p i
p
t d
d
· > < − · > + < · > <
) (
] ˆ , ) ˆ (
ˆ
2
ˆ
[ ˆ
2
h
,
which is known as Ehrenfest’s theorem.
Chapter 3
31.
(a) λ
deBroglie
(electron)
=
h
2mE
=
12.3
E(ineV)
A
o
.
λ
deBroglie
( proton)
=
0.3
E(ineV)
A
o
.
(b) λ
deBroglie
(neutron)
≅ λ
deBroglie
( proton)
=
0.3
E(ineV)
A
o
λ
deBroglie
( photon)
=
1.24
E(eV)
μ
2 4 6 8 10
2
4
6
8
0
λ
De Broglie
(electron)
λ
De Broglie
(proton)
E(eV)
A
o
2 4 6 8 10
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
λ
De Broglie
(neutron)
λ
photon
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
μ
E(eV)
A
o
32. Suppose we know that there is a free particle initially located in the range −a < x < a with a
spatially uniform probability.
(a) The normalized state function ) t , x ( 0 = Ψ of the particle in the Schroedinger
representation is, assuming the phase of the wave function is arbitrarily chosen to be
zero:
ψ(x)
x
(2a)
1/2
a +a
(b) The corresponding momentum representation is:
Ψ( p) =
h
π a
1
p
x
sin(
p
x
h
a) .
(c) The corresponding state function at an arbitrary later time ) t , x ( 0 > Ψ in the integral
form is :
Ψ(x, t ) =
1
π
1
2a
sin(
p
x
h
a)
p
x
e
i(
p
x
x
h
−
p
x
2
2mh
t )
−∞
+∞
∫
dp
x
.
33. Consider a free particle with the initial state function in the form of:
ikx ax
Ae ) t , x (
+ −
= = Ψ
2
0 .
(a) To normalize this state function:
1=  A 
2
e
−2ax
2
−∞
+∞
∫
dx =  A 
2
π
2a
; ∴ A =
2a
π
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
(b) After a considerable amount of algebra by first completing the square of the exponential
in Fouriertransform integral, it can be shown that the corresponding momentum
representation of this state function is:
Ψ( p) =
1
2πh
2a
π
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
−∞
+∞
∫
1/ 4
e
−ax
2
+ ikx−i p
x
x / h
dx =
1
2π(Δp
x
2
)
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1/ 4
e
−
( p
x
−< p
x
>)
2
4 Δp
x
2
,
where
Δp
x
=
h
2Δx
= h a ,
< p
x
>
h
= k , Δ x =
1
4a
.
(c) The corresponding state function ) t , x ( 0 > Ψ is:
Ψ(x, t) =
1
2πh
1
2π Δp
x
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
e
−
( p
x
−< p
x
>)
2
4 Δp
x
2
e
−i
p
x
2
2mh
t + i
p
x
h
x
dp
x
−∞
+∞
∫
=
1
2πh
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
1/ 4
1
4Δp
x
2
+
i
h
t
2m
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1/ 4
e
−
(x−
<p
x
>
m
t )
2
4h
2
(
1
4 Δ p
x
2
+
i
h
t
2m
)
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
+
i<p
x
>
h
(x−
<p
x
>
2m
t )+iθ
,
where θ is a timedependent phaseshift of no physical consequence that goes to zero at t
= 0.
(d) From c above, the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the position
for t > 0 are, respectively:
<x > =
hk
m
t and
Δx =
1
2 a
1+
2ha
m
t
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
.
Similarly, the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the linear
momentum for t > 0 are, respectively:
< p
x
>
t
= hk and
Δp
x
(t) = Δ p
x
(0) = h a .
(e) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum for this state is:
(Δx) (Δp
x
) =
h
2
1+
2ha
m
t
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
≥
h
2
,
which satisfies Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for all time t ≥ 0.
 1 
Chapter 4
41. From Eq. (419):
F
A
=
e
−ik
3
d
cosk
2
d −i
k
1
2
+ k
2
2
2k
1
k
2
sink
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
.
The corresponding transmission coefficient is :
T =
F
A
2
= cos
2
k
2
d +
k
1
2
+ k
2
2
2k
1
k
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
−1
= 1+
(2E −V
0
)
2
4E(E −V
0
)
−1
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
sin
2
k
2
d
⎧
⎨
⎩
⎫
⎬
⎭
−1
= 1+
V
0
2
4E(E −V
0
)
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
= 1+
ΔV
2
4(E −V
I
)(E −V
II
)
sin
2
k
2
d
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
,
which is Eq. (4.20a).
In the limit of (E −V
0
) →0,
sin
2
k
2
d →
2m(E −V
0
)
h
2
d
2
; therefore,
E→V
0
lim
T = 1+
2mV
0
d
2
4 h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
= 1+
β
2
4
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
−1
.
 2 
Plots of T for β = 4:
and β = 10 :
4 2. A particle with energy E in a region of zero potential is incident on a potential well of depth V
o
and width "d". From the expression for the probability of transmission T of the particle past the
well given in (4.20a), the approximate values of E (in terms of
2
h /2md
2
)
corresponding to the
maxima and minima in T:
(a) for β = 10 are:
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[n
2
π
2
+10
2
] and
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[
(n +1)
2
π
2
4
+10
2
] , respectively ;
 3 
(b) for β = 250 are:
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[n
2
π
2
+ 250
2
] and
E
n
≅
h
2
2md
2
[
(n +1)
2
π
2
4
+ 250
2
] , respectively.
4 –3. Consider a onedimensional rectangular potential well structure such as that shown in Figure 4.9
below.
V = V
1
for x < a
V = 0 for a < x < 0
V = V
1
/ 2 for 0 < x < a
V = V
1
for x > a
I II
III
E
V = 0
a
0
V
1
IV
a
V
1
/2
The wave functions in regions I through IV and the equations describing the boundary conditions
on these wave functions for
(a) E > V
1
are:
Ψ
1
= e
ik
1
x
+ Ae
−ik
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
ik
3
x
+ Fe
−ik
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
ik
4
x
 4 
where
k
1
=
2m(E −V
1
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
3
=
2m (E −
V
1
2
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, k
4
= k
1
.
The boundary conditions (b. c.) at x = a are:
e
−ik
1
a
+ Ae
ik
1
a
= Be
−ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and k
1
[e
−ik
1
a
− Ae
−ik
1
a
] = k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and k
2
(B − C) = k
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
ik
3
a
+ Fe
− ik
3
a
= Ge
ik
4
x
and k
3
(De
ik
3
a
− F e
−ik
3
a
) = k
4
Ge
ik
4
x
.
(b) For V
1
> E > V
1
/ 2 , the wave functions in the various regions are:
Ψ
1
= Ae
α
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
ik
3
x
+ Fe
−ik
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
−α
4
x
,
where
 5 
α
1
=
2m(V
1
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
3
=
2m (E −
V
1
2
)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, α
4
= α
1
.
The b. c. at at x = a are:
Ae
−α
1
a
= Be
− ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and α
1
Ae
−αa
= i k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and k
2
(B − C) = k
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
ik
3
a
+ Fe
− ik
3
a
= Ge
−α
4
a
and i k
3
(De
ik
3
a
− F e
−ik
3
a
) = −α
4
Ge
−α
4
x
(c) For E < V
1
/ 2 , the wave functions in the various regions are:
Ψ
1
= Ae
α
1
x
Ψ
2
= Be
ik
2
x
+ Ce
−ik
2
x
Ψ
3
= De
α
3
x
+ Fe
−α
3
x
Ψ
4
= Ge
−α
4
x
,
where
α
1
=
2m(V
1
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
k
2
=
2mE
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
,
α
3
=
2m (
V
1
2
− E)
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎥
1
2
, α
4
= α
1
.
 6 
The b. c. at at x = a are:
Ae
−α
1
a
= Be
− ik
2
x
+ Ce
ik
2
a
and α
1
Ae
−αa
= i k
2
[Be
−ik
2
x
−Ce
ik
2
a
].
The corresponding b.c. at x = 0 are:
B + C = D+ F and i k
2
(B − C) = α
3
(D− F) .
The corresponding b.c. at x = a are:
De
α
3
a
+ F e
− α
3
a
= Ge
−α
4
a
and α
3
(De
α
3
a
− Fe
−α
3
a
) = −α
4
Ge
−α
4
x
4 –4. Suppose the following wave function describe the state of an electron in an infinite square
potential well, 0 < x < a, with V(x) = 0 inside the well:
( ) ( )
⎪
⎩
⎪
⎨
⎧ ≤ ≤
= Ψ
π π
elsewhere 0
a x 0 for cos sin A
(x)
,
2a
x
2a
x 3
.
(a) One way to normalize the wave function is to expand the given wave function in terms of
the normalized energy eigen functions from x = 0 to x = a:
Ψ(x) = A
a
8
2
a
sin(
2πx
a
) +
2
a
sin(
πx
a
) ]
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
.
1=  A 
2
[
a
8
+
a
8
] ; ∴A =
2
a
.
(b) Timedependence of the normalized wave function is:
t
ma
i
t
ma
i
e
a
x
a
e
a
x
a
t x
2
2
2
2
2
2
) sin(
1
)
2
sin(
1
) , (
h
h
π
−
π
−
π
+
π
= Ψ
 7 
(c) If measurements of the energy of the electron are made, the values of the energy that will
be measured and the corresponding absolute probabilities are:
Energy Probability
2
2 2
2
ma
h π
1
2
π
2
h
2
2ma
2
1
2
4 5. Consider the onedimensional potential of Figure 4.10:
Region
V = ∞ x < 0 I
V = 0 0 < x < a II
V = V
o
a > x III
I II III
E
V = 0
V = V
0
0 a
V
∞
(a) The equations whose solution give the eigen energies of the bound states (E < V
o
) of the
above potential well are the same as those for the antisymmetric solutions of a full
potential well of depth V
o
from x = a to x = a, namely:
− ξ
n
cot ξ
n
= η
n
, ξ
n
2
+ η
n
2
=β
2
,
 8 
where
ξ
n
= k
n
a =
2mE
n
h
a ,
η
n
=
2m(V
0
− E
n
)
h
a ,
β =
2mV
0
h
a .
(b) The eigenfunctions of the three lowest energies assuming V
0
is sufficiently large so that
there are at least three bound states are qualitatively as shown in the following figure:
I II
III
0
ψ
n
x
n=1
2
3
4 6. Consider the case of an electron ( g x . m
e
27
10 91 0
−
= ) in a finite potential well of depth 1.25 V
and width 145 Å.
(a)
2a = d 2a = d =145 A
o
, V
o
=125 eV = 2 ×10
−12
erg.
β
a
=
2mV
0
h
2
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
1
2
= 5.75 ×10
7
cm
1
, β = 41.7 ,
(N−1)(π 2) < 41.7 < N (π 2) ;
therefore, the estimated number of bound states N = 27.
 9 
(b) To calculate the energies of the lowest two bound states, we must find the numerical
solutions of the secular equations:
2 / 1 2 2
] [ tan ξ − β = ξ ξ for the symmetric modes ,
and
2 / 1 2 2
] [ cot ξ − β = ξ ξ − for the antisymmetric modes .
Solving these equations using, for example, Mathematica gives:
ξ
1
=1.534 and ξ
2
= 3.07 .
The corresponding boundstate energies are, respectively:
E
1
=V
0
ξ
1
β
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
=1.69 meV and E
2
=V
0
ξ
2
β
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
2
= 6.79 meV .
(c) The wave functions for the lowest two bound states are sketched qualitatively below:
x
a +a
ψ
n
1
n=2
47. A particle of mass m is confined to move in a quantumwell in the (x,y) plane which consists of a
pair of impenetrable walls at x = ± a but is unbounded for motion in the ydirection.
 10 
(a) Let the total energy of the particle be E and the energy associated with the motion in the
x and ydirections be E
x
and E
y
, respectively. The allowed values of E
x
, E
y
, and E
are, respectively:
E
x
=
n
2
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
, E
y
= 0 →∞ is unlimited, and E = E
x
+ E
y
.
(b) E versus k
y
for various allowed values of E
x
. are sketched below:
k
y
E
x3
1
E
2
0
(c)
E
y
= E− E
x
= E −
h
2
π
2
2ma
2
.
(d) A possible, unnormalized, space and timedependent wave function to describe the
particle in Part c above is:
Ψ(x, t) = sin(πx / a)e
i
2mE
y
h
y−
i
h
Et
(e) If the particle's total energy is E = π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, n
x
can only be 1 and
E
y
=
h
2
k
2
2m
=
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
. The corresponding wave function of the particle must be of the
 11 
form:
Ψ(x, y,t ) = cos(πx /2a)[ Ae
i
π
2a
y
+ Be
−i
π
2a
y
] e
−i
π
2
h
4ma
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
t
.
(f) Suppose now an infinite potential barrier at y = ± a is imposed. The particle's energy
cannot be measured to be 3π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, because
E
x
+ E
y
=
π
2
h
2
8ma
2
( n
x
2
+ n
y
2
) .
For the total energy to be equal to 3π
2
2
h /4ma
2
, ( n
x
2
+ n
y
2
) must equal to 6, which is not
possible for any integer values of n
x
and n
y
.
5 – 1
Chapter 5
51. For an eigen state of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator, the following results are true:
(a) The expectation values of the position and momentum are zero:
0  ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2
 ˆ 
0
· > − <
ω
· > <
− +
n a a n
m
i n x n
h
, and
0  ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2
 ˆ 
0
· > + <
ω
· > <
− +
n a a n
m
n p n
x
h
.
(b) The expectation values of the potential energy and the kinetic energy (T
ˆ
) are
equal:
) 1 2 (
4
 ) ˆ ˆ ( ) ˆ ˆ ( 
4

2
 
ˆ

0 0
2
+
ω
· > + + <
ω
· > < · > <
− + − +
n n a a a a n n
m
p
n n T n
x
h h
,
> ·< +
ω
· > − − <
ω
− · > <
− + − +
n T n n n a a a a n
m
k
n x V n   ) 1 2 (
4
 ) ˆ ˆ ( ) ˆ ˆ ( 
2 2
 ) (
ˆ

0
0
h h
.
(c) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum ∆x∆ p
x
is equal to
(n +
1
2
)h:
∆ p
x
2
· < p
x
2
> − < p
x
>
2
·
hmω
0
2
(2n +1) ,
∆x
2
· < x
2
> − < x >
2
·
h
2mω
0
(2n +1) ;
5 – 2
∴ ∆p
x
∆x · (n +
1
2
) h .
52. For a onedimensional harmonic oscillator, in the basis in which the Hamiltonian is
diagonal, the matrix representations of :
(a) the position and momentum operators
ˆ
x and
ˆ
p
x
are, respectively :
ˆ
x · −i
h
2mω
0
0 − 1 0 0 • •
1 0 − 2 0 • •
0 2 0 − 3 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
,
ˆ
p
x
·
hmω
0
2
0 1 0 0 • •
1 0 2 0 • •
0 2 0 3 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
;
(b) the operator products
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
and
ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
, respectively:
5 – 3
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
·
0 0 0 0 • •
0 1 0 0 • •
0 0 2 0 • •
0 0 0 3 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
, and ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
·
1 0 0 0 • •
0 2 0 0 • •
0 0 3 0 • •
0 0 0 4 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
.
(c) Using the above matrices, it can be shown immediately that the commutator of
ˆ
a
−
and
ˆ
a
+
is :
ˆ
a
−
ˆ
a
+
−
ˆ
a
+
ˆ
a
−
·
1 0 0 0 • •
0 1 0 0 • •
0 0 1 0 • •
0 0 0 1 • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • •
¸
¸
_
,
·1 .
53. Substituting the wave function of the form :
Ψ
E
n
( x) · C
n
H
n
(
mω
0
h
x)e
−
mω
0
2h
x
2
into the Schroedingerequation gives :
[ −
h
2
2m
d
2
H
n
( x)
dx
2
+ hω
0
x
dH
n
(x)
dx
+
hω
0
2
H
n
(u) ] e
−
h ω
0
2 h
x
2
· E
n
Ψ
n
(x)
.
Change the variable from x to
u≡
mω
0
h
x gives indeed Eq.(5.33), which defines the Hermit
polynomials:
5 – 4
d
2
H
n
(u)
du
2
−2u
dH
n
(u)
du
+ 2(
E
n
hω
0
−
1
2
)H
n
(u) · 0 .
54. Suppose the harmonic oscillator is initially in a superposition state  Ψ(t · 0) > ·
1
2
[  0 > + 1>],
the expectation value of the position of the oscillator < x >
t
≡< Ψ(t)  x  Ψ(t) > as a function of
time is:
. sin
2
] 1  0  [ ] ) ˆ ˆ ( [ ]  1  0 [
2
1
) (   ) (
0
0
0
0 0
t
m
e a a
m
i e
t x t x
t i t i
t
ω
ω
·
> + > −
ω
− < + < ·
> Ψ Ψ < ≡ > <
ω − + ω −
h
h
h
55. From Maxwell equations, (5.65 ad), and the condition for transverse waves 0 · ⋅ ∇ E
r
that
∇
2
r
E −
1
c
2
∂
2
r
E
∂x
2
· 0 .
It is clear that
r
E (
r
r , t) ≡ E
x
(z,t) e
x
· i
2πhω
k
L
a
k
−
e
−iω
k
t +i kz
− a
k
+
e
iω
k
t−ik z
( )
e
x
(5.68a)
satisfies the above wave equation as long as k
2
·
ω
k
2
c
2
. Under the same condition, it can be
shown that (5.68a) and
r
B (
r
r , t) ≡ B
y
(z,t) e
y
· i
2πhω
k
L
a
k
−
e
−iω
k
t +ik z
− a
k
+
e
iω
k
t−ik z
( )
e
y
(5.68b)
satisfy (5.65c).
5 – 5
Substituting (5.68a) and (5.68b) into
1
8π
E
x
2
(z,t ) + B
y
2
(z, t)
[ ]
0
L
∫
dz
and making use of the commutation relationship (5.69) after changing the
t
a ’s into operators
gives (5.70):
ˆ
H ·[ ˆ a
k
+
ˆ a
k
−
+
1
2
] hω
k
and
E
k n
· < n 
ˆ
H  n > · ( n +
1
2
) hω
0
.
56. The RaylieghJeans law and Planck’s law for blackbody radiation as functions of wavelength
and in units of energy per volume per wavelength interval:
Since ν·
c
λ
, Planck’s radiation law as a function of the wavelength is:
ρ
b
(λ) dλ · ρ
b
(ν ·
c
λ
)
∂ν
∂λ
dλ ·
8πhc
λ
5
⋅
1
e
hc/ λk
B
T
−1
dλ .
In the limit of
h
λ
<<k
B
T , it reduces to the classical RayleighJeans law:
lim
λ→0
ρ
b
(λ) ·
8πk
B
T
λ
4
with its λ
−4
dependence on wavelength and, therefore, diverges in the ultraviolet limit λ →0.
6  1
Chapter 6
61. The matrix representations of the angular momentum operators
ˆ
L
x
,
ˆ
L
y
,
ˆ
L
z
,
ˆ
L
+
,
ˆ
L
−
, and
ˆ
L
2
,
for
l = 0 ,1, and 2, in the basis in which
ˆ
L
z
and
ˆ
L
2
are diagonal can be found from (6.29)
– (6.31) and (6.8):
For the trivial case of
l=0 , all these operators are equal to zero.
For
l=1, the matrices are:
ˆ
L
2
=
2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
z
=
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h ,
ˆ
L
x
=
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
y
=
0 −1 0
1 0 −1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
,
ˆ
L
+
=
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
2 h ,
ˆ
L
−
=
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
2 h .
For
l=2, the matrices are:
ˆ
L
2
=
6 0 0 0 0
0 6 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 6
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h
2
,
ˆ
L
z
=
2 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 0 −2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h, h
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
=
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
ˆ
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
x
L
h i L
y
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
−
−
= −
−
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
ˆ
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
,
ˆ
L
+
=
0 2 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
h ,
6  2
h
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛
=
−
0 2 0 0 0
0 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0
ˆ
L .
62. From the above matrix representations of the angular momentum operators, it can be shown that
all the cyclic commutation relationships among all such operators are indeed satisfied. For
example, for
l=1:
ˆ
L
x
ˆ
L
y
=
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
0 −1 0
1 0 −1
0 1 0
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
2
=
1 0 −1
0 0 0
1 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
2
,
2
1 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
ˆ ˆ
2
h i
L L
x y
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ − −
= ;
∴
ˆ
L
x
ˆ
L
y
−
ˆ
L
y
ˆ
L
x
=
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
i h
2
= i h
ˆ
L
z
.
Similarly, one can show all the other cyclic commutation relationships.
63. No. All three components of the angular momentum operators can be specified precisely at the
same time if the expectation values of all the commutators of the angular momentum operators
are precisely zero in a particular state. This is the case when the hydrogen atom is in the ground
state, or the slevel (
l=0).
64. Show that the n=2, 1 = l , and 1 =
l
m wave function indeed satisfies the time
independent Schroedinger’s equation given in the text for the hydrogen atom:
Ψ
211
(r,θ, φ) = R
21
(r)Y
11
(θ,φ) =[(2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
e
−r / 2a
0
] [−
3
8π
e
iφ
sinθ] ,
6  3
∂
∂r
(r
2
∂
∂r
)[(2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
e
−r / 2a
0
] = (2a
0
)
−3/ 2
1
3
r
a
0
[2 −2
r
a
0
+
r
2
(2a
0
)
2
] e
−r / 2a
0
,
1
sinθ
∂
∂θ
sinθ
∂
∂θ
+
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
⎛
⎝
⎜
⎞
⎠
⎟
e
iφ
sinθ = −2e
iφ
sinθ .
Therefore,
, ) , , (
) , , ( ]
) 2 (
1
2
[ ) , , ( 2
) 2 (
2 2
1
2
) , , (
sin
1
sin
sin
1 1
2
211 21
211
2
0
2
211
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
211
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
φ θ Ψ =
φ θ Ψ − = φ θ Ψ
⎪
⎭
⎪
⎬
⎫
⎪
⎩
⎪
⎨
⎧
−
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
− + − − =
φ θ Ψ
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
−
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
∂φ
∂
θ
+
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛
∂θ
∂
θ
∂θ
∂
θ
+
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
r E
r
a m
r
r
e
a
r
a
r
r m
r
r
e
r r r
r
r r m
h h
h
and
E
211
= −
h
2
2m a
0
2
2
2
= −
me
4
2h
2
2
2
. Q.E.D.
Also, the wave function is indeed normalized:
Ψ
211
0
∞
∫
0
2π
∫
0
π
∫
2
r
2
sinθdr dθdφ = (2a
0
)
−3
r
4
3a
0
2
e
−r / a
0
dr
0
∞
∫
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
3
4
sin
3
θ dθ
0
π
∫
⎡
⎣
⎢
⎤
⎦
⎥
=1. Q.E.D.
65. A particle is known to be in a state such that
ˆ
L
2
= 2h
2
. It is also known that
measurement of
ˆ
L
z
will yield the value +h with the probability 1/3 and the value  h with
the probability 2/3.
(a) The normalized wave function, ) , ( φ θ Ψ , of this particle in terms of the spherical
harmonics is:
6  4
) , (
3
2
) , (
3
1
) , , (
1 1 11
φ θ + φ θ = φ θ Ψ
−
Y Y r .
(b) The expectation value, > <
z
L
ˆ
, of the zcomponent of the angular momentum of
this particle is:
<
ˆ
L
z
> =
1
3
h −
2
3
h = −
1
3
h .
66. The wave function of a particle of mass m moving in a potential well is, at a particular
time t :
2 2 2
z y x
e ) z y x ( ) z , y , x (
+ + α −
+ + = Ψ
(a) Ψ in the spherical coordinate system is:
.
3
4
3
8
2
1
3
8
2
1
] cos sin sin cos sin [ ) ( ) , , (
10 1 1 11
2 2 2
r
r z y x
e r Y Y
i
Y
i
e r r r e z y x z y x
α −
−
α − + + α −
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
π
+
π
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛ +
+
π
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎝
⎛ + −
=
θ + φ θ + φ θ = + + = Ψ
To normalize:
.
4
1
;
3
4
3
8
)
4
2
4
2
( sin  ) , (  1
2 2
π
= ∴
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡ π
+
π
+
∫
= φ θ θ φ θ Ψ = N N d d
.
The corresponding normalized wave function is:
.
3
1
6
1
6
1
) , (
10 1 1 11
Y Y
i
Y
i
+
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ +
+
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎛ + −
= φ θ Ψ
−
(b) The probability measurement of
2
L
ö
and
ˆ
L
z
gives the values 2h
2
and 0,
respectively, is:
6  5
Pr obability =
1/ 3
1/ 3 +1/ 3 +1/ 3
=
1
3
.
67. Consider a mixed state of hydrogen:
Ψ= R
21
(r)Y
11
(θ,φ) + 2R
32
(r)Y
21
(θ,φ)
(a) The normalized Ψ is:
) , ( ) (
5
2
) , ( ) (
5
1
21 32 11 21
φ θ + φ θ = Ψ Y r R Y r R .
(b) Ψ is not an eigen function of
2
L
ö
, but is an eigen function of
z
L
ö
corresponding
to the eigen value h .
(c) The expectation value > Ψ Ψ <  L
ö

2
is :
2 2 2 2
5
26
6
5
4
5
2

ˆ
 h h h = + = > Ψ Ψ < L .
(d) The > Ψ Ψ <  L
ö

z
is h .
(e) eV H 6 . 13 )
9
1
5
4
4
1
5
1
( 
ö
 ⋅ + ⋅ − = > Ψ Ψ < .
68. Consider a hydrogen atom in the following mixed state at t=0:
) , ( Y ) r ( R ) , ( Y ) r ( R ) t , , , r ( φ θ + φ θ = = φ θ Ψ
11 21 20 32
3 0
(a) The normalized the wave function is:
6  6
) , ( ) (
10
1
) , ( ) (
10
3
) 0 , , , (
11 21 20 32
φ θ + φ θ = = φ θ Ψ Y r R Y r R t r .
(b) The atom is not in a stationary state, because it is in a mixed state of n=2 and n
=3.
(c) The expectation value of the energy for t > 0 is:
eV H 6 . 13 )
4
1
10
1
9
1
10
9
( 
ö
 ⋅ + ⋅ − = > Ψ Ψ < .
(d) The expectation values are :
2 2 2
5
28
) 2
10
1
6
10
9
( 
ö
 h h = ⋅ + ⋅ = > Ψ Ψ < L
h h
10
1
)
10
1
0
10
9
( 
ö
 = + ⋅ = > Ψ Ψ <
z
L
(e) The uncertainty of
z
L
ö
in this state is:
h h
10
3
]
100
1
10
1
[ ] 
ˆ
 
ˆ
 [
2 / 1
2
1
2 2
= − = > Ψ Ψ < − > Ψ Ψ < = Δ
z z z
L L L .
.
69. This problem is somewhat like the finite squarewell potential problem considered in the
text, Sect. 4.4. The Hamiltonian of a particle of mass m in a finite spherical potential
well:
⎩
⎨
⎧
≥
≤
=
a r if , V
a r if ,
) r ( V
0
0
6  7
is:
) (
2
ˆ
2
r V
m
H + ∇ − =
h
.
For 0 = l , it is:
) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
ˆ
2
2
2
r V
r
r
r r m
H +
∂
∂
∂
∂
− =
h
.
The corresponding Schroedinger’s equation is
) ( ) ( ) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
2
2
2
r R E r R r V
r
r
r r m
no n no
=
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
+
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
h
, for a r ≤ ,
and
) ( ) ( ] ) (
1
[
2
2
2
2
r R E r R
r
r
r r m
no n no
=
⎭
⎬
⎫
⎩
⎨
⎧
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
h
, for a r ≥ .
The equation for a r ≤ can be converted to:
) (
2
) (
2 2
2
r U
mE
r U
r d
d
h
− = ,
where U(r) = r R(r) . The general solution of this equation is:
kr B kr A r U sin cos ) ( + =
where
h
mE
k
2
= . To satisfy the boundary condition that R
n0
(r) must be finite at r =0,
A must be equal to 0, or
6  8
kr B r U sin ) ( = , for a r ≤ .
Similarly, for a r ≥ ,
r r
e D e C r U
α − α
+ = ) ( ,
where
h
) ( 2
0
E V m −
= α . For U(r) or R
n0
(r) to be finite at ∞ → r , C must be equal
to zero and:
r
e D r U
α −
= ) ( , for a r ≥ .
Continuity of the wave function R
n0
(r) and its derivative at a r = leads to the
secular equation:
α = − ka k cot .
Defining ka = ξ , the above equation is of exactly the same form as that corresponding
to the antisymmetric solution of the finite square potentialwell problem:
2 2
cot ξ − β = ξ ξ − , where
2
2
0 2
2
h
a mV
= β .
Just like in that problem, there is no solution, if
2
π
< β or
m
a V
8
2 2
2
0
h π
< . Q.E.D.
6  9
7  1
Chapter 7
71. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in the form given in (7.11) is:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
·
1
2
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
) Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
) Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
.
It is indeed normalized:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
2
∫ ∫
d
r
r
1
d
r
r
2
·
1
2
[ Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
)
2
d
r
r
1
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
2
d
r
r
2 ∫
+ Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
2
d
r
r
2 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
)
2
d
r
r
1 ∫ ∫
− Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
)
*
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
) d
r
r
1 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
)
*
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
) d
r
r
2 ∫
− Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
2
)
*
Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
2
) d
r
r
2 ∫
⋅ Ψ
a
2
(
r
r
1
)
*
Ψ
a
1
(
r
r
1
) d
r
r
1 ∫
]
·
1
2
[ 1⋅1+1⋅1− 0⋅ 0 − 0⋅0 ] ·1 . Q.E.D.
71. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in terms of the radial wave functions and the
spherical harmonics in the Schroedingerrepresentation and the spin state functions (α
and β) in the Heisenbergrepresentation of a hydrogenic atom is:
Ψ
a
1
a
2
·
1
2
R
n
1
l
1
(r
1
)Y
l
1
m
1
(θ
1
φ
1
)α
1
R
n
1
l
1
(r
2
)Y
l
1
m
1
(θ
2
φ
2
)α
2
R
n
2
l
2
(r
1
)Y
l
2
m
2
(θ
1
φ
1
)β
1
R
n
2
l
2
(r
2
)Y
l
2
m
2
(θ
2
φ
2
)β
2
73. The total orbital and spin angular momentum quantum numbers of the groundstate of
helium atom:
2 Electrons :
l · 0 , m
l
· 0 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
and −
1
2
.
Atom:
L · 0 , M
L
· 0 , S · 0 , M
S
· 0 .
7  2
For lithium atom:
3 Electrons :
l · 0 , m
l
· 0 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
and −
1
2
.
l ·1 , m
l
· 0 or t1 , s·
1
2
, m
s
·
1
2
or −
1
2
Atom: L ·1 , M
L
· 0 or t1 , S·
1
2
, M
S
·
1
2
or −
1
2
.
74. Ground state configuration Degeneracy
Carbon: (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
2
( 6⋅ 5 ÷2 ·15 ) .
Silicon: (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
2
( 6⋅ 5 ÷2 ·15 ) .
75. The ground state configuration of 
Ga : (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
6
(3d)
10
(4s)
2
(4p)
1
As : (1s)
2
(2s)
2
(2p)
6
(3s)
2
(3p)
6
(3d)
10
(4s)
2
(4p)
3
.
Chapter 8
81. Substituting (8.17) into the left side of (8.5) gives:
) ( 0 ) (
) (
) 1 ( ~
) ( ) , (
2 ) (
) (
ε + ∑ Ψ
1
1
]
1
¸
+
ω − ω
−
+ Ψ ≅ Ψ
∂
∂
≠
−
ω − ω
ω − ω
−
i j
t E
i
E
t i
i j
t i
j z ij
t E
i
E i
j
j
i j
i j
i
i
e r e
e
E E ez e r E t r
t
i
h h
r
h
r r
h .
Substituting (8.17) into the right side of (8.5) gives in the limit of ε→1:
∑ Ψ
1
1
]
1
¸
+
ω − ω
−
+ Ψ · Ψ ε +
≠
−
ω − ω
ω − ω
−
i j
t E
i
E
t i
i j
t i
j z ij
t E
i
E i
j
j
i j
i j
i
i
e r e
e
E E ez e r E V H
h h
r
h
r
) (
) (
) 1 ( ~
) ( ]
ˆ ˆ
[
) (
) (
1 0
,
which is the same as the left side.
[ Note: To derive the right side equation above, use is made of the fact that
ˆ
V
1
in the
representation in which
ˆ
H
0
is diagonal is:
ˆ
V
1
·
ˆ
1 ⋅
ˆ
V
1
⋅
ˆ
1 ·  E
j
>< E
j
 ez
˜
E
z
j≠ j'
∑
 E
j'
>< E
j'
 e
− iωt
and
< E
j'
 E
i
> ·δ
j' i
. ]
82. For circularly polarized waves:
r
E (
r
r ,t) ·
˜
E
t
2
( ˆ e
x
m i ˆ e
y
) e
iωt
and
ˆ
V
t
·
e
˜
E
t
2
( xm i y) e
iωt
.
Therefore,
W
i j
·
πe
2
h
2
x
i j

2
+ y
i j

2
[ ]
 E
t

2
δ(ω
i j
− ω) .
For spherically symmetric systems, such as atoms:
W
i j
·
2πe
2
3h
2
 r 
2
E
t

2
δ(ω
i j
− ω) ,
where  r 
2
·  x 
2
+  y 
2
+  z 
2
· 3  x 
2
· 3  y 
2
· 3 z 
2
.
83. For the selection rules on the orbital angular momentum,
< lm
l
 Y
10
 l' m
l'
> · Y
l m
l
*
0
π
∫
o
2π
∫
Y
10
Y
l' m
l
' sin θdθdφ ∝δ
m
l
m
l '
,
< lm
l
 Y
1t1
 l' m
l'
> · Y
lm
l
*
0
π
∫
o
2π
∫
Y
10
Y
l' m
l
' sin θdθdφ ∝δ
m
l
,(m
l'
t1)
,
and from the known properties of the integrals of three spherical harmonics,
 ∆l  ≡  l − l'  ≤1. On the basis of parity considerations,
l and
l ' must be of
opposite parity; therefore,
∆l ≡ l − l' · t1.
84. Accoring to the Rydberg formula (8.24):
1
λ
1s,2p
· R
H
(1−
1
n
2
) ,
λ
1s,2p
· 91.127 x
n
2
n
2
−1
nm .
For Lyman series:
n 2 3 4 5 6
Experiment 121.6 102.6 97.3 95.0 93.8 nm
Rydberg Formula 121.5 102.5 97.2 94.9 93.7 nm
85. Give the expectation value of the zcomponent of the electric dipole
moment of the hydrogen atom in the mixed state:
< Ψ (−ez)  Ψ> ·
−e
1+ C
12
2
<100  z  210 >C
12
+ complex conjugate
·
−C
21
e
1+ C
12
2
R
10
r R
21
r
2
dr Y
00
cosθY
10
sinθ dθ + C. C.
0
π
∫
0
∞
∫
≅
−C
21
e
1+ C
12
2
1.5a
0
+ C.C. .
8.6 An electron in the n = 3, l = 0, m = 0 state of hydrogen decays by a sequence of (electric
dipole) transitions to the ground state.
(a) The decay routes open to it are:
¦300>
→

210 > →
¦100 >
→ ¦21t1> →
¦100 > .
(b) The allowed transitions from the 5d states of hydrogen to the lower states are:
s p
d
f
g
1
2
3
4
5
8.7. Assume a Lorentzian fluorescence linewidth of 10 Ghz. The stimulated emission crosssection
(in cm
2
) defined in connection with (8.31) for a hypothetical hydrogen laser with linearly
polarized emission at 121.56 nm (Lymanα line)is:
σ
st
·
4π
2
e
2
ν
hc
x
12
g
f
(ν) ≅ 7.1x10
4
x
12
2
.
Using the value of the dipole moment found in Problem 85, x
12
2
≈ 0.62x10
−16
cm
2
,
∴ σ
st
≈ 4.4x10
−12
cm
2
.
Assuming all the degenerate states in the 2p level are equally populated, the
corresponding spatial gain coefficient (in cm
1
) is:
g · ( N
2
− N
1
) σ
st
≈ 4.4x10
−2
cm
−1
,
if the total population inversion between the 1s and 2p levels of hydrogen in the gaseous medium
is 10
10
cm
3
.
9 1
Chapter 9
91. The spinorbit interaction in hydrogen is of the form, (6.62) :
S
ˆ
L
ˆ
) r ( S
ˆ
L
ˆ
r c m
Ze
H
ˆ
o s
r r r r
⋅ ζ ≡ ⋅
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
3 2 2
2
2
The corresponding matrix for 1 · l in the representation in which
2
L
ˆ
,
z
L
ˆ
,
ˆ
S
2
,
ˆ
S
z
are diagonal is
a 6x6 matrix. To diagonalize this matrix within the manifold of degenerate states
n,l ·1, m
l
, s ·1/2, m
s
>, the columns and rows corresponding to the pairs of
(m
l
, m
s
) values
are arranged in a particular order:
) , (
s
m m
l
)
2
1
, 1 ( − − )
2
1
, 1 ( + − )
2
1
, 0 ( − ( 0, +
1
2
) )
2
1
, 1 ( − + )
2
1
, 1 ( + +
(−1,−1/ 2)
(−1, +1/ 2)
( 0,−1/ 2)
( 0, +1/ 2)
(+1,−1/ 2)
(+1, +1/ 2)
1/2 0 0 0 0 0
0 −1/2 1/ 2 0 0 0
0 1/ 2 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1/ 2 0
0 0 0 1/ 2 −1/2 0
0 0 0 0 0 1/2
¸
¸
_
,
⋅ ζ
nl
h
2
.
This matrix breaks down into two 2x2 and two 1x1 matrices which can be easily diagonalized .
Doing so according to the degenerate perturbation theory yields two new eigen values:
ζ
nl
h
2
/ 2
and
−ζ
nl
h
2
. These correspond to the two new sets of 4fold ( j ·
3
2
, m
j
· t
1
2
, t
3
2
) and 2 fold
( j ·
1
2
, m
j
· t
1
2
) degenerate levels split from the original 6fold degenerate level in the absence
of spinorbit interaction as given in Sect. 6.5. The two sets of new eigen states correspond to the
spinorbit coupled
j ·3/ 2 , m
j
· t 3/ 2, t1/ 2 and j ·1/ 2 , m
j
· t1/ 2 hydrogenic states.
The diagonization procedure gives also the relevant vectorcoupling coefficients
9 2
< lm
l
sm
s
 jm
j
ls > defined in (6.59) for the eigen functions for this particular case. For
example, the vectorcoupling coefficients:
< j m
j
l s l m
l
s m
s
> ·< 3/ 2,t3/2,1,1/21,t1,1/2,t1/ 2> ·1 ,
< j m
j
lslm
l
sm
s
> ·< 3/ 2,−1/ 2,1,1/ 21,−1,1/2,1/2> ·
1
3
,
< j m
j
lslm
l
sm
s
> ·< 3/ 2,−1/ 2,1,1/21,0,1/ 2,−1/2> ·
2
3
,
etc.
This is the procedure for calculating vectorcoupling coefficients in general.
92. The perturbation theory for the covalent bonded homonuclear diatomic molecule can be extend
to the case of heteronuclear diatomic molecules:
E
A
ˆ
H
AB
ˆ
H
BA
E
B
¸
¸
_
,
C
Aγ
C
Bγ
¸
¸
_
,
· E
γ
C
Aγ
C
Bγ
¸
¸
_
,
where
E
A
≡ < A 
ˆ
H  A > ≠ E
B
≡ < B 
ˆ
H  B >, H
AB
≡ < A 
ˆ
H  B > · H
BA
*
≡ < B 
ˆ
H  A >
*
.
Setting the corresponding secular determinant to zero gives:
E
γ
2
− (E
A
+ E
B
) E
γ
− H
AB
2
+ E
A
E
B
· 0 ,
which gives the bonding and antibonding levels of the heteronuclear molecule:
9 3
E
a
b
·
( E
A
+ E
B
)
2
t
1
2
( E
A
− E
B
)
2
+4 H
AB
2
[ ]
1/ 2
≈ E
A
B
t
H
AB
2
( E
A
−E
B
)
,
for ( E
A
− E
B
) >> H
AB
2
and E
A
> E
B
. The corresponding wave functions of the bonding and
antibonding orbitals of the molecule are:
 b > · C
A
( b )
 A > + C
B
( b )
 B > and  a > · C
A
(a )
 A > + C
B
( a )
 B > ,
where ( E
A
− E
a,b
)C
A
(a,b)
+ H
AB
C
A
(a,b)
· 0.
More specifically, they are:
C
A
(a,b)
·
H
AB
H
AB
2
+(E
A
−E
a,b
)
2
[ ]
and C
A
(a,b)
·
E
A
− E
a,b
H
AB
2
+(E
A
−E
a,b
)
2
[ ]
.
[ Note: H
AB
· − H
AB
.]
93. Suppose the unnormalized molecular orbital of a diatomic homonuclear diatomic molecule is:
Ψ
mo
· C
A
 A > +C
B
 B >
where  A > and  B > are the normalized atomic orbitals.
(a) The normalized molecular orbital is:
Ψ
m.o.
·
1
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
C
A
 A > + C
B
 B >
[ ]
,
9 4
where S ≡< A  B > is the overlap integral between the atomic orbitals and C
A
and C
B
are
assumed to be real.
(b) The corresponding molecular energy is:
E
m
≡ < Ψ
m

ˆ
H  Ψ
m
> ·
 C
A

2
E
A
+  C
B

2
E
B
+2C
A
C
B
H
AB
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
,
and
E
m
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B
[ ]
·  C
A

2
E
A
+  C
B

2
E
B
+2C
A
C
B
H
AB
.
Following the basic concept of Coulson’s molecularorbital theory, differentiate the
above equation against variations in C
A
gives:
∂E
m
∂C
A
 C
A

2
+  C
B

2
+2SC
A
C
B [ ]
+2E
m
C
A
+S C
B
[ ]
· 2 C
A
E
A
+ C
B
H
AB
[ ]
Minimizing the molecular energy against variations in C
A
, or setting ∂E
m
/∂C
A
· 0, yields one
condition that E
m
, C
A
, and C
B
must satisfy:
(E
A
− E
m
) C
A
+ ( H
AB
− E
m
S ) C
B
· 0 .
Similarly, by minimizing the molecular energy against variations in C
B
, or setting
∂E
m
/∂C
B
· 0, yields another condition E
m
, C
A
, and C
B
must satisfy:
(H
BA
− E
m
S) C
A
+ ( E
B
− E
m
) C
B
· 0 .
The secular determinant of these two homogeneous equations must be zero:
9 5
E
A
−E
m
H
AB
H
BA
E
B
− E
m
≅ 0 ,
assuming the overlap integral is negligible or S ≈ 0. This result is the same as that obtained in
Problem 92 above according to degenerate perturbation theory.
94. The number of atoms per cubic cell of volume a
3
in such a lattice:
N
a
3
· 2⋅[( 8⋅
1
8
) + 6⋅
1
2
] ·
8
a
3
.
The number of valence electrons per conventional unit cell of diamond lattice = 4⋅
8
a
3
.
95. The primitive translational vectors for;
SCC:
r
a · a e
x
,
r
b · a e
y
,
r
c · a e
z
;
FCC:
r
a ·
a
2
(e
x
+ e
y
) ,
r
b ·
a
2
(e
y
+ e
z
) ,
r
a ·
a
2
(e
x
+ e
z
)
96. Diamond lattice = FCC with 2 atoms per basis at ( 0, 0, 0) and
1
4
,
1
4
,
1
4
¸
¸
_
,
. It is, therefore,
equivalent to two inter laced FCC lattice displaced one quarter the distance along the body
diagonal of the FCC.
97. The CC bond length in the diamond structure =
3
4
a .
9 6
10  1
Chapter 10
101. For a twodimensional electron gas, the densityofstate is independent of the energy;
therefore, the Fermi energy is directly proportional to the electron density:
N
e
· D
(2)
(E) d ·
m
π h
2
0
E
F
∫
E
F
.
102.
(a) The chemical potential of a freeelectron gas in two dimensions is given can be
found from Eq.(10.29):
N
e
·
mk
B
T
π h
2
0
∞
∫
1
e
(E−µ)/ k
B
T
+1
d E
k
B
T
·
mk
B
T
π h
2
ln e
µ / k
B
T
+1
[ ]
;
∴
µ(T) · k
B
Tln[e
πh
2
N
e
mk
B
T
−1] ,
for N
e
electrons per unit area.
(b) Plot µ(T) / E
F
as a function of kT / E
F
as in Figure 10.6(b):
µ
E
F
k
B
T
E
F 0 0.1 0.2
1.00
0.95
.
10  2
103. For a typical 1D energy band, sketch graphs of the relationships between the
wave vector, k, of an electron and its:
(a) energy,
E
k
0
(b) group velocity,
Vg
k
0
(c) and effective mass.
m*
k
0
10  3
d. The approximate densityofstates
D
(1)
(E) ) for the energy band of part a aboveis
D (E)
k
0
(1)
104. The E(k
x
) vs. k
x
dependence for an electron in the conduction band of a onedimensional
semiconductor crystal with lattice constant a = 4 Å is given by:
E(k
x
) ·E
2
−( E
2
− E
1
)cos
2
[k
x
a/2] ; E
2
> E
1
.
(a) The E(k
x
) for this band in the reduced and periodic zone schemes.
periodic zone
reduced zone
2π π − 2π − π
0
E
1
E
2
E
k
x
a
(b) The group velocity of an electron in this band is:
10  4
v
g
·
1
h
∂E
∂k
¸
1
]
1
·
( E
2
− E
1
) a
2h
sin k
x
a
and is sketched below as a function of k
x
:
π
− π
0
V
g
k
x
a
(c) The effective mass of an electron in this band as a function of k
x
is:
m*· h
2
∂
2
E
∂
2
k
¸
1
]
1
−1
· h
2
( E
2
− E
1
) a
2
2
cosk
x
a
¸
1
]
1
−1
and is sketched below it in the reduced zone scheme:
π − π
0
m*
k
x
a
e
A uniform electric field E
x
is applied in the xdirection, the motion of the electron
is as follows:
10  5
k
x
a v
g
m
e
*
Acceleration
0.2 π > 0 > 0 x direction
0.5 π > 0 →∞ = 0
0.9 π > 0 < 0 +x direction .
105. Suppose now the corresponding electron energy E(k
x
) vs. k
x
curve in the valence band is:
E(k
x
) · −E
3
+ E
3
cos
2
[k
x
a/2]
(a) The E(k
x
) sketch for this band in the reduced and periodiczone schemes:
periodic zone
reduced zone
2π
π − 2π − π 0
E
3
E
k
x
a
(b) The group velocity of a hole in this band is:
v
g
· −
1
h
∂E
h
∂k
¸
1
]
1
·
E
3
a
2h
sin k
x
a
and is sketched below as a function k
x
:
10  6
π
− π
0
V
g
k
x
a
(c) The effective mass of the hole in this band as a function of k
x
in the reduced zone
scheme is:
1
2
3 2
1
2
2
2
cos
2
*
− −
1
]
1
¸
·
1
]
1
¸
∂
∂
− · a k
a E
k
E
m
x
e
h h .
The corresponding effective mass of an electron in the valence band is
π − π
0
m*
k
x
a
h
(d) A uniform electric field E
x
is applied in the xdirection, the motion of the holeis
as follows:
10  7
k
x
a v
g
m
h
*
Acceleration
0.2 π > 0 > 0 +x direction
0.5 π > 0 →∞ = 0
0.9 π > 0 < 0 x direction .
106. From (10.46) and (10.47), N∝(m*)
3 / 2
; therefore,
E
F
≅
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
kT
2
ln
N
V
N
c
¸
¸
_
,
·
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
3kT
4
ln
m
h
*
m
e
*
¸
¸
_
,
.
107. A semiconductor has N
c
=4x10
17
cm
3
and N
v
=6x10
18
cm
3
at room temperature and has a
band gap of 1.4 eV. A pn junction is made in this material with N
a
=10
17
cm
3
on one
side, and N
d
=2x10
15
cm
3
and N
a
=10
15
cm
3
on the other side. Assume complete
ionization of donors and acceptors.
(a) If the semiconductor is not doped and choosing E ·0 to be at the top of the
valence band or
E
v
·0 :
E
F
≅
E
C
+ E
V
2
+
kT
2
ln
N
V
N
c
¸
¸
_
,
· 0.7+
1
80
ln
60
4
¸
¸
_
,
≅ 0.73 eV ,
n
i
· N
c
N
v
e
−
E
g
kT
¸
¸
_
,
1/ 2
≅ 12x10
−13
( )
1/ 2
<<< N
d
+
≈ N
d
or N
a
−
≈ N
a
.
One, therefore, assume that on the pside:
p · N
v
e
−( E
F
− E
V
) / kT
≈ N
a
−
≈ N
a
and
E
F
− E
V
≈ kT ln
N
v
N
a
¸
¸
_
,
≈ 0.102 eV .
10  8
(b) Similarly, on the nside,
N
D
+
≈ N
D
· N
d
− N
a
·10
15
cm
−3
:
E
C
− E
F
≈ kT ln
N
C
N
D
¸
¸
_
,
≈ 0.15 eV .
(c) The built in voltage across the junction at room temperature is then:
V
B
≅1.4 − 0.15 −0.102 ·1.148Volt .
(d) The equilibrium minority carrier (electron) density on the pside of the junction at
room temperature is then:
n
p
· n
n
e
−V
B
/ kT
≈ N
D
e
−V
B
/ kT
≈ 47 m
−3
,
which is extremely small!
(e) When a forward bias of 0.1 eV is applied across the junction , the minority carrier
density on the pside increased by the factor: 6 . 54
/ 1 . 0
≅
kT
e .
0.102 eV
0.15 eV
0.1 eV
1.4 eV
E
c
E
v
p
n
V
app
11  1
Chapter 11
111. For a statistical ensemble of N spin1/2 particles per volume, the matrices representing
the Cartesian components of the spin angular momentum of such particles in the
representation in which
ˆ
S
z
and
ˆ
S
2
are diagonal are given in (6.50). The averaged
expectation values per volume of the three components of the spin angular momentum in
terms of the appropriate density matrix elements for the statistical ensemble of particles
are:
<
ˆ
S
z
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
1 0
0 −1
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
Nh
2
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) ,
<
ˆ
S
y
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
0 −i
i 0
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
i Nh
2
( ρ
12
− ρ
21
) ,
<
ˆ
S
x
> · N Trace
ρ
11
ρ
12
ρ
21
ρ
22
¸
¸
_
,
0 1
1 0
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
¸
1
]
1
·
Nh
2
( ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) ,
112. An electrical charged particle with a spin angular momentum will have a magnetization
proportional to the spin angular momentum. Suppose the averaged expectation value of
the magnetization of the medium considered in Problem 111 above is
r
M · N Trace[
ˆ
ρ (γ
ˆ
r
S ) ].
(a) The three Cartesian components of the magnetization in terms of the appropriate
density matrix elements as in Problem 111 above are:
M
z
·
Nγh
2
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) ,
M
y
·
i Nγh
2
(ρ
12
−ρ
21
) ,
11  2
M
x
·
Nγh
2
(ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) .
(b) The Hamiltonian of the spin1/2 particles in the presence of a static magnetic field
r
H · H
x
r
x + H
y
r
y + H
z
r
z , but in the absence of any relaxation processes is:
ˆ
H · −
γh
2
H
z
H
x
 iγH
y
H
x
+ iγH
y
 H
z
¸
¸
_
,
From the results of Part a above, on the basis of the density matrix equation
(11.16), the dynamic equations describing the precession of the magnetization
r
M around such a magnetic field are:
d
dt
(ρ
11
−ρ
22
) · −
i
h
2 H
12
ρ
21
−ρ
12
H
21
[ ]
· γ i H
x
(−ρ
12
+ ρ
21
)+ H
y
( ρ
12
+ ρ
21
)
[ ]
,
which can be shown to be
d
dt
M
z
· γ −H
x
M
y
+ H
y
M
x [ ]
· γ
r
M ×
r
H
[ ]
z
,
making use of the results in (a) above. Similarly for the x and ycomponents of
r
M ,
∴
d
r
M
dt
· γ
r
M ×
r
H , just like in classical mechanics.
(c) Suppose a magnetic field consisting of a static component in the
r
z direction and a
weak oscillating component in the plane perpendicular to the
r
z axis is applied to
the medium:
r
H · H
0
r
z + H
x
r
x ≡ H
0
r
z + H
1
cosω
0
t
r
x . The corresponding
Hamiltonian is:
11  3
ˆ
H · −
γh
2
H
0
H
1
cosω
0
t
H
1
cosω
0
t H
0
¸
¸
_
,
.
From (11.19),
d
dt
( ρ
11
− ρ
22
) · −
( ρ
11
−ρ
22
) −( ρ
11
(th)
−ρ
22
(th)
)
T
1
+ iγ H
x
(−ρ
12
+ ρ
21
) .
Also, M
t
·M
x
t iM
y
. Therefore,
d
dt
M
z
· −
M
z
− M
z
(th)
T
1
+ i
γ H
1
2
( M
+
− M
−
) cosω
0
t .
Similarly, for the other components:
d
dt
M
t
· −
M
t
T
2
t iγ H
0
M
m
m iγ H
1
M
z
cosω
o
t .
These are the wellknown Bloch equations in the literature on magnetic
resonance phenomena.
113.
(a) From the dispersion relation for light waves, k
2
· εω
2
/c
2
, and the definitions
k ≡β+ iα and ε≡ ε' +iε" · ε
0
+iε",
β ≅ ε
0
ω
0
/c and α ≅ ε"ω
0
2
/ βc
2
.
Therefore, on the basis of (11.44) and near the resonance, ω
0
≈ω
21
and :
11  4
α ≅
ε"ω
0
2
β c
2
·
ε"ω
0
ε
0
c
·
4π
2
( N
1
− N
2
)ν
0
e
2
z
12
2
ε
0
hc
g
f
(ν
0
) ·
ω
p
2
f
4 ε
0
c
g
f
(ν
0
) ,
where ω
p
≡
4πNe
2
m
≈
4π(N
1
− N
2
)e
2
m
, if most of atoms are in the ground
state, is known as the “plasma frequency” and
f
z
≡
2mω
21
h
z
21
2
is known as the
“oscillator strength”.
(b) To compare the result obtained in Part a above with the classical result based on a
damped harmonic oscillator model instead of the twolevel atom model: Suppose
the equation of motion of the harmonic oscillator is of the form:
d
2
d t
2
z(t ) + Γ
d
d t
z(t ) +ω
21
2
z(t ) · −
f
1/ 2
e
m
(
˜
E
z
e
−iω
0
t
+
˜
E
z
*
e
iω
0
t
)
which describes the oscillating motion of a particle of mass m and negative charge
of the magnitude f
1/ 2
e bound to a fixed point in space similar to the oscillator
shown in Figure 5.1. The spring constant of the harmonic oscillator is equal to
mω
21
2
; the damping constant is Γ ; and the deviation of the particle from its
equilibrium position in the absence of any electric field E
z
is z(t).
For the classical result, assumeω
0
≈ ω
21
>>Γ
−1
so that
ω
0
2
−ω
21
2
≅ 2ω
0
(ω
0
−ω
21
). Solving the above equation for a damped harmonic
oscillator:
) (
4
1
~
0
ν
ω
− ·
f
g
m
E e f
z ;
and
Q ε · ε' + i ε" · 4π [ χ' + i χ"] · 4π χ' −i 4 π
N f e z
˜
E
¸
¸
_
,
,
11  5
therefore, the classical model gives also :
ε"ω
0
ε
0
c
·
ω
p
2
f
4 ε
0
c
g
f
(ν
0
) ·α ,
which is the same as the result obtained in (a) above on the basis of the quantum
mechanic densitymatrix equation.
(c) Since the complex dielectric constant based on the oscillator strength f using
either the quantum mechanical model or the classical harmonic oscillator model
gives the same result for ε” , it is obvious that the same should be true for ε’.
The classical harmonic oscillator model, therefore, can be used to characterize
the dispersion and absorption characteristics of linear optical media with only
three phenomenological parameters: the oscillator strength f, that characterizes
the strength of the charge e
2
, the resonance frequency ω
21
, and the damping
constant Γ associated with the bound particle in the harmonic oscillator model.
114. Differentiating (11.51)
' )] ' ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ) ' ( [ ) (
) ' )( / 1 (
' '
'
' '
) (
dt e t t V t V t
i
T
t
t t T i
t
n m mm
m
n m mm
mn
th
mn
mn
mn mn
− + ω
∞ −
∫
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
ρ − ∑ ρ +
ρ
· ρ
h
gives:
d
d t
ρ
mn
·
ρ
mn
(th)
T
mn
+
i
h
[ρ
mm'
V(t)
m' n
m'
∑
−V(t)
mm'
ρ
m'n
] −( iω
mn
+
1
T
mn
) ρ
mn
,
which is Eq.(11.27). (11.51), therefore, satisfies and is a solution of (11.27).
11  6
11.5 The secondorder nonlinear optical susceptibility ˜
˜
χ
(2 )
(ω
1
+ω
2
· ω
3
) relates the induced
macroscopic polarization component P
i
(ω
3
) to the applied electric field components
E
j
(ω
1
) and E
k
(ω
2
) in the medium:
P
i
( ω
3
) · ˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) E
j
(ω
1
) E
k
(ω
2
)
j ,k
∑
.
For any such medium with inversion symmetry, inverting the coordinate axes leaves
˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) invariant but changes the signs of all the vector components:
−P
i
( ω
3
) · ˜
˜
χ
ijk
(2)
(ω
1
+ ω
2
· ω
3
) −E
j
(ω
1
)
[ ]
−E
k
(ω
2
) [ ]
j,k
∑
· P
i
(ω
3
) .
Therefore, ˜
˜
χ
(2 )
(ω
1
+ω
2
· ω
3
) must vanish.
116. Consider a laser with the following parameters: T
1
~ 10
9
sec, T
2
~ 10
12
sec, T
ph
~ 5x10
12
sec , R
pump
~ 10
27
/cm
3
 sec,
Bhν
0
g
f
(v
0
) ~6x10
−7
cm
3
/sec. The corresponding laser rate
equations are:
d
d t
( N
2
− N
1
) · −10
9
( N
2
− N
1
) −1.2⋅10
−6
( N
2
− N
1
) N
ph
+10
27
d
d t
N
ph
·− 2⋅10
11
N
ph
+ 6⋅ 10
−7
( N
2
− N
1
) N
ph
+ 0(N
ph
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
Changing the scales: t →10τ, ( N
2
− N
1
) →10
15
n, N
ph
→10
14
N so that the
numbers are more manageable in the numerical computation:
11  7
d
d τ
n · −10n −1.2n N +10
4
d
d τ
N ·−2⋅ 10
3
N + 6 n N + 0(N
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
.
The steadystate solutions of these equations are: n
ss
· 333.3 and N
ss
≈16.6.
Changing to normalized parameters:
n
333.3
≡ y and
N
16.6
≡ z , the above rate
equations become:
d
d τ
y · −10 y (1+ 2z) + 30
d
d τ
z ·2⋅10
3
z( y−1) + 0( z
(spont)
)
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
.
The turnon dynamics of such a laser can be calculated numerically on the basis of these
normalized laser rate equations using, for example, the Mathematica program:
NDSolve[{y'[x] == 20 y[x] Abs[z[x]]  10 y[x] + 30,
z'[x] == 2000 z[x] + 2000 y[x] z[x] + 0.001, y[0] == 0,
z[0] == 0}, {y, z}, {x, 0, 2}]
g = 0/0
Plot[Evaluate[ y[x] /. g],{x, 0, 0.5},PlotRange> {0, 2},
AxesOrigin>{0, 0},
AxesLabel>{"t", "n(t)/n(s.s)"}]
Plot[Evaluate[ z[x] /. g], {x, 0, 0.5}, PlotRange>{0, 10},
AxesLabel>{"t", "N(t)/N(s.s.)"}]
The resulting calculated dynamics for the normalized population inversion and
intracavity intensity are shown in the figures ( t in 10
7
sec) below. These results show a
pattern of laser relaxation oscillations with the frequency in the range of a few tenths of a
Ghz and a damping time on the order of tens of nsec, numbers characteristic of a
semiconductor laser.
11  8
Figure 11.1  Examples of the transient dynamics of a semiconductor laser.
Chapter 2
21. (a)
ψ(x) [in units of A]
4
2
−4
−2
0
2
4
6
x
(b)
+∞ −∞
1 = ∫  Ψ ( x )  2 dx =  A  2 [ ∫ ( 4 + x) 2 dx + ∫ ( 6 − x ) 2 dx ] =
−4 1
1
6
250  A 2 3
∴ A=
1 5
3 10
.
(c)
<x> = 1
, by inspection.
Next, find σ2 first:
σ 2 =  A 2 [ ∫ ( x − 1) 2 ( 4 + x) 2 dx + ∫ ( x − 1) 2 ( 6 − x) 2 dx ] =
−4 1
1
6
5 2
;
therefore,
< x 2 > = σ2 + < x >2 =
7 2
.
2  1
(d)
The answer to this question is tricky due to the discontinuous change in the slope of the wave function at x = 4, 1, and 6. Taking this into account ,
< K. E. > = −
h 3 3h (0 ⋅1−5 ⋅ 2+ 0 ⋅ 1) = 2m 250 50m
2
2
.
22.
Given
2 sin(3 πx/a),for 0 < x < a Ψ (x ) = a 0, for x ≤ 0 and x ≥ a.
(a)
< H >=− h 2 2m a
2
∫ sin( 3πx /a) ∂x
0
a
∂
2
sin( 3πx /a) dx = 2
9π h 2ma 2
2
2
.
(b)
2 2 ˆ sin( 3πx / a ) = − h ∂ sin( 3πx / a) = E sin( 3πx / a) H 2m ∂x 2
∴ E =
9π h 2ma 2
2
2
.
(c)
−i t 2 2 Ψ ( x , t )= sin( 3πx / a)e 2ma a 9 π 2h
.
(d) ∆H = < H 2 > − < H > 2
[
]
2  2
2 . Prove the following commutation relations: (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ [ p x . (b) ˆ ˆ ˆ [ x.D. Similar to (a) above: ˆ ˆx [x . ] Ψ (x ) = − h 2 ( x ˆ = i 2 h p x Ψ( x) .x n ] = − i hnx n−1 .D. ∂2 ∂2 ∂ − x ) Ψ( x) = h 2 [ 2 Ψ ( x ) ] 2 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x Q. Q. Q. sin( 3πx /a) 4 sin( 3πx /a) dx . Applying the left side to an arbitrary state function Ψ( x) gives: [ p x . 23. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = [ A. it is as expected.3 . C ] = ( A + B) C − C ( A + B) = ( A C − C A) + ( B C − C B) . C ] (b) ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ [ A. p 2 .E.E. Prove the following commutation relationships: (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [ A+ B.E.B ]C + B[ A.5d).h 2 =− 2m a 2 4 9π 2h 2 ∂ = 0 . Q. the uncertainty in the total energy must be zero as shown in (2. C ] . C ] + [ B. (c) Not possible . 24. ∫ 2 ∂x 2ma 0 a 2 Yes. p x2 ] = i 2h p x . x n ] Ψ( x) = − i h ( ˆ ˆ = − ih n x n −1 Ψ( x) ∂ n ∂ x − x n ) Ψ( x) ∂x ∂x .E. BC ] = ABC − BCA = ABC − ( BAC − BAC ) − BCA ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = ( ABC − BAC ) + ( BAC − BCA ) = [ A.D. Since the given state is an eigen state of the Hamiltonian as shown in (b).D.
4 . σy = . ∴ b a = b 0 . 1 0 1 ˆ The eigen values σx of σ x = 1 0 are clearly also +1 and 1. 0 1 0 − i 1 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ Consider the twodimensional matrices σ x = . For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σz = +1 : a 1 0 a ˆ σz = = +1 b 0 − 1 b a . 1 1 . For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = +1 : a 0 1 a ˆ σx = = +1 b 1 0 b a 0 1 a ˆ σx = = −1 b 1 0 b a . and σ z = . ∴ b a = b 1 . i 1 2 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = 1 : 2 . ∴ b a = b a = b 1 2 1 .25. For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = +1 : a 0 − i a ˆ σy = = +1 b i 0 b a . ∴ b a . (a) 1 0 ˆ The eigen values σz of σ z = 0 − 1 are clearly +1 and 1. − 1 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σx = 1 : 1 2 0 − i ˆ The eigen values σy of σ y = i 0 are clearly also +1 and 1. 0 For the eigen function corresponding to the eigen value σz = 1 : a 1 0 a ˆ σz = = −1 b 0 − 1 b a . ∴ b a = b 1 . whose 1 0 i 0 0 −1 physical significance will be discussed later in Chapter VI.
− > = 2 − i . x x The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σy = +1 and 1 are. z z The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σx = +1 and 1 are.up and spindown states. − > = 1 . − > = 0 . + > 1 1  σ x = − 1 . Note: The + and – signs in the Dirac notation for the eigen states of the Pauli spinmatrices refer to the spin. − > = 2 1 . + > 1 1  σ y = − 1 . + > 1 1  σ y = 1 . in the 26. and  σ = − 1 . a 0 − i a ˆ σy = = −1 b i 0 b a . representation in which σ z is diagonal. + > 1 1  σ = 1 . + > 0  σ = 1 . ˆ Consider the Hamiltonian operator H with discrete eigen values. respectively  σ y = 1 . − > = 2 − 1 . respectively  σ x = 1 . − > = 2 i . and  σ = − 1 . Suppose the Hamiltonian is a Hermitian operator which by definition satisfies the condition: 2 . + > 1  σ z = − 1 . ∴ b a = b 1 2 1 . ˆ respectively.5 . and  σ y = − 1 . respectively  σ z = 1 . − i (b) These eigen states in the Dirac notation in the representation in which σ z is diagonal are ˆ as follows: The eigen functions corresponding to the eigen values σz = +1 and 1 are.
6 . respectively. and the commutation relation (2. Therefore. 27. (a) The eigen values of the Hamiltonian are all real: Let Ψ ( x) and Φ (x ) in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the ˆ Hamiltonian H corresponding to the eigen value Ei . The .11a): p2 ˆ ˆ p ˆ d i ˆ ˆ ˆ < x >= < [ x + V ( x ) . if ( Ei − E j ) ≠ 0 .49) . (2. * ˆ ˆ ( ∫ Φ * ( x ) H Ψ ( x ) dx ) * = ( ∫ ΨEi ( x ) H ΨEi ( x ) dx ) * = E i* . The condition of Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian leads to: E i = E * . or the eigen functions corresponding to different eigen values are necessarily orthogonal to each other. * then ∫ ΨEi ( x ) ΨE j ( x) dx = 0 . Similarly.ˆ ˆ ∫ Ψ ( x) H Φ( x)dx = ( ∫ Φ (x) H Ψ(x)dx ) * * * . dt h 2m m 2 . * * ˆ ˆ ∫ Ψ ( x) H Φ ( x ) dx = ∫ ΨEi ( x) H ΨEi ( x) dx = Ei . i Let Ψ ( x) and Φ (x ) in the definition of a Hermitian operator be an eigen state of the (b) ˆ Hamiltonian H corresponding to the eigen value Ei and Ej Hermiticity condition gives: * ( Ei − E j ) ∫ ΨEi ( x) ΨE j ( x) dx = 0 . Consider a particle of mass m in a potential field V(x). (a) On the basis of Heisenberg’s equation of motion. x] > = < x > .
the time variation of the expectation value of the momentum is given by : p2 ˆ ˆ d i dV ( x ) ˆ ˆ ˆ < p x >= < [ x + V ( x ) . which is known as Ehrenfest’s theorem.7 . 2 .(b) On the same basis. p x ] > = − < > = Fx dt h 2m dx .
4 0.t = 0 ) of the particle in the Schroedinger representation is. 0.6 o 0.8 0.2 λ (proton) De Broglie 0 2 4 0 2 4 6 E(eV) 8 10 32. proton ) λ(deBroglie = 0.3 E(in eV ) A (b) proton ) λ(neutron ) ≅ λ(deBroglie = deBroglie o A photon) λ(deBroglie = 1.4 0.6 A A 4 2 μ 0.Chapter 3 31.3 E(in eV ) .24 E (eV ) μ 8 6 o λDe Broglie (electron) 0.2 8 6 E(eV) 10 λDe Broglie (neutron) λphoton 0. assuming the phase of the wave function is arbitrarily chosen to be zero: . (a) with a The normalized state function Ψ( x . Suppose we know that there is a free particle initially located in the range −a < x < a spatially uniform probability.8 0.3 E(in eV ) o A . (a) λ(electron ) = deBroglie h = 2mE o 12.
(c) The corresponding state function at an arbitrary later time Ψ( x .t = 0 ) = Ae − ax 2 + ikx .t ) = π ∫ sin( px a) i( p x x − p 2 t ) x h e h 2mh dp x px . Consider a free particle with the initial state function in the form of: Ψ( x .ψ(x) (2a)1/2 x a +a (b) The corresponding momentum representation is: Ψ( p) = h 1 p sin( x a) π a px h .t > 0 ) in the integral form is : 1 1 2a +∞ −∞ Ψ(x. ⎛ 2a ⎞1/ 4 ∴ A =⎜ ⎟ ⎝π⎠ . 33. (a) To normalize this state function: +∞ −∞ 1=  A  2 ∫e −2ax 2 dx =  A  2 π 2a .
(d) From c above. respectively: 1 <x >= hk t m and 2 1 ⎡ ⎛ 2ha ⎞ ⎤ 2 Δx = 1+ ⎜ t⎟ ⎥ . Δx= 1 4a . where Δ px = h =h a 2Δ x . where θ is a timedependent phaseshift of no physical consequence that goes to zero at t = 0.t > 0 ) is: 1/ 4 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Ψ(x. (c) The corresponding state function Ψ( x .t) = ⎜ 2⎟ 2πh ⎝ 2π Δpx ⎠ +∞ − ( p x −< p x >) 2 4 Δp x −∞ 2 ∫e e −i 2 px p t+i x x 2mh h dpx ⎛ 1 ⎞1/ 4 ⎡ 1 i t ⎤ + =⎜ ⎥ ⎢ 2 2⎟ ⎝ 2πh ⎠ ⎣ 4 Δ px h 2m ⎦ −1/ 4 e ⎡ ⎤ <p > ⎢ ⎥ (x− x t )2 m ⎥ + i< p x > (x− < p x > t )+ iθ −⎢ 1 i t ⎥ ⎢ 2 h 2m 4h ( + )⎥ ⎢ 2 4 Δ p x h 2m ⎦ ⎣ . it can be shown that the corresponding momentum representation of this state function is: ( p x −< p x >)2 2 4 Δp x 1 Ψ( p) = 2πh +∞ −∞ ∫ ⎛ 2a ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝π⎠ 1/ 4 e −ax 2 + ikx −i p x x / h − ⎡ 1 ⎤ dx = ⎢ e 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2π(Δpx ) ⎦ 1/ 4 . the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the position for t > 0 are. < px > =k h . ⎢ 2 a⎣ ⎝ m ⎠⎦ .(b) After a considerable amount of algebra by first completing the square of the exponential in Fouriertransform integral.
which satisfies Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for all time t ≥ 0 . respectively: < px > t = hk and Δ px (t) = Δ px (0) = h a . the expectation value and the corresponding uncertainty of the linear momentum for t > 0 are.Similarly. . (e) The uncertainty product of the position and momentum for this state is: 1 2 h ⎡ ⎛ 2ha ⎞ ⎤ 2 h t⎟ ⎥ ≥ (Δ x) (Δpx ) = ⎢1+ ⎜ 2⎣ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎦ 2 .
20a). From Eq. h2 lim E →V0 −1 ⎡ ⎡ β2⎤ 2mV0 d 2 ⎤ T = ⎢1 + ⎥ = ⎢1 + ⎥ 4 h2 ⎦ 4⎦ ⎣ ⎣ −1 . (419): e−ik3 d F = 2 ⎤ A ⎡ k 2 + k2 cos k2 d − i 1 sin k 2 d⎥ ⎢ 2k1k 2 ⎦ ⎣ . 1 . therefore. (4.Chapter 4 41. The corresponding transmission coefficient is : 2 ⎡ ⎤ 2 ⎛ 2 + k2 ⎞2 2 F ⎢cos2 k2 d + ⎜ k1 T= = ⎟ sin k 2 d⎥ A ⎝ 2 k1k2 ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎧ ⎡ (2 E − V ) 2 ⎫−1 ⎤ 2 0 = ⎨1 + ⎢ − 1⎥ sin k 2 d ⎬ ⎩ ⎣ 4 E ( E − V0 ) ⎦ ⎭ ⎡ ⎤ V = ⎢1 + sin 2 k 2 d⎥ ⎣ 4 E ( E − V0 ) ⎦ 2 0 −1 . ⎡ ⎤ −1 ΔV 2 2 = ⎢1 + sin k2 d⎥ ⎣ 4( E − VI )( E − VII ) ⎦ which is Eq. In the limit of (E − V0 ) → 0 . sin 2 k 2 d → 2m(E − V0 ) 2 d .
Plots of T for β = 4: and β = 10 : 4 2. respectively .20a). A particle with energy E in a region of zero potential is incident on a potential well of depth Vo and width "d". 2md 2 4 (a) 2 . From the expression for the probability of transmission T of the particle past the well given in (4. the approximate values of E (in terms of h 2 /2md2) corresponding to the maxima and minima in T: for β = 10 are: En ≅ h2 [n 2 π 2 + 10 2 ] 2md 2 and En ≅ h 2 (n + 1) 2 π 2 [ + 10 2 ] .
respectively. 2md 2 4 4 –3. V = V1 V = 0 V = V1/ 2 V = V1 x < a 0 < x< a x> a for for a < x < 0 for for I V1 E II III IV V1/2 a V=0 a 0 The wave functions in regions I through IV and the equations describing the boundary conditions on these wave functions for E > V1 (a) are: Ψ1 = e ik1 x + Ae−ik1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De ik3 x + F e−ik3 x Ψ4 = G e ik4 x 3 .(b) for β = 250 are: En ≅ h2 [n 2 π 2 + 250 2 ] 2md 2 and En ≅ h 2 (n + 1) 2 π 2 [ + 250 2 ] .9 below. Consider a onedimensional rectangular potential well structure such as that shown in Figure 4.
c. k2 = ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ h ⎦ h2 1 1 ⎡ V1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 2m (E − 2 ) ⎥ .) at x = a are: e−ik1 a + Ae ik1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b. at x = a are: and k2 (B − C) = k 3 (D − F) .c. (b) For V1 > E > V1 / 2 . h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 The boundary conditions (b.c. the wave functions in the various regions are: Ψ1 = Ae α1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De ik3 x + F e−ik3 x Ψ4 = G e−α 4 x where . k4 = k1 . De ik3 a + F e − ik3 a = G e ik4 x and k3 ( De ik3 a − F e − ik3 a ) = k 4 G e ik4 x . B+C =D+ F The corresponding b. at x = 0 are: k1 [e−ik1 a − Ae−ik1 a ] = k 2 [Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ] . 4 . k3 = ⎢ ⎥ .where ⎡ 2m ( E − V1) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 k1 = ⎢ .
α 4 = α1 . De ik3 a + F e − ik3 a = G e−α 4 a and i k3 ( De ik3 a − F e − ik3 a ) = − α 4 G e−α 4 x (c) For E < V1 / 2 .c. at x = 0 are: α1 Ae−α a = i k2 [ Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ] . at x = a are: and k2 (B − C) = k 3 (D − F) . h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 5 . α 4 = α1 . B+C =D+ F The corresponding b.c. k2 = ⎢ h 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h 1 1 ⎡ V1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 2m (E − 2 ) ⎥ . α3 = ⎢ ⎥ . c. h2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 The b. k3 = ⎢ ⎥ . ⎡ ⎤2 V1 ⎢2m ( 2 − E) ⎥ . the wave functions in the various regions are: Ψ1 = Ae α1 x Ψ2 = Be ik2 x + C e−ik2 x Ψ3 = De α 3 x + F e−α 3 x Ψ4 = G e−α 4 x where ⎡2 m (V1 − E ) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 α1 = ⎢ ⎥ . k2 = ⎢ h 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ h 1 1 .⎡2 m (V1 − E ) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 2mE ⎤ 2 α1 = ⎢ ⎥ . at at x = a are: Ae −α1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b.
at x = a are: De α 3 a + F e − α 3 a = G e−α 4 a α 3 (De α 3 a − F e − α 3 a ) = − α 4 G e−α 4 x i k2 (B − C) = α 3 (D − F) α1 Ae−α a = i k2 [Be− ik2 x − C e ik2 a ]. Suppose the following wave function describe the state of an electron in an infinite square potential well. t )= 1 2πx −i ma 2 t 1 πx −i 2 t sin( )e sin( )e 2 ma + a a a a 2 π2h π2h 6 .The b. and 4 –4.c. (b) Timedependence of the normalized wave function is: Ψ ( x. 0 < x < a. and . at x = 0 are: B+C =D+ F The corresponding b. ∴ A = 8 8 a . (a) One way to normalize the wave function is to expand the given wave function in terms of the normalized energy eigen functions from x = 0 to x = a: a⎡ 2 2 πx ⎤ 2πx sin( )+ sin( ) ] ⎥ . ⎢ a a ⎦ 8⎣ a a Ψ( x ) = A a a 2 1 =  A 2 [ + ] . for0≤ x≤ a ⎪ 2a Ψ(x)= ⎨ ⎪0 elsewhere ⎩ ( ) ( ) .c. at at x = a are: Ae −α1 a = Be− ik2 x + C e ik2 a and The corresponding b. with V(x) = 0 inside the well: π ⎧ Asin 32ax cos π x . c.
10: Region V= ∞ V= 0 V = Vo x<0 0<x<a a>x I II III V ∞ I II III V = V0 E V=0 0 a (a) The equations whose solution give the eigen energies of the bound states (E < Vo) of the above potential well are the same as those for the antisymmetric solutions of a full potential well of depth Vo from x = a to x = a. namely: − ξ n cot ξ n = ηn . Probability 1 2 1 2 Consider the onedimensional potential of Figure 4. ξ 2 + η2 = β 2 n n 7 . the values of the energy that will be measured and the corresponding absolute probabilities are: Energy 2 π2h 2 ma 2 π 2h2 2ma 2 4 5. .(c) If measurements of the energy of the electron are made.
91x10 −27 g ) in a finite potential well of depth 1.where ξ n = kn a = 2mE n a h . (a) 2a = d 2 a = d = 145 A . h β= 2mV 0 a h .75 ×10 7 cm1 . 8 . therefore.25 V and width 145 Å. ⎣ ⎦ a ⎢ h2 ⎥ (N −1)(π 2) < 41.7 < N (π 2) . the estimated number of bound states N = 27. (b) The eigenfunctions of the three lowest energies assuming V0 is sufficiently large so that there are at least three bound states are qualitatively as shown in the following figure: ψn I II III n=1 0 x 3 2 4 6. β = 41. Consider the case of an electron ( me = 0. ηn = 2m (V 0 − E n ) a . 1 o β ⎡2mV0 ⎤ 2 = = 5.7 . Vo = 125 eV = 2 × 10−12 erg .
07 and .534 ξ 2 = 3. Mathematica gives: ξ1 = 1. and −ξcotξ= [β 2 − ξ 2 ] 1 / 2 for the antisymmetric modes .69 meV and E 2 = V0 ⎜ ⎟ = 6. The corresponding boundstate energies are. +a x A particle of mass m is confined to move in a quantumwell in the (x.79 meV . respectively: ⎛ ξ1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ξ2 ⎞ 2 E1 = V0 ⎜ ⎟ = 1.(b) To calculate the energies of the lowest two bound states.y) plane which consists of a pair of impenetrable walls at x = ± a but is unbounded for motion in the ydirection. 9 . Solving these equations using. for example. we must find the numerical solutions of the secular equations: ξtanξ= [β 2 − ξ 2 ] 1 / 2 for the symmetric modes . ⎝β⎠ ⎝β⎠ (c) The wave functions for the lowest two bound states are sketched qualitatively below: ψn n=2 1 a 47.
respectively. unnormalized.and ydirections be Ex and Ey. space.(a) Let the total energy of the particle be E and the energy associated with the motion in the x. E y = 0 → ∞ is unlimited.and timedependent wave function to describe the particle in Part c above is: Ψ(x. (d) A possible. nx can only be 1 and E y = . and E = E x + E y . (b) E versus ky for various allowed values of Ex. are sketched below: E Ex3 2 1 0 ky (c) Ey = E − Ex = E − h 2π 2 2ma 2 . The corresponding wave function of the particle must be of the h2k 2 π 2h2 = 2m 8ma 2 . and E are.t) = sin(πx /a)e i 2mE y h y− i Et h (e) If the particle's total energy is E = π2 h 2 /4ma2. Ey . respectively: n 2π 2 h 2 8ma 2 Ex = .10  . The allowed values of Ex.
which is not possible for any integer values of nx and ny.form: Ψ(x. 2 2 For the total energy to be equal to 3π2 h 2 /4ma2 . . (f) Suppose now an infinite potential barrier at y = ± a is imposed. because π 2h2 2 2 ( nx + ny ) 8ma 2 Ex + Ey = . y.11  . The particle's energy cannot be measured to be 3π2 h 2 /4ma2 .t) = cos(πx /2a)[ Ae i π 2a y + Be −i π 2a y ]e ⎛ π2h ⎞ −i ⎜ ⎟t ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝ 4 ma ⎠ . ( n x + n y ) must equal to 6.
∆ x 2 = < x 2 > − < x >2 = h (2n + 1) 2mω 0 . For an eigen state of a onedimensional harmonic oscillator. the following results are true: (a) The expectation values of the position and momentum are zero: ˆ < n  x  n >=i h ˆ ˆ < n ( a + − a − )  n >= 0 . 2 (b) ˆ The expectation values of the potential energy and the kinetic energy (T ) are equal: 2 ˆ  n >=< n  p x  n >= hω0 < n ( a + + a − )( a + + a − )  n >= hω 0 (2n + 1) . 5–1 . 2mω0 and ˆ < n  p x  n >= hmω0 ˆ ˆ < n ( a + + a − )  n >= 0 .Chapter 5 51. 2 2mω0 4 the position and momentum ∆x ∆ px is equal to (c) The uncertainty product of 1 (n + )h : 2 hmω 0 (2n + 1) 2 ∆ p2 = < p2 > − < px > 2 = x x . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ < nT 2m 4 4 hω k h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ < n  V ( x )  n >=− < n ( a + − a − )( a + − a − )  n >= 0 (2n + 1)=< n  T  n > .
respectively: 5–2 . ˆ px = 0 1 0 0 • • 1 0 2 0 • • 0 2 0 3 • • 0 0 3 0 • • • • • • • • . (b) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ the operator products a+ a− and a− a+ . in the basis in which the Hamiltonian is diagonal. the matrix representations of : (a) ˆ ˆ the position and momentum operators x and px are. 52.1 ∴ ∆ px ∆x = (n + ) h 2 . For a onedimensional harmonic oscillator. respectively : h ˆ x = −i 2mω 0 hmω 0 2 0 − 1 0 0 1 0 − 2 0 0 2 0 − 3 0 0 3 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .
and 0 0 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 0 0 ˆ−ˆ+ aa = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 2 0 0 • • 0 3 0 • • 0 0 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • . 53.33). which defines the Hermit h 5–3 . it can be shown immediately that the commutator of ˆ ˆ a− and a + is : 1 0 0 ˆ− ˆ + ˆ + ˆ− a a −a a = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 1 0 0 • • 0 1 0 • • =1 0 0 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • .(5. Substituting the wave function of the form : mω 0 2 − x mω 0 ΨEn ( x) = Cn H n ( x)e 2h h into the Schroedingerequation gives : h ω0 2h [− − h2 d 2H n ( x) dH n (x) hω 0 + hω 0 x + H n (u) ] e 2 2m dx dx 2 x2 = E n Ψ n (x) . (c) Using the above matrices.0 0 0 ˆ + ˆ− aa = 0 • • 0 0 0 • • 1 0 0 • • 0 2 0 • • . Change the variable from x to u≡ polynomials: mω 0 x gives indeed Eq.
54. Under the same condition.68a) ωk satisfies the above wave equation as long as k = 2 . it can be c 2 shown that (5. t) ≡ E x (z. 2mω 0 55.d H n (u) dH (u) E 1 − 2u n + 2( n − )H n (u) = 0 2 du du hω 0 2 2 . and the condition for transverse waves ∇⋅E = 0 that r r 1 ∂2 E ∇ E − 2 2 =0 c ∂x 2 . (5.68a) and r r 2πhω k − −iω k t +ik z B( r. Suppose the harmonic oscillator is initially in a superposition state  Ψ(t = 0) > = 1 [  0 > + 1 >]. It is clear that r r 2πhω k − −iω k t +i kz E ( r. t) ≡ By (z. 5–4 . 2 the expectation value of the position of the oscillator < x >t ≡< Ψ(t)  x  Ψ(t) > as a function of time is: < x > t ≡< Ψ(t )  x  Ψ (t ) > 1 h ˆ ˆ = [< 0 +< 1  e − iω 0 t ] [ −i (a + −a − )] [ 0 >+e i ω0 t  1 >] 2 hmω 0 = h sin ω 0t .65 ad).65c). r From Maxwell equations.t) e x = i − ak+e iω k t−ik z )e x (ak e L 2 (5.t) e y = i − a+ e iω k t−ik z )e y (ak e k L (5.68b) satisfy (5.
Substituting (5. diverges in the ultraviolet limit λ → 0 .68a) and (5. .t) + By2(z. The RaylieghJeans law and Planck’s law for blackbody radiation as functions of wavelength and in units of energy per volume per wavelength.70): 1 ˆ ˆ ˆk H = [ ak+ a− + ] hω k 2 and 1 ˆ E k n = < n  H  n > = ( n + ) hω 0 2 56.68b) into 1 8π ∫ [E L 0 2 x (z.interval: Since ν= c . In the limit of h << kB T . therefore.69) after changing the a ± ’s into operators gives (5. 5–5 . it reduces to the classical RayleighJeans law: λ 8πkB T λ4 lim λ→0 ρb (λ) = with its λ− 4 dependence on wavelength and. t) ] dz and making use of the commutation rela tionship (5. Planck’s radiation law as a function of the wavelength is: λ c ∂ν 8π hc 1 ) dλ = 5 ⋅ hc / λkB T dλ λ ∂λ λ e −1 ρb (λ) d λ = ρ b (ν = .
Ly . and 2 .31) and (6. L− = ⎜1 0 0⎟ 2 h .Chapter 6 61. L+ . 61 . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 1 0 ⎠ ⎝0 0 0⎠ ⎝0 1 0⎠ For l =2.1. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝0 1 0⎠ ⎛0 −1 0 ⎞ ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎛0 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ih ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ ˆ ˆ Ly = ⎜1 0 −1⎟ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 2⎠ ⎛1 0 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ Lz = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ h .8): For the trivial case of l =0 . L z = ⎜ 0 0 ⎟ ⎜ 0⎟ ⎜0 0 ⎟ ⎜ 6⎠ ⎝0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 ⎛0 0 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 0 0 0⎟ ⎜1 ˆ 0 0 0 ⎟ h .29) – (6. L− . Lz . in the basis in which Lz and L2 are diagonal can be found from (6. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 −1⎠ ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ h ˆ Lx = ⎜1 0 1⎟ . the matrices are: ⎛2 0 0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ L2 = ⎜0 2 0⎟ h 2 . all these operators are equal to zero. For l =1. and L2 . L+ = ⎜0 0 1⎟ 2 h . the matrices are: ⎛6 ⎜ ⎜0 ˆ L2 = ⎜0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜ ⎝0 ⎛2 0 0⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 0⎟ ⎜0 1 ˆ 0⎟ h 2 . ⎟ − 1⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ h ⎟ 2⎟ ⎟ 0⎠ . L x =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜0 0 −1 0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜0 0 0 −2⎠ ⎝ ⎛0 ⎜ ⎜0 ˆ = ⎜0 L+ ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜ ⎝0 1 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟h ⎟ 1⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ ⎛0 −1 ⎜ ⎜1 0 3 ˆ L y =⎜ 0 2 ⎜ ⎜0 0 ⎜ ⎜0 0 ⎝ 0 3 − 2 0 0 − 3 2 0 3 2 0 1 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟ih . ˆ ˆ for l = 0 . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The matrix representations of the angular momentum operators Lx .
l = 1 . L y Lx =⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ ⎜1 0 1⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ∴ . 64. No. Show that the n=2. for l =1: ⎛0 1 0⎞ ⎛0 −1 0 ⎞ ⎛1 0 −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ i h2 ⎜ ⎟ i h2 ˆ L = 1 0 1 1 0 −1 ˆ Lx y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 = ⎜0 0 0 ⎟ 2 . and ml = 1 wave function indeed satisfies the time independent Schroedinger’s equation given in the text for the hydrogen atom: Ψ211(r. From the above matrix representations of the angular momentum operators. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 1 0⎠ ⎝0 1 0 ⎠ ⎝1 0 −1⎠ ⎛1 0 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lx L y − Ly L x = ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟ i h 2 = i h Lz ⎜ ⎟ ⎝0 0 −1⎠ ⎛ − 1 0 − 1⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ih ˆ ˆ . it can be shown that all the cyclic commutation relationships among all such operators are indeed satisfied.φ) = [(2a0 )−3 / 2 1 r −r / 2a 0 3 iφ e ] [− e sinθ] . 8π 3 a0 62 . For example. Similarly. All three components of the angular momentum operators can be specified precisely at the same time if the expectation values of all the commutators of the angular momentum operators are precisely zero in a particular state. or the slevel ( l = 0). 62.φ) = R21 (r)Y11 (θ.θ. 63. This is the case when the hydrogen atom is in the ground state.⎛0 ⎜ ⎜2 ˆ L− =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜0 ⎝ 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0 ⎟h ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ . one can show all the other cyclic commutation relationships.
D. φ) . 2 2 m a0 2 2 2h 2 Q. θ.E.E. sinθ + 2 ⎜ 2⎟ ∂θ sin θ ∂φ ⎠ ⎝ sinθ ∂θ Therefore. (a) The normalized wave function.φ) 2 ⎢ 2 2m ( 2a 0 ) 2 a 0 ( 2a 0 ) r ⎪ ⎪ 2m r ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ = E 21 Ψ211 (r .h with the probability 2/3.D.θ. φ) ∂θ ⎠ r sin 2 θ ∂φ 2 ⎦ r ⎭ ⎩ 2m ⎣ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r sin θ ∂θ ⎝ ⎧ h2 1 ⎡ ⎤ e2 ⎫ 1 h2 r r2 ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨− − 2⎥ − ⎬Ψ211 (r . of this particle in terms of the spherical harmonics is: 63 .φ)=[− 2−2 + ]Ψ211 (r .r −r / 2a 0 r ∂ 2 ∂ r r2 −3 / 2 1 −3 / 2 1 (r )[(2a0 ) e ] = (2a0 ) [2 − 2 + ] e−r / 2a 0 . 65. 2 ∂r ∂r a0 (2a0 ) 3 a0 3 a0 ⎛ 1 ∂ ∂ 1 ∂2 ⎞ iφ e sinθ = −2e iφ sinθ . θ. It is also known that ˆ measurement of L z will yield the value + h with the probability 1/3 and the value . φ ) . ˆ A particle is known to be in a state such that L2 = 2 h 2 .θ. ⎧ h2 ⎡ 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂ ⎞ 1 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ e2 ⎫ ∂ ⎞ − ⎜r ⎟+ 2 ⎜ sin θ ⎟ + 2 ⎨ ⎢ 2 ⎥ − ⎬Ψ211 (r . Also. ⎦ 3 0 π ⎤ Q. and E 211 = − h2 me 4 =− 2 2 . Ψ( θ . the wave function is indeed normalized: π 2π ∞ ∫∫∫ 0 0 0 ⎡∞ ⎤⎡3 r4 Ψ211 r 2 sinθ dr dθ dφ = ⎢ ∫ (2a0 )−3 2 e−r / a 0 dr⎥ ⎢ 3a0 ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣4 2 ∫ sin θ dθ⎥ = 1.
z ) = ( x + y + z )e −α x2 + y2 + z2 =[r sin θcos φ+ rsin θsin φ+ r cos θ]e −α r ⎡⎛ − 1 + i ⎞ 8π 4π ⎤ − α r ⎛ 1 + i ⎞ 8π = ⎢⎜ Y11 + ⎜ Y1−1 + Y10 ⎥ r e . < L z > . y. φ) = ⎜ ⎟Y11 + ⎜ ⎟Y1−1 + Y10 . The wave function of a particle of mass m moving in a potential well is. 3⎦ ⎣ 4 4 3 . is: 2 h 2 and 0. φ)  2 sin θ dθ dφ = N 2 ⎢( + ) + ⎥ . 66.θ. 64 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ∴N = 1 4π .φ)+ 2 Y1−1 (θ. The corresponding normalized wave function is: ⎛ −1+ i ⎞ ⎛1+ i ⎞ 1 Ψ (θ. at a particular time t : Ψ( x . ˆ The expectation value.φ) 3 . y . ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎦ To normalize: ⎡ 2 2 8π 4π ⎤ 1 = ∫  Ψ (θ. z ) = ( x + y + z ) e − α x2 + y2 + z 2 (a) Ψ in the spherical coordinate system is: Ψ ( x.φ)= (b) 1 3 Y11 (θ.Ψ (r . (b) ˆ ö The probability measurement of L2 and Lz gives the values respectively. of the zcomponent of the angular momentum of this particle is: 1 2 1 ˆ < Lz > = h − h = − h 3 3 3 .
68. 67. but is an eigen function of L z corresponding to the eigen value h . Consider a hydrogen atom in the following mixed state at t=0: Ψ( r . 5 5 5 ö The < Ψ  L z  Ψ > is h . φ. (d) (e) 1 1 4 1 ö < Ψ  H  Ψ > = − ( ⋅ + ⋅ ) 13. (b) ö ö Ψ is not an eigen function of L2 .t = 0 ) = 3R32 ( r )Y20 ( θ. φ ) (a) The normalized the wave function is: 65 .6 eV 5 4 5 9 . θ . φ) + 2 5 R32 (r )Y21 (θ. φ ) (a) The normalized Ψ is: Ψ= 1 5 R21 (r )Y11 (θ. φ ) + R21 ( r )Y11 ( θ. φ) . φ ) + 2R32 (r)Y21(θ. (c) ö The expectation value < Ψ  L2  Ψ > is : 2 4 26 2 ˆ < Ψ  L2  Ψ > = h 2 + 6 h 2 = h . Consider a mixed state of hydrogen: Ψ = R21(r)Y11(θ.Pr obability = 1 1/3 = 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 3 .
φ) + 1 10 R21 (r )Y11 (θ. if r ≤ a if r ≥ a 66 . V( r ) = ⎨ ⎩V0 . φ) . 10 100 10 . t = 0) = 3 10 R32 (r )Y20 (θ. θ. φ. (b) The atom is not in a stationary state.6 eV 10 9 10 4 . because it is in a mixed state of n=2 and n =3. 69. (d) The expectation values are : 9 1 28 2 ö < Ψ  L2  Ψ > = ( ⋅ 6 + ⋅ 2 ) h 2 = h 10 10 5 9 1 1 ö < Ψ  Lz  Ψ > = ( ⋅ 0 + )h= h 10 10 10 ö (e) The uncertainty of L z in this state is: 1 ˆ ˆ ΔL z = [< Ψ  L2  Ψ > − < Ψ  L z  Ψ > 2 ] 2 = [ z 1 1 1/ 2 3 − ] h= h . (c) The expectation value of the energy for t > 0 is: 9 1 1 1 ö < Ψ  H  Ψ > = − ( ⋅ + ⋅ ) 13. Sect. This problem is somewhat like the finite squarewell potential problem considered in the text.Ψ (r .4. 4. The Hamiltonian of a particle of mass m in a finite spherical potential well: ⎧ 0.
or 67 . it is: h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ ˆ H =− [ (r ) ] + V (r ) 2m r 2 ∂ r ∂r . The equation for r ≤ a can be converted to: 2mE d2 U (r ) = − 2 U (r ) 2 h dr . where U(r) = r R(r) . and ⎧ h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ ⎫ [ 2 (r ) ]⎬ Rno (r ) = E n Rno (r ) ⎨− ∂r ⎭ ⎩ 2m r ∂ r . For l = 0 . The general solution of this equation is: U (r ) = A cos kr + B sin kr where k = 2mE . The corresponding Schroedinger’s equation is ⎫ ⎧ h2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ [ 2 (r ) ] + V (r )⎬ Rno (r ) = E n Rno (r ) . h A must be equal to 0. ⎨− ∂r ⎭ ⎩ 2m r ∂ r for r≤a . for r≥a . To satisfy the boundary condition that Rn0(r) must be finite at r =0.is: h2 ˆ H =− ∇ + V (r ) 2m .
Similarly.E. Defining ξ = ka . there is no solution.U (r ) = B sin kr for r ≥ a . the above equation is of exactly the same form as that corresponding to the antisymmetric solution of the finite square potentialwell problem: − ξ cot ξ = β 2 − ξ 2 . if β < π or 2 V0 a 2 < π2 h 2 8m . . where β 2 = 2mV0 a 2 . for 2 m ( V0 − E ) h .D. Continuity of the wave function Rn0(r) and its derivative at r = a leads to the secular equation: − k cot ka = α . . h2 Just like in that problem. 68 . C must be equal r≥a . Q. U (r ) = C e α r + D e − α r where α = to zero and: U (r ) = D e − α r . for r ≤ a. For U(r) or Rn0(r) to be finite at r → ∞ .
69 .
E. S = 0 . The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in terms of the radial wave func tions and the spherical harmonics in the Schroedingerrepresentation and the spin state functions (α and β) in the Heisenbergrepresentation of a hydrogenic atom is: Ψa1 a2 = 1 Rn1 l 1 (r1 )Yl 1 m1 (θ1 φ1)α1 Rn1 l 1 (r2 )Yl 1 m1 (θ 2 φ 2 )α 2 2 Rn 2 l 2 (r1)Yl 2 m2 (θ1 φ1)β1 Rn2 l 2 (r 2 )Yl 2 m2 (θ 2 φ 2 )β 2 73. ms = and − 2 2 2 . ML = 0 . s = 1 1 1 . Q. The Slaterdeterminant for a 2electron atom in the form given in (7. It is indeed normalized: 2 r r 1 r 2 r r 2 r r 2 r r 2 r Ψa1 a2 d r1 d r 2 = [ ∫ Ψa1 ( r1) d r1 ⋅ ∫ Ψa 2 (r 2 ) d r 2 + ∫ Ψa1 ( r2 ) d r2 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r1) d r1 2 r * r r r r r r r r r r r − ∫ Ψa1 ( r1) Ψa2 ( r1) d r1 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r2 ) * Ψa1 (r 2 ) d r2 − ∫ Ψa1 ( r 2 )* Ψa 2 ( r2 ) d r 2 ⋅ ∫ Ψa2 ( r1 )* Ψa1 ( r1) d r1 ] ∫∫ 1 = [ 1⋅1 + 1⋅1 − 0⋅ 0 − 0⋅0 ] = 1 2 .11) is: r r 1 Ψa1 ( r1 ) Ψa1 ( r2 ) = r r 2 Ψa2 ( r1) Ψa2 ( r 2 ) Ψa1 a2 .Chapter 7 71. Atom: L = 0 . ml = 0 . The total orbital and spin angular momentum quantum numbers of the groundstate of helium atom: 2 Electrons : l = 0 . 71.D. MS = 0 71 . .
( 6 ⋅ 5 ÷ 2 =15 ) . Ground state configuration (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)2 (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)2 Carbon: ( 6 ⋅ 5 ÷ 2 =15 ) . 74. The ground state configuration of (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)6 (3d)10 (4s)2 (4p)1 (1s)2 (2s)2 (2p)6 (3s)2 (3p)6 (3d)10 (4s)2 (4p)3 Ga : As : . ms = or − 2 2 2 .For lithium atom: 3 Electrons : l = 0 . s = Atom: L = 1 . ms = and − 2 2 2 1 1 1 . s = 1 1 1 . 72 . M L = 0 or ±1 . S = 1 1 1 . ml = 0 . ml = 0 or ± 1 . M S = or − 2 2 2 Degeneracy . Silicon: 75. l =1 .
t ) ≅Ei ΨEi ( r ) e + ∑ ez ij E z E j +e + 0(ε ) .17) into the right side of (8. V± = 2 and Therefore.Chapter 8 81.5) gives: i i ( ω −ω )t i r r − h E it r − h E jt ∂ ~ (1 − e ji ) i (ω ji −ω )t 2 ih Ψ( r .t) = ± ( e x m i e y ) e iω t 2 ˜ ˆ e E ± ( x m i y ) e iω t . such as atoms: . ] 82. Wi j = πe h2 2 [x ij 2 + y i j 2 ]  E ± 2 δ(ω i j − ω) .5) gives in the limit of ε→1: i i ( ω − ω )t i r − E it ) i ( ω j i −ω ) t r − E jt ~ (1 − e j i ˆ ˆ [ H 0 + εV1 ]Ψ = E i Ψ E i ( r ) e h + ∑ ez ij E z E j +e Ψ E j ( r )e h j ≠i h (ω j i − ω) .17) into the left side of (8. ΨE j ( r )e j≠ i ∂t h(ω j i − ω) Substituting (8. Substituting (8. For spherically symmetric systems. For circularly polarized waves: r r ˜ E ˆ ˆ E ( r . use is made of the fact that V1 in the ˆ representation in which H 0 is diagonal is: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˜ V1 = 1 ⋅ V1 ⋅ 1 = ∑  E j >< E j  ezEz  E j' >< E j'  e − iω t and < E j'  Ei > = δ j' i j≠ j' . ˆ [ Note: To derive the right side equation above. which is the same as the left side.
therefore.2 94.8 nm Rydberg Formula 121. ∆l ≡ l − l' = ±1. 2π π < lm l  Y10  l'm l ' > = ∫ ∫Y o 0 2π π * l m l 10 Y Yl' m ' sin θ dθ d φ ∝ δ ml m l ' l . 83.6 97. λ1s. l and l ' must be of opposite parity.6 102. < lm l  Y1±1  l' m l ' > = ∫ ∫Y o 0 * l m l 10 Y Yl ' m' sin θ dθ dφ ∝ δm l .5 97.2 πe 2 2 Wi j =  r  E ±  δ(ω i j − ω) 2 3h 2 .127 x n 2 n 2 −1 nm .2 p = RH (1 − 1 ) n2 . On the basis of parity c onsiderations. 84. l and from the known properties of the integrals of three spherical harmonics.(m l' ±1) . Accoring to the Rydberg formula (8.7 nm . For the selection rules on the orbital angular momentum.9 93. where  r 2 =  x 2 +  y 2 +  z 2 = 3  x 2 = 3  y 2 = 3  z 2 . For Lyman series: n 2 3 4 5 6 Experiment 121.3 95.24): 1 λ1s.2 p = 91.0 93.  ∆l  ≡  l − l' ≤ 1.5 102.
m = 0 state of hydrogen decays by a sequence of (electric dipole) transitions to the ground state. C. (a) The decay routes open to it are: 300> → 210 > → 100 > 100 > . → 21 ± 1> → (b) The allowed transitions from the 5d states of hydrogen to the lower states are: s 5 4 p d f g 3 2 1 .5 a0 + C. Give the expectation value of the zcomponent of the electric dipole moment of the hydrogen atom in the mixed state: < Ψ  (−ez)  Ψ > = −e < 100  z  210 >C12 + complex conjugate 2 1 + C12 π −C 21 e = 2 1+ C12 ≅ ∞ ∫R 0 10 r R21 r d r 2 ∫Y 0 00 cosθ Y10 sin θ d θ + C. 8. −C 21 e 1.6 An electron in the n = 3.C. l = 0.85. 2 1+ C12 .
7.4 x10−2 cm −1 . .4 x10−12 cm 2 . Assume a Lorentzian fluorescence linewidth of 10 Ghz.62x10−16 cm 2. x12 ≈ 0. Assuming all the degenerate states in the 2p level are equally populated. The stimulated emission crosssection (in cm2 ) defined in connection with (8. Using the value of the dipole moment found in Problem 85.1x10 x12 hc 2 2 .31) for a hypothetical hydrogen laser with linearly polarized emission at 121. 2 ∴ σ st ≈ 4.8.56 nm (Lymanα line)is: 4π e ν 2 4 σ st = x12 g f (ν) ≅ 7. the corresponding spatial gain coefficient (in cm1 ) is: g = ( N 2 − N 1 ) σ st ≈ 4. if the total population inversion between the 1s and 2p levels of hydrogen in the gaseous medium is 1010 cm3 .
−1/ 2) 0 1/ 2 0 0 0 0 2 ⋅ ζ nl h . Doing so according to the degenerate perturbation theory yields two new eigen values: ζ nl h2 / 2 and −ζ nl h2 . the columns and rows corresponding to the pairs of (ml . +1 / 2) 0 0 0 0 0 1/2 This matrix breaks down into two 2x2 and two 1x1 matrices which can be easily diagonalized . +1 / 2 ) 0 0 0 0 1/ 2 0 ( +1. Sz are diagonal is a 6x6 matrix. + 1 2 ) (−1. mj = ± ) degenerate levels split from the original 6fold degenerate level in the absence 2 2 j = 3 / 2 . ±1 / 2 and j =1/ 2 . These correspond to the two new sets of 4fold ( j= ( j= 3 1 3 .l = 1. ± ) and 2. of spinorbit interaction as given in Sect.5. m j = ± 3 / 2. − 1 2 ) ( + 1. − 1 2 ) ( − 1. 6.−1 / 2 ) 0 0 0 1/ 2 −1/2 0 (+1.Chapter 9 91. ms > . mj = ± . ms ) ( − 1. The two sets of new eige n states correspond to the spinorbit coupled The diagonization procedure gives also the relevant vectorcoupling coefficients 9 1 .−1/ 2) 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 (−1. + 1 2 ) ( 0. (6.fold 2 2 2 1 1 .62) : r r r r Ze 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L ⋅ S ≡ ζ( r ) L ⋅ S H s−o = 2m 2 c 2 r 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The corresponding matrix for l = 1 in the representation in which L2 . m j = ± 1/ 2 hydrogenic states. To diagonalize this matrix within the manifold of degenerate states n. + 1 2 ) ( + 1. The spinorbit interaction in hydrogen is of the form. +1 / 2 ) 0 −1/2 1/ 2 0 0 0 ( 0. ms ) values are arranged in a particular order: ( ml . S 2. − 1 2 ) ( 0. s = 1/2. ml . ( 0. L z .
92.0. Eγ 2 − (E A + EB ) Eγ − H AB + E A EB = 0 2 .1/2. HAB ≡ < A  H  B > = H* ≡ < B  H  A >* BA Setting the corresponding secular determinant to zero gives: .1. This is the procedure for calculating vectorcoupling coefficients in general.59) for the eigen functions for this particula r case.1. The perturbation theory for the covalent bonded homonuclear diatomic molecule can be extend to the case of heteronuclear diatomic molecules: E A ˆ H BA ˆ H AB EB CAγ = Eγ CBγ CAγ CBγ where ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ E A ≡ < A  H  A > ≠ E B ≡ < B  H  B >.±3/2.−1/2. which gives the bonding and antibonding levels of the heteronuclear molecule: 9 2 . the vectorcoupling coefficients: < j m j l s l m l s m s > =< 3/ 2.1/21. For example. < j m j l s l ml s ms > =< 3/2.1/2 > = 1 . 3 etc.1/2.< lm l sm s  jm jls > defined in (6.1/2 1.1/2.−1/2.−1/2 > = 2 .± 1/ 2> = 1 .± 1.1. 3 < j m j l s l ml s ms > =< 3/2.1/21.−1.
b (a. (a  a > = C A )  A > + C (Ba )  B > .b ) 2 2 C(a .o.b H AB + (E A − E a.b )CA ) + HAB CA = 0 .] 93.b) where ( E A − E a.b ) = A [ ] . (a) The normalized molecular orbital is: Ψm.b ) 2 ] and C(a . = 1  CA  +  CB 2 + 2SCA CB 2 [ CA  A > + CB  B > ] . and More specifically. Suppose the unnormalized molecular orbital of a diatomic homonuclear diatomic molecule is: Ψmo = CA  A > +CB  B > where  A > and  B > are the normalized atomic orbitals.Ea = b ( EA + EB ) 1 2 ± ( E A − E B ) 2 + 4 H AB 2 2 2 [ ] 1/ 2 H AB ≈ EA ± ( EA − E B ) B . The corresponding wave functions of the bonding and antibonding orbitals of the mole cule are:  b > = C (Ab )  A > + C (Bb )  B > (a. [ Note: H AB = − H AB . for ( E A − E B ) >> H AB 2 and EA > EB.b ) = A [ H AB 2 H AB + (E A − E a. they are: E A − E a. 9 3 .
or setting ∂E m /∂C B = 0 . CA.where S ≡< A  B > is the overlap integral between the atomic orbitals and CA and CB are assumed to be real. differentiate the above equation against variations in CA gives: ∂E m [ CA 2 +  CB 2 + 2SCA CB ]+ 2Em [CA + S C B ] = 2 [CA EA + CB H AB ] ∂CA Minimizing the molecular energy against variations in CA. or setting ∂E m /∂C A = 0 . yields another condition Em . CA. Following the basic concept of Coulson’s molecularorbital theory. by minimizing the molecular energy against variations in CB. yields one condition that Em . and CB must satisfy: (HBA − E m S ) CA + ( E B − E m ) CB = 0 . and CB must satisfy: (E A − Em ) CA + ( H AB − EmS ) CB = 0 Similarly. . The secular determinant of these two homogeneous equations must be zero: 9 4 . (b) The corresponding molecular energy is:  C  E A +  CB  E B + 2CA CB H AB ˆ E m ≡ < Ψm  H  Ψm > = A  CA 2 +  CB 2 +2SCA CB 2 2 . and E m [ CA 2 +  CB 2 + 2S CA CB ] =  CA 2 EA +  CB 2 EB + 2CA CB H AB .
EA − Em H BA H AB ≅ 0 EB − Em . 0. c = a ez SCC: . assuming the overlap integral is negligible or S ≈ 0 . r r r a = a ex . The number of atoms per cubic cell of volume a3 in such a lattice: 94. FCC: r a r a r a a = (e x + e y ) . The number of valence electrons per conventional unit cell of diamond lattice = 4 ⋅ 8 . 0) and . The CC bond length in the diamond structure = 3 a. 1 1 1 Diamond lattice = FCC with 2 atoms per basis at ( 0. This result is the same as that obtained in Problem 92 above according to degenerate perturbation theory. b = (e y + e z ) . a3 95. a = (e x + e z ) 2 2 2 96. 97.laced FCC lattice displaced one quarter the distance along the body diagonal of the FCC. The primitive translational vectors for. . therefore. 4 4 4 equivalent to two inter. b = a ey . . It is. N 1 1 8 = 2⋅[( 8 ⋅ ) + 6 ⋅ ] = 3 3 a 8 2 a . 4 9 5 .
9 6 .
Chapter 10
101. For a twodimensional electron gas, the densityofstate is independent of the energy; therefore, the Fermi energy is directly proportional to the electron density:
EF
Ne =
∫D
0
(2)
(E) d =
m EF π h2
.
102. (a) The chemical potential of a freeelectron gas in two dimensions is given can be found from Eq.(10.29):
∞
Ne =
∫
0
m k BT 1 d E m kB T µ/k T = ln [e B + 1 ] 2 (E −µ)/ k B T 2 πh e +1 k B T πh
πh 2 N e
B
;
∴
µ (T) = kB Tln[e mk T −1]
,
for Ne electrons per unit area. Plot µ(T ) / E F as a function of kT / E F as in Figure 10.6(b):
µ
E
F
(b)
1.00 0.95
k T
B
0
0.1
0.2
E
F
.
10  1
103. For a typical 1D energy band, sketch graphs of the relationships between the wave vector, k, of an electron and its: (a) energy,
E
k
0
(b)
group velocity,
Vg
k
0
(c)
and effective mass.
m*
k
0
10  2
d.
The approximate densityofstates D(1) (E) ) for the energy band of part a aboveis
D (E)
(1)
k
0
104. The E(k x) vs. k x dependence for an electron in the conduction band of a onedimensional semiconductor crystal with lattice constant a = 4 Å is given by:
E (kx ) = E 2 −( E 2 − E1 )cos 2[k x a /2] ; E 2 > E1
.
(a)
The E(k x) for this band in the reduced and periodic zone schemes.
E
E2
E1 − 2π −π reduced zone periodic zone
0
π
2π
k xa
(b)
The group velocity of an electron in this band is:
10  3
4 . the motion of the electron is as follows: 10 .zone scheme: m* e −π 0 π k xa A uniform electric field Ex is applied in the xdirection. 1 ∂E ( E2 − E1 ) a vg = sin k x a = 2h h ∂k and is sketched below as a function of k x: Vg − π 0 π k xa (c) The effective mass of an electron in this band as a function of k x is: 2 ∂2 E −1 −1 2 ( E 2 − E1 ) a m*= h 2 = h cos kx a 2 ∂ k 2 and is sketched below it in the reduced.
kx a vg m* e Acceleration 0.2 π 0. Suppose now the corresponding electron energy E(k x) vs. 105.5 .9 π >0 >0 x direction >0 →∞ =0 >0 <0 +x direction .5 π 0.and periodiczone schemes: E − 2π − π 0 π 2π kx a E3 reduced zone periodic zone (b) The group velocity of a hole in this band is: 1 ∂Eh E3 a v g = − sin k x a = h ∂k 2h and is sketched below as a function k x: 10 . k x curve in the valence band is: E (kx ) = − E 3 + E 3 cos 2[k x a /2] (a) The E(k x) sketch for this band in the reduced.
Vg − π 0 π kxa (c) The effective mass of the hole in this band as a function of k x in the reduced zone scheme is: −1 −1 ∂2 E E a2 m *=h − 2 e = h 2 3 cos k x a ∂ k 2 2 . The corresponding effective mass of an electron in the valence band is m* h − π 0 π kxa (d) A uniform electric field Ex is applied in the xdirection. the motion of the holeis as follows: 10 .6 .
7 . assume that on the pside: N EF − EV ≈ k T ln v ≈ 0. side.7 + ln ≅ 0. (a) If the semiconductor is not doped and choosing E = 0 to be at the top of the valence band or Ev =0 : EC + EV kT NV 1 60 + ln = 0. From (10. One.9 π >0 >0 +x direction >0 →∞ =0 >0 <0 x direction .102 eV . 1/ 2 Eg − 1/ 2 + ni = N c N v e kT ≅ ( x10−13 ) <<< N d ≈ N d 12 − or Na ≈ N a .2 π 0.5 π 0.4 eV. therefore.73 eV 2 2 Nc 80 4 EF ≅ . A semiconductor has Nc=4x1017 cm3 and Nv =6x1018 cm3 at room temperature and has a band gap of 1. * EC + EV kT NV EC + EV 3kT mh + ln = + ln * 2 2 Nc 2 4 me EF ≅ . ionization of donors and acceptors. therefore. A pn junction is made in this material with Na =1017 cm3 on one Assume complete and Nd =2x1015 cm3 and Na =1015 cm3 on the other side. N ∝(m*) 3 / 2. 107.kx a vg m* h Acceleration 0. Na p = N v e− ( EF − EV ) / kT ≈ N − ≈ N a a and 10 . 106.47).46) and (10.
The equilibrium minority carrier (electron) density on the pside of the junction at room temperature is then: n p = nn e−VB / kT ≈ N D e−VB / kT ≈ 47 m−3 .102 eV 1.1 eV 0. (c) The built. the minority carrier density on the pside increased by the factor: e 0.1 eV is applied across the junction .102 = 1.4 eV Ev n p V app 10 . on the nside. which is extremely small! (e) When a forward bias of 0. Ec 0.15 − 0.15 eV ND .in voltage across the junction at room temperature is then: VB ≅1.4 − 0.148 Volt (d) .(b) + Similarly. N D ≈ N D = N d − N a = 1015 cm −3 : N EC − EF ≈ kT ln C ≈ 0.15 eV 0.6 .1/ kT ≅ 54.8 .
the matrices representing the Cartesian components of the spin angular momentum of such particles in the ˆ ˆ representation in which Sz and S 2 are diagonal are given in (6. My = . For a statistical ensemble of N spin1/2 particles per volume. (a) the medium considered in Problem 111 above is The three Cartesian components of the magnetization in terms of the appropriate density. Suppose the averaged expectation value of the magnetization of r r ˆ ˆ M = N Trace [ ρ (γ S ) ] .1 . An electrical charged particle with a spin angular momentum will have a magnetization proportional to the spin angular momentum.50). 112.matrix elements as in Problem 111 above are: Mz = N γh ( ρ11 − ρ22 ) 2 i N γh (ρ12 − ρ 21 ) 2 . 11 .Chapter 11 111. 0 −i h i Nh ( ρ12 − ρ 21 ) . = 2 i 0 2 0 1 h Nh ( ρ12 + ρ21 ) = 1 0 2 2 ρ ρ12 ˆ < Sx > = N Trace 11 ρ 21 ρ22 . The averaged expectation values per volume of the three components of the spin angular momentum in terms of the appropriate density matrix elements for the statistical ensemble of particles are: ρ ρ12 ˆ < S z > = N Trace 11 ρ 21 ρ22 ρ ˆ < S y > = N Trace 11 ρ21 ρ12 ρ22 1 0 h Nh ( ρ11 − ρ22 ) = 0 −1 2 2 .
just like in classical mechanics. (b) The Hamiltonian of the spin1/2 particles in the presence of a static magnetic field r r r r H = H x x + H y y + H z z .and ycomponents of r r r r dM M. The corresponding Hamiltonian is: 11 . ∴ = γ M × H . the dynamic equations describing the precession of the magnetization r M around such a magnetic field are: d i (ρ11 − ρ22 ) = − 2 [H12 ρ 21 − ρ12 H21] = γ [ H x (−ρ12 + ρ21)+ H y ( ρ12 + ρ 21)] i dt h . dt (c) r Suppose a magnetic field consisting of a static component in the z direction and a r weak oscillating component in the plane perpendicular to the z axis is applied to r r r r r the medium: H = H 0 z + H x x ≡ H 0 z + H 1cosω 0t x . on the basis of the density.iγH y γh H z ˆ H =− H z 2 H x + iγH y From the results of Part a above. which can be shown to be r r d M z = γ [−H x M y + H y M x ] = γ M × H dt [ ] z .16).2 .Mx = N γh (ρ12 + ρ 21 ) 2 . Similarly for the x. but in the absence of any relaxation processes is: H x .matrix equation (11. making use of the results in (a) above.
Therefore. on the basis of (11. 113. k 2 = εω 2 /c 2. for the other components: d M M ± = − ± ± iγ H 0 M m m iγ H 1 M z cosω ot dt T2 . M ± =Mx ± iMy . β ≅ ε0 ω 0 /c α ≅ ε"ω 2 / β c 2 . Similarly.44) and near the resonance. d ( ρ − ρ ) − ( ρ11 − ρ 22 ) ( ρ11 − ρ22) = − 11 22 + iγ H x (−ρ12 + ρ21) dt T1 (th) (th) .3 .H 1 cosω 0 t γh H 0 ˆ H =− H0 2 H 1 cosω 0t . 0 and Therefore. Also. and the definitions k ≡ β+ iα and ε≡ ε'+iε" = ε 0 + iε" . ω 0 ≈ ω 21 and : 11 . (a) From the dispersion relation for light waves.19). These are the wellknown Bloch equations in the literature on magnetic resonance phenomena. M − Mz d Mz = − z dt T1 γ H1 ( M + − M − ) cosω 0 t 2 (th) +i . From (11.
2mω 21 2 z 21 is known as the h (b) To compare the result obtained in Part a above with the classical result based on a damped harmonic oscillator model instead of the twolevel atom model: Suppose the equation of mo tion of the harmonic oscillator is of the form: d d f e ˜ −iω 0 t ˜ * iω 0 t 2 z(t) + Γ z(t) + ω 21 z(t) = − ( Ez e + Eze ) 2 dt dt m 2 1/ 2 which describes the oscillating motion of a particle of mass m and negative charge of the magnitude f 1/ 2e bound to a fixed point in space similar to the oscillator shown in Figure 5. The spring constant of the harmonic oscillator is equal to 2 mω 21. Solving the above equation for a damped harmonic oscillator: z= − and ~ f eE 1 g (ν) m 4ω0 f . the damping constant is Γ . and the deviation of the particle from its equilibrium position in the absence of any electric field Ez is z(t). is known as the “plasma frequency” and f z ≡ “oscillator strength”. ˜ E 11 . where ωp ≡ 4πNe2 ≈ m 4π(N1 − N2 )e 2 .2 2 2 ε"ω 0 ε"ω 0 4 π ( N1 − N 2 )ν 0 e z12 α≅ = = β c2 ε0 c ε0 hc 2 g f (ν 0 ) = ωp f 2 4 ε0 c g f (ν 0 ) . if most of atoms are in the ground m state. assume ω 0 ≈ ω 21 >> Γ − 1 so that 2 2 ω 0 −ω 21 ≅ 2ω 0 (ω 0 − ω 21) .1. For the classical result.4 . Q N f e z ε = ε' + i ε" = 4 π [ χ'+ i χ"] = 4 π χ' − i 4 π .
therefore. and the damping constant Γ associated with the bound particle in the harmonic oscillator model. which is Eq.27). the classical model gives also : ε"ω 0 ε0 c ω2 f p 4 ε0 c = g f (ν 0 ) = α . that characterizes the strength of the charge e2 . can be used to characterize the dispersion and absorption characteristics of linear optical media with only three phenomenological parameters: the oscillator strength f. (c) Since the complex dielectric constant based on the oscillator strength f using either the quantum mechanical model or the classical harmonic oscillator model gives the same result for ε” .51). 11 .27). satisfies and is a solution of (11. therefore.therefore. (11.(11. The classical harmonic oscillator model. which is the same as the result obtained in (a) above on the basis of the quantum mechanic densitymatrix equation. it is obvious that the same should be true for ε’.51) th ρ (mn) i ρ mn (t ) = ∫ + ∑ [ρ mm' (t ' )V (t ' ) m'n − V ( t ' ) mm' ρ m 'n (t ' )]e ( iωmn +1/ Tmn )( t'− t ) dt ' h m' −∞ Tmn t gives: ρ(th ) i d 1 ρmn = mn + ∑[ρ mm'V (t) m' n − V (t) mm' ρm 'n ] − ( iω mn + ) ρmn dt Tmn h m' Tmn . Differentiating (11.5 . the resonance frequency ω21 . 114.
11. χ (2 ) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) must vanish. 116. The corresponding laser rate equations are: d ( N − N1 ) = −109 ( N 2 − N1 ) −1.k .5 ˜ The secondorder nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (2 ) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) relates the induced macroscopic polarization component Pi (ω 3 ) to the applied electric field components E j (ω1) and E k (ω 2 ) in the medium: ˜ ˜ ijk Pi ( ω3 ) = ∑ χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) E j (ω1) E k (ω 2 ) j .6 . T2 ~ 1012 sec.k ˜ Therefore. Bhν 0 g f (v 0 ) ~ 6x10−7 cm3/sec . j. N ph →1014 N so that the numbers are more manageable in the numerical computation: 11 . For any such medium with inversion symmetry. Rpump ~ 1027 /cm3 .sec .2 ⋅10−6 ( N2 − N1 ) N ph +10 27 dt 2 d N ph =− 2 ⋅1011 N ph + 6 ⋅ 10−7 ( N 2 − N1 ) N ph + 0(N (spont) ) ph dt Changing the scales: t → 10 τ. Tph ~ 5x1012 sec . ( N 2 − N1) →1015 n. inverting the coordinate axes leaves ˜ ijk χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) invariant but changes the signs of all the vector components: ˜ ˜ ijk − Pi ( ω 3 ) = ∑ χ(2) (ω1 + ω 2 = ω 3 ) [− E j (ω1 )][−E k (ω 2 )] = Pi (ω 3 ) . Consider a laser with the following parameters: T1 ~ 109 sec.
2}. for example.)"}] The resulting calculated dynamics for the normalized population inversion and intracavity intensity are shown in the figures ( t in 107 sec) below. PlotRange>{0. "n(t)/n(s.{x. g]. z'[x] == 2000 z[x] + 2000 y[x] z[x] + 0. AxesLabel>{"t". the above rate 16. The steadystate solutions of these equations are: Changing to normalized parameters: equations become: nss = 333. 0. n ≡ y and 333.3 N ≡ z .001. AxesLabel>{"t".s. z[0] == 0}. {x.2 n N + 10 4 dτ d N =− 2 ⋅ 103 N + 6 n N + 0(N (spont) ) dτ . 11 .7 . the Mathematica program: NDSolve[{y'[x] == 20 y[x] Abs[z[x]] . AxesOrigin>{0. z}.6 . 10}. 0.PlotRange> {0. {y.5}. 0.5}. 2}] g = 0/0 Plot[Evaluate[ y[x] /. g]. 0}. {x. numbers characteristic of a semiconductor laser.3 and Nss ≈16.10 y[x] + 30. "N(t)/N(s. d n = −10 n −1. The turnon dynamics of such a laser can be calculated numerically on the basis of these normalized laser rate equations using. 0.s)"}] Plot[Evaluate[ z[x] /. y[0] == 0. 0. These results show a pattern of laser relaxation oscillations with the frequency in the range of a few tenths of a Ghz and a damping time on the order of tens of nsec.6 d y = −10 y (1+ 2 z ) + 30 dτ d z =2 ⋅10 3 z ( y −1) + 0( z(spont) ) dτ .
1 .Examples of the transient dynamics of a semiconductor laser.Figure 11.8 . 11 .
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